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03/10/2011

Susetyo Hario Putero

Demam Blackberry (BB) di Indonesia kian tak tertahankan dan menjadikan Indonesia sebagai salah satu negara dengan pertumbuhan pengguna BB tertinggi di dunia. Hal ini juga membuat para pejabat Research in Motion (RIM), produsen BB, tertegun mendengarnya. Kesuksesan BB di Indonesia mau tidak mau telah menyebabkan produk smartphone produksi Nokia menjadi kurang populer. Faktor utama yang mendorong kepopuleran BB adalah inovasi dan desainnya yang elegan. Teknologi e-mail, browsing dan Blackberry Messenger (BBM) milik BB sangat mudah digunakan. Keyboard qwerty yang digunakan bahkan saat ini telah menjadi trend pengguna handphone di Indonesia. Hal-hal tersebut membuat produk Nokia menjadi terasa ketinggalan jaman. Kisah ini menunjukkan arti pentingnya produk baru yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan pengguna bagi kelangsungan usaha suatu industri, meskipun industri tersebut telah memiliki nama besar dan market share yang besar.

Posisi pasar Pemanfaatan sumber daya Pembaharuan & peningkatan organisasi

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Competitive Tail Spin


Pemilihan produk Desain produk

Pasar
Ide

Perubahan

Produk Baru

Prototipe
Tidak selamanya menjadi produk unik!!

Uji

Produk baru

Sumber pencarian ide : Internal sources Customers Competitors Distributors Suppliers


Sumber : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/70.../chap9.ppt

03/10/2011

Proses penempatan ide bagus & meninggalkan ide yang kurang bagus Kriteria :
Market Size Product Price Development Time & Costs Manufacturing Costs Rate of Return

1. Develop Product Ideas into Alternative Product Concepts

2. Concept Testing - Test the Product Concepts with Groups of Target Customers

3. Choose the Best One

Sumber : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/70.../chap9.ppt

Sumber : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/70.../chap9.ppt

Formulasi Pernyataan Strategi Pemasaran


Part One - Overall: Business Analysis Review of Product Sales, Costs, and Profits Projections to See if They Meet Company Objectives

Target Market Planned Product Positioning Sales & Profit Goals Market Share
Part Two - Short-Term:

Products Planned Price Distribution Marketing Budget


Part Three - Long-Term:

If No, Eliminate Product Concept

Sales & Profit Goals Marketing Mix Strategy


Sumber : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/70.../chap9.ppt

If Yes, Move to Product Development Sumber : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/70.../chap9.ppt

03/10/2011

Standard Test Market


Full marketing campaign in a small number of representative cities.

Controlled Test Market


A few stores that have agreed to carry new products for a fee.

Simulated Test Market


Test in a simulated shopping environment to a sample of consumers.

Sumber : www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/70.../chap9.ppt

Desain

Operasi

Pemasaran

Cara Jepang untuk meningkatkan kualitas produk baru Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard ( )1972 Toyota Ford Motor Co. & Xerox di USA Tujuan :
Menjamin produk yang diproduksi benar-benar dapat memuaskan keinginan pelanggan

Fokus :
Melibatkan pelanggan pada proses pengembangan produk sedini mungkin.

Teknologi mempermudah & mempercepat proses desain!!

Hasil :
Waktu desain Biaya desain Kualitas Kerja sama interfungsional

Waktu

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Perencanaan & Persiapan


Menetapkan dukungan organisasi Menentukan tujuan Mendefinisikan pelanggan

Data kualitatif : Observasi & wawancara Data kuantitatif :


Importance to customer Absolute, relative atau ordinal Customer satisfaction performance Competitive satisfaction performance Goal & Improvement ratio Goal/Current satisfaction performance Sales point Raw weight Normalized raw weight

Voice of Customer
Menentukan atribut pelanggan (data kualitatif) Mengukur atribut (data kuantitatif)

House of Quality Analisis & Interpretasi

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Pengembangan organisasi yang melalui pemahaman mendalam terhadap pelanggan & pasar. Pembuatan produk & pasar dikoordinasikan dengan baik. Produk memberikan kontribusi tinggi terhadap keuntungan. Produk baru menguntungkan secara signifikan dari sisi teknologi & kekuatan pasar pengembangan unit bisnis. Pengembangan organisasi yang memadai & memiliki komitmen bagi pemasaran. Proses litbang direncanakan & dikoordinasi dengan baik. Ada dukungan dari top manajemen terhadap pengembangan produk. Produk adalah suatu produk awal di pasar.

Mengapa perusahaan perlu melakukan litbang?


Defend, support, expand business Drive new business Broaden and deepen technological capabilities

Masalah
What, when, why, how much?

Market Pull: Problem: Find new technology to fit need! Technology Push: Some innovations may have no market potential. Problem: Find or create a market! Platform products Build new products around same technological expertise Process intensive Product that is highly constrained by process Customized Family of products
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 23 Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 24

03/10/2011

The Quality Control System


Supplier

PUSH SYSTEM
Rework Scrap

Reject
Supplier

Input

Process

Finished Good

Customer

Receiving Quality Control

Input

Process

Final Product Quality Control

Finished Good Accept

PULL SYSTEM
Process Qualkity Contreol

Customer

Customer reports Technology Costs

Contracts Standards Drawings

Corporate level
Time horizons are long, Learning feedback loops slow, Internal linkages (with production and marketing) weak, Linkages to external knowledge sources strong, Projects relatively cheap

Business-unit level
Time horizons are short, Learning feedback loops fast, Internal linkages (with production and marketing) strong, Projects relatively expensive
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 27

R&D supporting existing business (products, processes, divisions) should be located in established divisions; R&D supporting new business (i.e., products, processes, divisions) should initially be located in central laboratories, then transferred to divisions (established or newly created) for exploitation; R&D supporting foreign production should be located close to that foreign production, and concerned mainly with adapting products and processes to local conditions.
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 28

03/10/2011

Corporate-level performance:
Physical location, determined mainly by the importance of the main organizational interface: the corporate laboratory towards the general development of fundamental fields of science and technology, and the divisional laboratories towards presentday businesses. Its funding, determined by where the potential benefits will be captures: by the established divisions or by the corporate as a whole.
Where important interfaces are with general advances in generic science and technologies

Divisional-level performance:
Where important interfaces are with production, customers, and suppliers

Corporate-level funding: When potential benefits are corporatewide

Quadrant 1 Scanning, external research threats and opportunities Assimilating and assessing radical new technologies

Quadrant 2 Commercializing radical new technologies

Divisional-level funding: When potential benefits are divisionspecific


Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 29

Exploiting interdivisional synergies (e.g., production and materials technologies) Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4 Exploratory Mainstream product development of radical and process new technologies development Contract research for Incremental specific problem-solving improvements. R&D Management (Henry C. Co) for established divisions

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Four categories of R&D activities Quadrants 1 and 4 activities funded and performed by corporate-level laboratories, and those funded and performed by division-level laboratories. Activities in Quadrant 3 reflect the attempt to ensure stronger linkages between the central and divisional laboratories by strengthening the financial contribution of the divisions to the corporate laboratory, thereby encouraging the interest of the former in the later, and the sensitivity of the later to the former. Activities in Quadrant 2 recognize that the full-scale commercial exploitation of radically new technologies do not always fit tidily within established divisional structures, so that central funding and initiative may be necessary.

Lintasan utama teknologi perusahaan Tingkat kedewasaan suatu teknologi Gaya Corporate strategic
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co)

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Ukuran lompatan inovatif yang diinginkan. Pengalaman & bakat yang tersedia. Resiko & Ketidakpastian.
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 33

A product goes through 5 stages: 1. Concept definition of a product is accomplished by close collaboration between marketing and R&D. 2. Production development: R&D, in close cooperation with the reliability and quality department, is responsible for producing working prototypes & documentation; 3. Manufacturing is responsible for mass-producing the product, overseen by the reliability and quality department. 4. Marketing is responsible for distribution and sales, and 5. After-sales service and support. Organizational walls of responsibilities exist between R&D and manufacturing: Frequently causing delays in the introduction of a new product to the market.
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 34

Often, R&D lose interest in a product once the prototype successfully demonstrate the principle of operation and reached the desired level of performance.

Manufacturing expects to receive a fully developed and de-bugged product from R&D, with all necessary error-free documentation and drawings
Any mistake in the documentation or inconsistencies in the drawings provided by R&D can be a major cause in interrupting the manufacturing process.

They see the subjects of cost of fabrication, the use of readily available parts and materials, etc. as of secondary importance. They see work related to problem-free manufacturing as trivial, that all tasks related to manufacturing are none of their business.

Organizational methods. CAD and manufacturing methods. Adapting OPT and JIT methods to high technology. Concurrent engineering. Kaizen. TQM.
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 35 Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 36

03/10/2011

Classical

1. 2.

3.

Specialization/division of labor Specialists coordinated by a weak leader Specialists have individual bosses & loyalty Teams with all relevant expertise under a shusa (Big Boss) Rewards team players rather than geniuses in single area of product or process Tateomi Miyoshi = large project leader (LPL) -- not to coordinate, but to manage Matrix approach, each project member on loan from functional department for life of project, under direct control of Tateomi

Toyota

1.

2.

Honda

1.

2.

Leadership -- shusa = big boss/ project named after shusa Teamwork -- member assigned to project for its life (continuity)/ retain ties with functional area but under control of shusa. How they performed will be evaluated by shusa, & will determine their next assignment. Communication -- team members signed pledges to do exactly what everyone has agreed upon as a group/ resolve critical design trade-off early. Organization -- number of team members are highest at outset of project. As development proceeds, number dwindles as specialties (e.g., market assessment) are no longer needed. Concurrent engineering (CE)
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 38

Honda at Marysville, Ohio designs & cuts dies of stamping steel sheets into car bodies Die production begins at same time as body production Die designers & body designers in direct, face-toface contact/ most likely have worked together in previous productdevelopment teams. Die designers know approximate size of new car, number of panels (thus can begin to make rough cuts)/ they understand body design process & can anticipate final design (sometimes incorrectly).
Sumber : R&D Management (Henry C. Co) 39

Penelitian

Pengenalan

Pertumbuhan

Dewasa (maturity)

Kemunduran (decline)

Penjualan

Waktu

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03/10/2011

Shows the stages that products go through from development to withdrawal from the market Each product may have a different life cycle PLC determines revenue earned Contributes to strategic marketing planning May help the firm to identify when a product needs support, redesign, reinvigorating, withdrawal, etc. May help in new product development planning May help in forecasting and managing cash flow

Initial Ideas possibly large number May come from any of the following
Market research identifies gaps in the market Monitoring competitors Planned research and development (R&D) Luck or intuition stumble across ideas? Creative thinking inventions, hunches? Futures thinking what will people be using/wanting/needing 5,10,20 years hence?

New ideas/possible inventions Market analysis is it wanted? Can it be produced at a profit? Who is it likely to be aimed at? Product Development and refinement Test Marketing possibly local/regional Analysis of test marketing results and amendment of product/production process Preparations for launch publicity, marketing campaign

Advertising and promotion campaigns Target campaign at specific audience? Monitor initial sales Maximise publicity High cost/low sales Length of time type of product

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Increased consumer awareness Sales rise Revenues increase Costs - fixed costs/variable costs, profits may be made Monitor market competitors reaction?

Sales reach peak Cost of supporting the product declines Ratio of revenue to cost high Sales growth likely to be low Market share may be high Competition likely to be greater Price elasticity of demand? Monitor market changes/amendments/ne w strategies?

New entrants likely to mean market is flooded Necessity to develop new strategies becomes more pressing:
Searching out new markets: Linking to changing fashions Seeking new or exploiting market segments Linking to joint ventures media/music, etc. Developing new uses Focus on adapting the product Re-packaging or format Improving the standard or quality Developing the product range

Product outlives/outgrows its usefulness/value Fashions change Technology changes Sales decline Cost of supporting starts to rise too far Decision to withdraw may be dependent on availability of new products and whether fashions/trends will come around again?

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03/10/2011

Siklus Hidup Produk - Strategi Perpanjangan

Siklus Hidup Produk - Keuntungan

Penjualan

Penjualan

PLC Keuntungan Kerugian Break Even

Efek Strategi Perpanjangan

Waktu

Waktu
(Sumber : http://www.bized.co.uk)

(Sumber : http://www.bized.co.uk)

Aliran bahan, informasi, pembayaran dan jasa dari pemasok bahan mentah, pabrik & gudang penyimpanan kepada pelanggan akhir. Rantai pasokan termasuk organisasi & proses pembuatan & pengiriman produk, informasi & jasa kepada pelanggan akhir. Pekerjaan : (Product Supply Chain )

Keuntungan pengelolaan rantai pasokan = Mengurangi ketidakpastian & resiko Komponen : Upstream, Internal & Downstream.

Pembelian, pembayaran, penanganan bahan, perencanaan & kendali produksi, kendali logistik & penyimpanan serta distribusi & pengiriman.

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 10-52

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Suppliers

Manufacturers

Warehouses & Distribution Centers

Customers

Transportation Costs

Transportation Costs Inventory Costs

Upstream

(Roberta Russell & Bernard W. Taylor, 2006)

Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Downstream
10-53

Material Costs Manufacturing Costs

Transportation Costs 54

www.stevens.edu/.../doc/mgt682week2.ppt

A set of approaches (plan, organize & coordinate) used to efficiently integrate


Plan Source Make Deliver Buy Suppliers Manufacturers Warehouses Distribution centers

Suppliers

Manufacturers

Warehouses & Distribution Centers

Customers

So that the product is produced and distributed


In the right quantities To the right locations And at the right time

Supply Chain Management (SCM)?

Material Costs

Transportation Transportation Costs Transportation Costs Manufacturing Costs Inventory Costs Costs
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System-wide costs are minimized and Service level requirements are satisfied

Plan

Source

Make

Deliver

Buy

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www.stevens.edu/.../doc/mgt682week2.ppt

www.stevens.edu/.../doc/mgt682week2.ppt

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