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D E SE TUR CU E A FO E F SU IS

Supporting Fast and Clear Video


Hiroyuki Takahashi, Toshihiko Kosugi, Akihiko Hirata, and Koichi Murata

Hiroyuki Takahashi (takahashi.hi@lab.ntt.co.jp) and Akihiko Hirata are with Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT), Microsystem Integration Laboratories. Toshihiko Kosugi and Koichi Murata are with NTT Photonics Laboratories.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MMM.2012.2205830 Date of publication: 13 September 2012

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1527-3342/12/$31.002012IEEE

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n communications networks, 10-Gb Ethernet (10GbE) and gigabit Ethernet passive optical networks (GE-PON) have been widely used and 10 Gb/s Ethernet PON (10G-EPON) and 100GbE were established in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Wireless technologies that can handle optical communications standards are useful for last-mile wireless access and setting up temporary connections to restore a network after a disaster or other disruptions. In the broadcasting field, high-definition television (HDTV), which requires a 1.5-Gb/s data rate, has been accepted in studio and live-relay broadcasts. Moreover, threedimensional HD movies (3 Gb/s), 4K digital cinema (6Gb/s) and super-high-vision (SHV) (24 Gb/s) [1] have been developed to catch up with the demand for highpresence applications. There is a strong need for broadband wireless equipment that can transmit uncompressed HD videos in various situations. To support the data rate of high-speed protocols and HD videos, there has been a lot of interest in high-speed wireless technologies using the millimeter-wave (MMW) band from 30 to 300 GHz, because this band can provide sufficient bandwidth. The license-free frequency band from 57 to 66GHz, the so-called 60-GHz band, is attracting attention for multigigabit wireless systems suitable for consumer wireless devices. Some wireless standards, such as Wireless HD, ECMA 387, IEEE802.15.3c, and IEEE802.15ad (WiGig), have been established toward commercialization. The 60-GHz band wireless system is mainly used for indoor applications because the atmospheric attenuation induced by oxygen absorption in that band is large. For long-range applications, the 7176 GHz, 8186 GHz, 94-GHz-band and 120-GHz band are expected for multigigabit or 10-Gb wireless communications because atmospheric attenuation in these bands is smaller than that of the 60-GHz band. Wireless systems using these bands are expected for field pickup units (FPUs), fixed wireless access (FWA), and fourth generation (4G) mobile backhaul. There are studies that explore frequencies of above 200 GHz for wireless communications. These frequencies are not yet fully exploited industrially and could lead to the development of broadband wireless systems using simple modulation schemes. Devices operating above 200 GHz use state-of-the-art semiconductors and combinations of photonics and electronics technologies. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) laboratories are developing a 10-Gb/s wireless link system using the 120-GHz band to meet the demands for wireless transmission of 10GbE, 10G-EPON, and uncompressed HD videos over a distance of several kilometers. The 120-GHz band is promising for wideband FWA because it provides sufficient bandwidth and small atmospheric absorption (about 1 dB/km). A key technology of this link is a radio-frequency (RF) device that can transmit

Wireless technologies that can handle optical communications standards are useful for last-mile wireless access.
a high-power MMW signal modulated at 10 Gb/s and receive the signal with high sensitivity. We have developed monolithic microwave-integrated circuits (MMICs) to make a 10-Gb/s transmitter and receiver in the 120-GHz band and to extend the wireless links transmission distance. This article covers the MMIC technologies and system architecture.

Recent Broadband Wireless and Its Device Technologies


Figure 1 shows bit rates and distances between wireless terminals for recently reported MMW wireless transmissions. This figure covers only experimental results for wireless transmission using antennas. Table 1 shows a comparison of frequency, modulation scheme, key technology, and antenna in the reports. Most integrated circuits (ICs) for 60-GHz wireless technologies use silicon-based transistors such as complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) bipolar CMOS (BiCMOS) because the ICs can be mass produced at low cost [2][7]. Okada et al. reported a 60-GHz direct conversion transceiver using 65-nm CMOS [3]. The transceiver supports IEEE802.15.3c full-rate wireless communication for all modulation schemes and transmits 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) data of 11.1 Gb/s over a distance of 0.17 m with inpackage antennas. Emami et al. designed transceivers using 65-nm CMOS that support maximum bit rates for Wireless HD and WiGig [6]. The range between different transceivers is 50 m for 3.8 Gb/s in a line of sight

100 [20] Bit Rate (Gb/s) [18] [17] 10 [12] [3] [4] [15] [5] 1 0.01 [16]

[21] [21] [19] [2] [2][16] [13] [3] [3] [7]

60-GHz Band 70100 GHz Over 100 GHz NTT [11] [6] [10] [6] [8] [9] [10]

0.1

1 10 100 1,000 10,000 Link Distance (m)

Figure 1. Recently reported bit rates and transmission distances in experimental demonstrations of MMW wireless transmission.

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Devices operating above 200 GHz use state-of-the-art semiconductors and combinations of photonics and electronics technologies.
(LOS) environment. In addition, the transceivers have a large number of elements for beam steering of antenna arrays. This function enables finding the new optimal path between transceivers in non-LOS environments. Since the frequency bands of 7176, 8186, and 94GHz are promising for a long-range wireless communication, the link systems in these bands use highgain antennas and compound semiconductors, such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) and indium phosphide (InP) to achieve high output power [8][11]. BridgeWave Communications, Inc. provides a commercial multigigabit wireless links for flexible access and a backhaul solution [10]. This system yields up to 3 Gb/s through the use of two wireless terminals and an orthogonal mode transducer (OMT). Dyadyuk et al. have reported

a multigigabit wireless link, which provides 6-Gb/s data transmission over a distance of 250 m with a link margin of over 10 dB [11]. Fabricated modules using GaAs MMICs achieved spectral efficiency of 2.4 b/s/Hz at 8186 GHz. To handle RF frequencies of over 100 GHz, some research groups are studying wireless transmitter and receiver ICs using state-of-the-art semiconductors [12] [16]. Laskin et al. reported a double-sideband transceiver using SiGe BiCMOS in the 140-GHz band [13]. Their 4-Gb/s wireless transmission was conducted over a distance of 1.15-m using a reflector. Kallfass etal. reported 220-GHz transmitter and receiver MMICs using 50-nm metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (mHEMTs), which are based on a composite InGaAs/ InGaAs channel [16]. These MMICs packaged into splitblock waveguide modules transmit 25-Gb/s data over 50cm with an eye diagram quality factor of 3 and transmit 10 Gb/s over a distance of 2 m with a bit error rate (BER) of 1.6 # 109. Some research groups have adopted photonics technologies because these technologies provide the wide bandwidth in signal generation and modulation [17][21].

TABLE 1. Comparison of frequency bands, modulations, device technologies and antennas in experimental demonstrations of MMW wireless transmission. Ref. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14], [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] NTT Frequency 60-GHz band 60-GHz band 60-GHz band 60-GHz band 60-GHz band 60-GHz band 7176 GHz/ 8186 GHz 7176 GHz/ 8186 GHz 7176 GHz/ 8186 GHz 8186 GHz 7393 GHz 140-GHz band 120/140-GHz band 220-GHz band 300-GHz band 300-GHz band 57.464.4 GHz W band (75110 GHz) W band (75110 GHz) 120-GHz band Modulation QPSK/16-QAM BPSK/QPSK/8-PSK/ 16-QAM QPSK 16-QAM OFDM 16-QAM OFDM 16-QAM OFDM QPSK BPSK QPSK 8 PSK Impluse radio ASK ASK OOK ASK ASK 16-QAM OFDM 16-QAM 16-QAM ASK Technology 90 nm CMOS 65 nm CMOS 90 nm CMOS 65 nm CMOS 65 nm CMOS SiGe BiCMOS Antenna Liquid-crystal-polymer planar antenna Packaged antenna (2.2 dBi) Horn (25 dBi) HTCC and glass antennas Packaged array antennas Packaged patch-array antennas Cassegrain Cassegrain (51 dBi) Cassegrain (44 dBi, 51 dBi) Conical lens horn (45 dBi) Horn (23 dBI) Horn Horn (25 dBi) Lens and horn Dielectric lens and horn (~25 dBi) Dielectric lens and horn (~25 dBi) Horn (23 dBi) Horn Horn (24 dBi) Cassegrain (49 dBi)


GaAs pHEMT InP HEMT 130-nm SiGe BICMOS 65 nm CMOS 50 nm mHEMT Photonics-based transmitter Photonics-based transmitter Photonics-based transmitter Photonics-based transmitter Photonics-based transmitter 100-nm InP HEMT

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Nagatsuma and Song et al. demonstrated up to 14-Gb/s wireless transmission over a distance of 0.5m using an RF of 300 GHz [17], [18]. They integrated a photonics-based transmitter by using a unitravelingcarrier photodiode (UTC-PD) [22]. Pang et al. reported a hybrid optical fiber-wireless link system using the W band (75110 GHz) that can transmit 100-Gb/s with an air distance of 1.2 m [21]. The link also uses a photonics-based 16-QAM modulator and dual-polarization multiplexing. As shown Figure 1, reported demonstrations cover bit rates of up to 100 Gb/s in short-distance transmissions, up to 6 Gb/s for several hundred meters, and 3 Gb/s for several kilometers. However, there is no demonstration of 10-Gb/s transmission over a distance of several kilometers. A 10-Gb/s wireless system with a long transmission distance is suitable for last-mile access of 10GbE, live-relay transmission for 4K cinema, and multiplexed HD videos. To meet these applications, NTT laboratories are developing a 10-Gb/s 120-GHz-band wireless link system with the link distance of several kilometers. An important point in this development is to extend the link distance while maintaining the capacity of 10 Gb/s. In the next section, we explain the progress in the link distance of the wireless link.

In order to increase the transmission distance, we need to increase the output power of the wireless transmitter and decrease the received power necessary for error-free transmission.
of a broadband Schottky barrier diode receiver with a silicon lens antenna [26]. In 2003, the development of MMICs for the 120-GHz wireless system was started. We used 0.1-n m-HEMT technology on an InP substrate. The devices have a current-gain cut-off frequency ( f T) of 170 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency ( fmax) of 350 GHz. InP HEMT MMICs feature highspeed and high-power operation, and we have succeeded in making low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), power amplifiers (PAs), and demodulators. A PA was used to amplify the UTC-PD output power, and the receiver used receiver MMICs that integrated an LNA and amplitude shift keying (ASK) demodulator and achieved high sensitivity. We developed wireless equipment using these devices with a high-gain cassegrain antenna (CA) and achieved an output power of 0 dBm. The first experimental radio station license from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan was obtained in 2004, and we conducted the first outdoor transmission experiments over a distance of 200 m [27]. Since 2007, the 120-GHz-band wireless signals were generated using standard InP HEMT MMIC technologies. In the transmitter MMIC, a frequency multiplier, ASK modulator, and amplifiers are integrated in one chip [28], [29]. Most of the receiver circuit blocks, including LNAs, narrow bandpass filters, and demodulators have been improved and implemented in a receiver MMIC. The LNA has a noise

Technologies of 120-GHz Wireless and the Progress in the Link Distance

In order to increase the transmission distance, we need to increase the output power of the wireless transmitter and decrease the received power necessary for error-free transmission. However, it has been difficult to generate high-power radio signals because semiconductor device characteristics deteriorate as the operation frequency increases. Figure 2 shows the progress in the transmission distance of the 120-GHz-band wireless link [23]. The research of the 120-GHz-band wireless link started with indoor data transmission using photonics technologies, because photonics technologies have broadband characteristics and 10 [32] are suitable for generating high-frequency signals. The [31] 1 key device of this system is a UTC-PD [22]. A UTC-PD [27] can generate 4.4-dBm out101 put power at 120-GHz-band. Data transmission over a dis102 tance of 2m at 1.25 Gb/s was achieved in 2000 [24], [25]. In [26] [25] 2002, we achieved the worlds 103 first 10-Gb/s data trans2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Year mission over a radio wireless link, which was made possible by the development Figure 2. Progress in the transmission distance of the 120-GHz-band wireless link.
Transmission Distance (km)

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The use of an InGaAs/InP CC increases the breakdown voltage dramatically while maintaining high-frequency performance.
figure of 5.6dB and a small group delay variation of less than 14 ps [30]. These multifunction MMICs bring us higher reproducibility compared to the previous versions of our transceivers by multichip packaging. We developed transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) modules that have a Tx or Rx MMIC chip in the same metal waveguide package. Figure 3 shows photographs of fabricated MMICs and waveguide modules. Then, we implemented Tx, Rx, and PA modules in wireless equipment with a CA. The averaged output power of the equipment reached 10 dBm. We succeeded in 800-m 10-Gb/s data transmission using this wireless equipment in 2007 [31]. In 2009, we developed wireless equipment with an output power of 16 dBm [32]. The increase in the output power was achieved by the development of InGaAs/InP composite channel (CC) InP HEMT. The use of an InGaAs/InP CC increases the breakdown voltage dramatically while maintaining highfrequency performance. The 0.08-n m-gate CC InP

AMP

AMP

MOD Doubler

HEMTs were developed to have a f T of 180 GHz and a fmax of 580 GHz [33]. The off state breakdown voltage of the HEMTs is around 10 V, and reliable operation can be expected below 4.0 V. These values are almost two times higher than those of conventional latticematched InP HEMTs. We fabricated a PA MMIC using the CC InP HEMTs. A photograph of the PA MMIC using CC InP HEMTs is shown in Figure 4. The PA module was fabricated by integrating the PA MMICs in a metal package. The P1dB output power of the PA module is about 19 dBm, and the saturation output power is about 21 dBm at 125 GHz. We compare the maximum output powers of reported PAs in Figure 5. At frequencies above 100 GHz, InP HEMT devices show higher output power than other devices at the same operation frequency. The PA has the highest output power in the 120-GHz band. When we use the PA module for an ASK-modulation wireless transmitter, the average power of the transmitter should be 16dBm for linear operation. Moreover, we introduced forward error correction (FEC) technologies to reduce the received power necessary for error-free transmission. We used Reed Solomon (RS) (255,239) coding, which has a coding gain of about 6dB at a BER of 10 12. Using the 16-dBm output power wireless equipment and these FEC technologies, we achieved error-free transmission of 10.3125 Gb/s (11.1 Gb/s with FEC) data and six-channel multiplexed uncompressed HD video signals (1.5 Gb/s # 6 channels) from Tokyo Heliport (Koto-ku) to the Fuji Television coastal studio (Minato-ku) in Tokyo, Japan, over a distance of 5.8km in fine weather. This is the first time that 10-Gb/s data was transmitted by a radio wireless link over a distance of more than 5 km.

Transmitter MMIC

BPF

LNA

BPF

AMP

Receiver MMIC (a)

Transmitter Module

First Amplifier Module (b)

Receiver Module

Figure 3. Photographs of (a) a 120-GHz-band transmitter/ receiver MMICs and (b) RF modules.

DET

Figure 4. Photograph of a PA MMIC chip using CC InP HEMTs.

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HD Video Signal Transmission Trials


One of the promising applications of the state-ofthe-art 120-GHz-band wireless link is the uncompressed transmission of TV broadcast contents for live relay. To investigate whether the 120-GHz-band wireless link could actually be used for these applications, we conducted various trials of HD video wireless transmission. For this purpose, we developed a compact 120-GHz-band wireless link. There is a strong demand to reduce as much as possible the time from arrival at a site to being broadcast ready. As such, the FPU used to transmit broadcast contents must be quite simple in structure, easy to assemble quickly, and easy to operate. Figure 6 shows a photograph of the 120-GHz-band wireless transmitter and specifications of the link. The transmitter has a simple architecture, consisting of three components: the head, which generates the radio signal; the controller, which supplies power and the data signal and control signals to the head; and the antenna. The antenna is attached by a bayonet mechanism, which is a simple fastening mechanism to connect a small F-band waveguide (2 mm 1 mm). As such, we conducted a trial of the 120-GHz-band system to transmit raw footage for on-site TV broadcasting at the Beijing Olympics [34]. The 120-GHz radio signal was used to transmit an uncompressed HD video signal shot at the Beijing Media Center (BMC) to the International Broadcast Center (IBC). The BMC is a specially built relay studio facing the Olympic park with an unobstructed view, and many Olympic updates were reported from there. The receiver was installed on an RF tower on the roof of the IBC and the demodulated signal from the receiver was then transmitted to one of the TV booths in the IBC. Not one error was observed in the 120-GHz channel, and HD image transmission was very stable during rain and at temperatures of over 40 C.

One of the promising applications of the state-of-the-art 120-GHz-band wireless link is the uncompressed transmission of TV broadcast contents for live relay.
For further investigation, the 120-GHz-band wireless link was used for an SHV transmission trial. SHV is a digital video format, and it has a resolution of about 16 times the number of pixels of existing HDTV. The data rate of an uncompressed SHV signal based on the dual green method is 24Gb/s; therefore, three 120-GHz-band wireless link sets arranged in parallel are necessary to transmit an uncompressed SHV signal. The 120-GHz-band wireless link uses a high-gain antenna, and high-frequency MMW signals travel straight. Therefore, the interference between wireless links using the same frequency is small, even when two sets of wireless equipment are arranged close to each other. Moreover, we can

(a) Center Frequency 125 GHz 116.5133.5 GHz 16 dBm ASK 6 dB 38 dBm for BER of 1010 1 Mb/s11.1 Gb/s Cassegrain (CA), Horn CA: 37, 49, 50, 51 dBi Horn: 23.3 dBi (b)

40 Output Power (dBm) NTT CC InP HEMT InP GaAs GaN Si

Occupied Band Output Power Modulation RF Front-End NF Rx Sensitivity Data Rate

30

20

10

Antenna Antenna Gain 100 150 200 250 Frequency (GHz) 300 350

0 50

Figure 5. Maximum output power of MMW PAs made with semiconductor MMICs.

Figure 6. The compact type 120-GHz-band wireless link: (a) a photograph and (b) specifications.

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The ASK with direct modulation and demodulation is a simple architecture and has a high affinity with 10GbE and the other highspeed data formats.
decrease the interference using cross-polarized MMW waves. Nippon Housou Kyoukai (NHK) reported 1.3-km-long error-free transmission of SHV signals by using three 120-GHz-band wireless links in parallel [35]. When the middle link was set to H-polarization and the other two links to V-polarization and FEC technologies were introduced, error-free transmission was achieved even when two of the three links were right next to each other and the other link was set 8 m from them.

(QPSK) is a promising modulation scheme that has double the spectral efficiency of ASK. It lets us use the 120-GHz-band 10-Gb/s wireless link with less occupied bandwidth. Though QPSK modulator and demodulator MMICs are more susceptible to phase error than ASK, the accuracy of the circuit design seems to be high enough to integrate them with other circuit blocks.

MMIC Architecture
Two system requirements for a 120-GHz-band QPSK wireless link are an ability to handle 10-Gb/s data and a transmission performance that ensures a BER of less than 10 10 at a very low received power close to the theoretical limit. Another important requirement is a simple system architecture. The ASK with direct modulation and demodulation is a simple architecture and has a high affinity with 10GbE and the other high-speed data formats. We were therefore able to design the ASK modulator or demodulator into a MMIC with other circuits on one chip and integrate a very simple wireless system. This integration creates big cost advantages in such a broadband wireless system. For QPSK, we first selected the architecture of the modulator and demodulator MMICs. One way to simplify the MMICs is to employ a direct modulation and demodulation scheme, because it doesnt have intermediate frequency (IF) circuits. However, it requires accurate design of MMICs in the MMW region. In addition, the demodulator MMIC employs differentially coherent detection, which doesnt need carrier recovery circuits. Theoretically, differentially coherent detection has lower sensitivity than coherent detection, but the degradation is small for our wireless link as described below.

InP HEMT MMICs for 120-GHz Wireless Link QPSK Modulation


As explained above, 120-GHz-band wireless links have been developed to achieve wideband operation over 10 Gb/s in long-distance data communication. Not only ASK but also binary phase shift keying (BPSK) transceiver MMICs have been already reported for a 120-GHz-band 10-Gb/s wireless link [36] to improve the link margin. One other important specification for wireless systems is spectral efficiency. The 120-GHz wireless link employs an ASK modulation scheme, which is the simplest architecture but has poor spectral efficiency due to binary modulation. quadrature phase shift keying

Q Distribution Amplifiers RSSI

Doubler LO Amplifier BB Amplifier RF RF

Phase Shifter

IQ Mixers

I Q

Couplers

GC Amplifier Delay Line

(a)

(b)

Figure 7. Photographs of QPSK modulator and demodulator MMICs. (a) QPSK modulator MMIC and (b) QPSK demodulator MMIC.

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The theoretical BERs for PSK with coherent detection and differentially coherent detection are given as follows: 1 erfc c E b m Coherent N0 2 1 exp c - E b m Differentially coherent, N0 2

(1)

A 120-GHz-band 10-Gb/s wireless link using an InP-HEMT-based MMIC is suitable for last-mile access of 10GbE, live-relay transmission for 4K cinema, and multiplexed HD videos.
an on-off switch according to the data signals. When the level of the data signal is high, an RF signal fed into the GC amplifier is amplified by 10 dB; when the level is low, the RF signal is attenuated by over 20 dB, resulting in a 30 dB on-off ratio. The Wilkinson combiner combines the output signals of the GC amplifiers. When in phase, quadrature phase (I, Q) is (1, 1), the GC amplifiers at the I channel amplify the 0 signal and the GC amplifiers at the Q channel amplify the 90 signal. The phase of the combined RF signals therefore becomes 45. The equivalent circuit of the GC amplifier is shown in Figure 9. The GC amplifier has three stages. To avoid impedance mismatch between the rat-race circuit and the input port of the amplifier, the first stage doesnt have the switching function. In the second and third stages, the gain is changed according to the level of the input data. Figure 10 shows a block diagram of a QPSK demodulator MMIC with differentially coherent detection. The received signal is split into two. One part is delayed by the duration of the 5-Gb/s data symbol. The other part goes through a variable phase shifter. After that, each signal is split again, and the four signals are fed into gate mixers. The main issues in making the MMIC are the design of the one-symbol delay circuit and control of the phase relationship between the two split signals. First, we designed the delay line for the one-symbol delay circuit. A delay line made of a transmission line provides accurate delay time, but it has the drawback of being very long. The

where Eb and N0 are bit energy and noise power spectral density, and erfc(x) is a complementary error function. As shown in (1), the difference in BER performance between coherent and differentially coherent detection is small in the high Eb/N0 region. The required Eb/N0 for coherent detection at a BER of 10 10 is only about 0.5 dB smaller than that for differentially coherent detection. That means that the sensitivity degradation with differentially coherent detection is not a big penalty at our target BER of 10 10.

MMICs
Figure 7 shows photographs of modern QPSK modulator and demodulator MMICs fabricated with 0.1-n mgate InP HEMTs [37]. We succeeded in fabricating a one-chip QPSK modulator and a one-chip demodulator. The chip size of each MMIC is 2 mm # 2 mm. The modulator and demodulator consume 850 and 650mW, respectively. For the modulator MMIC, we chose a simple architecture consisting of 90 and 180 hybrid couplers and switches and combiners as shown Figure 8. The total fundamental loss for the hybrid couplers combiners is 9 dB. To compensate for that, we designed a gaincontrol (GC) amplifier as an on-off switch. An input local oscillator (LO) signal of 64 GHz is multiplied to the carrier frequency of 128 GHz by a double circuit. The carrier is amplified by an amplifier and input to a direct modulator. In the modulator, the 90 and 180 hybrid couplers divide the carrier to four signals, which are quadrature phases. The GC amplifier acts as

I Ch. 5 Gb/s 0 0/180 180 Doubler 0/90 90 LO 64 GHz 0/180 270 GC Amp. GC Amp. GC Amp. GC Amp.

Wilkinson Combiner

RF 128 GHz

Q Ch. 5 Gb/s

Figure 8. Block diagram of the 120-GHz-band QPSK modulator.

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In the future, we hope to implement QPSK modules in the 120-GHz-band wireless link equipment.

Data

In

Out Drain

signals prior to mixing. The variable phase shifter consists of CPWs and cold-FETs, which are HEMTs. Figure 11 shows the equivalent circuit of the variable phase shifter. This circuit can adjust the electrical length continuously by changing the values of parasitic capacitances of the HEMTs. Thus, we can tune the phase of the output signal by means of applied voltage. The designed tuning range of this circuit is over 180 at 125 GHz, which makes it possible to respond to any phase error caused by processvoltage-temperature (PVT) variations.

QPSK Modules and BER Performance


Figure 12 shows QPSK modulator and demodulator modules using the QPSK MMICs described in the previous section. Thanks to the one-chip integration of the modulator and demodulator MMICs, we can obtain compact QSPK modules: The size is only 20mm 8 mm 25 mm, and the weight is 35 g. The package has three coaxial ports and a WR-8 waveguide for the interface of the RF signal in the 120-GHz band. Rectangular waveguide to CPW transitions were needed to transfer the RF energy from the CPW to the WR-8 waveguide and vice versa. To make the transitions, a coupler fabricated on a quartz substrate was employed. The modulator module has a quadrupler MMIC besides the modulator MMIC. The quadrature MMIC multiplies the LO freRSSI quency of 1664 GHz and provides it to the modulator MMIC. This enabled us to decrease the required LO I Ch. 5 Gb/s frequency and use a commercially available phase-locked oscillator for the LO. Q Ch. Figure 13 shows a photo5 Gb/s graph of the measurement Gate system and measured BER Mixer characteristics for the I and Q channels. The modulator and the demodulator were connected through a waveguide variable attenuator. We put an LNA [27] in front of the demodulator module to measure the minimum received power. The MMIC in the LNA Matching module was the same as the Networks one in the wireless link using ASK, and the noise figure and gain were 5.6 and 19.8dB, Out respectively [30]. In addition, we put limiting amplifiers (LIMs) for the baseband signals after the demodulator module to ensure that the

Figure 9. Equivalent circuit of the GC amplifier.

required length for 200 ps is about 25 mm at 128 GHz if a delay line consists of only a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with w/s = 15 n m/15 n m on InP substrate. To reduce the length, we made the delay line by alternating metal-insulator-metal (MIM) shunt capacitors and CPWs. The length of the designed delay line is 10 mm, and the insertion loss is 18 dB in simulation. Next, we designed a variable phase shifter to adjust the phase relation between the received and delayed

Distribution Amplifier Variable Phase Shifter RF 128 GHz 200-ps Delay Line 90

Figure 10. Block diagram of QPSK demodulator MMIC.

In

Matching Networks

Vphase

Figure 11. Equivalent circuit of the variable phase shifter.

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I Ch.

LO in (16 GHz) Q Ch. dc Pins I Ch.

ASK exhibited a BER of 10 10 at the received power of 38 dBm in a back-to-back test [31]. If we simply compare the values, using the same antennas and a PA as in the current link, we can achieve a 10-Gb/s QPSK wireless link with a transmission distance of 2 km.

Conclusion
A 120-GHz-band 10-Gb/s wireless link using an InPHEMT-based MMIC was introduced. This link is suitable for last-mile access of 10GbE, live-relay transmission for 4K cinema, and multiplexed HD videos. The transmitter and receiver MMICs were developed to extend the link distance while maintaining the capacity of 10 Gb/s. The 120-GHz wireless link using the MMICs successfully demonstrated wireless transmission of 10GbE over the link distance of over 5 km. We also designed QPSK modulator and demodulator MMICs to improve the spectral efficiency of the wireless link. Fabricated QPSK MMICs and modules performed 10-Gb/s transmission with the BER of 1010 at the received power of 38.5 dBm. In the future, we hope to implement QPSK modules in the 120-GHz-band wireless link equipment. We would also like to advance the QPSK modulator and demodulator MMICs and modules to handle bit rates of up to 20 Gb/s.

Q Ch.

WR-8 Waveguide

RSSI Demodulator

Modulator

Figure 12. Photographs of 120-GHz-band 10-Gb/s QPSK modulator and demodulator modules.

Modulator

Demodulator

LNA Module Data from PPGs Waveguide Type Variable ATT. (a) 10
3

To LIMs and EDs

References
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104 Bit Error Rate 105 106 107 108 1010 46

I Ch: 5 Gb/s Q Ch: 5 Gb/s

44 42 40 38 Received Power (dBm) (b)

36

Figure 13. Photograph of measurement system and BER characteristics.

error detectors (EDs) received sufficient power. Differentially coherent detection of 10-Gb/s QPSK needs 5-Gb/s differentially encoded data for each I and Q channel. Encoded PRBS 27-1 data was generated and input into the I and Q ports of the modulator from pulse pattern generators (PPGs). The BERs of the I channel and Q channel were smaller than 10 10 at 38.5-dBm input power for the LNA. In the current link, the transmitter and receiver modules using

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