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Changes in the American period

Consequences of the American colonial rule

During the Spanish period the Spaniards had given enormous land properties to the Catholic church. One of the first things the Americans did was to take care for the redistribution of these land properties. To do so they first had to pay an amount of US $7.2 million to the Vatican in 1904. The small farmers or tenants didn't get any land however. The land became property of some large landowners. Most of the small farmers couldn't pay the asked price or couldn't prove that they were the former owners of the land. The economic development during the 'American period' was rather typical colonial. The Philippine economy was strongly related to and depending on the United States. The Philippine economy was focused on mining and exporting crops. Industrial growth didn't take place.

Quezon, the first Philippine president

The Philippines was controlled by the Americans from 1900-1942. In 1934 an act was established, which made it possible that the Philippines could have a "Commonwealth of the Philippines". The first president of this Commonwealth was Manuel Quezon. The first president was given certain power for some internal affairs.

The Japanese occupation

President Quezon

The Americans were still in the Philippines when the next

foreign ruler came. Japan. The Japanese army and rulers occupied the Philippines from 1942 - 1944.

The Spanish colonial period

Resistance of the locals

Wall of Intramuros in Manila, a remnant of the Spanish colonial period

After the Spaniards succeeded in 1556 to break the last good organized resistance, a long period of Spanish influence followed. The Spaniards ruled the country, brought the Christian religion to the country and were responsible for a lot of colonial and religious buildings throughout the country. The results can still be seen in places as for instance Cebu City and Manila.

Picture delacova

Revolts against the colonizers

The Spanish colonial period wasn't without resistance of the Filipinos. On the contrary. There was a succession of revolts against the European colonizers. Aguinaldo was the great leader of the big revolt of 1896. However, the Filipino rebels didn't succeed to defeat the armed Spaniards at that time. A helping hand came a few years later from the Americans.

Liberty, brought by the Americans?

At the end of the nineteenth century, on April 25,1898, the United States declared war on Spain. The main reason was that the U.S. battle ship Main was blown up in the harbor of Havana. The United States thought Spain blew up this ship with a mine. (However, it was proved that the Main blew up due to coal dust). The American navy decided to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippine waters. The battle took place in Manila Bay. On May 1 in 1898 the Spanish fleet was destroyed. After 327 years under Spanish rule, the Philippine people thought that they won independence at last. The Americans however, thought quit different about that at that time.

The Philippines, sold for a amount of less than 20 million dollars

After the end of the American-Spanish war in 1898, the Spaniards sold the Philippines and other colonial properties for 20 million dollar to the Americans. Aguinaldo didn't want to accept American rule and proclaimed the first Philippine Republic. The Americans decided that the Filipinos were not yet capable to be independent. A hostile period started. The United States needed more than 125.000 soldiers to subdue the Philippines. The Philippine rebels were forced to retreat and were driven into northern Luzon. From here they started a guerrilla. This "Philippine War of Independence" continued for two years and ended when Aguinaldo was captured on March 23, 1901. Aguinaldo Only sporadic resistance continued until 1903.

Changes in the American period

Consequences of the American colonial rule

During the Spanish period the Spaniards had given enormous land properties to the Catholic church. One of the first things the Americans did was to take care for the redistribution of these land properties. To do so they first had to pay an amount of US $7.2 million to the Vatican in 1904. The small farmers or tenants didn't get any land however. The land became property of

some large landowners. Most of the small farmers couldn't pay the asked price or couldn't prove that they were the former owners of the land. The economic development during the 'American period' was rather typical colonial. The Philippine economy was strongly related to and depending on the United States. The Philippine economy was focused on mining and exporting crops. Industrial growth didn't take place.

Quezon, the first Philippine president

The Philippines was controlled by the Americans from 1900-1942. In 1934 an act was established, which made it possible that the Philippines could have a "Commonwealth of the Philippines". The first president of this Commonwealth was Manuel Quezon. The first president was given certain power for some internal affairs.

The Japanese occupation

The Americans were still in the Philippines when the next foreign ruler came. Japan. The Japanese army and rulers occupied the Philippines from 1942 - 1944.

President Quezon

The first step to liberation

In October 1944 the American general Douglas Mac Arthur landed Leyte and Mindoro were cleared of the Japanese army. with his troops at the east coast of Leyte, one of the bigger islands in the

This was the first step in the total liberation of the country. With 700 vessels and 174,000 army and navy servicemen, McArthur arrived in the Philippines. In December 1944, the islands of

central part of the Philippines.

Many casualties

The casualties of the Americans in this operation is estimated 4000 - 6000. Filipino casualties: estimated about one million!

Freedom at last!

The Philippines was granted it's independence in 1946. Freedom at last, 148 years later than the freedom which was written down by Julian Felipe in the Philippine anthem called "Lupang Hinirang". The Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed on July 4, 1946.