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Pipeline Engineering: Transient Flow

Mike Yoon, Ph.D.

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis
Physical operation Why transient analysis? Transient model vs. Steady-state model

Fundamental Principles Pipeline Transients Transient Control Applications

Physical Operation
Both design and operation should address both safety and economics or minimum cost operation. Pipeline system design is mainly concerned with line sizing, equipment sizing and location, while system operation is concerned with pipeline system or facility start-up and shut-down, product receipt and delivery, flow rate change, emergency shut-down, equipment failure, etc.

A pipeline state is defined as a condition of a pipeline expressed in terms of pressure, temperature, flow rate and fluid density at a given location and time. A steady state is a condition of a pipeline system that does not change much over time, while a transient state is an unsteady condition that changes with time between two steady states. A surge or water hammer is a transient that occurs abruptly during changes from a normal steady state flow in the pipe. An upsurge occurs if the pipeline pressure increase above the normal operating pressure of the pipeline. A down-surge is a pressure decreasing condition.

Validity of Steady State Analysis

Under a steady state, pressure and flow remain constant from one instant to another (i.e. independent of time). A pipeline system design can be based on a steadystate assumption. In general, the assumption is valid when the system is not subject to sudden changes in flow rates or other operating conditions over a short period of time. Steady-state conditions are invalid for short-term operation analysis and even for designing control systems, testing the capability of the system, testing the level of safety, locating facilities, etc, because these behaviors are time-dependent.

Why Transient Analysis?

The steady-state assumption is not valid for short-term operational study, because pipeline states in all operations change with time. When an operation change takes place, the flow rate and pressure change immediately, and subsequently the change will have an impact on the pipeline system. With a steady-state assumption, the following problems cannot be addressed:
Over or under pressuring along the pipeline, Equipments such as pump/compressor tripping, Line pack/peak shaving, Potential column separation

Why Transient Analysis for Liquid?

Many pipeline failures, particularly for liquid pipelines, occur because improper provisions are made to manage transient related problems such as pump trip, line rupture, etc. In order to manage them adequately, the following operating conditions should be properly taken into account in design and operational analysis:
Changes to pump operations, Power failures, Valve operation, Line fills

Why Transient Analysis for Gas?

A transient analysis is beneficial for designing large gas pipeline systems, because:
Steady state design for gas pipeline systems tends to yield larger pipe diameter, higher compressor power requirement, and incorrect compressor station location. To achieve the maximum capacity, the steady state design of gas pipeline systems may be based on peak load, while the transient state design may be based on average load. The maximum capacity can be achieved by managing line pack in gas pipelines. The transient analysis provides realistic information for control system design, peak shaving study, survival time analysis, etc.

Transient Model
A transient model calculates time dependent flow, pressure, temperature and density behaviors by solving the time dependent flow equations discussed in the next section. Therefore, a transient model generates hydraulically more realistic results than a steady state model, and theoretically the model is capable of performing not only all time independent functions performed by the steady state model but also time dependent functions such as effect of changes in injection or delivery, system response to changes in operation, and line pack movement.

Transient Model: Capabilities

Study normal pipeline operations Pipeline operation changes are simulated to find a cost effective way of operating the pipeline system. The transient model allows the operation staff to determine efficient control strategy for operating the pipeline system and analyzing operational stability. Analyze startup or shutdown procedures Different combinations of startup or shutdown procedures are simulated to determine how they accomplish operation objectives. The transient model can model a station, including the pump or compressor unit and associated equipment. Determine delivery rate schedules A transient model can be used to determine delivery rate schedules that maintain critical system requirements for normal operations or even upset conditions.

Transient Model: Capabilities

Study system response after upsets A pipeline system can be upset by equipment failure, pipe rupture, or supply stoppage. The transient model is used to evaluate corrective strategies by modeling various upset responses. Study blow-down or pipe rupture The transient model allows the operation engineers to study the effects of blow-down on a compressor station and piping or to develop a corrective action when a leak or rupture occurs. Predictive modeling Starting with current or initial pipeline states, future pipeline states can be determined by changing one or more boundary conditions. Note that a transient model is more complex to use and execution time is longer than that of a steady state model. It requires extensive data, particularly equipment and control data.

Key Topics
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles
Conservation laws and equations Solution approaches

Pipeline Transients Transient Control Applications

Governing Laws and Equations

The pipeline state can be fully defined by four independent variables: pressure, temperature, flow and density. Four equations are needed to determine the values of these four variables: continuity equation, momentum equation, energy equation, and equation of state. The first three equations come from conservation laws:
Continuity equation Momentum equation with friction factor Energy equation with heat capacity and Joule-Thomson coef.

Equation of state

Conservation Laws
Conservation of mass: Mass cannot be created or destroyed. The net change rate of the fluid flow in a segment of pipe is equal to the net packing rate of the fluid in the segment of pipe. Conservation of momentum: The rate of change of momentum equals the sum of forces. Newtons second law of motion is applied to the fluid element in pipelines. Conservation of energy: The net rate of energy transport across a pipeline section is the same as the rate of energy accumulation within the pipeline section. The energy includes the internal energy, compression or expansion energy and kinetic energy.

Continuity Equation
The conservation of mass equation is often referred to as the continuity equation in fluid dynamics. A general form of the one-dimensional continuity equation is expressed as:

v 0 t x
where = density t = elapsed time v = velocity

Line Pack Change

The first term in the continuity equation represents the change of mass in a pipe segment. It is often called line pack change. The line pack can be increased or decreased due to pressure and temperature changes. The line pack change is useful for gas pipeline operation. It should be distinguished from the line fill volume, which is the quantity of liquid contained in a pipeline. It is useful for batch pipeline operation. The second term represents the difference between mass flow into and out of the pipe segment.

Momentum Equation
V V P h fV | V | V g 0 t x x x 2D
where: is density D is pipe diameter P is pressure f is the friction factor h is elevation g is gravitational acceleration x is displacement t is elapsed time V is velocity

The first term is a force due to acceleration, and the second term a force due to kinetic energy. These two terms are inertial force. The third term is a force due to pressure difference between two points in a pipe segment The fourth term is a gravitational force. The last term is a frictional force, or DarcyWeisbach equation, opposing to the flow on the pipe wall.

Reynolds Number
Reynolds number relates density, viscosity, fluid velocity and pipe diameter. Reynolds number is dimensionless. Re = *v*D/ = v*D/, where D = inside diameter, v = fluid velocity, = fluid density, = absolute viscosity, and = / = kinematic viscosity Re < 2000 for Laminar flow regime 2000 < Re < 4000 for critical flow regime Re>4000 for turbulent flow regime

Friction Factor
Friction factor is a function of Reynolds number and pipe roughness Expressed in Colebrook-White equation Laminar flow is independent of pipe roughness Partially turbulent flow is dependent on Reynolds number and pipe roughness Fully turbulent flow is dependent only on pipe roughness The Moody diagram relates the friction factor in terms of Reynolds number and relative roughness.

Moody Friction Diagram

Energy Equation
T T T (VA) 4k (T Tg ) Vg h fV 2 | V | V 0 t x Cv A x DCv Cv x 2DCv Temperature change over time Rate of temperature change due to the net convection of fluid energy into the fluid element Change rate due to expansion/compression of the fluid including Joule-Thomson effect Heat flow to or from the surroundings Effect of work against or by gravity, which will heat the fluid going downhill and cool it going uphill. Heating due to friction, assuming that all the frictional heat is deposited in the fluid

Energy Components
Rate of temperature change due to the net convection of fluid energy into the fluid element Rate of temperature change due to compression/expansion of the fluid, including JouleThomson effect Friction heating, assuming that all the frictional heat is stored in the fluid Effect of heat flow to or from the ground Effect of work against or by gravity, which will heat the fluid going downhill and cool it going uphill

Ground Heat Transfer

Use Fouriers law of heat conduction, describing the flow of heat from pipeline to ground Ground heat transfer taking into account the heat transfer through pipe, insulation, and soil Ground temperature along the pipeline is not normally measured, but an important parameter for designing a pipeline system.

Fluid Properties
Fluid properties include thermodynamic and rheological properties. Thermodynamic properties include density, compressibility, heat capacity, enthalpy, and entropy. These quantities can be derived from an equation of state. However, appropriate correlations are used in practice, particularly for liquid properties. Viscosity is a measure of fluids resistance to shear force, expressed in absolute or kinematic viscosity.

Equation of State
An equation of state describes the relationship between pressure, temperature, and density or specific volume. Theoretically, all thermodynamic functions can be derived from the equation of state. In practice, it is very difficult to obtain them, particularly for liquid properties. There is no equation of state universally applicable to all products. Instead, there are many correlations applicable to certain types of fluid.

Gas Equations
Ideal gas law Real gas law with the compressibility factor (AGA-8) BWRS equation of state for light hydrocarbons Peng-Robinson equation of state for light hydrocarbons SRK equation of state for light hydrocarbons

Liquid Equations
A liquid equation of state is expressed in terms of bulk modulus and thermal expansion coefficient. They are slightly dependent on pressure and temperature. The density of liquids can be expressed by a Bulk Equation of State. The API Equation of State for petroleum liquids is used for custody transfer. This equation takes into account the dependence of bulk modulus and thermal expansion coefficient on pressure and temperature.

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles
Conservation laws and equations Solution approaches

Pipeline Transients Transient Control Applications

Solution Methods
The continuity, momentum, and energy equations are non-linear, so they can be solved only in a numerical approach using a computer. The set of these equations are discretized, dividing pipelines into finite intervals. The discretized equations are solved numerically for pressure, temperature, flow rate, and density over a time step. Common solution approaches are: Explicit solutions, Implicit solutions, Hybrid solutions, and Method of characteristics

Three conservation laws are sufficient to describe the flow in any single phase pipeline systems. In other words, no chemical reaction including phase change takes place in the pipeline system. Flow in the pipeline can be represented in onedimensional equations, and angular momentum is negligibly small.

Explicit Solutions
The values at the current time are explicitly calculated from the values at the previous time step, with the boundary conditions at current time. An explicit finite difference representation converges as distance and time steps are small. These methods are limited to small time steps only, depending on the smallest distance step in order to maintain the stability of the solution.

Implicit Solutions
An implicit solution evaluates the values at the advanced point of time, instead of at the current time as in the explicit method. The implicit finite difference equations are expressed in large matrices, which are solved simultaneously for pressure, temperature, flow rate and density at every discretized point. The large matrices are normally solved by a sparse matrix technique. Implicit solution techniques are flexible with time steps and inherently stable always.

Hybrid Solutions
These methods decouple the continuity and momentum equations from the energy equation. Solve for pressure and flow rate implicitly and for temperature explicitly. This method can work with large time steps.

Method of Characteristics
The characteristics method converts the continuity and momentum equations into four total differential equations. The four characteristic equations are solved explicitly for pressure and flow rate. The solution procedures are simple for a single fluid pipeline, but many characteristic lines are required for a batch pipeline. Time step should be constrained by the shortest distance step and acoustic speed of the fluid in order to maintain the stability of solutions.

Boundary and Initial Conditions

Listed below are possible boundary conditions, among which the first two boundary conditions are widely used:
Pressure - pressure boundary Pressure - flow boundary Flow - pressure boundary Flow - flow boundary

The initial conditions can be:

A steady state A pipeline state, either steady or transient, saved from a previous simulation run An actual pipeline state downloaded from the host SCADA

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles Pipeline Transients
Causes of transients Acoustic speed Potential surge Pressure wave propagation Consequences of transients

Transient Control Applications

Causes of Transients
Transients are basically manifested in two types: pressure transients and flow transients, which are different aspects of the same phenomena. Pressure transients occur when a change in energy occurs in the pipeline which adds or remove energy from the pipeline, while flow transients occur when there is a change in flow rate by a change in energy. The main causes of transients in a pipeline are:
Change in valve settings (open or close) Starting or stopping of pumps Changes in pump speed or head Rupture, column separation, or trapped air Arrival of a batch interface at the pump Action of reciprocating pump Vibration of impeller in a centrifugal pump

Transient Properties
A transient (surge or waterhammer) is a pressure wave. Pressure waves propagate at the acoustic velocity of the fluid in a pipe. Initial magnitude of a pressure wave is proportional to acoustic velocity and fluid velocity. The magnitude attenuates as the pressure wave moves away from the source of the transient. Small amount of vapor in the liquid can alter the acoustic velocity.

Water Hammer
Water hammer occurs, because the fluid mass before the stoppage is still moving forward with its fluid velocity, building up a very high pressure, when the pipe flow is suddenly stopped at the downstream end. It can cause pipelines to break if the pressure is high enough. On the other hand, when an upstream flow in a pipe is suddenly stopped, the fluid downstream will attempt to continue flowing, creating a vacuum that may cause the pipe to collapse. This problem can be particularly acute if the pipe is on a downhill slope. Other causes of water hammer are pump failure, and check valve slam (due to sudden deceleration, a check valve may slam shut rapidly, depending on the dynamic characteristic of the check valve and the mass of the water between a check valve and tank).

Acoustic Speed
The acoustic speed in a buried pipe can be calculated by
a B 1 ( B / E )( D / t )(1 2 )

Where a = acoustic speed B = bulk modulus of fluid = fluid density E = Youngs modulus of the pipe elasticity D = inside pipe diameter t = pipe wall thickness = Poissons ratio of strain (0.3 for buried pipe)

Acoustic Speed

Potential Surge
The initial pressure increase following flow stoppage is referred to as the potential surge. The magnitude of the potential surge is determined by the formula: P = av or H = av/g where P = pressure increase H = head a = acoustic velocity = density v = fluid velocity before valve closure Pressure wave propagates away from the source. The wave reflects back at a boundary point and the reflected wave has negative head.

Propagation of Potential Surge

Critical Period
The critical period is defined as the time that an acoustic wave travels from the source point to the end point and then travels back to the source point. It is expressed as follows: tc = 2L/C where tc = critical period L = distance between the source point of the pressure wave to the end point where the wave bounces back. C = acoustic speed

Pressure Wave Propagation

Flow and Pressure Dynamics 1

Assume that the valve is closed instantaneously. At the valve, the water velocity is suddenly forced to zero. As a result, the head at the valve abruptly increases by an amount H = av/g. The increased head immediately creates two other changes at the valve; the pressure increase slightly enlarges the pipe and also increases the density of the fluid. The amount of the stretching of the pipe depends on the diameter and thickness of the pipe and on the compressibility of the pipe material and the liquid, but it normally changes by less than one-half percent. The rise in pressure head causes a sharp-fronted pressure wave to propagate upstream at speed a. The wave front reaches the reservoir L/a seconds after valve closure. At that instant, the velocity is zero throughout the pipe, the pressure head is everywhere H + H, the pipe is enlarged and the fluid is compressed.

Flow and Pressure Dynamics 2

Under these conditions, the fluid in the pipe near the reservoir connection is locally not in equilibrium since the reservoir pressure head is only H. Hence fluid begins to flow toward the reservoir, the region of lower head, as the stretched pipe forces flow in that direction. In the absence of friction, this leftward velocity is equal in magnitude to the original steady velocity as it is driven by the same head increment H; and the source of the liquid for this flow is the compressed liquid that is stored in the enlarged pipe cross section under the increased pressure head. The process continues to evolve with time. At time 2L/a after the beginning, the pressure throughout the pipe has returned to its original value, but with the velocity reversed from its original direction. At this instant, the pressure wave undergoes a reflection. The pressure head drops H below the original steady head, and this pressure drop and closed valve cause the velocity behind the wave front to return to zero. behind this negative wave the pipe cross section shrinks and the liquid expands.

Flow and Pressure Dynamics 3

By time 3L/a, this negative wave has reached the reservoir, and the velocity is everywhere zero. However, the pressure head at the reservoir is again not in equilibrium with the reservoir head, so fluid is drawn from the reservoir into the pipe at velocity v. Behind the new, advancing wave, the head is in equilibrium with the reservoir head. At time 4L/a, the wave has reached the valve; at this instant all variables have returned to the original steady state that existed before the valve was closed. This time interval is one full cycle in a hydraulic transients that would, in the absence of friction, continue without abating.

Attenuation and Line Pack Change

The magnitude of the potential surge reduces as it travels. This reduction is called attenuation. An increase occurs in volume stored, which is called line packing. The pressure increases, the pipe wall expands, and the fluid is compressed.

Potential Surge and Attenuation

Column Separation
On the downstream side of the closed valve, the pressure behind the valve drops by the same amount as given in the above equation. If the pressure drops below the vapor pressure, the liquid vaporizes and column separation occurs. Column separation is a phenomenon that often accompanies water hammer. It happens when a portion of the pipe is subject to low pressure. Column separation is the most serious consequence of down-surge. It is more likely to occur at high points or knees (sharp changes in slope) in the pipeline. Column separation can disrupt the operation of pipelines and should be prevented from happening through proper design and operation.

Column Separation

Collapse of Column
The upstream column will be accelerated and the downstream column decelerated if the backpressure increases, and the upstream column overtakes the downstream column. As a result, the column can collapse if this process occurs quickly. If the difference in velocity at instant of collapse of the cavity is V, a head increase of a*V /2g may be expected, where a is the acoustic velocity. When a separated column collapses, it can be destructive. This head increase may be of sufficient magnitude to rupture the pipe.

Consequences of Transients
Uneven fluid movements Unstable pressures Column separation Check valve slam or control valve oscillation Resonance in a station piping system, causing unstable pressures Pump/compressor trip or pipeline shutdown due to limited control capability: efficiency issue Pipe rupture or collapse: safety issue

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles Pipeline Transients Surge Control
Overview of surge control strategies Control devices Control of pumps


Objectives of Surge Control

The main objective of surge control is to limit the magnitude of the surge to within the allowable limits of the pipeline system including pipe, pump/compressor, and valves. There are two ways of managing pressure transients:
Control of the surge Extra protection of the pipeline and equipment

Surge control is important for the following operations:

Start-up and shut-down operations Valve operations including pressure or flow control Injection and delivery condition changes

System Protection from Failure

The main objective of pipeline and equipment protection is to preserve the integrity of the pipeline system and to prevent system failure when events occur which are beyond the control of operators. Operators must be able to protect the system during any of the following conditions:
Power failure Driver failure Valve failure Emergency shutdown valve operations Accidents Operator error

Transient Control
Transient control strategies and devices are discussed in a general approach, because controlling transients is mostly site specific. Control strategies include timing of control of pumps, valve operations, adequate maintenance, and others, while control devices include valves and tanks. If surges are expected to be severe, the magnitudes of surges should be determined, the piping system be reinforced, and a special control scheme be selected. Computer simulations are necessary to select reliable and responsible control system.

Transient Control Options

Design Phase: The continual pounding of surges can cause leaks and eventual pipe failure. At the locations where frequent surges are expected,
Sharp changes in slope (knee) are avoided, Thicker pipes are installed, Control devices such as surge relief tanks are installed.

Operation Phase:
Minimize engine failures to avoid pump trips, Open and close line or station valves slowly, Open and close pump station control valves gradually for fixed speed drives, or ramp speed up and down slowly for variable speed drives.

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles Pipeline Transients Transient Control
Transient control strategies Control mechanisms and devices Control of pumps/compressors


Control Devices
The following mechanisms of controlling surge are in the pipeline systems:
Valve movement Check valve Pump startup Pump power failure Pressure relief valves, Pressurized surge tanks, Rupture disks, Control valve with a PID controller.

There are four types of pressure surge control devices:

Valve Movement
The magnitude of the pressure waves depends on the type of valve, the way in which the valve is moved, the hydraulic properties of the system, and the elastic properties and restraint of the pipe system. The proper evaluation of the impact of valve movement on the pressures in a system depends strongly on the loss coefficient of the valve and position dependent coefficients for the valve at various openings. In general, it is safe to close the valves slowly, longer than 2L/a. However, computer simulation studies are required to understand the system behavior in response to various closure schedules and to implement an effective and economical valve control system.

Check Valve
Check valves can cause large transient pressure if the flow reversal through them can occur before the valve closure is complete. Modern check valves do not slam. In some cases, a spring or weight causes the check valve to close at the instant forward flow ceases, thereby preventing the reverse flow problem. Another type closes slowly, regulated by a damping mechanism, to bring the reverse flow to rest gradually. The valve must either close quickly before a reverse flow can become large or close slowly over a time interval that is considerably greater than the critical time of closure 2L/a. The check valve problem is difficult to analyze.

Pump Startup
As the pump starts up and comes on line, a positive surge is created in the downstream line. The magnitude of the incremental pressure depends on the sudden increase in speed which occurs when the check valve is forced open and the liquid in the line begins to move. When there is no vapor in the pumping system, the pressure increase is generally not large. If there is vapor in the discharge region, substantial transient pressures can be developed. Filling vapor region can produce velocities that are above the expected steady-state velocities. At the low flow that generally exists early in the filling process, the pump is operating on its curve at a point where the discharge is quite large.

Pump Power Failure

The most severe transients upon power failure occurs where the static lift is large; i.e. the pipeline profile rises rapidly immediately downstream of the pump station. If power is cut off, the pressure just downstream of the pumps drops rapidly, and this pressure drop propagates downstream at the wave speed. This drop in pressure can cause extensive column separation and lead to subsequent cavity closure shocks of large magnitude. In addition, a flow reversal in the system occurs and lead to significant overpressures in the system, generally in the vicinity of the pumps, if the transient is not properly controlled.

Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) 1

PRVs are mechanical devices that are used to protect the pipeline system from excessive pressure. They are installed on points along the pipeline where maintenance is easy. A PRV opens when the pressure exceeds a specified pre-set pressure. When the pressure increases above the set value, the valve opening force of the fluid is greater than the closing force of the spring, and the fluid flows out the valve exhaust port. The valve closes when the pressure in the line decreases below the set value. A PRV can protect the pipeline from over-pressurizing during pump startup. During startup, some of the flow is discharged via the PRV to attached tankage.

Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) 2

If the PRV is installed in the pump discharge line between the pump and the discharge control valve, it functions as a bypass valve during pump startup. To prevent a pump from operating near shut-off head, the PRV is set to open at a desired pressure. Pressure relief valves act to reduce upsurges, but do not control the initial down-surge that occurs on pump shutdown or power failure. Pressure relief valves are useful in short, steep pipe profile where reversal of flow quickly follows power failure or pump trip.

Pressure Relief Valve (PRV) 3

Because upsurges travel at acoustic speed, a relief valve may not open quickly enough to prevent a very short surge of high pressure. The PRV is designed for a certain flow rate. An undersized PRV will not be able to discharge at a high enough rate to reduce the line pressure.

Upsurge and Down-surge

Pressurized Surge Tank

A pressurized surge tank or accumulator contains a gas that absorbs the pressure surges and prevents the transfer of a pressure waves to other parts of the pipeline system. Pressurized surge tanks prevent transients that arise in one section of the pipeline from being transmitted to another section of the line. Pressurized surge tanks are reliable and require no repairs because there are no moving parts. However, they are expensive to install. Regular maintenance is required to maintain the volume of gas in the tank.

Pressurized Surge Tank

Rupture Disks
Rupture disks are non-mechanical pressure surge control devices which consist of a bursting membrane designed to rupture at pre-set conditions of pressure. Rupture disks are an inexpensive substitute for other pressure surge control devices. Like pressure relief valves, rupture disks usually require additional tankage to accept relief flow. Rupture disks must be replaced after being ruptured. Therefore, spare disks are required both in-line and in storage.

Rupture Disk and Assembly

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles Pipeline Transients Transient Control
Overview of transient control strategies Control devices Control of pumps


Transient Control: Start-up

Pump start-up operations can cause a rapid increase in fluid velocity that may result in an undesirable surge, but they seldom cause a problem in actual operation. Surge controlling methods include:
If there are several pumps, start them one at a time at intervals at least 2 times the critical period. Open a control valve slowly (at least 2 times the critical period) after the motor starts. Use a variable-speed drive for each pump ramped up to full speed slowly enough to avoid high surges.

By interlocking the pump with control valves, transients can be greatly reduced. Upon start-up, the pump operates against a closed valve. As the valve opens, the flow into the pipeline gradually increases to the full pump capacity.

Transient Control: Shut-down

Normal pump shut-down may also cause surges. They can be controlled to remain within acceptable limits by the following methods:
Turn pumps off one at a time at intervals at least 2 times the critical period. Close a control valve slowly (at least 2 times the critical period) before the motor is stopped. If pumps are equipped with variable-speed drives, ramp down slowly.

By interlocking the pump with control valves, transients can be greatly reduced. Upon shut-down, the control valve slowly closes to decelerate the flow, after which power to the pump is shut off, but not until the valve is fully closed.

Transient Control: Power Failure

Power failure at a pumping station causes pump tripping, and results in an initial rapid down-surge in the discharge header and piping close to the pump station. The power failure cannot be fully avoided, but its effect can be reduced by increasing the inertia of pump and motor with a flywheel. Control valves cannot prevent down-surge on power failure.

Surge Pressure Generated

Compressor Failure

Station Control Valves 1

PID controllers are used to quickly stabilize adjustable parameters such as pressure or flow rate. PID stands for proportional, integral and differential. PID controllers operate control valves for pressure, flow or other parameters. They continually monitor the actual condition, compare it to the desired condition, and then adjusts the control valve. This monitoring and control provides faster and accurate control of the pipeline at the control unit location. The effect of a change in a valve setting is localized immediately, and can be adjusted before the larger system is affected.

Station Control Valves 2

The controller makes a series of adjustments to the pressure or flow to produce a transition from one steady state to another. This frees the operator to monitor the overall system instead of paying attention to each controller on the pipeline. There are several disadvantages to PID controllers:
Tuning controller parameters is tedious and difficult, The loss of both local and remote signals can occur during operation, PID controllers are expensive.

Station Control System

Homework 3 (2 Pts): Pump Trip

A pipeline company operates a 20 liquid pipeline, transporting 19oAPI crude. The pipe length is 270km and pipe wall thickness 0.25. The detailed pipeline profile is given in the next slide: Required data
Hourly flow rate: 700m3/hr Poissons ratio: 0.3 Youngs modulus: 2.2x108kPa Pipe grade: X56 Heavy crude bulk modulus: 1.5x106kPa

Homework 3: Pump Trip Questions

Pump Station 2 was tripped, and 30 seconds later a second pump at Pump Station 1 started. Describe transient behaviors in the pipeline semi-quantitatively:
List reasonable assumptions to answer the following questions. Calculate the acoustic speed and potential surge. Describe pressure behaviors between Pump Station 1 and Station 2. Describe pressure wave behaviors downstream of Station 2. What action should the operator take in order to avoid vaporization in the pipeline? Is there any danger of over-pressuring the pipe? If so, why?

Pipeline Configuration
Pipe Leg Leg 01 Leg 02 Leg 03 Leg 04 Leg 05 Leg 06 Leg 07 Leg 08 Leg 09 Leg 10 Leg 11 Leg 12 Leg 13 Leg 14 Leg 15 KMP (km) 30 45 60 90 120 130 140 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 270 350 0 Pressure reducing station Delivery point 800 Highest elevation point 180 Pump station 2 60 10 Pump station 1 Low elevation point Elevation (m) 30 Lifting point Facility

Whats Next?
Transient Analysis Fundamental Principles Pipeline Transients Transient Control Applications
Liquid pipeline Gas pipeline Demonstrations

Applications to Liquid Pipelines 1

Determine pipe wall thickness by locating high pressure points in normal and abnormal operating conditions. Determine the location and size of a pressure relief valve and tank. Determine the minimum and maximum allowable transient pressures. Study the pressure effects of a valve closure on the valve and pipeline. Design control system including pump and surge control, pump station spacing, and a leak detection system.

Applications to Liquid Pipelines 2

Study the effects of supply and demand changes on the pipeline and equipment. Study the effects of station operations including a pump trip on the pipeline and equipment. Study the effects of pipeline leaks and rupture. Study the line purge and load during pipeline commissioning. Use as a hydraulic training simulator for operation staff.

Applications to Gas Pipelines

Determine pipeline capability and optimum facility locations such as compressor stations. Determine the maximum allowable transient pressures. Design control system including compressor station control. Evaluate line pack change behaviors over time including capacity determination. Determine operation strategies for supply and demand changes. Study effects of station operations including a compressor trip on pipeline pressure and equipment. Use as the engine of a pipeline training system and other real-time modeling system.

Transient Simulator
A steady state is a special case of transient states. A transient simulator may have two components: steady state model and transient model. Therefore, such a transient simulator can perform all the tasks that a steady state simulator can do, and more. It can do the following:
Study pipeline operating efficiency shows how operation modes affect flow, pressure, and other pipeline parameters including operational stability. Analyze start-up or shutdown procedure determines the best way of starting or shutting down the system with various combinations of operating scenarios. Study system response after upsets models various upset responses to determine effective ways of responding upset conditions

Advantages of Transient Simulator

The simulator is capable of generating realistic information, representing the true pipeline conditions, either normal operating or upset situations, if accurate data is provided. It can be used as a training tool for the pipeline operators.

It is more complex to use and required data may not be available to ensure accurate modelling.

Real-Time Model
A real-time model is a transient model that runs in realtime. It assists the operators to analyze the pipeline system performance. The model continuously synchronizes to the actual pipeline state through real-time measurements received from the host SCADA. It generates the current pipeline states in the pipeline system in real-time. The pipeline states include the measured and modelled flow, density, pressure and temperature profiles. It can track batches, detect limit violations, and determine pump operating points.

Pipeline State

Real-Time Data
Normally, the host SCADA collects real-time data and refreshes its real-time database at regular intervals. The SCADA system transfers the current data with time tag from the real-time database to the RTM system database. The scan time dictates the data transfer frequency. Since the quality of real-time data is critical for accurate and reliable results, real-time data received by the RTM system should be validated before they are used for the real-time model.

SCADA-RTM System Interface

Since an RTM system uses real-time data, it must run in conjunction with the host SCADA, thus requiring hardware and software interface. The SCADA sends the collected real-time data to the RTM database. When the RTM database is refreshed, the real-time model is executed with the real-time data to determine the pipeline state corresponding to the collected real-time data. The updated state is stored in the RTM database and certain data are sent to the host. The interface requirements include the data transfer mechanism and data required by both SCADA and RTM.

RTM Applications
Pressure limit violation detection Slack line flow detection Tracking functions
Batch, DRA and content tracking Pipeline efficiency and pig tracking

Monitoring functions
Pump performance monitoring Compressor performance monitoring

Training System

Hydraulic Profiles
Hydraulic profiles help the operators to operate the pipeline safely by avoiding any limit violations such as maximum and minimum pressures. Each scan, the real-time model generates the pressure, temperature, flow, and density profiles over the entire pipeline. Since the amount of hydraulic data generated by the real time model is very large, these profiles are plotted together with the elevation profile, pump stations, batch locations, and MAOP/LAOP lines.

Hydraulic Profiles

Pressure Limit Violation

The pressure limits include maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) and minimum operating pressure. MAOP is determined by the pipe strength, design factor and elevation, while minimum operating pressure by the vapour pressure of the product. Pressure limit violations can be of short-term or longterm. The long-term violation should be avoided. Pipeline companies are required to record the violation history and report to the appropriate regulatory agency.

Slack Line Flow Detection

The phase of a fluid turns from liquid to vapor when the pressure at a given temperature drops below the vaporization point of the fluid. A slack line is the condition where a pipeline segment is not completely filled with liquid. It often occurs near high elevation drop points when the pipeline back pressure is low. Since the RTM calculates the pressure and temperature profiles, it can detect slack flow conditions and their locations. The problems caused by slack line conditions include:
Pressure drop is large due to constriction in slack regions Batch interface mixing increases Pipe metal fatigue rate increases

Hydraulic Gradient

Slack line condition

Heavy Crude Batch

PS4 Densitometer confirms location of batch

Tracking Functions
The batch tracking data received from the real-time modeling system may include the following:
Line fill data, including the batch ID or name, product, location and volume, and estimated time of arrival (ETA), DRA concentrations if DRA is used, Other contents and anomaly tracking, Pig locations and tracking, Tank inventory data, including the product and tank level or volume, Meter data at lifting and delivery points to indicate the lifted or delivered volume of batches that are lifting and delivering at the time the data was captured.

Batch Tracking Display

Drag Reducing Agent (DRA)

DRA can help increase throughput in liquid pipelines and reduce operating costs. The effectiveness of DRA is measured in terms of the reduction in frictional losses in the pipeline. The effectiveness varies with the DRA concentration, viscosity of the solvent fluid, pipeline temperature, fluid velocity, and pipeline diameter. Degradation of the effectiveness depends on the length of the pipeline and the amount of shear due to pipeline facilities such as pump stations and valves.

Drag Reducing Agent (DRA)

A drag reducing agent (DRA) is a long chain polymer. DRA dampens turbulence of the fluid near the pipeline wall, resulting in improved flow by reducing frictional pressure drop along the pipeline. DRA is used in crude oil except heavy crude(*) and refined products such as gasoline and diesel, and mainly used to increase pipeline throughput. (*) ConocoPhillips has developed a new DRA that can be effective for heavy oil transportation. DRA can be effective for reducing pipe friction for jet fuel, but it is not permitted to use yet because of safety concern.

Drag Reducing Agent (DRA)

Benefits of DRA
The benefits of using a DRA are as follows:
Increase in pipeline capacity Reduction of the waiting time for tanker loading/offloading Maintaining the throughput during pump maintenance for derated lines Use smaller number of Bypassing pump stations Energy Savings

DRA is expensive, but is required in small amount in the order of 20 part per million (ppm) to achieve the desired result. Due to higher flow capacity, the potential for surge can be increased on pipelines which were not designed for high velocities.

Composition Tracking
The real-time model calculates density profiles and tracks compositions in the pipeline system. Composition data is made available at gas receipt points for volume correction and quality check. Composition tracking is required to correct flow rates at meter station, calculate pipeline state and line pack accurately, and track gas quality accurately. At junctions, combined gas compositions are calculated and tracked downstream of the junctions. Sour gas can be tracked using the composition tracking function, and heating values can be determined if composition tracking data is accurate.

Pipeline Efficiency
Pipeline efficiency is defined as the ratio of its measured flow rate to the flow rate predicted by the flow equation for the conditions prevailing at the time of flow measurement. In practice, comparison of efficiencies calculated at different flow rates is not easily possible, making it difficult to implement a general performance factor for efficiency determination, because the flow and pressure change and/or batch positions constantly. However, the behavior of efficiency loss can be detected by comparing the long-term patterns of the friction factors during the same flow ranges.

Friction Factor Distribution

Friction Factor after Pigging

Pump Performance Monitoring

This application plots a centrifugal pump performance curve, locates the operating point, and detects pump performance degradation. It has the following functionality:
The dynamic plots of the current and historical operating points are superimposed onto the pump curves. The curves show the minimum and maximum operating ranges. The operating point is determined in terms of the flow rate, head, and throttle pressure. The performance data can be be used to rerate the pump curve and to determine when maintenance is required, or to assess the operators training requirement.

To determine the pump operating points for parallel pump operation, the pump unit control strategy such as flow splitting must be known.

Pump Unit Statistics

The pump unit statistics is used to determine the pump and driver maintenance schedule as well as review the performance of each operator. The unit statistics may include the following:
On-peak and off-peak run time with respective volumes moved through the station Number of on-peak starts and total number of starts Total run time Date and time the unit was last running and started Suction, case, discharge, and throttle pressures Measured input power, calculated output power and station efficiency Limit violations and their counts

Compressor Performance Monitoring

Monitor the compressor performance for efficient operation and record compressor unit statistics for planning maintenance and detecting potential unit problems. Compressor operating points and their history are plotted in real-time on wheel map, showing head, speed, power and efficiency. This information is used to increase compressor operation efficiency and prevent surge problems. The unit statistics maintains the compressor operating data such as number of starts, operating time, surge violation, etc., for maintenance planning.

Compressor Performance Monitoring

This application monitors the performance of compressor units for efficient unit operation and maintains compressor unit statistics. The current and historical operating points are plotted on the compressor wheel map, showing flow, pressure, speed, power and efficiency. It assists the operators in preventing compressor damage by avoiding surge conditions and provides the information on the maintenance schedule.

Compressor Monitoring Display

Compressor Unit Statistics

Since compressors mostly use natural gas for their fuel, the main purpose of compressor unit statistics is to determine the maintenance schedule. The required data are listed below:
The number of unit starts issued to a compressor unit together with the number of attempted and successful starts The accumulated compressor operating hours for current/previous day, month and year The date and time the compressor was last served The number of surge control line violations and recycling status Warning issued to the operator when the allocated number of annual starts for a unit is about to expire or have expired

Training System
A full training system consists of a pipeline simulator, record keeping module and computer-based training (CBT) module. The simulator can be integrated with the host SCADA system to train both hydraulics and SCADA operation. For the integrated training system, trainees use the SCADA screens and training instructor a separate terminal. The simulator behaves like a pipeline system providing measured values. The record keeping module records training session conducted, training module completed, and training session results. The CBT module provides trainees with various operating scenarios including abnormal operations. It includes training material on pipeline operations, hydraulics, equipment and facility operations, SCADA, and other relevant topics.

Training System Environment

P ip e lin e D ev ice s
F ie ld P ro to c o ls


O p e ra tio n s T ra in in g S y s te m
T ra in in g S im u la to r In s tru c to r T erm in al
P ro to co l E m u la to r

A p p lic a tio n s

D isp atch e r T e rm in a ls


A p p lic a tio n s

T rain e e T e rm in a ls

Training Objectives
Perform normal operations efficiently and safely Respond to abnormal operations including upsets and emergencies Predict the consequences of facility failures Recognize monitored operating conditions that are likely to cause emergencies and respond to the emergency conditions Understand the proper actions to be taken

Data Playback
In addition to pipeline simulation, archived operation data can be played on the host SCADA man-machine interface, so that the trainees can learn both SCADA operation and pipeline system responses to operation commands. The training system normally increment playback time faster or slower than real-time. The playback time is established by either the trainee or instructor. It is possible to rewind to the start of the playback period and to fast forward/backwards to specific playback times.

Trainee Interface
In an integrated training system, the trainee interface is the same as the SCADAs man-machine interface, so that it provides realistic training environment where the dispatchers control their pipelines using the same control interface as the real pipeline. In addition to hydraulic training, the integrated system helps dispatchers to learn the operation of the SCADA system without interfering with actual pipeline operations. In general, the training efficiency is higher with the integrated system than with a simpler hydraulic-based training system.

Instructor Interface
Scenarios are managed through the instructor interface.
Selection of scenarios Copy/delete existing scenarios Replay/rewind a scenario

The instructor interface has the capability to control simulation.

Equipment Leaks Execution speed and time step Batch injection

Data can be displayed:

Graphic displays profiles and trends Tabular displays