Anda di halaman 1dari 161

# Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) NC. 9.1 Applies the scientific method to solve problems. NC.9.1.1 Uses different methods to solve problems and test the students hypothesis. NC.9.1.2 Uses quantitative measures as a criteria to group or classify objects. NC.9.1.3 Formulates and explains inferences using information from tables or graphs. NC.9.1.4 Uses the process of inquiry and mathematical thought to solve problems. Expectativas del Grado 9 NC.9.1 Aplica la metodologa cientfica para la solucin de problemas. NC.9.1.1 Utiliza diferentes mtodos para la solucin de problemas y someter a prueba su hiptesis. NC.9.1.2 Utiliza medidas cuantitativas como un criterio para agrupar o clasificar objetos. NC.9.1.3 Formula y explica inferencias utilizando la informacin de tablas o grficas. NC.9.1.4 Utiliza el proceso de inquirir y el pensamiento matemtico en la solucin de problemas. x Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 x x x Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

NC.9.1.5 Analyzes how scientific thought is founded NC.9.1.5 Analiza cmo el pensamiento cientfico se upon communicating findings in oral and written form. fundamenta en comunicar los hallazgos en forma oral y escrita. NC.9.1.6 Makes decisions, accepts, respects and NC.9.1.6 Toma decisiones, acepta, respeta y reconoce recognizes the work of others. los trabajos e ideas de otros. NC.9.1.7 Describes the integration of the different NC.9.1.7 Describe la integracin de las diferentes branches of science in the study of earth science. ramas de la ciencia en el estudio de las ciencias terrestres. NC.9.2. Uses measurement instruments to obtain NC.9.2 Utiliza instrumentos de medicin para obtener information and express it in different units of informacin y la expresa measurement. en diferentes unidades de medida. NC.9.2.1 Correctly expresses measurements and units NC.9.2.1 Expresa correctamente medidas y unidades using the International System of measurement. utilizando el Sistema Internacional de medidas. NC.9.2.2 Performs conversions from different scales of NC.9.2.2 Realiza conversiones de diferentes escalas de temperature (C, F). temperatura (C, F).

x x x

x x

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) NC.9.3 Uses technological tools in the search for information in order to solve problems and scientific research. NC.9.3.1 Uses resources from the internet, books, videos, and others to search for information. NC.9.3.2 Uses laboratory tools and instruments like the microscope, magnifying glasses, balances, and others in order to collect data. NC.9.3.3 Analyzes how technology used by scientists has helped in the comprehension of the geological history of the Earth. NC.9.4 Evaluates the impact of technological development on science and the economy on quality of life. NC.9.4.1 Establishes the relationship between science, technology and society. NC.9.4.2 Identifies situations in which the applications of science and technology have impacted the economy and quality of life such as exploration of space, the robot and oceanography. Expectativas del Grado 9 NC.9.3 Utiliza herramientas tecnolgicas para la bsqueda de informacin en la solucin de problemas e investigaciones cientficas. NC.9.3.1 Utiliza recursos de Internet, libros, videos y otros para la bsqueda de informacin. NC.9.3.2 Utiliza herramientas e instrumentos de laboratorio como el microscopio, las lupas, las balanzas y otros para recopilacin de datos. NC.9.3.3 Analiza cmo la tecnologa utilizada por los cientficos ha ayudado a comprender la historia geolgica de la Tierra. NC.9.4 Evala el impacto del desarrollo tecnolgico en la ciencia y la economa sobre la calidad de vida. NC.9.4.1 Establece la relacin ente la ciencia, la tecnologa y la sociedad. NC.9.4.2 Identifica situaciones en las que las aplicaciones de la ciencia y la tecnologa han impactado la economa y la calidad de vida como la exploracin espacial, la robtica y la oceanografa. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 x Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

x x

NC.9.4.3 Argues and shares opinions on the impact of NC.9.4.3 Argumenta y asume posiciones sobre el technology on peoples lives and society in general. impacto de la tecnologa sobre la vida de las personas y la sociedad en general.

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) EM.9.1 Describes important characteristics of the surface of the Earth. EM.9.1.1 Identifies the layers of the Earth according to their chemical composition and physical properties. EM.9.1.2 Describes a tectonic plate EM.9.1.3 Identifies the principles of plate tectonics on this planet. EM.9.1.4 Analyzes the fundamentals of continental drift and discusses the impact on the Earth. Expectativas del Grado 9 EM.9.1 Describe caractersticas importantes de la superficie de la Tierra. EM.9.1.1 Identifica las capas de la Tierra segn su composicin qumica y propiedades fsicas. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 x x x x x Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

EM.9.1.2 Describe una placa tectnica. EM.9.1.3 Identifica las principales placas tectnicas del planeta. EM.9.1.4 Analiza los fundamentos de la deriva continental y argumenta sobre su impacto en el planeta Tierra. EM.9.2 Determines the importance of minerals for the EM.9.2 Determina la importancia de los minerales economy and as a natural resource. para la economa y como recurso natural. EM.9.2.1. Recognizes that minerals have chemical and physical properties and describes the structure of minerals. EM.9.2.2. Identifies various ways to determine the identity of minerals. EM.9.2.3 Identifies common minerals in Puerto Rico by their chemical and physical properties EM.9.2.4. Indicates ways to reduce the effects of miner exploitation. EM.9.2.5 Identifies the uses of minerals. EM.9.3 Describes the different types of rocks according to structure, texture, and composition. EM.9.2.1 Reconoce que los minerales tienen propiedades qumicas y fsicas y describe la estructura de los minerales. EM.9.2.2 Identifica algunas maneras de determinar la identidad de los minerales. EM.9.2.3 Identifica minerales comunes en Puerto Rico mediante las propiedades qumicas y fsicas. EM.9.2.4 Indica formas de reducir los efectos de la explotacin minera. EM.9.2.5 Identifica los usos de los minerales. EM.9.3 Describe los diferentes tipos de rocas segn su estructura, textura y su composicin.

x x x x x x

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) EM.9.3.1 Compares and contrasts the three types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. EM.9.3.2 Classifies rocks by their chemical and physical properties. EM.9.4 Recognizes that the flow of water on the surface of the Earth and underground is the process that most significantly affected the shape of the land. EM.9.4.1. Explains the process of the water cycle. EM.9.4.2. Describes the process of the formation of rivers, valleys, and streams among others. EM.9.4.3 Describes and explains how the deposit of sediment affects the land. EM.9.4.4 Explains how caves and depressions are the result of erosion and sediment deposit. EM.9.4.5 Defines the term aquifer. EM.9.4.6 Identifies forms of wter contamination on the surface and underground. Expectativas del Grado 9 EM.9.3.1 Compara y contrasta los tres tipos de rocas: sedimentarias, gneas y metamrficas. EM.9.3.2 Clasifica las rocas por sus propiedades qumicas y fsicas. EM.9.4 Reconoce que el flujo de agua en la superficie y debajo de la Tierra es el proceso que ms influye en dar forma al paisaje. EM.9.4.1 Explica el proceso del ciclo del agua. EM.9.4.2 Describe el proceso de formacin de los ros, cuencas y arroyos entre otros. EM.9.4.3 Describe y explica cmo afecta a la tierra la deposicin de sedimentos. EM.9.4.4 Explica cmo se forman cuevas y depresiones como resultado de la erosin y la deposicin. EM.9.4.5 Define el trmino acufero. EM.9.4.6 Identifica formas de contaminacin del agua superficial y subterrnea. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 x x x x x x x x x Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

EM.9.5 Recognizes that the atmosphere of the earth is EM.9.5 Reconoce que la atmsfera de la Tierra es una a mixture of gases that distribute heat and make it mezcla de gases que distribuye el calor y hace posible possible to live life on Earth. la vida en la Tierra. EM.9.5.1 Describes the layers of the atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere. EM.9.5.1 Describe las capas de la atmsfera: troposfera, estratosfera, mesosfera, termosfera.

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) EM.9.5.2 Describes the composition of the terrestrial atmosphere. EM.9.5.3 Explains how the air temperature changes according to atmospheric composition. EM.9.5.4 Explains the relationship between the greenhouse effect and global warming. EM.9.5.5 Identifies the principal sources of air pollution, their effects on organisms, and ways to reduce this pollution. EM.9.5.6 Explains the effects of the hole in the ozone. Expectativas del Grado 9 EM.9.5.2 Describe la composicin de la atmsfera terrestre. EM.9.5.3 Explica cmo cambia la temperatura del aire segn la composicin atmosfrica. EM.9.5.4 Explica la relacin entre el efecto invernadero y el calentamiento global. EM.9.5.5 Identifica las principales fuentes de contaminacin del aire y sus efectos en los organismos y maneras de reducirla. EM.9.5.6 Explica los efectos del agujero en la capa de ozono. EM.9.6 Analyzes the geological events that gave rise to EM.9.6 Analiza los eventos geolgicos que dieron Puerto Rico. origen a Puerto Rico. EM.9.6.1 Describes the geological processes that gave EM.9.6.1 Describe los procesos geolgicos que dieron rise to the formation and geographic structure of origen a la formacin y estructura geogrfica de Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico. EM.9.6.2 Describes geological history, the Caribbean EM.9.6.2 Describe la historia geolgica, placa del tectonic plate, geological age, geological risks, Caribe, edad geolgica, rasgos geolgicos, provincias GEOMORPHIC (geomrifcas) provinces, geological geomrficas, provincias geolgicas y sismos. provinces and earth tremors. EM.9.6.3 Identifies the geological risks of Puerto Rico. EM.9.6.3 Identifica los rasgos geolgicos de Puerto Rico. EM.9.7 Understands that the oceans cover the EM.9.7 Comprende que los ocanos cubren la mayor largestpart of the Earths surface and contain natural parte de la superficie de la Tierra y contienen recursos resources that need to be protected. naturales que necesitan proteccin. EM.9.7.1 Recognizes that oceans cover 71% of the Earths surface. EM.9.7.1 Reconoce que los ocanos cubren el 71% de la superficie terrestre. Unit 1 x x x

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

x x x x

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) EM.9.7.2 Describes the formation of the oceans of the Earth. EM.9.7.3 Identifies the principal regions of the bottom of the ocean. EM.9.7.4 Describes the technologies that are used to study the bottom of the ocean. EM.9.7.5 Mentions the two ways of obtaining living resources from the ocean. EM.9.7.6 Describes the modern way to control the pollution of the ocean. SM.9.1 Recognizes that the planet Earth is a system composed of subsystems. SM.9.1.1 Identifies the different subsystems that compose the Earths system as biomes, ecosystems, populations, communities and others. SM.9.1.2 Infers that the equilibrium of the planet depends on the equilibrium of its subsystems. SM.9.1.3 Compares and contrasts life and climactic zones on the planet Earth. SM.9.1.4 Values the importance of protecting, conserving, and maintaining the equilibrium of the zones of life of Puerto Rico and the entire planet. Expectativas del Grado 9 EM.9.7.2 Describe la formacin de los ocanos de la Tierra. EM.9.7.3 Identifica las principales regiones del fondo del ocano. EM.9.7.4 Describe las tecnologas que se usan para estudiar el fondo del ocano. EM.9.7.5 Menciona dos maneras de obtener los recursos vivientes del ocano. EM.9.7.6 Describe qu se hace actualmente para controlar la contaminacin del ocano. SM.9.1 Reconoce que el planeta Tierra es un sistema compuesto de subsistemas. SM.9.1.1 Identifica los diferentes subsistemas que componen el sistema Tierra como biomas, ecosistemas, poblaciones, comunidades y otros. SM.9.1.2 Infiere que el equilibrio del planeta depende del equilibrio de los subsistemas. SM.9.1.3 Compara y contrasta las zonas de vida y climticas en el planeta Tierra. SM.9.1.4 Valora la importancia de proteger, conservar y mantener en equilibrio las zonas de vida de Puerto Rico y de todo el planeta. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 x x x x x x

Astronomy Unit 6

x x

SM.9.1.5 Recognizes how models, although they have SM.9.1.5 Reconoce cmo los modelos, an con limitations, allow us to study the systems. limitaciones, permiten estudiar los sistemas.

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) SM.9.1.6 Describes different systems such as: solar system, meotorological system, Earth-Moon relationship, and others. SM.9.1.7 Compares and contrasts the characteristics between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. SM.9.2 Recognizes that physical models, concepts, and mathematics help us comprehend the world that surrounds us. SM.9.2.1 Constructs different types of models such as: volcanos, tectonic plate movement, layers of the Earth, rock cycles, seismic refraction and reflection, solar system, and others. SM.9.2.2 Discusses how conceptual models serve us by explaining theories and hypotheses such as: the origin of the solar system, continental drift, the interior of the Earth, and more. Expectativas del Grado 9 Unit 1 SM.9.1.6 Describe diferentes sistemas como: sistema x solar, sistemas meteorolgicos, relacin TierraLuna, y (Meteorological otros. system) SM.9.1.7 Compara y contrasta las caractersticas entre un eclipse solar y uno lunar. SM.9.2 Reconoce que los modelos fsicos, conceptuales y matemticos ayudan a comprender el mundo que nos rodea. SM.9.2.1 Construye diferentes tipos de modelos tales como: volcanes, movimientos de las placas tectnicas, capas de la Tierra, ciclo de las rocas, refraccin y reflexin ssmica, sistema solar y otros. SM.9.2.2 Discute cmo los modelos conceptuales nos sirven para explicar teoras e hiptesis como: el origen del sistema solar, la deriva continental, el interior de la Tierra y otros.

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

## x (tectonic plate movement)

x (Rock cycles)

x (solar systems)

SM.9.2.3 Uses mathematic models as a tool to explain SM.9.2.3 Utiliza los modelos matemticos como the physical phenomena of the universe. herramientas para explicar los fenmenos fsicos del universo. SM.9.2.4 Uses models to make inferences and SM.9.2.4 Utiliza los modelos para hacer inferencias y predictions about the physical processes and predicciones sobre los procesos y fenmenos fsicos phenomena of the world such as: climate, gravity, como: clima, gravedad, densidad, terremotos y otros. density, earthquakes and more.

x (Climate)

x (Earthquakes)

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 x x x Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

x x x x

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) E.9.1.1 Explains the principal sources of energy such as: solar, geothermic, tidal, ocean termal, wind, fossil fuels, nuclear and others. E.9.1.2 Compares renewable resources with nonrenewable resources. E.9.1.3 Proposes alternatives in which human beings can conserve and utilize energy resources. Expectativas del Grado 9 E.9.1.1 Explica las fuentes principales de energa tales como: solar, geotrmica, de las mareas, ocano trmica, elica, combustibles fsiles, nuclear y otras. E.9.1.2 Compara los recursos renovables con los recursos no renovables. E.9.1.3 Propone alternativas en que los seres humanos pueden conservar y utilizar los recursos energticos. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 x

Astronomy Unit 6

x x

E.9.1.4 Compares and contrasts the different sources E.9.1.4 Compara y contrasta las diferentes fuentes de of energy in terms of quantity, distribution, utility and energa en trminos de cantidad, distribucin, utilidad formation time. y tiempo de formacin. E.9.2 Recognizes that energy resources are useful for producing energy. E.9.2.1 Describes what energy resources are. E.9.2 Reconoce que los recursos energticos son tiles para producir energa. E.9.2.1 Describe qu son los recursos energticos.

x x x x x x

E.9.2.2 Describes alternatives to the use of fossil fuels E.9.2.2 Describe alternativas al uso de combustibles in energy production. fsiles en la produccin de energa. E.9.2.3 Compares the advantages and disadvantages of the use of fossil fuels. E.9.2.4 Relates the use of fossil fuels with energy production and global warming. E.9.3 Analyzes the flow of energy in natural phenomena such as: tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, earthquakes and more. E.9.3.1 Describes the different natural phenomena. E.9.2.3 Compara las ventajas y desventajas del uso de los combustibles fsiles. E.9.2.4 Relaciona el uso de los combustibles fsiles para producir energa y el calentamiento global del planeta. E.9.3 Analiza el flujo de energa en los fenmenos naturales tales como tornados, huracanes, tormentas elctricas, terremotos y otros. E.9.3.1 Describe los diferentes fenmenos naturales.

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) E.9.3.2 Recognizes that in natural phenomena there is an energy flow. E.9.3.3 Recognizes that energy in natural phenomena can be transformed from one form to another, but the energy remains. Expectativas del Grado 9 E.9.3.2 Reconoce que en los fenmenos naturales existe un flujo de energa. E.9.3.3 Reconoce que la energa en los fenmenos naturales se puede transformar de una forma a otra, pero la energa total se conserva. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 x Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

I.9.1 Explains the action of earthquakes on the earths I.9.1 Explica la accin de los terremotos en la corteza crust. terrestre. I.9.1.1 Identifies characteristics of earthquakes. I.9.1.1 Identifica caractersticas de los terremotos. I.9.1.2 Identifies the origin, location, and how to detect earthquakes. I.9.1.3 Explains the causes and effects of earthquakes on the earths crust. I.9.1.4 Describes the types of earth tremors. I.9.1.5 Explains where earthquakes are produced. I.9.1.6 Recognizes the work of the seismic network of Puerto Rico and identifies governmental municipal agencies that intervene when contingency plans for these phenomena are needed. I.9.2 Describes the effects of volcanic action on the earths crust. I.9.2.1 Identifies the characteristics of a volcano. I.9.1.2 Identifica el origen, localizacin y cmo se detectan los terremotos. I.9.1.3 Explica la causa y los efectos de los terremotos en la corteza terrestre. I.9.1.4 Describe los tipos de sismos. I.9.1.5 Explica dnde se producen los terremotos. I.9.1.6 Reconoce el trabajo de la Red Ssmica de Puerto Rico e identifica agencias municipales y gubernamentales que intervienen en los planes de contingencia de estos fenmenos. I.9.2 Describe la accin de los efectos de los volcanes en la corteza terrestre. I.9.2.1 Identifica las caractersticas de un volcn.

x x x x x x

x x

10

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) I.9.2.2 Recognizes that volcanoes are sites where molten rock came up through the earths surface and can affect geographic accidents. Expectativas del Grado 9 I.9.2.2 Reconoce que los volcanes son sitios donde la roca fundida llega hasta la superficie y puede afectar a accidentes geogrficos. I.9.2.3 Explains how volcanic eruptions can affect the I.9.2.3 Explica cmo las erupciones volcnicas pueden climate. afectar al clima. I.9.2.4 Explains the relationship between volcanoes I.9.2.4 Explica la relacin entre los volcanes y las placas and tectonic plates. tectnicas. I.9.3 Explains that the climate is a result of the I.9.3 Explica que el clima es el resultado de interactions between different factors. interacciones de diferentes factores. I.9.3.1 Identifies the relationship between pressure, I.9.3.1 Identifica las relaciones entre presin, calor, heat, air movement, and humidity on climate patterns. movimiento del aire y humedad en los patrones del clima. I.9.3.2 Describes the way in which temperature is I.9.3.2 Describe la manera en que la temperatura es affected by the different levels of water vapor and afectada por los niveles de vapor de agua y la relative humidity. humedad relativa. I.9.3.3 Compares and contrasts the types of clouds. I.9.3.3 Compara y contrasta los tipos de nubes. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 x Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

x x x x

x x x x

I.9.3.4 Identifies types of precipitation. I.9.3.4 Identifica tipos de precipitaciones. I.9.3.5 Identifies different types of air mass that affect I.9.3.5 Identifica diferentes tipos de masas de aire que the weather in each area of the planet. afectan al tiempo en algn lugar del planeta. I.9.4 Recognizes that there is a harmonious interaction I.9.4 Reconoce que existe una interaccin armoniosa between the components of the solar system. entre los componentes del Sistema Solar. I.9.4.1 Explains how the solar system was formed. I.9.4.2 Identifies the forces that interact among the components of the solar system. I.9.4.1 Explica cmo se form el Sistema Solar.

x I.9.4.2 Identifica las fuerzas que interactan entre los componentes del Sistema Solar. x

11

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) I.9.4.3 Explains the relationship between the Earth, the sun and the moon to the formation of the seas. I.9.4.4 Explains that cosmic impacts can affect life on Earth. I.9.4.5 Analyzes how technology has helped with space exploration. C.9.1 Relates weathering with the continual process of production, formation of soil and the development of geographic accidents. C.9.1.1 Defines weathering operationally. C.9.1.2 Describes how ice, water, wind, gravity, plants and animals cause mechanical breakdown. Expectativas del Grado 9 I.9.4.3 Explica la relacin de la Tierra, el Sol y la Luna con la formacin de las mareas. I.9.4.4 Explica de qu forma los impactos csmicos pueden afectar la vida en la Tierra. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 x

Astronomy Unit 6

x x x x x

I.9.4.5 Analiza cmo la tecnologa ha ayudado en la exploracin espacial. C.9.1 Relaciona la meteorizacin con el proceso continuo de produccin, formacin del suelo y el desarrollo de accidentes geogrficos. C.9.1.1 Define operacionalmente meteorizacin. C.9.1.2 Describe cmo el hielo, el agua, el viento, la gravedad, las plantas y los animales causan desgaste mecnico. C.9.1.3 Describes how water, acid, air and C.9.1.3 Describe cmo el agua, los cidos, el aire y la temperature cause chemical, physical and biological temperatura causan el desgaste qumico, fsico y weathering in rocks. biolgico de las rocas. C.9.1.4 Describes the origin of soil C.9.1.4 Describe el origen del suelo. C.9.1.5 Explains how different properties of soil affect C.9.1.5 Explica cmo las distintas propiedades del the growth of plants. suelo afectan al crecimiento de las plantas. C.9.1.6 Describes how different climates affect the C.9.1.6 Describe cmo los diversos climas afectan al ground. suelo. C.9.1.7 Describes the important benefits of soil. C.9.1.7 Describe beneficios importantes del suelo. C.9.1.8 Argues how human activity and industrialization cause weathering. C.9.2 Recognizes that the Earth's surface changes shape. C.9.1.8 Argumenta cmo la actividad humana y la industrializacin causan meteorizacin. C.9.2 Expone que la superficie de la Tierra cambia de forma.

x x x x x x x

12

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) C.9.2.1 Identifies factors that cause changes on the surface of the Earth such as: erosion of rocks and soil and the transport and deposit of sediments. C.9.2.2 Identifies coastal characteristics created by erosion from waves. C.9.2.3 Explains why wind erosion affects some areas more than others. C.9.2.4 Explains how dunes are displaced. C.9.2.5 Explains the role of gravity as an agent of erosion and deposit. C.9.3 Recognizes that physical factors cause the movement of water in the oceans. C.9.3.1 Relates the causes of movement of water in the oceans with differences of density and temperature, wind, gravity and the moon. C.9.3.2 Describes surface currents. C.9.3.3 Identifies factors that form deep currents. Expectativas del Grado 9 C.9.2.1 Identifica los factores que causan cambios en la superficie de la Tierra como: la erosin de las rocas y el suelo y el transporte y deposicin de sedimentos. C.9.2.2 Identifica caractersticas costeras creadas por la erosin de las olas. C.9.2.3 Explica por qu la erosin elica afecta ms a algunas reas que a otras. C.9.2.4 Explica cmo se desplazan las dunas. C.9.2.5 Explica el papel de la gravedad como agente de erosin y deposicin. C.9.3 Reconoce qu factores fsicos causan el movimiento del agua en los ocanos. C.9.3.1 Relaciona las causas del movimiento del agua en los ocanos con las diferencias de densidad y temperatura, el viento, la gravedad y la Luna. C.9.3.2 Describe las corrientes superficiales. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 x Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

x x x x x

x x x x x x

C.9.3.3 Identifica factores que forman las corrientes profundas. C.9.3.4 Explains how currents influence climate. C.9.3.4 Explica cmo influyen las corrientes en el clima. C.9.3.5 Describes the causes and effects of El Nio C.9.3.5 Describe las causas y efectos de El Nio y La and La Nia. Nia. C.9.3.6 Explains the oceans and their relationship to C.9.3.6 Explica las mareas y su relacin con la Tierra, el the Earth, the sun and the moon. Sol y la Luna. C.9.4 Recognizes that the rock formation cycle C.9.4 Reconoce que el ciclo de formacin de las rocas describes continuous changes that occur in the interior describe cambios continuos que ocurren en el interior and on the surface of the Earth. y en la superficie de la Tierra.

13

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Grade 9

Meteorology Grade 9 Expectations (English) C.9.4.1 Describes how each type of rock transforms into another when it passes through the rock cycle. C.9.4.2 Compares and contrasts the different types of rocks. C.9.4.3 Classifies the types of rocks by their chemical and physical properties and composition. C.9.5 Relates the importance of conservation of natural resources and equilibrium to nature and progress. C.9.5.1 Defines operationally the term conservation. Expectativas del Grado 9 C.9.4.1 Describe cmo cada tipo de roca se transforma en otro a medida que pasa por el ciclo de las rocas. C.9.4.2 Compara y contrasta los diferentes tipos de rocas. C.9.4.3 Clasifica los tipos de rocas por sus propiedades y composicin qumica y fsica. C.9.5 Relaciona la importancia de la conservacin de los recursos naturales y el equilibrio entre naturaleza y el progreso. Unit 1

Geology and geologic Rocks, minerals, Earths features of Puerto weathering and conservation Rico erosion and resources Oceanography Unit 2 Unit 3 x x x Unit 4 Unit 5

Astronomy Unit 6

x x x x x

C.9.5.1 Define operacionalmente el trmino conservacin. C.9.5.2 Values the importance of conserving natural C.9.5.2 Valora la importancia de conservar los recursos resources. naturales. C.9.5.3 Adopts a lifestyle for sustainable development. C.9.5.3 Adopta un estilo de vida para el desarrollo sustentable. C.9.6 Recognizes that interactions on the surface of C.9.6 Reconoce que las interacciones en la superficie the Earth can be observed on a small or geological de la Tierra pueden observarse a corto o en escalas scale. geolgicas. C.9.6.1 Identifies the scales of geological time. C.9.6.1 Identifica las escalas de tiempo geolgicas. C.9.6.2 Identifies dates and important events on the scale of geological time. C.9.6.3 Describes how environmental changes contributed to the extinction of certain species. C.9.6.2 Identifica fechas y sucesos importantes en la escala de tiempo geolgico. C.9.6.3 Describe cmo los cambios ambientales provocaron la extincin de algunas especies.

x x x

14

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) NC.B.1 Uses the scientific concepts, principles and the scientific method in the students research to answer questions about life science. NC.B.1.1 Identifies honesty, objectivity and the absence of prejudices as necessary values for executing scientific investigations adequately.

Expectativas de biologia NC.B.1 Utiliza los conceptos, principios y metodologa cientfica en la investigacin para contestar preguntas sobre la ciencia de la vida. NC.B.1.1 Identifica la honestidad, objetividad y ausencia de prejuicios como valores necesarios para llevar a cabo investigaciones cientficas de un modo adecuado.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

NC.B.1.2 Participates in discussion groups about issues NC.B.1.2 Participa en grupos de discusin sobre temas and controversies of a scientific nature assuming y controversias de ndole cientfica asumiendo positions and justifying the students arguments. posturas y justificando sus argumentaciones. NC.B.1.3 Demonstrates the value of the contributions of scientists such as: Charles Darwin, James Watson, Carolas Linnaeus and others who developed theories, laws, and principles applicable to biology. NC.B.1.4 Designs and executes scientific research to test hypotheses, interpret results, and draw conclusions. NC.B.1.5 Compiles and analyzes data, identifies relationships between variables, makes inferences and communicates results using scientific writing and appropriate styles of bibliography indexing. NC.B.2 Uses safe practices and protocols in the laboratory and in the research field. NC.B.1.3 Demuestra que valora la aportacin de cientficos tales como Charles Darwin, James Watson, Carolas Linnaeus y otros, al desarrollo de teoras, leyes y principios aplicables a la Biologa. NC.B.1.4 Disea y realiza investigaciones cientficas para someter hiptesis a prueba, interpretar los resultados y llegar a conclusiones. NC.B.1.5 Recopila y analiza datos, identifica relaciones entre variables, plantea inferencias y comunica los resultados utilizando la redaccin cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. NC.B.2 Utiliza prcticas seguras y protocolos de laboratorio en el campo de la investigacin.

15

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) NC.B.2.1 Identifies safety symbols in the laboratory and understands their significance. NC.B.2.2 Demonstrates with actions that the laboratory is a place of serious work and safety. NC.B.2.3 Applies and explains the correct procedure in the use of available scientific apparatus in the laboratory. NC.B.2.4 Applies appropriate laboratory techniques according to the situation. NC.B.2.5 Chooses between various appropriate technological tools to carry out research and studies.

Expectativas de biologia NC.B.2.1 Identifica los smbolos de seguridad en el laboratorio y entiende su significado. NC.B.2.2 Demuestra con acciones que el laboratorio es un lugar de trabajo serio y seguro. NC.B.2.3 Aplica y explica el procedimiento correcto en el uso de los aparatos cientficos disponibles en el laboratorio. NC.B.2.4 Aplica tcnicas de laboratorio apropiadas de acuerdo a la situacin. NC.B.2.5 Escoge entre diversas herramientas tecnolgicas la ms apropiada para llevar a cabo investigaciones y estudios.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

x x x

NC.B.3 Uses mathematics to analyze and establish NC.B.3 Utiliza las matemticas para analizar y relationships between variables, communicate results establecer relaciones entre variables, comunicar of various studies and resolve problems. resultados de diversos estudios y resolver problemas. NC.B.3.1 Organizes data using graphs, tables and diagrams during the research and experimentation processes. NC.B.3.2 Uses units of the International System of Measurement to express measurements of parameter studies in experiments and research. NC.B.3.3 Expresses data obtained in experiments and research with accuracy and precision. NC.B.3.1 Organiza datos utilizando grficas, tablas y diagramas durante los procesos de investigacin y experimentacin. NC.B.3.2 Utiliza unidades del Sistema Internacional de Medidas para expresar medidas de parmetros estudiados en experimentos e investigaciones. NC.B.3.3 Expresa los datos obtenidos en experimentos e investigaciones con exactitud y precisin.

16

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) NC.B.3.4 Relates science and technology and the impact that they have on our society. NC.B.4 Recognizes that the scientific attitude influences society, economy, and technology. NC.B.4.1 Applies new scientific advances and emerging technology in a critical manner to solve problems and make decisions in areas such as work, study and interpersonal relationships.

Expectativas de biologia NC.B.3.4 Argumenta sobre cmo se relacionan la ciencia y la tecnologa y cmo impactan a la sociedad. NC.B.4 Reconoce que la actitud cientfica influye en los aspectos sociales, econmicos y tecnolgicos. NC.B.4.1 Aplica los adelantos cientficos y la tecnologa emergente de manera crtica para la solucin de problemas y toma decisiones en reas tales como trabajo, estudio y relaciones interpersonales.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

NC.B.4.2 Explains the importance of biotechnology NC.B.4.2 Explica la importancia de la biotecnologa y la and genetic engineering in the study of DNA and its ingeniera gentica en el estudio del ADN y su impacto social impact according to ethical and moral principles. social de acuerdo con principios ticos y morales. NC.B.4.3 Explains how genetic engineering is used to NC.B.4.3 Explica cmo la ingeniera gentica es produce new biomedical and agricultural products. utilizada para producir nuevos productos biomdicos y de agricultura. NC.B.4.4 Evaluates the utility of DNA technology and NC.B.4.4 Evala la utilidad de la tecnologa del ADN y its application in forensic science, medicine and su aplicacin en ciencias forenses, medicina y agriculture. agricultura. NC.B.4.5 Analyzes how technology based on DNA such NC.B.4.5 Analiza cmo la tecnologa bsica del ADN tal as electrophoresis and transformation is used to como electroforesis y transformacin es utilizada para produce recombinant DNA molecules. producir molculas de ADN recombinante. NC.B.5 Demonstrates having a scientific and NC.B.5 Demuestra tener un conocimiento cientfico y technological knowledge that prepares the student for tecnolgico que lo capacite en el rea vocacional de a vocational area of preference in order to be preferencia para ser efectivo al seleccionar un empleo. effectively employed.

17

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) NC.B.5.1 Researches viable alternatives and applicable scientific methods to solve problems and real life controversies of a scientific nature in the place the experiment occurred. NC.B.5.2 Establishes connections between what the student studies in the classroom and the students greater understanding of life. NC.B.5.3 Uses scientific knowledge to explain and understand problems that affect humanity and analyzes situations that affect the students daily life.

Expectativas de biologia NC.B.5.1 Investiga alternativas viables y aplica metodologa cientfica para resolver problemas y controversias de la vida real de ndole cientfica en el lugar donde se desempea. NC.B.5.2 Establece conexiones entre lo que estudia en la clase de ciencia y su cosmovisin de la vida.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

NC.B.5.3 Utiliza el conocimiento cientfico para explicar y entender problemas que afectan la humanidad y analizar situaciones que afectan su diario vivir. NC.B.6 Employs technology as a tool in scientific work NC.B.6 Emplea la tecnologa como herramienta en el and explains with examples how this impacts quality of quehacer cientfico y explica con ejemplos cmo sta life. impacta la calidad de vida. NC.B.6.1 Discusses with valid arguments the ethical NC.B.6.1 Discute con argumentos vlidos las and moral implications that recent scientific and implicaciones ticas y morales que tienen los technological advances have in our society. adelantos cientficos y tecnolgicos en la sociedad. NC.B.6.2 Identifies the risks and benefits that scientific, economic, and technological development have on our society. NC.B.6.3 Identifies examples in which the application of science and technology has affected the economy and the quality of life. NC.B.6.4 Organizes and participates in activities that promote respect for life. NC.B.6.2 Identifica los riesgos y beneficios que tiene el desarrollo cientfico, econmico y tecnolgico para la sociedad. NC.B.6.3 Identifica ejemplos en los que las aplicaciones de la ciencia y la tecnologa han afectado la economa y la calidad de vida. NC.B.6.4 Organiza y participa en actividades que promuevan el respeto por la vida.

18

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) EM.B.1 Analyzes how through biogenesis, all organisms begin their vital cycles starting as cells, while in multicell organisms, successive generations of cell embryos produce cellular division.

Expectativas de biologia EM.B.1 Analiza cmo a travs de la biognesis todos los organismos comienzan sus ciclos vitales a partir de clulas, mientras que en los multicelulares, las generaciones sucesivas de clulas embrionarias producen la divisin celular. EM.B.1.1 Reconoce las caractersticas que identifican y distinguen a organismos vivos y no vivos. EM.B.1.2 Explica el origen y las aplicaciones de la teora celular. EM.B.2 Utiliza conceptos bsicos de la Qumica para explicar procesos metablicos y reacciones que ocurren en los organismos vivos tales como fotosntesis, respiracin celular, sntesis de protena y otros. EM.B.2.1 Reconoce que la clula se compone de macromolculas y explica que la distribucin espacial de los tomos en stas determina algunas de sus funciones en los organismos vivos. EM.B.2.2 Explica la funcin y estructura de la membrana celular en relacin al movimiento de partculas en unos sistemas biticos y abiticos tales como: difusin y smosis. EM.B.2.3 Explica el proceso de sntesis de protenas en la clula.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

EM.B.1.1 Recognizes the characteristics that identify and distinguish living and non-living organisms. EM.B.1.2 Explains the origin and applications of cell theory. EM.B.2 Uses basic concepts from chemistry to explain metabolic processes and reactions that occur in living organisms such as photosynthesis, cellular respiration, protein synthesis and more. EM.B.2.1 Recognizes that the cell is composed of macromolecules and explains that spatial distribution of atoms in these cells determines some of the functions in living organisms. EM.B.2.2 Explains the function and structure of the cell membrane in relation to the movement of particles in some biotic and abiotic systems such as: diffusion and osmosis. EM.B.2.3 Explains the process of protein synthesis in cells.

x x

19

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5 x

## Biology Expectations (English)

Expectativas de biologia EM.B.2.4 Explica las reacciones qumicas que ocurren EM.B.2.4 Explains the chemical reactions that occur in en los procesos de fotosntesis y respiracin. the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. EM.B.3 Recognizes the interdependence of organisms, EM.B.3 Reconoce la interdependencia de los the diversity of life and its levels of organization. organismos, la diversidad de la vida y sus niveles de organizacin. EM.B.3.1 Explains the difference between niche and EM.B.3.1 Explica la diferencia entre nicho y hbitat y habitat and between biome and ecosystem. entre bioma y ecosistema. EM.B.3.2 Identifies the greatest limiting factors that EM.B.3.2 Identifica los factores limitantes mayores que affect the distribution of terrestrial biomes. afectan a la distribucin de biomas terrestres. EM.B.3.3 Explains how limiting factors and ability to adapt affect the distribution of organisms in an ecosystem. EM.B.3.4 Recognizes that a vital part of an established ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers. EM.B.4 Recognizes the three levels of an ecological organization such as: population, community and ecosystem. EM.B.4.1 Defines operationally the concepts of population, community and ecosystem. EM.B.4.2 Identifies environmental factors that can affect population growth. EM.B.3.3 Explica cmo los factores limitantes y los rasgos de tolerancia afectan la distribucin de organismos en un ecosistema. EM.B.3.4 Reconoce que la parte vital de un ecosistema radica en la estabilidad de sus productores y de sus descomponedores. EM.B.4 Reconoce los tres niveles de organizacin ecolgica tales como: poblacin, comunidad y ecosistema. EM.B.4.1 Define operacionalmente los conceptos poblacin, comunidad y ecosistema. EM.B.4.2 Identifica factores ambientales que pueden afectar el crecimiento poblacional.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

EM.B.4.3 Recognizes the sequence of steps that occur EM.B.4.3 Reconoce la secuencia en los pasos que in the states of ecological succession. comprenden los estados de sucesin ecolgica. EM.B.4.4 Relates populations, communities, ecosystems and the biosphere. EM.B.4.4 Relaciona las poblaciones, las comunidades, los ecosistemas y la biosfera.

20

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) EM.B.5 Establishes relationships between structure and function in organisms. EM.B.5.1 Identifies and compare types of cells, their structures and function, eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes, plant cells, and animal cells.

Expectativas de biologia EM.B.5 Establece relaciones entre la estructura y la funcin en los organismos. EM.B.5.1 Identifica y compara los tipos de clulas, sus estructuras y funcin, tanto de las eucariotas como las procariotas, clula vegetal y clula animal. EM.B.5.2 Explains how the environment and past EM.B.5.2 Explica cmo el ambiente y la historia pasada history influences genetic instructions that are used in influyen en las instrucciones genticas que se utilizan different cells. en diferentes clulas. EM.B.6 Formulates generalizations with respect to EM.B.6 Formula generalizaciones respecto a las adaptations that organisms show according to the adaptaciones que muestran los organismos de environment in which they live. acuerdo al ambiente en que viven. EM.B.6.1 Explains adaptations of living things such as EM.B.6.1 Explica las adaptaciones de los seres morphological, physiological and behavioral. vivientes tales como las morfolgicas, las fisiolgicas y las de comportamiento. EM.B.6.2 Compares and contrasts different structures EM.B.6.2 Compara y contrasta diferentes estructuras in organisms that complete similar functions from en organismos que realizan funciones similares desde different evolutionary points of view. el punto de vista evolutivo. EM.B.6.3 Recognizes that evolution studies the EM.B.6.3 Reconoce que la evolucin estudia la diversity of organisms and their interactions through diversidad de los organismos y sus interacciones a time. travs del tiempo. EM.B.7 Identifies and explains the different systems EM.B.7 Identifica y explica los diferentes sistemas que that make up the human body and compares these componen su propio cuerpo y compara estos con los with other living organisms according to their level of de otros organismos vivos de acuerdo al nivel de organization. organizacin. EM.B.7.1 Describes the importance of skin to maintain EM.B.7.1 Describe la importancia de la piel para el homeostasis in the body. mantenimiento de la homeostasis del cuerpo. EM.B.7.2 Describes the structure and function of the EM.B.7.2 Describe la estructura y funcin del human skeleton. esqueleto humano.

x x

21

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 x x x x Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) EM.B.7.3 Identifies and explains the functions of the organs of the digestive system. EM.B.7.4 Compares cellular respiration with external respiration. EM.B.7.5 Distinguishes between various components of blood and blood types. EM.B.7.6 Explains the role the kidneys play to maintain homeostasis. EM.B.7.7 Explains the importance of the endocrine system for the functioning of the body. EM.B.7.8 Analyzes the effect of hormonal disequilibrium in the functioning of a body. EM.B.7.9 Evaluates the relationship between hormonal control and the reproductive system of males and females. EM.B.7.10 Analyzes the changes that occur during the phases of human development from birth.

Expectativas de biologia EM.B.7.3 Identifica y explica la funcin de los rganos del sistema digestivo. EM.B.7.4 Compara la respiracin celular con la respiracin externa. EM.B.7.5 Distingue entre los varios componentes de la sangre y entre los tipos sanguneos. EM.B.7.6 Explica el papel que desempean los riones para el mantenimiento de la homeostasis. EM.B.7.7 Explica la importancia del sistema endocrino para el funcionamiento del cuerpo. EM.B.7.8 Analiza el efecto de un desequilibrio hormonal en el funcionamiento del cuerpo. EM.B.7.9 Evala la relacin entre el control hormonal y el sistema reproductor masculino y femenino.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

x x x

EM.B.7.10 Analiza los cambios que ocurren durante las etapas del desarrollo de los humanos despus del nacimiento. EM.B.7.11 Describes how the immune system is EM.B.7.11 Describe cmo est diseado el sistema designed to protect the human body from microscopic inmunolgico humano para protegerse de organismos organisms and foreign substances and against some microscpicos y sustancias extraas y contra algunas carcinogenics that are created internally. clulas cancergenas que surgen internamente. EM.B.7.12 Explains how the nervous system serves as an intermediary in communication between the different parts of the body and in the interactions of the body with the environment. EM.B.7.12 Explica cmo el sistema nervioso sirve de intermediario en la comunicacin entre diferentes partes del cuerpo y en las interacciones del cuerpo con el ambiente.

22

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 x Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) SM.B.1 Recognizes that the cellular structures and their functions constitute a system that can be represented with models. SM.B.1.1 Uses models of the types of cells to establish differences between organelles and their function including the nucleus that contains genetic material that determines heredity.

Expectativas de biologia SM.B.1 Reconoce que las estructuras celulares y sus funciones constituyen un sistema que se puede representar con modelos. SM.B.1.1 Utiliza modelos de los tipos de clulas para establecer diferencias entre sus organelos y la funcin de stos incluyendo el ncleo que contiene el material gentico que determina la herencia.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

SM.B.1.2 Constructs diagrams and models to represent SM.B.1.2 Construye diagramas y modelos para changes that occur during the phases of cell division. representar los cambios que ocurren durante las fases de la divisin celular. SM.B.1.3 Explains and analyzes the structure of SM.B.1.3 Explica y analiza la estructura de las molecules of DNA and of RNA and their replication by molculas de ADN y de RNA y su replicacin por medio using three-dimensional models. de modelos tridimensionales. SM.B.1.4 Represent with concept maps and graphic organizers the relationship between the processes that occur in mitochondria of the cells during cellular respiration. SM.B.1.5 Discusses how the utility of models is limited by their complex nature. SM.B.2 Explains how each of the systems of the human body functions and identifies each part using drawings and diagrams. SM.B.2.1 Explains the function that enzymes play in the process of digesting food. SM.B.1.4 Representa con mapas de conceptos u organizadores grficos la relacin entre los procesos que ocurren en las mitocondrias de las clulas durante la respiracin celular. SM.B.1.5 Discute cmo la utilidad de los modelos est limitada por la complejidad de los mismos. SM.B.2 Explica cmo funciona cada uno de los sistemas del cuerpo humano e identifica cada una de sus partes utilizando dibujos y diagramas. SM.B.2.1 Explica la funcin que desempean las enzimas en el proceso de digerir los alimentos.

23

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 x Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) SM.B.2.2 Compares the menstrual cycle and the fertilization cycle of human beings with those of other animal species. SM.B.2.3 Relates the functioning of the central nervous system with the peripheral nervous system. SM.B.2.4 Predicts the consequences of the effect of some medications or controlled substances on the functioning of the nervous system. SM.B.3 Explains how physiological adaptations and the structures of organisms determine the process of natural selection and facilitate the equilibrium of systems. SM.B.3.1 Compares the structures that perform the same function in different organisms to evaluate the evolutionary development of different systems. SM.B.3.2 Compares and contrasts the homologous structures with analogous structures from an evolutionary point of view. SM.B.3.3 Explains the importance of the HardyWeinberg principle to quantify the process of natural selection in a population. SM.B.4 Represents and explains the interdependence that exists between organisms in relation to the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem through diagrams and models.

Expectativas de biologia SM.B.2.2 Compara los ciclos menstrual y de fertilizacin del ser humano con los de otras especies animales. SM.B.2.3 Relaciona el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso central con el del sistema nervioso perifrico. SM.B.2.4 Predice las consecuencias del efecto de algunos medicamentos o sustancias controladas en el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso. SM.B.3 Explica cmo las adaptaciones fisiolgicas y estructurales de los organismos determinan el proceso de seleccin natural y facilitan el equilibrio de los sistemas. SM.B.3.1 Compara las estructuras que realizan la misma funcin en diferentes organismos para evaluar el desarrollo evolutivo de diferentes sistemas. SM.B.3.2 Compara y contrasta las estructuras homlogas con las estructuras anlogas desde el punto de vista evolutivo. SM.B.3.3 Explica la importancia del principio de HardyWeinberg para cuantificar el proceso de seleccin natural en una poblacin. SM.B.4 Representa y explica la interdependencia que existe entre los organismos en relacin con el flujo de energa y la materia en un ecosistema por medio de diagramas y modelos.

24

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) SM.B.4.1 Identifies and establishes relationships between the components of an ecosystem in regards to the transfer of mass and energy. SM.B.4.2 Constructs models of food webs and food chains to explain how the flow of energy occurs in a given ecosystem. SM.B.4.3 Uses diagrams of the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles to represent the circulation and movement of nutrients in the environment and maintain balance in an ecosystem.

Expectativas de biologia SM.B.4.1 Identifica y establece relaciones entre los componentes de un ecosistema en cuanto a transferencia de masa y energa. SM.B.4.2 Construye modelos de redes y cadenas alimentarias para explicar cmo ocurre el flujo de energa en un ecosistema dado. SM.B.4.3 Utiliza diagramas de los ciclos del agua, carbono y nitrgeno para representar la circulacin y el movimiento de los nutrientes en el ambiente y mantener el balance en un ecosistema.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

SM.B.4.4 Represents with models how a cell produces SM.B.4.4 Representa con modelos cmo la clula and stores the necessary energy to carry out metabolic produce y almacena la energa necesaria para llevar a activities. cabo sus actividades metablicas. SM.B.5 Analyzes how organisms organize in taxonomic SM.B.5 Analiza cmo los organismos se organizan en systems. sistemas taxonmicos. SM.B.5.1 Compares and contrasts the different SM.B.5.1 Compara y contrasta las caractersticas characteristics of the kingdoms of life. distintivas de los reinos de la vida. SM.B.5.2 Describes the taxonomic organization in biological systems of classification. SM.B.5.3 Explains the history, purpose, and classification method of organisms. SM.B.5.4 Recognizes the importance of classifying organisms in different kingdoms. SM.B.5.2 Describe la organizacin taxonmica en sistemas de clasificacin biolgica. SM.B.5.3 Explica la historia, propsito y mtodos de clasificacin de organismos. SM.B.5.4 Reconoce la importancia de clasificar los organismos en diferentes reinos.

25

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) E.B.1 Explains the interdependence that exists between organisms with relation to the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem. E.B.1.1 Explains the relationship between matter and energy shown by the ecological pyramids. E.B.1.2 Analyzes how nutrients are recycled in an ecosystem and how these processes involve transformations of energy. E.B.1.3 Describes how organisms use energy and recycle nutrients to sustain life in an ecosystem. E.B.1.4 Explains how energy flows in food webs and food chains in an ecosystem starting from plants as primary producers. E.B.1.5 Explains that the total sum of energy in a system stays constant. E.B.2 Explains the transformations of energy that occur in cell processes, such as: photosynthesis, cellular respiration and cellular division.

Expectativas de biologia E.B.1 Explica la interdependencia que existe entre los organismos con relacin al flujo de energa y la materia en un ecosistema. E.B.1.1 Explica las relaciones entre la materia y la energa quemuestran las pirmides ecolgicas. E.B.1.2 Analiza cmo los nutrientes se reciclan en el ecosistema y cmo esos procesos involucran transformaciones de energa. E.B.1.3 Describe cmo los organismos utilizan la energa y reciclan los nutrientes para sostener la vida de un ecosistema. E.B.1.4 Explica cmo ocurre el flujo de energa en redes y cadenas alimentarias en un ecosistema a partir de las plantas como productores primarios. E.B.1.5 Explica que la suma total de la energa en un sistema se mantiene constante. E.B.2 Explica las transformaciones de energa que ocurren en los procesos celulares, tales como: fotosntesis, respiracin celular y divisin celular.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

E.B.2.1 Explains the process by which plants transform E.B.2.1 Explica el proceso por el cual las plantas light into chemical energy (photosynthesis) and store transforman la luz en energa qumica (fotosntesis) y complex molecules. la almacenan en molculas complejas. E.B.2.2 Compares and contrast the light and dark reaction that occur in the process of photosynthesis. E.B.2.2 Compara y contrasta las reacciones de luz y oscuridad que ocurren en el proceso de fotosntesis.

26

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5 x

Biology Expectations (English) E.B.2.3 Explains how cells produce and store the necessary energy to carry out their metabolic activities. E.B.2.4 Compares and contrasts the anaerobic and aerobic processes of cellular respiration that release energy in the form of ATP and relates them to the process of photosynthesis. E.B.2.5 Explains why the quantity of mitochondria in muscle cells is different from the quantity of skin cells in human beings. E.B.3 Analyzes the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem. E.B.3.1 Describes how nutrients are recycled in the biotic and abiotc parts of the biosphere. E.B.3.2 Identifies how energy flows in ecosystems. E.B.4 Evaluates the economic and environmental impact that the exploitation of different sources of energy has. E.B.4.1 Recognizes that energy resources are limited and there is an urgent necessity to develop alternate sources of energy. E.B.4.2 Explains how scientific advances have influenced the use of energy throughout different eras.

Expectativas de biologia E.B.2.3 Explica cmo las clulas producen y almacenan la energa necesaria para llevar a cabo sus actividades metablicas. E.B.2.4 Compara y contrasta los procesos anaerbicos y aerbicos de la respiracin celular que liberan energa en forma de ATP y los relaciona con el proceso de fotosntesis. E.B.2.5 Explica por qu la cantidad de mitocondrias en las clulas musculares es diferente a la cantidad en las clulas de la piel de los seres humanos. E.B.3 Analiza el flujo de energa y materia en un ecosistema. E.B.3.1 Describe cmo los nutrientes son reciclados en la parte bitica y abitica de la biosfera. E.B.3.2 Identifica cmo fluye la energa en los ecosistemas. E.B.4 Evala el impacto econmico y ambiental que tiene la explotacin de diferentes fuentes de energa.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

x x x

E.B.4.1 Reconoce que los recursos energticos son limitados y la necesidad urgente de desarrollar las fuentes alternas de energa. E.B.4.2 Explica cmo los adelantos cientficos han influenciado en los usos de la energa a travs de diferentes pocas.

27

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5 x

Biology Expectations (English) E.B.4.3 Identifies human activities that have a role in the effect of global warming and analyzes various alternatives that allow us to minimize this effect.

Expectativas de biologia E.B.4.3 Identifica las actividades humanas que intervienen en el efecto del calentamiento global y analiza diversas alternativas que permitan minimizar el mismo. I.B.1 Analyzes how organisms relate to one another I.B.1 Analiza cmo los organismos se relacionan entre through the exchange of matter and energy in order to s a travs del intercambio de materia y energa para be able to grow, maintain themselves, and adapt. poder crecer, mantenerse y adaptarse. I.B.1.1 Recognizes the diversity of theories related to the origin of life. I.B.1.2 Assumes positions in favor of or against the theories of the origin of life using literature and evidence that sustains the students argument. I.B.1.3 Relates the diversity of species with their capability to survive in the environment. I.B.1.1 Reconoce la diversidad de teoras relacionadas con el origen de la vida. I.B.1.2 Asume posturas a favor o en contra de las teoras del origen de la vida utilizando literatura y evidencias que sostengan sus argumentos.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

I.B.1.3 Relaciona la diversidad de las especies con la capacidad de stas para poder sobrevivir en el ambiente. I.B.1.4 Explains the mechanisms of adaptation that I.B.1.4 Explica los mecanismos de adaptacin que allow organisms to respond to environmental changes poseen los organismos para responder a los cambios y and factors. factores ambientales. I.B.2 Analyzes the relationship between structure and function in living cells. I.B.2.1 Describes the parts of the cell that specialize in the transport of material, capture and release energy, production of proteins, elimination of waste, feedback and movement. I.B.2 Analiza la relacin entre estructura y la funcin en las clulas vivas. I.B.2.1 Describe las partes de la clula que se especializan en el transporte de materiales, captura y liberacin de energa, elaboracin de protenas, eliminacin de desechos, retroalimentacin y movimiento. x

28

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) I.B.2.2 Compares between the processes of active transport, passive transport and endocytosis as mechanisms of exchange between cells and their environment. I.B.2.3 Identifies and explains various factors that affect the functioning of the cell, such as temperature and acidity. I.B.2.4 Explains the function of molecules such as protein, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids in the production of energy so that the cell can do work.

Expectativas de biologia I.B.2.2 Compara entre los procesos de transporte activo, transporte pasivo y endocitosis como mecanismos de intercambio entre la clula y su ambiente. I.B.2.3 Identifica y explica algunos factores que afectan el funcionamiento de la clula, como la temperatura y la acidez. I.B.2.4 Explica la funcin de molculas tales como las protenas, los lpidos, los carbohidratos y los cidos nucleicos en la produccin de energa para que la clula realice trabajo. I.B.2.5 Explains how production and secretion of key I.B.2.5 Explica cmo la produccin y secrecin de enzymes at specific moments controls the cell cycle. enzimas claves en momentos especficos controla el ciclo celular. I.B.2.6 Analyzes the interaction between I.B.2.6 Analiza la interaccin entre los factores environmental factors and changes in genes in the ambientales y cambios en los genes con el desarrollo development of cancer. del cncer. I.B.3 Analyzes the symbiotic relationship that I.B.3 Analiza las relaciones simbiticas que establecen organisms establish in an ecosystem. los organismos en un ecosistema. I.B.3.1 Defines the concepts of symbiotic relationships, I.B.3.1 Define los conceptos relaciones simbiticas, mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. mutualismo, comensalismo y parasitismo. I.B.3.2 Describes and provides examples of symbiotic relationships from mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. I.B.3.3 Explains the importance of a symbiotic relationship in an ecosystem. C.B.1 Analyzes the impact of evolutionary changes that organisms undergo in the environment over time. I.B.3.2 Describe y provee ejemplos de relaciones simbiticas de mutualismo, comensalismo y parasitismo. I.B.3.3 Explica la importancia de las relaciones simbiticas en un ecosistema. C.B.1 Analiza el impacto de los cambios evolutivos que sufren los organismos en el ambiente a travs del tiempo.

29

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) C.B.1.1 Explains how physiological and structural adaptations of organisms relate to natural selection. C.B.1.2 Evaluates the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution.

Expectativas de biologia C.B.1.1 Explica cmo las adaptaciones fisiolgicas y estructurales de un organismo se relacionan con la seleccin natural. C.B.1.2 Evala el rol de la seleccin natural en el desarrollo de la Teora de la evolucin.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6 x

C.B.1.3 Explains how natural selection determines the C.B.1.3 Explica cmo la seleccin natural determina la ability of groups of organisms to survive. capacidad de supervivencia para grupos de organismos. C.B.1.4 Determines the effects of different types of C.B.1.4 Determina los efectos de los diferentes tipos natural selection in the joining of gene pools of an de seleccin natural en el conjunto de genes (pool organism. gentico) de un organismo. C.B.1.5 Explains the function of natural selection in C.B.1.5 Explica cul es la funcin de la seleccin convergent and divergent evolution. natural en la evolucin convergente y divergente. C.B.1.6 Recognizes that evolutionary processes C.B.1.6 Reconoce que los procesos evolutivos constitute an example of a manifestation of changes in constituyen un ejemplo de species. una manifestacin de cambios de la especie. C.B.1.7 Establishes that mutation and sexual reproduction are mechanisms that favor variations in population. C.B.1.8 Describes how the evolution of organisms produces genetic changes in populations. C.B.1.9 Analyzes how human beings have the responsibility to maintain the environment in a good state for the survival of species. C.B.1.7 Establece que la mutacin y la reproduccin sexual son mecanismos que favorecen las variaciones en las poblaciones. C.B.1.8 Describe cmo la evolucin de los organismos produce cambios genticos en las poblaciones. C.B.1.9 Analiza cmo el ser humano tiene la responsabilidad de mantener el ambiente en buen estado para la supervivencia de las especies.

30

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 x Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) Expectativas de biologia C.B.2 Recognizes that characteristics are inherited and C.B.2 Reconoce que las caractersticas se heredan y se are transferred from parents to their offspring. trasfieren de los padres a su progenie. C.B.2.1 Uses mathematics to represent phenotype and genotype proportions in different genetic combinations. C.B.2.2 Recognizes the importance of DNA molecules in the control of cell activity and its function of transmitting characteristics from one generation to the next. C.B.2.3 Recognizes and explains that multicellular organisms develop from a simple zygote and the following phenotype will depend on the genotype that was established in the moment of fertilization. C.B.3 Explains the importance of the continuity of life beginning with the action of genes, hereditary patterns, the reproduction in organisms and the reproduction of cells. C.B.3.1 Uses genealogical tree diagrams to represent how characteristics are inherited in living organisms. C.B.3.2 Compares and contrasts the combinations of genetic characteristics obtained in a cross using proportional mathematics. C.B.2.1 Utiliza las matemticas para representar proporciones fenotpicas y genotpicas en diferentes cruces genticos. C.B.2.2 Reconoce la importancia de la molcula de ADN en el control de las actividades de las clulas y su funcin de transmitir caractersticas de una generacin a otra. C.B.2.3 Reconoce y explica que los organismos multicelulares se desarrollan a partir de un simple cigoto y que el fenotipo resultante depender del genotipo que fue establecido al momento de la fertilizacin. C.B.3 Explica la importancia de la continuidad de la vida a travs de la accin de los genes, los patrones hereditarios, la reproduccin en los organismos y la reproduccin de clulas. C.B.3.1 Utiliza diagramas de rbol genealgico para representar cmo se heredan las caractersticas en los organismos vivos. C.B.3.2 Compara y contrasta las combinaciones de caractersticas genticas obtenidas en un cruce usando proporciones matemticas.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

C.B.4 Explains the process by which biological systems C.B.4 Explica el proceso por el cual los sistemas seek equilibrium. biolgicos tienden a buscar el equilibrio.

31

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) C.B.4.1 Explains that diffusion is a physical process of the movement of particles from an area of greater concentration to one of lesser concentration to maintain equilibrium between cells and their external environment.

Expectativas de biologia C.B.4.1 Explica que la difusin es un proceso fsico de movimiento de partculas de un rea de mayor a menor concentracin para mantener el equilibrio entre las clulas y su ambiente externo.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

C.B.4.2 Describes and identifies the processes of transportation of substances in cells in relation to the cellular membrane such as: osmosis, active transport and passive transport. C.B.4.3 Identifies the mechanisms that the body uses to maintain homeostasis. C.B.4.4 Analyzes the variety of mechanisms that organisms posess to combat illnesses.

C.B.4.2 Describe e identifica los procesos de transporte de sustancias en las clulas en relacin con la membrana celular tales como: smosis, transporte activo y transporte pasivo. C.B.4.3 Identifica los mecanismos que utiliza el cuerpo para mantener su homeostasis. C.B.4.4 Analiza la variedad de mecanismos que los organismos poseen para combatir las enfermedades.

x x

C.B.4.5 Explains how elements form proteins and how C.B.4.5 Explica cmo los elementos forman las these form the structural part of cells and regulate the protenas y cmo stas forman la parte estructural de chemical reactions that occur in living organisms. las clulas y regulan las reacciones qumicas que ocurren en los organismos vivos. C.B.5 Explains how some physical, chemical and environmental factors or the presence of pathogen agents can produce changes in cells, threatening the stability of the human body. C.B.5.1 Analyzes the environmental factors that influence the aging of and damages to the skin. C.B.5 Explica cmo algunos factores fsicos, qumicos y ambientales o la presencia de agentes patgenos pueden producir cambios en las clulas amenazando la estabilidad del cuerpo humano. C.B.5.1 Analiza los factores ambientales que influyen en el envejecimiento y daos a la piel.

32

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Biology

Human development and reproduction Unit 3 x Transfer of energy from sun to living systems Unit 4 Principles, mechanism, and methodology of genetics Unit 5

Biology Expectations (English) C.B.5.2 Describes how an illness is transmitted and what symptoms it causes in the human body. C.B.5.3 Explains how the cellular cycle is affected due to changes in the genes causing cancer.

Expectativas de biologia C.B.5.2 Describe cmo se transmite una enfermedad y qu sntomas ocasiona al cuerpo humano. C.B.5.3 Explica cmo el ciclo celular se afecta debido a cambios en los genes causando cncer.

## Natural selection and diversity of life Unit 6

33

Interactions Unit 7

34

Interactions Unit 7

35

Interactions Unit 7

36

Interactions Unit 7

37

Interactions Unit 7

38

Interactions Unit 7

x x x

x x x x x

39

Interactions Unit 7

40

Interactions Unit 7

41

Interactions Unit 7

42

Interactions Unit 7

43

Interactions Unit 7

x x x x x

44

Interactions Unit 7

45

Interactions Unit 7

46

Interactions Unit 7

47

Interactions Unit 7

x x

x x

48

Interactions Unit 7

49

Interactions Unit 7

50

Interactions Unit 7

51

Interactions Unit 7

52

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) NC.Q.1 Recognizes the areas of study related to chemistry as a scientific discipline. Expectativas de quimica NC.Q.1 Reconoce las reas de estudio relacionadas a la Qumica como disciplina cientfica. Unit 1 x

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

NC.Q.1.1 Identifica profesiones, oficios y actividades NC.Q.1.1 Identifies professions, trades and activities of de la vida diaria que requieren conocimientos de daily life that require knowledge of chemistry. Qumica. NC.Q.1.2 Explains the relationship between the areas NC.Q.1.2 Explica la relacin entre las reas de estudio of study of the branches of chemistry such as organic, de las ramas de la Qumica tales como orgnica, analytic, biochemistry and other. analtica, bioqumica y otras. NC.Q.2 Utiliza prcticas de seguridad en los NC.Q.2 Uses safety practices in chemistry laboratories laboratorios de Qumica y en el campo de la and in the research field. investigacin. NC.Q.2.1 Identifica y expresa el significado de smbolos NC.Q.2.1 Identifies and expresses the meaning of the de seguridad usados en el laboratorio (inflamable, safety symbols used in the laboratory (flammable, txico, manejo de toxic, electrical equipment management, gas equipo elctrico, manejo de gases, proteccin de piel y management, skin and eye protection, etc.). ojos, etc.). NC.Q.2.2 Knows how to manage safety equipment such as the fire extinguisher, gas extractor, etc. NC.Q.2.2 Conoce el manejo de equipo de seguridad tal como extintor, extractor de gases, etc.

NC.Q.2.3 Uses personal safety materials for protection NC.Q.2.3 Usa materiales de seguridad personal para su like goggles, an apron, gloves, etc. proteccin como gafas, delantal, guantes, etc. NC.Q.2.4 Explica y aplica el procedimiento correcto en NC.Q.2.4 Explains and applies the correct procedure in el uso de los aparatos cientficos disponibles en el using available scientific apparatus in the laboratories. laboratorio. NC.Q.2.5 Applies appropriate laboratory techniques NC.Q.2.5 Aplica tcnicas de laboratorio apropiadas de according to the situation. acuerdo a la situacin.

x x

53

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) Expectativas de quimica Unit 1 x

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

NC.Q.2.6 Applies correct protocols for identifying and NC.Q.2.6 Aplica protocolos correctos para identificar e reporting safety problems and violations. informar problemas y violaciones a la seguridad. NC.Q.2.7 Explains the correct process of the use and management of chemical substances in the laboratory and at home to avoid harmful accidents to the students health and the environment. NC.Q.2.8 Demonstrates respect for natural resources and values the conservation of the environment by using and carefully measuring chemical products. NC.Q.2.9 Evaluates the risks of constructing and manipulating explosives such as firecrackers and homemade bombs. NC.Q.3 Uses mathematics to establish relationships between variables, to analyze and express them quantitatively. NC.Q.2.7 Explica el proceso correcto del uso y manejo de las sustancias qumicas en el laboratorio y en el hogar para evitar accidentes perjudiciales a la salud y al ambiente. NC.Q.2.8 Demuestra respeto por los recursos naturales y valora la conservacin del ambiente al utilizar y disponer mesurada y concienzudamente de los productos qumicos. NC.Q.2.9 Evala los riesgos de fabricar y manipular explosivos tales como petardos y bombas caseras.

NC.Q.3 Utiliza la matemtica para establecer relaciones entre variables, para analizarlas y expresarlas cuantitativamente. NC.Q.3.1 Utiliza unidades estndar del Sistema NC.Q.3.1 Uses standard units of the International Internacional de Medidas para representar y describir Systems of Measurement to represent and describe las propiedades the physical and chemical properties of matter. fsicas y qumicas de la materia. NC.Q.3.2 Aplica las destrezas de medicin para NC.Q.3.2 Applies measuring skills to show properties representar propiedades de la materia y considera las of matter and considers the possible sources of error. posibles fuentes de error.

54

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) NC.Q.3.3 Makes unit conversions from the International System of Measurement using dimensional analysis. NC.Q.3.4 Expresses and explains scientific data with accuracy and precision. Expectativas de quimica NC.Q.3.3 Realiza conversiones de unidades de medida del Sistema Internacional usando el anlisis dimensional. NC.Q.3.4 Expresa y explica los datos cientficos con exactitud y precisin. Unit 1 x x

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

NC.Q.3.5 Expresa relaciones cientficas usando la NC.Q.3.5 Expresses scientific relationships using matemtica a travs de conceptos como la notacin mathematics through concepts like scientific notation, cientfica, las cifras significant digits, dimensional analysis, mathematical significativas, el anlisis dimensional, las ecuaciones equations, etc. matemticas, etc. NC.Q.3.6 Uses mathematical connections to describe, NC.Q.3.6 Utiliza relaciones matemticas para describir, explain and predict natural patterns. explicar y predecir patrones naturales. NC.Q.4 Demonstrates the domain of concepts, processes and skills from a chemistry perspective. NC.Q.4.1 Explains how theories, laws and principals are used to describe and predict natural phenomena like atomic structure and the behavior of gases. NC.Q.4.2 Explains how scientific processes produce valid and reliable results based on the consistency of data and observations. NC.Q.4.3 Examines completed scientific research and critically analyzes it in light of existing scientific knowledge. NC.Q.4 Demuestra dominio de conceptos, procesos y destrezas desde la perspectiva de la qumica. NC.Q.4.1 Explica cmo se usan las teoras, leyes y principios para describir y predecir fenmenos naturales como por ejemplo, la estructura atmica y el comportamiento de los gases. NC.Q.4.2 Explica cmo los procesos cientficos producen resultados vlidos y confiables a base de la consistencia de los datos y observaciones. NC.Q.4.3 Examina investigaciones cientficas actualizadas y las analiza crticamente a la luz del conocimiento cientfico existente.

55

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2 x

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

56

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) NC.Q.6.3 Identifies and provides examples of the risks and benefits that the development of chemical industries have and of technology in the economy and society. NC.Q.6.4 Analyzes evaluates and discusses with valid arguments the effect of scientific and technological advances in society and their economic, ethical and moral implications. NC.Q.6.5 Makes fundamental decisions about individual and collective issues related to science and technology. Expectativas de quimica NC.Q.6.3 Identifica y provee ejemplos de los riesgos y beneficios que tiene el desarrollo de industrias qumicas y de la tecnologa en la economa y la sociedad. NC.Q.6.4 Analiza, evala y discute con argumentos vlidos el efecto y las implicaciones econmicas, ticas y morales de los adelantos cientficos y tecnolgicos en la sociedad. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

NC.Q.6.5 Toma decisiones fundamentales sobre asuntos individuales y colectivos relacionados con la ciencia y la tecnologa. NC.Q.6.6 Propone o disea tecnologa para solucionar NC.Q.6.6 Proposes and designs technology to solve problemas que producen las industrias qumicas como problems that chemical industries produce like la contaminacin qumica, termal y de partculas en el chemical and thermal pollution, and contamination of suelo, soil particles, water and air. agua y aire. NC.Q.7 Analyzes and evaluates scientific literature to NC.Q.7 Analiza y evala literatura cientfica para determine the validity and reliability of a source of discriminar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de la fuente information. de informacin. NC.Q.7.1 Reads and analyzes scientific literature from NC.Q.7.1 Lee y analiza literatura cientfica de different reliable sources such as books, magazines, diferentes fuentes confiables tales como libros, and databases among others. revistas y bases de datos entre otros. NC.Q.7.2 Selects sources of information of a reliable and scientific nature to draft reports and create oral presentations about current scientific issues. NC.Q.7.2 Selecciona fuentes de informacin de ndole cientfica confiables para redactar informes y realizar presentaciones orales sobre temas cientficos de actualidad.

57

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) NC.Q.7.3 Drafts reports of experiments and investigations clearly and coherently using scientific writing techniques and appropriate bibliographic indexing styles. Expectativas de quimica NC.Q.7.3 Redacta informes de experimentos e investigaciones de forma clara y coherente utilizando las tcnicas de redaccin cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

NC.Q.7.4 Analyzes the impact of technology in the NC.Q.7.4 Analiza el impacto de la tecnologa en la availability, creation and dissemination of scientifically disponibilidad, creacin y diseminacin de informacin relevant information. de relevancia cientfica. NC.Q.7.5 Distinguishes between reliable sources scientific information (books, magazines, databases, etc.) from unreliable sources (newspaper, popular magazines, pseudoscience, various internet pages, etc.). EM.Q.1 Describes matter based on its characteristic properties. EM.Q.1.1 Compares and contrasts the properties of solutions, suspensions and colloids and provides examples of these types of mixtures. NC.Q.7.5 Discrimina entre fuentes de informacin cientfica confiables (libros, revistas, bases de datos, etc.) de las no confiables (peridico, revistas populares, pseudociencia, algunas pginas de Internet, etc).

EM.Q.1 Describe la materia a base de sus propiedades caractersticas. EM.Q.1.1 Compara y contrasta las propiedades de las soluciones, suspensiones y coloides y provee ejemplos de estos tipos de mezclas. EM.Q.1.2 Selecciona mtodos adecuados para separar EM.Q.1.2 Selects adequate methods for separating mezclas e identificar las sustancias presentes en las mixtures and identifying substances present in them mismas a base de sus propiedades caractersticas based on their characteristic properties (decantation, (decantar, filtracin, cristalizacin, cromatografa y filtration, crystallization, chromatography and others). otras). EM.Q.1.3 Distinguishes between extensive and EM.Q.1.3 Discrimina entre las propiedades fsicas intensive physical properties of matter. extensivas e intensivas de la materia. EM.Q.1.4 Operationally defines the concept of density EM.Q.1.4 Define operacionalmente el concepto and analyzes situations where they apply. densidad y analiza situaciones en dnde se aplica.

x x

x x

58

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) EM.Q.1.5 Identifies and explains the properties that determine the organization of elements into periods and families in the periodic table (valence electrons, atomic number). Expectativas de quimica EM.Q.1.5 Identifica y explica las propiedades que determinan la organizacin de los elementos en periodos y familias en la Tabla Peridica (electrones de valencia, nmero atmico). EM.Q.1.6 Utiliza las tendencias o patrones de las propiedades representadas en la Tabla Peridica (nmero atmico, masa atmica, electronegatividad, estado de oxidacin, istopos y otros) para predecir el comportamiento de los elementos. EM.Q.1.7 Compara y contrasta las propiedades de los metales, no metales y metaloides y explica sus aplicaciones prcticas. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

EM.Q.1.6 Uses trends or patterns of properties shown in the periodic table (atomic number, atomic mass, electronegativity, oxidation state, isotropes and others) to predict the behavior of elements. EM.Q.1.7 Compares and contrast the properties of metals, non-metals and metalloids and explains their practical applications.

EM.Q.2 Describes, explains and interprets the EM.Q.2 Describe, explica e interpreta la estructura de structure of matter based on the concept of the atom. la materia basado en el concepto tomo. EM.Q.2.1 Describes experiments that led to the discovery of various subatomic particles like the experiments of J.J. Thompson, Robert Milikan and Ernest Rutherford, among others. EM.Q.2.2 Describes and explains the different atomic models that have been postulated. EM.Q.2.3 Interprets the relationship between the study of the spectra of elements and the configuration of electrons in the atom using the quantum theory of Max Planck. EM.Q.2.1 Describe los experimentos que llevaron al descubrimiento de algunas partculas subatmicas como los experimentos de J.J. Thomson, de Robert Millikan y de Ernest Rutherford, entre otros. EM.Q.2.2 Describe y explica los diferentes modelos atmicos que se han postulado. EM.Q.2.3 Interpreta la relacin entre el estudio de los espectros de los elementos y la configuracin de los electrones en el tomo usando la teora cuntica de Max Planck.

59

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) EM.Q.2.4 Explains the experimental basis for the development of quantum mechanics. EM.Q.2.5 Uses the current model of the atom to explain the structure and properties of it and its relation to the properties of matter. Expectativas de quimica EM.Q.2.4 Explica la base experimental para el desarrollo de la mecnica cuntica. EM.Q.2.5 Utiliza el modelo actual del tomo para explicar la estructura y propiedades de ste y su relacin con las propiedades de la materia. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

EM.Q.2.6 Compares and contrasts the ideas of modern EM.Q.2.6 Compara y contrasta las ideas de la teora atomic theory with Daltons atomic theory. atmica moderna con la teora atmica de Dalton. EM.Q.2.7 Explains why various atomic nuclei are radioactive and identifies the particles that are released in the process of radioactive disintegration (alpha, beta and gamma). EM.Q.2.8 Compares and contrasts the processes of nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. EM.Q.2.7 Explica por qu algunos ncleos atmicos son radiactivos e identifica las partculas que se liberan en el proceso de desintegracin radiactiva (alfa, beta y gamma). EM.Q.2.8 Compara y contrasta los procesos de fusin y fisin nuclear. EM.Q.2.9 Argumenta sobre los riesgos y beneficios del EM.Q.2.9 Argues about the risks and benefits of using uso de la energa nuclear e identifica ejemplos de nuclear energy and identifies examples of each. estos. EM.Q.2.10 Reconoce que los cientficos continan EM.Q.2.10 Recognizes that scientists continue investigando sobre la composicin y el investigating the composition and behavior of atoms. comportamiento de los tomos. EM.Q.3 Expands the students knowledge of the periodic table and establishes that the elements are ordered by the number of protons in the nucleus. EM.Q.3 Ampla su conocimiento de la Tabla Peridica y establece que los elementos se ordenan por el nmero de protones en el ncleo.

EM.Q.3.1 Discusses the historical development of the EM.Q.3.1 Discute el desarrollo histrico de la Tabla periodic table as a method of ordering and classifying Peridica como un mtodo para ordenar y clasificar elements based on their properties. los elementos a base de sus propiedades.

60

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) EM.Q.3.2 Highlights the contributions of Dobereiner, Newlands, Moseley and Mendeleev to the periodic organization of elements. Expectativas de quimica EM.Q.3.2 Destaca las contribuciones de Dobereiner, Newlands, Moseley y Mendeleev a la organizacin peridica de los elementos. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2 x

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

EM.Q.3.3 Recognizes that the periodic table is adopted EM.Q.3.3 Reconoce que la Tabla Peridica es adoptada by national agreement to classify elements and that it por acuerdo internacional para clasificar los elementos is identical in all languages. y que es idntica en todos los idiomas. EM.Q.3.4 Explains the meaning of the concept of an isotope and applies it in determining the average atomic mass of an element. EM.Q.3.5 Reviews the fundamental origin of the names of the elements and the rules of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) of assigning names and symbols. EM.Q.3.6 Uses electron distribution in atoms to predict the location and properties of an element in the periodic table. EM.Q.3.7 Identifies practical uses and technological applications of various elements (metals, non-metals and metalloids). EM.Q.4 Describes the processes for which substances combine to form compounds. EM.Q.3.4 Explica el significado del concepto istopo y lo aplica en la determinacin de la masa atmica promedio de un elemento. EM.Q.3.5 Revisa los fundamentos del origen del nombre de los elementos y las reglas de la Unin Internacional de Qumica Pura y Aplicada (IUPAC) para asignarles nombres y smbolos. EM.Q.3.6 Utiliza la distribucin electrnica en los tomos para predecir la ubicacin y propiedades de un elemento en la Tabla Peridica. EM.Q.3.7 Identifica usos prcticos y aplicaciones tecnolgicas de algunos elementos (metales, no metales y metaloides). EM.Q.4 Describe los procesos por los cuales las sustancias se combinan para formar compuestos. x

61

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) Expectativas de quimica EM.Q.4.1 Reconoce que la diversidad de la materia EM.Q.4.1 Recognizes that the diversity of matter arises surge de la formacin de compuestos qumicos a base from the formation of chemical compounds based on de un nmero a relatively small number of elements. relativamente pequeo de elementos. EM.Q.4.2 Uses electron distribution in atoms to determine the form in which they react with each other to form compounds. EM.Q.4.3 Describes the formation of positive and negative ions. EM.Q.4.2 Utiliza la distribucin electrnica en los tomos para determinar la forma en que stos reaccionan entre s para formar compuestos. EM.Q.4.3 Describe la formacin de iones positivos y negativos. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 x Unit 4 Unit 5

x x

EM.Q.4.4 Explains the formation of ionic and covalent EM.Q.4.4 Explica la formacin de los compuestos compounds. inicos y los compuestos covalentes. EM.Q.4.5 Predicts the type of bond that forms between two or more atoms based on the property of electronegativity. EM.Q.4.6 Applies the octet rule to explain the formation of covalent bonds. EM.Q.4.7 Describes the formation of simple, double and triple covalent bonds. EM.Q.4.8 Compares and contrasts the properties of ionic compounds with the properties of covalent compounds. EM.Q.4.9 Explains how the polarity of bonds affects the intermolecular attractions and why some compounds can be mixed with one another and others cannot. EM.Q.4.10 Mentions and explains the variables that can affect the speed with which atoms and molecules react. EM.Q.4.5 Predice el tipo de enlace que se forma entre dos o ms tomos basndose en la propiedad de electronegatividad. EM.Q.4.6 Aplica la regla del octeto para explicar la formacin de enlaces covalentes. EM.Q.4.7 Describe la formacin de enlaces covalentes simples, dobles y triples. EM.Q.4.8 Compara y contrasta las propiedades de los compuestos inicos con las propiedades de los compuestos covalentes. EM.Q.4.9 Explica cmo la polaridad de los enlaces afecta las atracciones intermoleculares y por qu algunos compuestos son miscibles entre s y otros no. EM.Q.4.10 Menciona y explica las variables que pueden afectar la rapidez con que los tomos y las molculas reaccionan.

x x x x

62

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) SM.Q.1 Recognizes that in chemistry, operational symbols are used to represent quantities, events and objects. Expectativas de quimica SM.Q.1 Reconoce que en la Qumica se utilizan smbolos operacionales para representar cantidades, eventos y objetos. SM.Q.1.1 Representa, describe y explica distintos tipos SM.Q.1.1 Represents, describes and explains different de modelos, tales como los modelos atmicos, types of models, such as atomic, molecular and ideal moleculares y del gas gas models. ideal. SM.Q.1.2 Represents ionic and covalent compounds SM.Q.1.2 Representa compuestos inicos y covalentes using chemical formulas from the symbols of the usando frmulas qumicas a partir de los smbolos de elements. los elementos. SM.Q.1.3 Escribe e identifica el nombre o la frmula SM.Q.1.3 Writes and identifies the name or formula of de compuestos inicos, compuestos covalentes y ionic compounds, covalent compounds and acids using cidos usando las reglas the rules of nomenclature. de nomenclatura. SM.Q.1.4 Uses electron-dot diagrams (Lewis Diagrams) to explain the distribution of valence electrons in the atom and to represent the formation of chemical bonds. SM.Q.1.5 Uses equations to show chemical reactions and ionic net equations for reactions in aqueous solutions. SM.Q.2 Explains energy concepts related to systems through the use of models. SM.Q.2.1 Explains the spatial distribution of particles in a solid, liquid and gaseous state. SM.Q.1.4 Utiliza los diagramas punto-electrn (diagramas de Lewis) para explicar la distribucin de los electrones de valencia en el tomo y para representar la formacin de enlaces qumicos. SM.Q.1.5 Utiliza ecuaciones para representar reacciones qumicas y ecuaciones inicas netas de reacciones en solucin acuosa. SM.Q.2 Explica conceptos energticos relacionados a los sistemas mediante el uso de modelos. SM.Q.2.1 Explica la distribucin espacial de las partculas en los estados slido, lquido y gaseoso. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2 x

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

63

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) SM.Q.2.2 Represent with physical models or diagrams the movement of particles in solid, liquid and gaseous states. Expectativas de quimica SM.Q.2.2 Representa con modelos fsicos o diagramas el movimiento de las partculas en los estados slido, lquido y gaseoso. SM.Q.3 Construye y utiliza modelos matemticos para SM.Q.3 Constructs and uses mathematical models to explicar y analizar el comportamiento de sistemas explain and analyze the behavior of chemical systems. qumicos. SM.Q.3.1 Uses technological resources such as a SM.Q.3.1 Utiliza recursos tecnolgicos tales como la calculator, graphing calculator, and computer to calculadora, la calculadora grfica y la computadora construct and analyze scientific and mathematical para construir y analizar modelos cientficos y models. matemticos. SM.Q.3.2 Constructs linear graphs to show properties SM.Q.3.2 Construye grficas lineales para representar of matter such as density. propiedades de la materia tales como la densidad. SM.Q.3.3 Interprets the slope of linear inclination graphs to determine the change in the dependent variable as a consequence of change in the independent variable. SM.Q.3.4 Reads and interprets curve and solubility graphs. SM.Q.3.3 Interpreta la pendiente de grficas lineales de inclinacin para determinar el cambio en la variable dependiente como consecuencia del cambio en la variable independiente. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 x Unit 5

SM.Q.3.4 Lee e interpreta grficas de curvas de solubilidad. SM.Q.3.5 Interpreta diagramas de fase para explicar la SM.Q.3.5 Interprets phase diagrams to explain the relacin entre el estado de la materia y la temperatura relationship between the state of matter, temperature y presin de una and pressure of a substance. sustancia. SM.Q.4 Uses different models to represent the same SM.Q.4 Utiliza modelos diferentes para representar el concept depending on the purpose for which it is mismo concepto dependiendo del propsito para el designed. cual se disea.

64

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) SM.Q.4.1 Explains the limitations and usefulness of different models (physical and mental) to represent concepts like atomic models, kinetic-molecular models and others. SM.Q.4.2 Explains the formation of ionic bonds with atomic models, structure of electronic symbols (Lewis Diagrams), orbital diagrams and electron configuration. SM.Q.4.3 Represents and explains the formation of covalent bonds with Lewis structures, structural formulas and molecular models of spheres and structures, among others. E.Q.1 Explains the difference between the concepts of heat and temperature. E.Q.1.1 Describes temperature and heat flow in terms of random movement and vibrations of atoms and molecules. Expectativas de quimica SM.Q.4.1 Explica las limitaciones y utilidad de diferentes modelos (fsicos y mentales) para representar conceptos como los modelos atmicos, cintico-molecular y otros. SM.Q.4.2 Explica la formacin de enlaces inicos con modelos atmicos, estructura de smbolos electrnicos (diagramas de Lewis), diagrama orbital y configuracin electrnica. SM.Q.4.3 Representa y explica la formacin de enlaces covalentes con estructuras de Lewis, frmulas estructurales y modelos moleculares de esfera y barras, entre otros. E.Q.1 Explica la diferencia entre los conceptos calor y temperatura. E.Q.1.1 Describe la temperatura y el flujo de calor en trminos del movimiento al azar y las vibraciones de los tomos y las molculas. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2 x

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

x x

E.Q.1.2 Connects the content of a materials thermic E.Q.1.2 Relaciona el contenido de energa trmica de energy with the movement of the particles of which it un material con el movimiento de las partculas que lo consists according to the kinetic molecular theory. constituyen de acuerdo a la teora cintico-molecular. E.Q.1.3 Explica el concepto temperatura en trminos E.Q.1.3 Explains the concept of temperature in terms del contenido de energa cintica promedio de las of the average kinetic energy content of the particles. partculas. E.Q.2 Explains the forms in which energy is manifested E.Q.2 Explica las formas como se manifiesta la energa and its transformations. y sus transformaciones.

x x

65

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) Expectativas de quimica E.Q.2.1 Identifica situaciones comunes donde la E.Q.2.1 Identifies common situations where energy is energa se transforma de una forma a otra, como por transformed from one form to another, like chemical ejemplo, de energa qumica a trmica y de lumnica a energy to thermal and light energy to electrical. elctrica. E.Q.2.2 Explicar cmo la estructura de las molculas y E.Q.2.2 Explains how molecular structure and chemical de los enlaces qumicos est asociada con la energa bonds are associated with chemical energy. qumica. E.Q.2.3 Uses and explains the operation of the E.Q.2.3 Utiliza y explica el funcionamiento de un calorimeter to measure absorbed and released energy. calormetro para medir energa absorbida o liberada. E.Q.2.4 Applies the law of conservation of energy to E.Q.2.4 Aplica la ley de conservacin de energa para explain its transformations from one form to another. explicar sus transformaciones de una forma a otra. E.Q.2.5 Explains how the transformation of matter to energy and vice versa is produced during a nuclear reaction by applying the equation E = mc2. E.Q.3 Evaluates the process that occurs during a chemical reaction in terms of transformations of chemical energy. E.Q.2.5 Explica cmo se produce la transformacin de materia en energa y viceversa durante una reaccin nuclear al aplicar la ecuacin E = mc2 E.Q.3 Evala el proceso que ocurre durante una reaccin qumica en trminos de las transformaciones de la energa qumica. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 x

E.Q.3.1 Explains how activation energy is necessary for E.Q.3.1 Explica cmo la energa de activacin es a chemical reaction to occur. necesaria para que una reaccin qumica ocurra. E.Q.3.2 Identifies chemical reactions that demonstrate E.Q.3.2 Identifica reacciones qumicas que demuestran the absorption and release of energy. la absorcin y liberacin de energa. E.Q.3.3 Relates potential chemical energy with the heat that is released or absorbed during a chemical reaction. E.Q.3.3 Relaciona la energa qumica potencial con el calor que se libera o se absorbe durante una reaccin qumica.

66

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) E.Q.3.4 Explains that the heat that is absorbed or released from a chemical reaction comes from the total energy involved in the process of forming and breaking bonds. Expectativas de quimica E.Q.3.4 Explica que el calor absorbido o liberado en una reaccin qumica proviene de la energa total involucrada en el proceso de formar y romper enlaces. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

E.Q.3.5 Calculates the quantity of absorbed or E.Q.3.5 Calcula la cantidad de calor absorbido o released heat of a substance or in a chemical reaction liberado por una sustancia o en una reaccin qumica when the temperature changes. cuando la temperatura cambia. E.Q.3.6 Explica la diferencia entre los conceptos E.Q.3.6 Explains the difference between the concepts entalpa, entropa y energa libre y cmo estos of enthalpy, entropy and free energy and how they determinan la espontaneidad de las reacciones determine the spontaneity of chemical reactions. qumicas. E.Q.3.7 Uses Hess Law to determine the change in E.Q.3.7 Utiliza la ley de Hess para determinar el enthalpy of a chemical reaction. cambio en entalpa de una reaccin qumica. E.Q.3.8 Evaluates new energy options such as E.Q.3.8 Evala nuevas opciones energticas tales como hydrogen, ethanol, carbon, waste incineration and el hidrgeno, etanol, carbn, incineracin de others, along with their economic and environmental desperdicios y otros, junto a sus implicaciones implications. econmicas y ambientales. I.Q.1 Recognizes that the structure of atoms in the result of interactions between subatomic particles: electrons, protons and neutrons. I.Q.1 Reconoce que la estructura de los tomos es consecuencia de la interaccin entre las partculas subatmicas: electrones, protones y neutrones. x

I.Q.1.1 Establishes the difference between subatomic I.Q.1.1 Establece la diferencia entre las partculas particles in terms of electric charge, mass and location subatmicas en trminos de carga elctrica, masa y inside the atom. ubicacin dentro del tomo. I.Q.1.2 Explains how the attraction between opposite I.Q.1.2 Explica cmo la atraccin entre cargas electrical charges (electrostatic forces) determines the elctricas opuestas (fuerzas electrostticas) determina structure of an atom. la estructura del tomo.

67

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) Expectativas de quimica Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 x Unit 4 Unit 5

I.Q.2 Establishes that ionic molecules and compounds I.Q.2 Establece que las molculas y los compuestos are formed as a consequence of the interactions inicos se forman como consecuencia de las between atoms. interacciones entre los tomos. I.Q.2.1 Identifies the interaction between electrons of I.Q.2.1 Identifica la interaccin entre los electrones de atoms as the causes of the formation of chemical los tomos como los causantes de la formacin de los bonds. enlaces qumicos. I.Q.2.2 Contrasts between the formation of a mixture and the occurrence of a chemical reaction, after the joining of two or more substances. I.Q.2.3 Compares and contrasts the process of formation of an ionic bond with that of a covalent bond. I.Q.2.4 Explains how the intermolecular interactions determine the physical and chemical properties of matter, like the state and polarity. I.Q.2.2 Contrasta entre la formacin de una mezcla o la ocurrencia de una reaccin qumica, luego de juntar dos o ms sustancias. I.Q.2.3 Compara y contrasta el proceso de formacin de un enlace inico con el de un enlace covalente. I.Q.2.4 Explica cmo las interacciones intermoleculares determinan las propiedades fsicas y qumicas de la materia, como por ejemplo el estado y la polaridad.

I.Q.3 Establece que todas las interacciones de la I.Q.3 Establishes that all interactions of matter involve materia implican transferencia de energa, de masa o the transference of energy, mass or both. ambas. I.Q.3.1 Explains the relationship between the structure I.Q.3.1 Explica la relacin entre la estructura de las of molecules, chemical bonds and chemical energy. molculas, los enlaces qumicos y la energa qumica. I.Q.4 Explica las reacciones qumicas como el proceso I.Q.4 Explains chemical reactions as the process where dnde los tomos se reorganizan a escala atoms are reorganized on a microscopic scale. microscpica. x

68

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) I.Q.4.1 Identifies and provides examples of evidence that indicates when a chemical reaction has occurred such as: bioluminescence, metal oxidation, fireworks and others. Expectativas de quimica I.Q.4.1 Identifica y provee ejemplos de evidencias que indican cundo ha ocurrido una reaccin qumica tal como: bioluminiscencia, oxidacin de metales, fuegos artificiales y otros. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

I.Q.4.2 Classifies chemical reactions and identifies the I.Q.4.2 Clasifica reacciones qumicas e identifica las characteristics that distinguish them. caractersticas que las distinguen. I.Q.4.3 Explains acid-base reactions and their application in chemical and biological processes. I.Q.4.4 Inquires about oxidation and reduction reactions, how they are manifested in natural processes and their applications in industry. I.Q.4.3 Explica las reacciones cido - base y su aplicacin en los procesos qumicos y biolgicos. I.Q.4.4 Inquiere sobre las reacciones de oxidacin y reduccin, cmo se manifiestan en los procesos naturales y sus aplicaciones en la industria.

I.Q.5 Analyzes the properties of solutions based on the I.Q.5 Analiza las propiedades de las soluciones a base properties of their components. de las propiedades de sus componentes. I.Q.5.1 Defines the concept of solubility to apply to the I.Q.5.1 Define el concepto solubilidad al aplicar la relationship between the quantities of solute and relacin entre las cantidades de soluto y disolvente solvent present in the solution. presente en la solucin. I.Q.5.2 Identifies the factors that affect the solubility of a solute in a solvent. I.Q.5.3 Explains the process of dissolution from the interaction between the particles of a solute and a solvent. I.Q.5.4 Relates the solubility of a substance to the intermolecular forces and the forces of attraction between solute and solvent. I.Q.5.2 Identifica los factores que afectan la solubilidad de un soluto en un disolvente. I.Q.5.3 Explica el proceso de solvatacin a partir de la interaccin entre las partculas del soluto y del disolvente. I.Q.5.4 Relaciona la solubilidad de una sustancia con las fuerzas intermoleculares y las fuerzas de atraccin entre soluto y disolvente.

x x

69

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) C.Q.1 Analyzes situations in which the total mass and energy of the universe are conserved. Expectativas de quimica C.Q.1 Analiza situaciones en las que el total de la masa y la energa del universo se conservan. C.Q.1.1 Identifica propiedades fundamentales de la C.Q.1.1 Identifies fundamental properties of matter materia que no cambian, tales como la carga del that do not change, such as the charge of an electron. electrn. C.Q.1.2 Applies the law of conservation of mass to describe the changes in a chemical reaction. C.Q.1.3 Represents chemical reactions with balanced equations. C.Q.1.4 Establishes that in a chemical reaction, the type and quantity of atoms are conserved although the form in which they are combined changes. C.Q.1.5 Applies the concept of a mole to calculate empirical, molecular and hydration formulas and stoichiometric relationships and to express the concentration of a solution. C.Q.1.6 Identifies stoichiometric relationships and calculates the theoretical yield and percent yield in balanced chemical equations. C.Q.2 Describes changes in behavior of the states of matter. C.Q.1.2 Aplica la ley de conservacin de masa para describir los cambios en una reaccin qumica. C.Q.1.3 Representa reacciones qumicas con ecuaciones balanceadas. C.Q.1.4 Establece que en una reaccin qumica el tipo y la cantidad de tomos se conservan aunque cambia la forma en que estn combinados. C.Q.1.5 Aplica el concepto mol para calcular frmulas empricas, moleculares y de hidratos y relaciones estequiomtricas y para expresar la concentracin de una solucin. C.Q.1.6 Identifica relaciones estequiomtricas y calcula el rendimiento terico y el por ciento de rendimiento en ecuaciones qumicas balanceadas. C.Q.2 Describe cambios en comportamiento de los estados de la materia. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2 x x

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

x x

x x

C.Q.2.1 Explains the phase changes of substances from C.Q.2.1 Explica los cambios de fase de las sustancias a the differences in energy content. partir de las diferencias en contenido de energa. C.Q.2.2 Applies mathematical equations to make conversions between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales. C.Q.2.2 Aplica ecuaciones matemticas para hacer conversiones entre las escalas de temperatura Celsius y Kelvin. x

70

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) C.Q.2.3 Describes and compares the crystalline structure and properties of different types of solids. C.Q.2.4 Relates the properties of liquids (viscosity, surface tension, capillary action and others) to intermolecular forces. Expectativas de quimica C.Q.2.3 Describe y compara la estructura cristalina y las propiedades de diferentes tipos de slidos. C.Q.2.4 Relaciona las propiedades de los lquidos (viscosidad, tensin superficial, accin capilar y otras) con las fuerzas intermoleculares. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 x Unit 5

C.Q.2.5 Explains the relationship between the volume C.Q.2.5 Explica la relacin entre el volumen de un gas, of a gas, the pressure and temperature in which it is la presin y temperatura en que se encuentre. found. C.Q.2.6 Aplica las leyes de los gases para explicar los C.Q.2.6 Applies the laws of gases to explain the effects efectos de los cambios en presin, temperatura y of changes in pressure, temperature and volume in volumen en situaciones como la construccin de situations like the construction of aerostats, climactic aerstatos, los cambios climticos y los tanques de changes and scuba tanks, among others. buceo, entre otras. C.Q.2.7 Explains how human activities contribute to the phenomenon of global warming and proposes alternatives to reduce them. C.Q.3 Analyzes the process through which chemical reactions maintain equilibrium. C.Q.2.7 Explica cmo las actividades humanas intervienen en el fenmeno del calentamiento global y propone alternativas para minimizar el mismo. x

C.Q.3 Analiza el proceso por el cual las reacciones qumicas mantienen el equilibrio. C.Q.3.1 Explica que una reaccin qumica ha llegado al C.Q.3.1 Explains that a chemical reaction has reached equilibrio cuando las reacciones directas e inversas equilibrium when direct and inverse (reversible) (reversible) ocurren reactions occur with equal speed. con igual rapidez. C.Q.3.2 Explica que hay equilibrios que se rompen C.Q.3.2 Explains that there are equilibriums that break cuando se perturban ms all de su lmite de when they are upset beyond their tolerance limit. tolerancia.

71

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Chemistry

Nature of science, experimentation and research Chemistry Expectations (English) C.Q.3.3 Identifies systems in equilibrium that, when disturbed, spontaneously reach a new state of equilibrium that applies to the Le Chatelier principle. Expectativas de quimica C.Q.3.3 Identifica sistemas en equilibrio que al perturbarse logran espontneamente una nueva situacin de equilibrio al aplicar el principio de Le Chatelier. Unit 1

## Concept of atoms and the periodic table Unit 2

Bonding Mixtures, Conservation and solutions, of mass and reactions and gas laws energy Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

x x

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) NC.F.1 Proposes solutions to problems using the method of inquiry based on scientific knowledge. NC.F.1.1 Recognizes that science is not necessarily confined to a laboratory. NC.F.1.2 Shows willingness to modify the students point of view before new evidence and if their ideas are questioned by their peers, they respect the ideas of others. NC.F.1.3 Communicates the values of measured data in the form of tables and graphs in order to analyze it and make predications and generalizations about it. NC.F.1.4 Describes the method of inquiry as a form of research. NC.F.1.5 Uses the method of inquiry to propose solutions to problems. NC.F.1.6 Elaborates conclusions based on findings from research. NC.F.2 Analyzes and evaluates scientific literature to determine the validity and reliability of a source of information. NC.F.2.1 Identifies valid and reliable sources of information. NC.F.2.2 Defines operationally the concepts of validity and reliability of data. NC.F.2.3 Discusses the quality of information available. Expectativas de fisica NC.F.1 Propone soluciones a problemas utilizando el mtodo de inquirir basndose en el conocimiento cientfico. NC.F.1.1 Reconoce que la ciencia no est confinada necesariamente a un laboratorio. NC.F.1.2 Muestra disposicin a modificar sus puntos de vista ante nueva evidencia y a que sus ideas sean cuestionadas por sus pares, adems de respetar las ideas de otros. NC.F.1.3 Comunica los valores de los datos medidos en forma de tablas y grficas para analizarlos y hace predicciones y generalizaciones sobre los mismos. NC.F.1.4 Describe el mtodo de inquirir como forma de investigar. NC.F.1.5 Utiliza el mtodo de inquirir para proponer soluciones a problemas. NC.F.1.6 Elabora conclusiones a base de los hallazgos de investigaciones. NC.F.2 Analiza y evala literatura cientfica para discriminar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de la fuente de informacin. NC.F.2.1 Identifica fuentes de informacin vlidas y confiables. NC.F.2.2 Define operacionalmente los conceptos validez y confiabilidad de los datos. NC.F.2.3 Argumenta sobre la calidad de la informacin disponible. Unit 1 x x Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5

x x x x x x x

93

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) NC.F.2.4 Writes reports about experiments and investigations using scientific writing techniques and appropriate styles of bibliographic citation. NC.F.3 Defines operationally the concept of physics based on its applications in daily life and lists areas related to these applications. NC.F.3.1 Explains why physics is a competitive discipline in the occupational world and identifies occupations and professions that are related to physics. NC.F.3.2 Identifies physics as a fundamental science for the other branches of science. NC.F.3.3 Explains how physics has impacted culture and cities throughout history. NC.F.3.4 Identifies the areas of study of physics such as mechanics, optics, thermodynamics and the relationship with activities that human beings perform. NC.F.4 Uses safe practices in the physics laboratory, in the research field and in the students daily life. NC.F.4.1 Demonstrates with actions that the laboratory is a place of serious work and safety. Expectativas de fisica NC.F.2.4 Redacta informes de experimentos e investigaciones al utilizar las tcnicas de redaccin cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. NC.F.3 Define operacionalmente el concepto Fsica a base de sus aplicaciones en la vida diaria y enumera reas de estudio relacionadas con la misma. NC.F.3.1 Explica por qu la Fsica es una disciplina de estudio competitiva en el mundo ocupacional e identifica los oficios y profesiones con las que est relacionada. NC.F.3.2 Identifica a la Fsica como una ciencia fundamental para las dems ramas de la ciencia. NC.F.3.3 Explica cmo la Fsica ha impactado la cultura de los pueblos a travs de la historia. NC.F.3.4 Identifica las reas de estudio de la Fsica tales como mecnica, ptica, termodinmica y las relacionas con actividades que realiza el ser humano. NC.F.4 Utiliza prcticas de seguridad en los laboratorios de Fsica, en el campo de la investigacin y lo incorpora a su diario vivir. NC.F.4.1 Demuestra con acciones que el laboratorio es un lugar de trabajo serio y seguro. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5

x x

94

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) NC.F.4.2 Identifies safety symbols in the laboratory and understands their significance. NC.F.4.3 Manipulates measurement instruments of voltage, power, current, and other laboratory equipment with care to avoid physical or electric damage to the equipment. NC.F.4.4 Applies knowledge of movement of projectiles to make responsible decisions and avoid the launching of objects into the air like eggs or rocks. Expectativas de fisica NC.F.4.2 Identifica los smbolos de seguridad en el laboratorio y entiende su significado. NC.F.4.3 Manipula los instrumentos de medir voltaje, potencia, corriente y otro equipo de laboratorio con cuidado para evitar dao fsico o elctrico del equipo. NC.F.4.4 Aplica el conocimiento del movimiento de proyectiles para tomar decisiones responsables y as evitar el lanzamiento de objetos al aire tales como tiros, huevos o piedras. NC.F.5 Representa las propiedades fsicas de la materia con unidades estndar y utiliza las matemticas para establecer conexiones entre stas, los resultados experimentales y el conocimiento cientfico tecnolgico. NC.F.5.1 Explica el uso de los diferentes instrumentos de laboratorio tales como metro, caliper vernier, balanza, dinammetro, probeta, cronmetro, termmetro y otros. NC.F.5.2 Expresa las medidas con las unidades correspondientes segn el instrumento. NC.F.5.3 Mide propiedades de forma apropiada empleando las unidades SI. NC.F.5.4 Expresa y explica los datos cientficos con exactitud y precisin aplicando los dgitos significativos en sus medidas y clculos. Unit 1 x Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5

NC.F.5 Represents the physical properties of matter in standard units and uses mathematics to establish connections between these, experimental results and scientific-technological knowledge. NC.F.5.1 Explains the use of different laboratory instruments such as a meter, caliper vernier, balance, dynamometer, test tube, chronometer, thermometer and more. NC.F.5.2 Expresses measurement with units corresponding to the instrument. NC.F.5.3 Measures properties in an appropriate form employing the SI units. NC.F.5.4 Expresses and explains scientific data with accuracyand precision, applying significant digitsin the students measurements and calculations.

x x

95

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) NC.F.6 Recognizes that scientific knowledge is sustained by theories, laws and principles. NC.F.6.1 Describes and predicts natural phenomena such as the movement of celestial bodies, relative movement and more. NC.F.6.2 Establishes connections between theories, laws, and principles to explain the functioning of a motor, flight of a plane, optical fiber, and many other technological objects. NC.F.6.3 Establishes connections between theories, laws, and principles to explain natural phenomena such as as hurricanes, earthquakes, climate changes, marine currents, thermal springs, landslides, thunderstorms, rainbows among others. Expectativas de fisica NC.F.6 Reconoce que el conocimiento cientfico se sostiene sobre teoras, leyes y principios. NC.F.6.1 Describe y predice fenmenos naturales tales como movimiento de los cuerpos celestes, movimiento relativo y otros. NC.F.6.2 Establece conexiones entre las teoras, leyes y principios para explicar el funcionamiento de un motor, vuelo de un avin, fibra ptica o cualquier otro adelanto tecnolgico. NC.F.6.3 Establece conexiones entre las teoras, leyes y principios para explicar fenmenos naturales tales como huracanes, terremotos, cambios climticos, corrientes marinas, aguas termales, deslizamientos, tormentas elctricas y arco iris entre otros. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3 x x

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5

NC.F.6.4 Establishes connections between theories, laws and principles to explain events and activities of daily life such as a game of baseball, tennis, athletic competition, parachuting or playing an instrument.

NC.F.6.4 Establece conexiones entre las teoras, leyes y principios para explicar eventos y actividades de la vida diaria tales como un juego de baseball, tenis, competencia atltica, paracaidismo o tocar un instrumento. NC.F.6.5 Demonstrates that the student values the NC.F.6.5 Demuestra que valora la aportacin de contributions of scientists such as Galileo, Newton, cientficos tales como Galileo, Newton y Einstein al and Einstein in the development of theories, laws and desarrollo de teoras, leyes y principios. principles. NC.F.7 Employs technology as a tool in daily science NC.F.7 Emplea la tecnologa como herramienta en el work and explains how this impacts quality of life. quehacer cientfico y explica con ejemplos cmo sta impacta la calidad de vida.

96

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) NC.F.7.1 Identifies the risks and benefits that scientific, economic, and technological developments have on society. NC.F.7.2 Identifies examples of how the applications of science and technology have affected the economy and quality of life. NC.F.7.3 Discusses with valid arguments the ethical and moral implications that contemporary scientists and technology have in society. NC.F.7.4 Makes connections between what is studied in the course of physics and the activities of daily life such as airbags in automobiles, lighting of houses, or rides at the fair. NC.F.8 Designs or constructs technology for the study or solution of problems that affect society such as: apparatus to reduce consumption, conserving or using alternate sources of energy, controlling changes in temperature, detecting natural phenomena or making the lives of sick people easier, removing impediments, or more. Expectativas de fisica NC.F.7.1 Identifica los riesgos y beneficios que tiene el desarrollo cientfico, econmico y tecnolgico para la sociedad. NC.F.7.2 Identifica ejemplos en los que las aplicaciones de la ciencia y la tecnologa han afectado la economa y la calidad de vida. NC.F.7.3 Discute con argumentos vlidos las implicaciones ticas y morales que tienen los adelantos cientficos y tecnolgicos en la sociedad. NC.F.7.4 Hace conexiones entre los que estudia en el curso de fsica y las actividades de la vida diaria tales como las bolsas de aire en los automviles, iluminacin del hogar o mquinas de diversin en la feria o fiesta patronal. NC.F.8 Disea o construye tecnologa para el estudio o solucin de problemas que afectan a la sociedad como por ejemplo, aparatos para reducir el consumo, conservar o usar fuentes alternas de energa, controlar cambios de temperatura, detectar fenmenos naturales o facilitar la vida de personas enfermas o con impedimentos y otros. Unit 1 x Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5

97

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) NC.F.8.1 Investigating different sources of energy, their origin and classification such as solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaics energy, geothermal energy, windpower energy, biomass energy and energy from the oceans (tidal energy, oceanic thermal energy, and energy from waves). Expectativas de fisica NC.F.8.1 Investiga sobre las diferentes fuentes de energa, su origen y clasificacin tales como energa solar trmica, energa solar fotovoltaica, energa geotrmica, energa elica, biomasa y energa de los mares (energa de las mareas, energa trmica ocenica y energa de las olas). Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5

NC.F.8.2 Evaluates the possibility of implementing different sources of energy in terms of cost effectiveness, environmental effects, location, and public politics related to Puerto Rico.

NC.F.8.2 Evala las posibilidades de implantar las diferentes fuentes de energa en trminos de costo efectividad, efectos ambientales, ubicacin y poltica pblica relacionada con Puerto Rico. NC.F.8.3 Proposes or designs technology for the study NC.F.8.3 Propone o disea tecnologa para el estudio o of different sources of energy and considers the uso de las diferentes fuentes de energa y considera results of the research. los resultados de su investigacin. NC.F.8.4 Identifies elements in the students daily life NC.F.8.4 Identifica elementos en su diario vivir tales such as parts of vehicles, assistant equipment or home como piezas de vehculos, equipo de ayuda a equipment to help incapacitated people live better discapacitados o enseres del and designs or constructs prototypes to scale. hogar que puedan ser mejorados y disea o construye prototipos a escala. EM.F.1 Applies the kinetic molecular theory in daily situations to describe the states of matter. EM.F.1.1 Compares solids, liquids, gases, and plasma on a microscopic level and relates their properties to their structures. EM.F.1 Aplica la teora cintica molecular en situaciones cotidianas para describir los estados de la materia. EM.F.1.1 Compara slidos, lquidos, gases y plasma en un nivel microscpico y relaciona sus propiedades con sus estructuras. x

98

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) EM.F.1.2 Explains what fluids are and describes how they create pressure on a surface. EM.F.2 Describes matter in terms of fundamental particles and differences between them. EM.F.2.1 Identifies an electrical phenomenon as a manifestation of the charges in subatomic particles: protons and neutrons. Expectativas de fisica EM.F.1.2 Explica lo que son los fluidos y describe cmo stos crean presin sobre una superficie. EM.F.2 Describe la materia en trminos de las partculas fundamentales y diferencia entre stas. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4 x

Waves Unit 5

EM.F.2.1 Identifica el fenmeno elctrico como una manifestacin de las cargas en las partculas subatmicas: los protones y neutrones. EM.F.2.2 Explains the concept of electric charge, EM.F.2.2 Explica los conceptos de carga elctrica, electric current, electric potential, electric field, and corriente elctrica, potencial elctrico, campo elctrico magnetic field. y campo magntico. EM.F.2.3 Explains the interactions between EM.F.2.3 Explica la interaccin entre las cargas electrostatic charges using the laws of Coulomb. electrostticas utilizando las leyes de Coulomb. EM.F.2.4 Compares the electric and magnetic forces in EM.F.2.4 Compara las fuerzas elctricas y magnticas regard to their fields and their relationship with the en cuanto al concepto de campo y su relacin con las charges in movement. cargas en movimiento. SM.F.1 Expresses scientific information and behavior of nature in varied forms: pictograms, graphs, verbal and mathematic expressions. SM.F.1 Expresa la informacin cientfica y el comportamiento de la naturaleza en formas variadas: pictogramas, grficas, verbal y expresiones matemticas. SM.F.1.1 Describes the different types of movement in SM.F.1.1 Describe los diferentes tipos de movimiento verbal, graphical and mathematical form. de forma verbal, grfica y matemtica. SM.F.1.2 Draws diagrams of movement to describe the movement of the body. SM.F.1.3 Describes the relative movement of the body by using reference points. SM.F.1.2 Dibuja diagramas de movimiento para describir el movimiento de un cuerpo. SM.F.1.3 Describe el movimiento relativo de los cuerpos al utilizar marcos de referencia. x

x x x

x x x

99

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) SM.F.1.4 Constructs mathematic models that represent the relationships between variables of an experiment that are linear, quadratic, and inverse to one another. SM.F.1.5 Represents and calculates the magnitude and direction of various quantities of vectors through diagrams. SM.F.2 Employs the laws of Newton together with kinetic equations to predict the movement of an object. SM.F.2.1 Represents the forces that act on the body with a diagram of the free body. SM.F.2.2 Represents the magnitude, direction, sum of forces and forces in equilibrium with the use of vectors. SM.F.3 Analyzes compound machines and describes them in terms of simple machines. SM.F.3.1 Compares simple and compound machines. SM.F.3.2 Uses equations to calculate the ADVANTAGE (ventaja) and mechanical efficiency. SM.F.4 Applies the kinetic-molecular model to explain physical changes in matter. SM.F.4.1 Describes the kinetic molecular model. SM.F.4.2 Explains the processes of evaporation, condensation, expansion and contraction from models of particles. SM.F.5 Uses models to explain the behavior of waves. Expectativas de fisica SM.F.1.4 Construye el modelo matemtico que representa la relacin entre las variables de un experimento ya sea lineal, cuadrtica e inversa entre otras. SM.F.1.5 Representa y calcula la magnitud y direccin de algunas cantidades vectoriales mediante diagramas. SM.F.2 Emplea las leyes de Newton junto con las ecuaciones de cintica para predecir el movimiento de un objeto. SM.F.2.1 Representa las fuerzas que actan sobre un cuerpo con un diagrama de cuerpo libre. SM.F.2.2 Representa la magnitud, direccin, suma de fuerzas y fuerzas en equilibrio con el uso de vectores. SM.F.3 Analiza las mquinas compuestas y las describe en trminos de mquinas simples. SM.F.3.1 Compara las mquinas simples y compuestas. SM.F.3.2 Utiliza ecuaciones para calcular la ventaja y la eficiencia mecnica. SM.F.4 Aplica el modelo cintico-molecular para explicar cambios fsicos en la materia. SM.F.4.1 Describe el modelo cintico molecular. SM.F.4.2 Explica los procesos de evaporacin, condensacin, expansin y contraccin a travs de modelos de partculas. SM.F.5 Utiliza modelos para explicar el comportamiento de las ondas. Unit 1 x Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5

x x x x x x x x

100

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) SM.F.5.1 Discusses how wave models and particle models explain the properties of visible light. SM.F.5.2 Locates images in mirrors and lenses using ray diagrams. SM.F.5.3 Calculates the location and size of images in mirrors and lenses. SM.F.5.4 Recognizes that the utility of models is limited by their complexity. SM.F.6 Designs, constructs, and explains the functioning of electric circuits. SM.F.6.1 Represents with diagrams, series, parallel and combined circuits. SM.F.6.2 Explains the functioning of various electric circuits. E.F.1. Applies the law of conservation of energy to predict the result of a transformation. E.F.1.1 Classifies energy as kinetic or potential and contrasts the different types such as thermic, chemical, nuclear, electromagnetic and mechanic. Expectativas de fisica SM.F.5.1 Discute cmo los modelos de onda y de partcula explican las propiedades de la luz visible. SM.F.5.2 Localiza imgenes en espejos y lentes al usar diagramas de rayos. SM.F.5.3 Calcula la ubicacin y tamao de imgenes en espejos y lentes. SM.F.5.4 Reconoce que la utilidad de los modelos est limitada por su complejidad. SM.F.6 Disea, construye y explica el funcionamiento de circuitos elctricos. SM.F.6.1 Representa con diagramas, circuitos en serie, en paralelo y circuitos combinados. SM.F.6.2 Explica el funcionamiento de diversos circuitos elctricos. E.F.1 Aplica la ley de la conservacin de la energa para predecir el resultado de una transformacin. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5 x x x x

x x x x

E.F.1.1 Clasifica la energa como cintica o potencial y contrasta los diferentes tipos tales como trmica, qumica, nuclear, electromagntica y mecnica. E.F.1.2 Analyzes situations in which transformations of E.F.1.2 Analiza situaciones en las que ocurren gravitational potential energy to kinetic energy occur transformaciones de energa potencial gravitatoria a and vice versa. cintica y viceversa. E.F.2 Explains the relationship between energy, work and potential. E.F.2.1 Identifies the conditions in which a force creates work. E.F.2 Explica la relacin entre la energa, el trabajo y la potencia. E.F.2.1 Identifica las condiciones bajo las cuales una fuerza realiza trabajo.

x x

101

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) E.F.2.2 Calculates the work created by a force applied horizontally, vertically, or at an angle. E.F.2.3 Explains the work-energy theorem. E.F.2.4 Compares and contrasts the concepts of work and power. E.F.2.5 Relates the concepts of energy, work, and power. E.F.3 Explains the laws of thermodynamics. E.F.3.1 Describes the nature of thermal energy and how it is distinguished from temperature. E.F.3.2 Recognizes that heat flows depending on differences in temperature. E.F.3.3 Completes temperature conversions with the use of the Celsius and Kelvin scales. E.F.3.4 Explains the concept of specific heat. E.F.3.5 Calculates the quantity of heat gained or lost from one substance to another using the equation q = mc p T. E.F.3.6 Predicts the behavior of simple systems by applying the equations of the laws of thermodynamics. E.F.3.7 Identifies practical applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. E.F.4 Analyzes the behavior of waves as a phenomenon of the transfer of energy. E.F.4.1 Describes the transfer of energy in mechanical waves. E.F.4.2 Identifies electromagnetic radiation as a type of wave capable of transferring energy. Expectativas de fisica E.F.2.2 Calcula el trabajo realizado por una fuerza aplicada horizontal, vertical o en ngulo. E.F.2.3 Explica el teorema trabajo energa. E.F.2.4 Compara y contrasta los conceptos trabajo y potencia. E.F.2.5 Relaciona los conceptos energa, trabajo y potencia. E.F.3 Explica las leyes de la termodinmica. E.F.3.1 Describe la naturaleza de la energa trmica y cmo se distingue de la temperatura. E.F.3.2 Reconoce que el calor fluye debido a la diferencia en la temperatura. E.F.3.3 Realiza conversiones de temperatura con el uso de las escalas Celsius y Kelvin. E.F.3.4 Explica el concepto calor especfico. E.F.3.5 Calcula la cantidad de calor ganada o perdida de una sustancia a otra al utilizar la ecuacin q = mc p T. E.F.3.6 Predice el comportamiento de sistemas simples al aplicar las ecuaciones de las leyes de termodinmica. E.F.3.7 Identifica aplicaciones prcticas de la primera y segunda ley de termodinmica. E.F.4 Analiza el comportamiento de las ondas como un fenmeno de transferencia de energa. E.F.4.1 Describe la transferencia de energa en las ondas mecnicas. E.F.4.2 Identifica la radiacin electromagntica como un tipo de onda capaz de transferir energa. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5

x x x

x x x x x

102

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) E.F.4.3 Explains the origin and potential risks of electromagnetic radiation. I.F.1 Uses the relationship between force, energy and work to predict the results of interactions between objects. I.F.1.1 Identifies forces that change mechanical state. Expectativas de fisica E.F.4.3 Explica el origen y los riesgos potenciales de las radiaciones electromagnticas. I.F.1 Utiliza la relacin entre la fuerza, la energa y el trabajo para predecir los resultados de las interacciones entre objetos. I.F.1.1 Identifica las fuerzas como causantes del cambio en el estado mecnico. x Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5 x

x x

I.F.1.2 Lists the four fundamental forces and illustrates I.F.1.2 Enumera las cuatro fuerzas fundamentales e the environment in which each one can be observed. ilustra el ambiente en el cual se puede observar cada una. I.F.1.3 Defines operationally some type of force such I.F.1.3 Define operacionalmente algunos tipos de as friction, normal force, push, tension and weight. fuerza tales como la friccin, fuerza normal, de empuje, tensin y peso. I.F.1.4 Explains the difference between contact forces I.F.1.4 Explica la diferencia entre fuerzas de contacto y and forces at a distance. fuerzas de largo alcance. I.F.1.5 Explains that the concept of inertia is related to I.F.1.5 Explica que el concepto inercia est relacionado mass (quantity of matter). con la masa (cantidad de materia). I.F.1.6 Establishes the difference between the I.F.1.6 Establece la diferencia entre los conceptos masa concepts of mass and weight. y peso. I.F.1.7 Explains the laws of Newton (primary, I.F.1.7 Explica las leyes de Newton (primera, segunda, secondary, tertiary and universal gravitation) and tercera y gravitacin universal) e identifica sus identifies their applications in situations of everyday aplicaciones en situaciones life. del quehacer diario. I.F.2 Describes how forces within a material affect its behavior. I.F.2 Describe cmo las fuerzas dentro de un material afectan su comportamiento.

x x x x

103

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) I.F.2.1 Relates the principles of Pascal, Archimedes, and Bernoulli to various everyday events such as hydraulic systems, submarines and aerodynamics. I.F.2.2 Explains the properties of superficial tension and action in liquids. I.F.2.3 Describe the effects of expansion and contraction in solids. I.F.3 Relates the Kepler planetary laws of movement with the laws of Newton. I.F.3.1 Uses the laws of movement to describe the movement of the planets and satellites. I.F.4 Describes the propogation of waves through the use of the properties of amplitude, wavelength, frequency and velocity. I.F.4.1 Identifies practical uses of waves such as seismic data, acoustic effects and the Doppler Effect. I.F.4.2 Distinguishes between types of mechanical waves: transversal and longitudinal. I.F.4.3 Considers knowledge of the nature of sound waves and the properties that they share with other types of waves. I.F.4.4. Describes the effects of interference that comes from the propagation of various waves using the principles of superposition. Expectativas de fisica I.F.2.1 Relaciona los principios de Pascal, Arqumedes y Bernoulli con algunos eventos cotidianos como sistemas hidrulicos, los submarinos y la aerodinmica. I.F.2.2 Explica las propiedades de tensin superficial y accin capilar en los lquidos. I.F.2.3 Describe los efectos de la expansin y contraccin en los slidos. I.F.3 Relaciona las leyes del movimiento planetario de Kepler con las leyes de Newton. I.F.3.1 Utiliza las leyes de movimiento para describir el movimiento planetario y de los satlites. I.F.4 Describe la propagacin de las ondas mediante el uso de las propiedades de amplitud, longitud de onda, frecuencia y velocidad. I.F.4.1 Identifica usos prcticos de las ondas tales como en datos ssmicos, efectos acsticos y efecto Doppler. I.F.4.2 Distingue entre los tipos de onda mecnica: transversal y longitudinal. I.F.4.3 Plantea conocimiento de la naturaleza de las ondas sonoras y de las propiedades que comparten con otros tipos de ondas. I.F.4.4 Describe los efectos de interferencia que surgen de la propagacin de varias ondas al utilizar los principios de superposicin. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5

x x x x

104

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) I.F.4.5 Explains the reflection, refraction, diffraction, polarization, transformation and absorption as manifestations of the interactions between waves and matter. I.F.5 Describes the interaction between electric fields, magnetic fields and matter. I.F.5.1 Explains how electrically charged objects exercise the force of attraction as much as the force of repulsion. I.F.5.2 Describes the properties of magnets and the origin of magnetism in some materials. I.F.5.3 Compares and contrasts the concepts of an electric field and a magnetic field. C.F.1 Explains why changes of state do not change the composition of matter. C.F.1.1 Describes changes of state of matter such as fusion and evaporation due to changes in temperature. C.F.1.2. Explains the concepts of the fusion point, boiling point, freezing point, heat of fusion, and heat of vaporization. C.F.2 Expresses some physical processes that occur as a result of change in temperature. C.F.2.1 Represents graphically and analyzes the relationship between the change in position of an object and temperature. C.F.2.2 Explains and contrasts the concepts of velocity, acceleration, and free fall. C.F.2.3 Describes the movement of an object over an inclined plane. Expectativas de fisica I.F.4.5 Explica la reflexin, refraccin, difraccin, polarizacin, transformacin y absorcin como manifestaciones de las interacciones entre las ondas y la materia. I.F.5 Describe la interaccin entre los campos elctricos, los campos magnticos y la materia. I.F.5.1 Explica cmo los objetos cargados elctricamente ejercen fuerzas tanto de atraccin como de repulsin. I.F.5.2 Describe las propiedades de los imanes y el origen del magnetismo en algunos materiales. I.F.5.3 Compara y contrasta los conceptos campo elctrico y campo magntico. C.F.1 Explica por qu los cambios de estado no varan la composicin de la materia. C.F.1.1 Describe los cambios de estado de la materia tales como la fusin y la evaporacin debido a los cambios de temperatura. C.F.1.2 Explica los conceptos punto de fusin, punto de ebullicin, punto de congelacin, calor de fusin y calor de vaporizacin. C.F.2 Expresa algunos procesos fsicos como la razn de cambio por unidad de tiempo. C.F.2.1 Representa grficamente y analiza la relacin entre el cambio en la posicin de un objeto y el tiempo. C.F.2.2 Explica y contrasta los conceptos velocidad, aceleracin y cada libre. C.F.2.3 Describe el movimiento de un objeto sobre un plano inclinado. Unit 1 Unit 2 Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

Waves Unit 5 x

x x x x x x

x x x x x

105

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) C.F.2.4 Represents graphically and describes the movement of a projectile. C.F.2.5 Describes circular uniform movement. C.F.2.6 Explains the effect of the force of gravity on simple harmonic motion. C.F.3 Explains the concept of equilibrium applied to forces that act on the body. C.F.3.1 Describes the conditions in which two or more forces are in equilibrium. C.F.3.2 Explains how tension is produced in ropes, cords and more. C.F.4 Explains conservation of total momentum of a system in fundamental collisions based on the law of conservation of momentum. C.F.4.1 Explains and provides examples in which the concepts of impulse and momentum apply. C.F.4.2 Applies the impulse-momentum theorem in situations such as automobile collisions and sports. Expectativas de fisica C.F.2.4 Representa grficamente y describe el movimiento de un proyectil. C.F.2.5 Describe el movimiento circular uniforme. C.F.2.6 Explica el efecto de la fuerza de gravedad en el movimiento armnico simple. C.F.3 Explica el concepto equilibrio aplicado a las fuerzas que actan sobre un cuerpo. C.F.3.1 Describe las condiciones en que dos o ms fuerzas estn en equilibrio. C.F.3.2 Explica cmo se produce la tensin en sogas, cuerdas y y otros. C.F.4 Explica la conservacin del momentum total de un sistema en las colisiones fundamentado en la ley de conservacin de momentum. C.F.4.1 Explica y provee ejemplos en que se aplican los conceptos impulso y momentum. Unit 1 Unit 2 x x x x x x Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5

C.F.4.2 Aplica el teorema impulso momentum en situaciones tales como choques de automviles y deportes. C.F.4.3 Establishes differences between elastic shock, C.F.4.3 Establece diferencia entre los choques inelastic shock, and explosions. elsticos, inelsticos y las explosiones. C.F.5 Describes conditions in which the total mass and C.F.5 Describe las condiciones bajo las cuales el total energy of the universe is conserved. de la masa y la energa del universo se conservan. C.F.5.1 Explains the transformations of energy based on the law of conservation of energy. C.F.5.1 Explica las transformaciones de la energa fundamentada en la ley de conservacin de energa.

x x x

106

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Physics

Nature of science, Structure and critical thinking and organization levels inquiry of matter Physics Expectations (Science) Expectativas de fisica Unit 1 Unit 2 C.F.5.2 Explains how human activities influence the C.F.5.2 Explica cmo las actividades humanas effect of global warming and proposes alternatives to intervienen en el efecto del calentamiento global y minimize it. propone alternativas para minimizar el mismo. Energy transfer and transformations Unit 6

Motion Unit 3

## Work, energy and power Unit 4

Waves Unit 5

107

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.1 Applies mathematical skills and processes of science in the use of the scientific method. NC.A.1.1 Uses standard units of the International System of Measurement to represent and describe environmental parameters.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.1 Aplica destrezas matemticas y los procesos de la ciencia en el uso de la metodologa cientfica. NC.A.1.1 Utiliza unidades estndar del Sistema Internacional de Medidas para representar y describir parmetros ambientales.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

NC.A.1.2 Applies measurement skills and processes for NC.A.1.2 Aplica las destrezas de medicin y los compiling and interpreting environmental parameters procesos para recopilar e interpretar parmetros and considers the possible sources of error. ambientales y considera las posibles fuentes de error. NC.A.1.3 Expresses and explains scientific data with accuracy and precision. NC.A.1.4 Uses mathematical models to describe, explain and predict natural patterns. NC.A.1.3 Expresa y explica los datos cientficos con exactitud y precisin. NC.A.1.4 Usa modelos matemticos para describir, explicar y predecir patrones naturales.

x x

NC.A.1.5 Recognizes that scientific hypotheses should NC.A.1.5 Reconoce que las hiptesis cientficas deben be submitted for objective confirmation to be someterse a confirmacin emprica para ser aceptadas accepted or rejected. o rechazadas. NC.A.2 Uses the scientific method and scientific knowledge to describe and explain nature. NC.A.2.1 Analyzes situations and makes decisions about environmental problems individually and in a group. NC.A.2.2 Proposes effective ways to raise awareness and promote possible solutions to environmental problems such as air, soil and water contamination, waste management, the protection of species and resources as well as sustainable development. NC.A.2 Utiliza la metodologa y el conocimiento cientfico para describir y explicar la naturaleza. NC.A.2.1 Analiza situaciones y toma decisiones individuales y grupales ante los problemas ambientales. NC.A.2.2 Propone formas efectivas para concienciar y promover posibles soluciones a problemas ambientales tales como contaminacin de aire, suelo, agua, manejo de desperdicios, proteccin de especies y recursos al igual que el desarrollo sostenible.

108

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.2.3 Discusses the sociocultural and environmental implications of socioeconomic development due to the change of an agricultural society to an industrial, technological and knowledgeable one. NC.A.2.4 Develops individual conclusions based on the analysis of findings in the investigations. NC.A.3 Uses safety practices in the laboratories, field activities and in the investigation.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.2.3 Discute las implicaciones socioculturales y ambientales del desarrollo socioeconmico debido al cambio de una sociedad agrcola a una industrial, tecnolgico y de conocimiento. NC.A.2.4 Elabora sus propias conclusiones a base del anlisis de los hallazgos en investigaciones.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

NC.A.3 Utiliza prcticas de seguridad en los laboratorios, actividades de campo y en la investigacin. NC.A.3.1 Uses safety materials for personal protection NC.A.3.1 Usa materiales de seguridad para proteccin like safety goggles, apron, gloves, appropriate clothing personal como gafas, delantal, guantes, vestimenta and others. adecuada y otros. NC.A.3.2 Knows how to manage safety equipment NC.A.3.2 Conoce el manejo de equipo de seguridad such as the fire extinguisher, gas extractor and others. tales como extintor, extractor de gases y otros. NC.A.3.3 Applies and explains the correct procedure in NC.A.3.3 Aplica y explica el procedimiento correcto en using available scientific apparatus in the laboratory. el uso de los aparatos cientficos disponibles en el laboratorio. NC.A.3.4 Knows and applies the standard safety rules NC.A.3.4 Conoce y aplica las reglas de seguridad in the laboratory and in field work. estndar en el laboratorio y en el trabajo de campo. NC.A.3.5 Knows and applies correct procedures for the NC.A.3.5 Conoce y aplica procedimientos correctos collection and manipulation of water, soil and air para la recoleccin y manipulacin de muestras de samples. agua, suelo y aire. NC.A.3.6 Applies correct protocols to identify and report safety problems and violations. NC.A.3.6 Aplica protocolos correctos para identificar e informar problemas y violaciones a la seguridad.

109

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.3.7 Explains the correct processes of using and managing chemical substances to avoid harmful accidents to the students health and the environment. NC.A.4 Recognizes that environmental science different areas of science in an integrated way.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.3.7 Explica el proceso correcto del uso y manejo de las sustancias qumicas para evitar accidentes perjudiciales a la salud y al ambiente.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

NC.A.4 Reconoce que las ciencias ambientales se nutren de diversas reas de las ciencias de manera integrada. NC.A.4.1 Examines the historical development of NC.A.4.1 Examina el desarrollo histrico de la environmental education. educacin ambiental. NC.A.4.2 Identifies professions related to the study of NC.A.4.2 Identifica profesiones relacionadas al estudio the conservation of the environment. y conservacin del ambiente. NC.A.4.3 Establishes the relationship of the NC.A.4.3 Establece la relacin de las Ciencias environmental science with other branches of science Ambientales con otras ramas de la ciencia como la like chemistry, physics, biology and geology. qumica, fsica, biologa y geologa. NC.A.4.4 Identifies and defines the general concepts related to environmental science. NC.A.4.5 Values environmental education individually and collectively. NC.A.5 Demonstrates with specific actions that the student values the conservation of the environment for every species of organism. NC.A.5.1 Identifies the impact to the environment brought on by deforestation, the introduction of species and endangered species. NC.A.5.2 Evaluates the efforts at a local and international level for counteracting the greenhouse effect and it relationship to global warming. NC.A.4.4 Identifica y define los conceptos generales relacionados a las ciencias ambientales. NC.A.4.5 Valora individual y colectivamente la educacin ambiental. NC.A.5 Demuestra con acciones especficas que valora la conservacin del ambiente para todas las especies de organismos. NC.A.5.1 Identifica el impacto al ambiente provocado por la deforestacin, introduccin de especies y las especies en peligro de extincin. NC.A.5.2 Evala los esfuerzos a nivel local e internacional para contrarrestar el efecto de invernadero y su relacin con el calentamiento global.

x x

x x

110

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.5.3 Shows creativity and collaborates in group work by responsibly selecting alternatives that promote environmental solutions and situations in the community. NC.A.5.4 Recognizes and values the importance and necessity of environmental struggles in Puerto Rico. NC.A.5.5 Examines and evaluates environmental laws and the effectiveness of governmental agencies.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.5.3 Muestra creatividad y colabora en el trabajo de grupo al seleccionar responsablemente alternativas que promuevan soluciones a situaciones ambientales en la comunidad. NC.A.5.4 Reconoce y valora la importancia y necesidad de las luchas ambientales en Puerto Rico. NC.A.5.5 Examina y evala leyes ambientales y la efectividad de las agencias gubernamentales.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

NC.A.5.6 Affirms the students Puerto Rican identity by NC.A.5.6 Afirma su identidad puertorriquea mediante studying the geography and topography of the island. el estudio de la geografa y topografa de la isla. NC.A.5.7 Proposes alternatives to solve various problems related to agriculture. NC.A.5.8 Analyzes the impact of the exploitation and use of mineral and fossil resources on the environment. NC.A.6 Identifies, evaluates and argues critically about different sources of information to determine the ethical and moral implications that scientific, economic and technological development have for society. NC.A.6.1 Reads, understands, analyzes and evaluates scientific literature to determine the validity and reliability of a source of information. NC.A.5.7 Propone alternativas para solucionar algunos problemas relacionados con la agricultura. NC.A.5.8 Analiza el impacto de la explotacin y uso de los recursos mineros y recursos fsiles en el ambiente. NC.A.6 Identifica, evala y argumenta de manera crtica sobre las diversas fuentes de informacin para determinar las implicaciones ticas y morales que tiene el desarrollo cientfico, econmico y tecnolgico para la sociedad. NC.A.6.1 Lee, comprende, analiza y evala literatura cientfica para discriminar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de la fuente de informacin.

111

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.6.2 Drafts reports of experiments and investigations using scientific writing techniques and correct bibliographic indexing styles. NC.A.6.3 Analyzes how the misuse of technology can create problems and cause damage to living things and the environment. NC.A.6.4 Infers that advances in science are the result of contributions from scientific communities. NC.A.7 Applies scientific advances and emergent technology in a critical and responsible way to solve environmental problems. NC.A.7.1 Uses technology as a tool in scientific work. NC.A.7.2 Explains with examples how technology impacts the quality of life from an economic, social and environmental point of view. NC.A.7.3 Evaluates the relationship between the economic and social development of Puerto Rico and their relation to the natural environment. NC.A.7.4 Analyzes the impact of scientific and technological changes on agriculture. NC.A.7.5 Analyzes the impact of agriculture on the environment.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.6.2 Redacta informes de experimentos e investigaciones al utilizar las tcnicas de redaccin cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. NC.A.6.3 Analiza cmo el mal uso de la tecnologa puede crear problemas y perjudicar a los seres vivos y al ambiente. NC.A.6.4 Infiere que los avances de la ciencia son el resultado de las aportaciones de las comunidades cientficas. NC.A.7 Aplica los adelantos cientficos y la tecnologa emergente de manera crtica y responsable para la solucin de problemas ambientales. NC.A.7.1 Emplea la tecnologa como herramienta en el quehacer cientfico. NC.A.7.2 Explica con ejemplos cmo la tecnologa impacta la calidad de vida desde el punto de vista econmico, social y ambiental. NC.A.7.3 Evala la relacin entre el desarrollo econmico y social de Puerto Rico y su relacin con el ambiente natural. NC.A.7.4 Analiza el impacto de los cambios cientficos y tecnolgicos sobre la agricultura. NC.A.7.5 Analiza el impacto de la agricultura en el ambiente.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

x x

x x

112

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) Natural Science Expectations NC.A.7.6 Proposes or designs technology that NC.A.7.6 Propone o disea tecnologa que contribuya contributes to controlling or solving of environmental a controlar o solucionar problemas ambientales que problems that affect Puerto Rico such as afectan a Puerto Rico tales como la contaminacin por contamination by solid waste, biomedical waste, air desperdicios slidos, desperdicios biomdicos, aire, and water contamination, and the conservation of non- agua y para la conservacin de recursos no renewable resources. renovables. EM.A.1 Identifies the factors that affect the size and growth of a population. EM.A.1.1 Identifies the adaptations that species have developed to survive in a given environment. EM.A.1 Identifica los factores que afectan el tamao y el crecimiento de una poblacin.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

x x

EM.A.1.1 Identifica las adaptaciones que han desarrollado las especies para sobrevivir en un ambiente dado. EM.A.1.2 Describes the historical origin of cities and EM.A.1.2 Describe el origen histrico de las ciudades y the elements that define an area as urban or rural. los elementos que definen un rea como urbana o rural. EM.A.1.3 Compares and contrasts the city with a EM.A.1.3 Compara y contrasta la ciudad con un natural ecosystem. ecosistema natural. EM.A.2 Describes tropical and subtropical EM.A.2 Describe los ambientes tropicales y environments. subtropicales. EM.A.2.1 Identifies characteristics of the tropical EM.A.2.1 Identifica caractersticas del ambiente regions natural environment. natural de la regin tropical. EM.A.2.2 Explains the geological evolution of the EM.A.2.2 Explica la evolucin geolgica de la isla de island of Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico. EM.A.2.3 Identifies tectonic plates on a world map. EM.A.2.3 Identifica placas tectnicas en un mapa mundial. EM.A.2.4 Compares temperate and tropical forests. EM.A.2.4 Compara los bosques templados con los bosques tropicales. EM.A.3 Describes the interaction between abiotic and EM.A.3 Describe la interaccin entre los factores biotic factors in an ecosystem based on their distinct abiticos y biticos en un ecosistema a base de sus characteristics. caractersticas distintivas.

x x x x x x x

113

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) EM.A.3.1 Analyzes the role played by producers, consumers and decomposers and establishes links between the three groups in the food chain and food web of an ecosystem. EM.A.3.2 Establishes a relationship between the habitat and the niche of an organism in a particular ecosystem. EM.A.3.3 Identifies the components of soil, describes its formation and analyzes its use. EM.A.3.4 Establishes the difference between soil and terrain. EM.A.3.5 Identifies and describes the properties and formation of different minerals and their locations in Puerto Rico. EM.A.3.6 Explains the geological originof carbon and petroleum in Puerto Rico and identifies their uses. EM.A.3.7 Identifies the classifications and describes the characteristics, location and importance of Puerto Ricos forests. EM.A.3.8 Describes the physical and chemical properties and explains the hydrologic cycle of water. EM.A.3.9 Explains the importance of water for organisms and the necessity of protecting this resource. EM.A.3.10 Describes the ecosystems of the mangrove swamp, the beach, the rocky coast and the coral reef.

Natural Science Expectations EM.A.3.1 Analiza el rol que desempean y establece conexiones entre los productores, los consumidores y los descomponedores en la cadena y en la red alimentaria de un ecosistema. EM.A.3.2 Establece relacin entre el hbitat y el nicho de un organismo en un ecosistema determinado. EM.A.3.3 Identifica los componentes del suelo, describe su formacin y analiza su uso. EM.A.3.4 Establece diferencia entre suelo y terreno. EM.A.3.5 Identifica y describe las propiedades y formacin de diferentes minerales y su localizacin en Puerto Rico. EM.A.3.6 Explica el origen geolgico del carbn y del petrleo en Puerto Rico e identifica sus usos. EM.A.3.7 Identifica las clasificaciones y describe las caractersticas, localizacin e importancia de los bosques de Puerto Rico. EM.A.3.8 Describe las propiedades fsicas y qumicas y explica el ciclo hidrolgico del agua. EM.A.3.9 Explica la importancia del agua para los organismos y la necesidad de proteger este recurso. EM.A.3.10 Describe los ecosistemas del manglar, de la playa, de la costa rocosa y del arrecife de coral.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

x x x x

114

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 x Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) EM.A.3.11 Identifies and provides examples of the hierarchy in ecosystems (organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems and biosphere). SM.A.1 Identifies and establishes models to demonstrate the connections between components of an ecosystem in regards to the transfer of mass and energy. SM.A.1.1 Represents and describes different types of models to show the natural cycles.

Natural Science Expectations EM.A.3.11 Identifica y provee ejemplos de la jerarqua en los ecosistemas (organismos, poblaciones, comunidades, ecosistemas y biosfera). SM.A.1 Identifica y establece modelos para demostrar las relaciones entre los componentes de un ecosistema en cuanto a la transferencia de masa y de energa. SM.A.1.1 Representa y describe distintos tipos de modelos para representar los ciclos naturales.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

SM.A.1.2 Explains the importance of processes that SM.A.1.2 Explica la importancia de los procesos que occur in the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles through ocurren en los ciclos del agua, de carbono y de the use of diagrams and models. nitrgeno mediante el uso de diagramas y modelos. SM.A.1.3 Identifies the patterns of the marine currents SM.A.1.3 Identifica los patrones de las corrientes that affect Puerto Rico and the Caribbean with the use marinas que afectan a Puerto Rico y el Caribe con el of a map of marine currents. uso de un mapa de las corrientes marinas. SM.A.1.4 Describes the patterns of the winds the affect Puerto Rico and the Caribbean using a map of winds. SM.A.1.5 Represents the food interdependency with diagrams of chains and webs. SM.A.1.6 Designs urban development plans applying environmental critera for the community where the student lives. SM.A.2 Constructs mathematical and graphical models using technological resources such as CBL, graphing calculator. SM.A.1.4 Describe los patrones de los vientos que afectan a Puerto Rico y el Caribe al utilizar un mapa de los vientos. SM.A.1.5 Representa la interdependencia alimentaria con diagramas de cadenas y redes. SM.A.1.6 Disea planes de desarrollo urbano aplicando criterios ambientales para la comunidad donde vive. SM.A.2 Construye modelos matemticos y grficos al utilizar recursos tecnolgicos tales como CBL, calculadora grfica.

x x

115

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4 x x x

Natural Science Expectations (English) SM.A.2.1 Uses technological resources to explain the behavior and changes that occur in a population.

Natural Science Expectations SM.A.2.1 Utiliza recursos tecnolgicos para explicar el comportamiento y los cambios que ocurren en una poblacin. SM.A.2.2 Explores different cultural methods to SM.A.2.2 Explora diversos mtodos de cultivo al explain virtual simulation programs. explicar programas de simulacin virtuales. SM.A.2.3 Recognizes that the usefulness of a model is SM.A.2.3 Reconoce que la utilidad de un modelo est limited by its complexity. limitada por su complejidad. E.A.1 Analyzes and describe the interaction between E.A.1 Analiza y describe la interaccin entre los the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem, componentes abiticos y biticos de un ecosistema, including the flow of energy. incluyendo el flujo de energa. E.A.1.1 Evaluates the effects that humans can have on E.A.1.1 Evala los efectos que los seres humanos communities and the capability of the Earth to be able pueden tener en las comunidades y la capacidad de la to maintain populations. Tierra para poder mantener las poblaciones. E.A.1.2 Explains how the flow of energy occurs in food webs and food chains beginning with plants as primary producers. E.A.1.3 Identifies human activities that contribute to the greenhouse effect and argues about their impact on ecosystems. E.A.2 Evaluates the economic and environmental impact of the exploitation of different sources of energy. E.A.2.1 Applies the principles of the conservation of energy to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze different systems. E.A.1.2 Explica cmo ocurre el flujo de energa en redes y cadenas alimentarias a partir de las plantas como productor primario. E.A.1.3 Identifica actividades humanas que intervienen en el efecto de invernadero y argumenta sobre su impacto en los ecosistemas. E.A.2 Evala el impacto econmico y ambiental que tiene la explotacin de las diferentes fuentes de energa. E.A.2.1 Aplica los principios de conservacin de energa para analizar cualitativa y cuantitativamente diversos sistemas.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

E.A.2.2 Recognizes that heat that is absorbed or E.A.2.2 Reconoce que el calor absorbido o liberado en released into an ecosystem is a limiting environmental un ecosistema es un factor ambiental limitante que factor that affects populations. afecta las poblaciones.

116

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) E.A.2.3 Describes the use of common sources of energy such as: wind, solar, ethanol, and hydraulic energy.

Natural Science Expectations E.A.2.3 Describe el uso de fuentes de energa comunes tales como: combustibles fsiles, energa nuclear y algunas fuentes alternas de energa tales como: viento, solar, etanol e hidrulico.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

E.A.2.4 Recognizes that energy resources are limited E.A.2.4 Reconoce que los recursos energticos son and that it is necessary to explore alternate sources of limitados y que es necesario explorar fuentes alternas energy and new technology for its use. de energa y nuevas tecnologas para su uso. E.A.3 Explains the relationship between energy and the occurrence of natural phenomena. E.A.3.1 Examines why earthquakes happen and how their strength is measured. E.A.3.2 Identifies the effects of hurricanes according to the geographic zones of Puerto Rico. E.A.3.3 Recognizes that the cause of the majority of climatological events on the planet is related to the interaction of solar energy with the Earth, the atmosphere and the sea. E.A.3.4 Relates the cycles of matter and the flow of energy with the law of conservation of matter and energy. E.A.3.5 Connects changes of energy with food chains, food webs, and trophic levels in ecosystems. E.A.3.6 Identifies entropy as a principal factor in the loss of available energy in food through the trophic levels. I.A.1 Analyzes the interactions between organisms, environment, matter and energy. E.A.3 Explica la relacin entre energa y la ocurrencia de fenmenos naturales. E.A.3.1 Examina por qu ocurren los terremotos y cmo se mide su intensidad. E.A.3.2 Identifica los efectos de los huracanes segn las zonas geogrficas de Puerto Rico. E.A.3.3 Reconoce que la causa de la mayora de los eventos climatolgicos en el Planeta est relacionada con la interaccin de la energa solar con la Tierra, la atmsfera y el mar. E.A.3.4 Relaciona los ciclos de la materia y el flujo de energa con la ley de conservacin de materia y energa. E.A.3.5 Relaciona los cambios de energa con las cadenas alimentarias, redes alimentarias y niveles trficos en los ecosistemas. E.A.3.6 Identifica a la entropa como el factor principal en la prdida de energa disponible en los alimentos a travs de los niveles trficos. I.A.1 Analiza las interacciones entre los organismos, el ambiente, la materia y la energa. x x x

x x

117

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 x Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) I.A.1.1 Describes interactions that are produced between living organisms and the environment that surrounds them. I.A.1.2 Establishes the importance of the transport zone in the interaction and nature of populations.

Natural Science Expectations I.A.1.1 Describe interacciones que se producen entre los organismos vivientes y el ambiente que los rodea. I.A.1.2 Establece la importancia de la zona de acarreo en la interaccin y naturaleza de las poblaciones.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

I.A.1.3 Recognizes that the food chain is an example of I.A.1.3 Reconoce que la cadena alimentaria es un the mutual relationship of survival between species. ejemplo de la relacin mutua de supervivencia entre las especies. I.A.1.4 Establishes relationships of interdependence I.A.1.4 Establece relaciones de interdependencia entre between the elements of an ecosystem, between the los elementos de un ecosistema, entre los ecosistemas ecosystems themselves and between the elements entre s y entre esos elementos y el planeta. and the planet. I.A.1.5 Analyzes geological phenomena based on the I.A.1.5 Analiza fenmenos geolgicos basado en la theory of plate tectonics. Teora de placas tectnicas. I.A.2 Evaluates how human activities affect I.A.2 Evala cmo las actividades del ser humano ecosystems. afectan a los ecosistemas. I.A.2.1 Estimates the impact of the deposit of solid and I.A.2.1 Estima el impacto de la disposicin de los toxic waste in the environment. desperdicios slidos y txicos en el ambiente. I.A.2.2 Explains how humans contaminate soil, water and air. I.A.2.3 Evaluates the impact that deforestation has on the population. I.A.2.4 Explains the importance of forests as a renewable resource. I.A.2.5 Analyzes the effects of air contaminants on organisms and the environment. I.A.2.6 Describes the environmental problems of Puerto Ricos rural and urban zones. I.A.2.7 Discusses how political, legal, social and economic decisions affect global and local systems. I.A.2.2 Explica cmo el ser humano contamina el suelo, el agua y el aire. I.A.2.3 Evala el impacto que tiene la deforestacin de los bosques en la poblacin. I.A.2.4 Explica la importancia de los bosques como recurso renovable. I.A.2.5 Analiza los efectos de los contaminantes del aire sobre los organismos y el ambiente. I.A.2.6 Describe los problemas ambientales de las zonas rurales y urbanas de Puerto Rico. I.A.2.7 Discute cmo las decisiones polticas, legales, sociales y econmicas afectan los ecosistemas globales y locales.

x x x

x x

118

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) I.A.2.8 Evaluates government documents and other related literature to learn about the urban planning programs of the municipality in which the student lives.

Natural Science Expectations I.A.2.8 Evala documentos gubernamentales y otra literatura relacionada para conocer los programas de planificacin urbana del municipio donde vive.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

I.A.3 Evaluates the importance of renewable and non- I.A.3 Evala la importancia de los recursos naturales renewable natural resources for humans. renovables y no renovables para el ser humano. I.A.3.1 Analyzes the importance of watersheds . I.A.3.1 Analiza la importancia de las cuencas hidrogrficas. I.A.3.2 Explains the value of aquatic ecosystems as an I.A.3.2 Explica el valor de los ecosistemas acuticos essential resource. como recurso indispensable. I.A.3.3 Explains the ecological value of the coral reef. I.A.3.3 Explica el valor ecolgico que tiene el arrecife de coral. I.A.3.4 Identifies the limitations of petroleum as a non- I.A.3.4 Identifica las limitaciones del petrleo como renewable resource. recurso no renovable. I.A.3.5 Explains the importance of water for living I.A.3.5 Explica la importancia del agua para los organisms. organismos vivos. I.A.3.6 Discusses the importance of recycling and I.A.3.6 Discute la importancia del reciclaje y el reuso reusing for the conservation of resources. para la conservacin de los recursos. I.A.3.7 Plans and puts into practice recycling and I.A.3.7 Planifica y pone en prctica programas de reusing programs in the students school and reciclaje y de reuso en su escuela y su comunidad. community. C.A.1 Proposes alternatives that help to preserve our C.A.1 Propone alternativas que ayuden a preservar ecosystems for future generations. nuestros ecosistemas para generaciones futuras. C.A.1.1 Explains the importance of the forest for endangered species. C.A.1.1 Explica la importancia del recurso bosque para las especies en peligro de extincin.

x x x x x x x x

119

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) C.A.1.2 Analyzes and selects alternatives that contribute to controlling and avoiding the effects of air, water and soil contaminants on human health. C.A.1.3 Identifies human activities that contribute to global warming and analyzes different alternatives that reduce this effect. C.A.1.4 Explains the way human intervention contributes to the extinction of some species. C.A.1.5 Discusses the importance of aquatic ecosystems for species that depend on water and proposes alternatives for their conservation. C.A.1.6 Explains how human activity can positively of negatively affect natural resources and quality of the environment. C.A.1.7 Shows appreciation and respect for biodiversity as a manifestation of life. C.A.1.8 Identifies innovative projects that allow for economic development in a sustainable way. C.A.2 Evaluates how equilibrium manifests in natural systems. C.A.2.1 Explains how balanced natural systems, upon being upset, tend to spontaneously return to a new state of equilibrium. C.A.2.2 Describes how the equilibrium in systems breaks down if it is upset beyond its tolerance limit.

Natural Science Expectations C.A.1.2 Analiza y selecciona alternativas que contribuyen a controlar y evitar los efectos de los contaminantes del aire, agua y suelo sobre la salud humana. C.A.1.3 Identifica las actividades humanas que intervienen en el efecto del calentamiento global y analiza diversas alternativas que permitan minimizar el mismo. C.A.1.4 Explica en qu forma la intervencin humana influye en la extincin de algunas especies. C.A.1.5 Discute sobre la importancia de los ecosistemas acuticos para las especies dependientes del agua y propone alternativas para su conservacin. C.A.1.6 Explica cmo la actividad humana puede afectar positiva o negativamente a los recursos naturales y a la calidad del ambiente. C.A.1.7 Muestra aprecio y respeto por la biodiversidad como manifestacin de la vida. C.A.1.8 Identifica proyectos innovadores que permiten un desarrollo econmico de manera sustentable. C.A.2 Evala cmo se manifiesta el equilibrio en sistemas naturales. C.A.2.1 Explica cmo los sistemas naturales en equilibrio, al perturbarse, tienden a retornar espontneamente a una nueva situacin de equilibrio. C.A.2.2 Describe cmo se rompe el equilibrio en los sistemas cuando se perturban ms all de su lmite de tolerancia.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

120

Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Natural Science
Ecosystems and Biodiversity Unit 3 Environmental Characteristics Unit 4

Natural Science Expectations (English) C.A.2.3 Analyzes the actions that humans carry out in the natural and urban environment and that affect the ecological equilibrium. C.A.2.4 Analyzes how population growth is determined by the birth rates, mortality rates, environmental factors and migratory movements. C.A.3 Analyzes patterns of change that are produced in nature. C.A.3.1 Identifies and describes patters of change in atmospheric phenomena, like: hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis, hail and thunderstorms. C.A.3.2 Uses mathematics to describe changes and patterns in populations.

Natural Science Expectations C.A.2.3 Analiza acciones que realiza el ser humano en el ambiente natural y urbano y que afectan el equilibrio ecolgico. C.A.2.4 Analiza cmo el crecimiento poblacional est determinado por las tasas de natalidad, mortalidad, factores ambientales y movimientos migratorios. C.A.3 Analiza patrones de cambio que se producen en la naturaleza. C.A.3.1 Identifica y describe patrones de cambio en fenmenos atmosfricos, como: huracanes, sismos, maremotos, granizo y tormentas elctricas. C.A.3.2 Utiliza las matemticas para describir cambios y patrones en las poblaciones.

## Earth Systems Unit 2

x x x x

C.A.3.3 Explains the current geography of the island of C.A.3.3 Explica la geografa actual de la isla de Puerto Puerto Rico examining its geological evolution. Rico examinando su evolucin geolgica. C.A.3.4 Describes the structure and changes that occur in the Earths crust. C.A.3.5 Examines socioeconomic activities that are sources of air contamination. C.A.3.4 Describe la estructura y los cambios que ocurren en la corteza terrestre. C.A.3.5 Examina actividades socioeconmicas que son fuentes de contaminacin del aire.

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

131

x x

x x

132

133

134

135

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 x

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.B.1 Uses the scientific concepts, principles and the scientific method in the students research to answer questions about life science. NC.B.1.1 Identifies honesty, objectivity and the absence of prejudices as necessary values for executing scientific investigations adequately.

Natural Science Expectations NC.B.1 Utiliza los conceptos, principios y metodologa cientfica en la investigacin para contestar preguntas sobre la ciencia de la vida. NC.B.1.1 Identifica la honestidad, objetividad y ausencia de prejuicios como valores necesarios para llevar a cabo investigaciones cientficas de un modo adecuado.

NC.B.1.2 Participates in discussion groups about issues NC.B.1.2 Participa en grupos de discusin sobre temas and controversies of a scientific nature assuming y controversias de ndole cientfica asumiendo positions and justifying the students arguments posturas y justificando sus argumentaciones. NC.B.1.4 Designs and executes scientific research to test hypotheses, interpret results, and draw conclusions. NC.B.1.5 Compiles and analyzes data, identifies relationships between variables, makes inferences and communicates results using scientific writing and appropriate styles of bibliography indexing. NC.B.2 Uses safe practices and protocols in the laboratory and in the research field. NC.B.2.1 Identifies safety symbols in the laboratory and understands their significance. NC.B.2.2 Demonstrates with actions that the laboratory is a place of serious work and safety. NC.B.1.4 Disea y realiza investigaciones cientficas para someter hiptesis a prueba, interpretar los resultados y llegar a conclusiones. NC.B.1.5 Recopila y analiza datos, identifica relaciones entre variables, plantea inferencias y comunica los resultados utilizando la redaccin cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. NC.B.2 Utiliza prcticas seguras y protocolos de laboratorio en el campo de la investigacin. NC.B.2.1 Identifica los smbolos de seguridad en el laboratorio y entiende su significado. NC.B.2.2 Demuestra con acciones que el laboratorio es un lugar de trabajo serio y seguro.

x x x

136

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 x x x Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.B.2.3 Applies and explains the correct procedure in the use of available scientific apparatus in the laboratory. NC.B.2.4 Applies appropriate laboratory techniques according to the situation. NC.B.2.5 Chooses between various appropriate technological tools to carry out research and studies.

Natural Science Expectations NC.B.2.3 Aplica y explica el procedimiento correcto en el uso de los aparatos cientficos disponibles en el laboratorio. NC.B.2.4 Aplica tcnicas de laboratorio apropiadas de acuerdo a la situacin. NC.B.2.5 Escoge entre diversas herramientas tecnolgicas la ms apropiada para llevar a cabo investigaciones y estudios. NC.B.3 Uses mathematics to analyze and establish NC.B.3 Utiliza las matemticas para analizar y relationships between variables, communicate results establecer relaciones entre variables, comunicar of various studies and resolve problems. resultados de diversos estudios y resolver problemas. NC.B.3.1 Organizes data using graphs, tables and diagrams during the research and experimentation processes. NC.B.3.2 Uses units of the International System of Measurement to express measurements of parameter studies in experiments and research. NC.B.3.3 Expresses data obtained in experiments and research with accuracy and precision. NC.B.3.4 Relates science and technology and the impact that they have on our society. NC.F.1 Proposes solutions to problems using the method of inquiry based on scientific knowledge. NC.F.1.1 Recognizes that science is not necessarily confined to a laboratory. NC.B.3.1 Organiza datos utilizando grficas, tablas y diagramas durante los procesos de investigacin y experimentacin. NC.B.3.2 Utiliza unidades del Sistema Internacional de Medidas para expresar medidas de parmetros estudiados en experimentos e investigaciones. NC.B.3.3 Expresa los datos obtenidos en experimentos e investigaciones con exactitud y precisin. NC.B.3.4 Argumenta sobre cmo se relacionan la ciencia y la tecnologa y cmo impactan a la sociedad. NC.F.1 Propone soluciones a problemas utilizando el mtodo de inquirir basndose en el conocimiento cientfico. NC.F.1.1 Reconoce que la ciencia no est confinada necesariamente a un laboratorio.

x x

137

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 x

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.F.1.2 Shows willingness to modify the students point of view before new evidence and if their ideas are questioned by their peers, they respect the ideas of others. NC.F.1.3 Communicates the values of measured data in the form of tables and graphs in order to analyze it and make predications and generalizations about it. NC.F.1.4 Describes the method of inquiry as a form of research. NC.F.1.5 Uses the method of inquiry to propose solutions to problems. NC.F.1.6 Elaborates conclusions based on findings from research. NC.F.2 Analyzes and evaluates scientific literature to determine the validity and reliability of a source of information. NC.F.2.1 Identifies valid and reliable sources of information. NC.F.2.2 Defines operationally the concepts of validity and reliability of data. NC.F.2.3 Discusses the quality of information available. NC.F.2.4 Writes reports about experiments and investigations using scientific writing techniques and appropriate styles of bibliographic citation. NC.B.4 Recognizes that the scientific attitude influences society, economy, and technology.

Natural Science Expectations NC.F.1.2 Muestra disposicin a modificar sus puntos de vista ante nueva evidencia y a que sus ideas sean cuestionadas por sus pares, adems de respetar las ideas de otros. NC.F.1.3 Comunica los valores de los datos medidos en forma de tablas y grficas para analizarlos y hace predicciones y generalizaciones sobre los mismos. NC.F.1.4 Describe el mtodo de inquirir como forma de investigar. NC.F.1.5 Utiliza el mtodo de inquirir para proponer soluciones a problemas. NC.F.1.6 Elabora conclusiones a base de los hallazgos de investigaciones. NC.F.2 Analiza y evala literatura cientfica para discriminar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de la fuente de informacin. NC.F.2.1 Identifica fuentes de informacin vlidas y confiables. NC.F.2.2 Define operacionalmente los conceptos validez y confiabilidad de los datos. NC.F.2.3 Argumenta sobre la calidad de la informacin disponible. NC.F.2.4 Redacta informes de experimentos e investigaciones al utilizar las tcnicas de redaccin cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. NC.B.4 Reconoce que la actitud cientfica influye en los aspectos sociales, econmicos y tecnolgicos.

x x x x x x x

138

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.B.4.1 Applies new scientific advances and emerging technology in a critical manner to solve problems and make decisions in areas such as work, study and interpersonal relationships. NC.B.5 Demonstrates having a scientific and technological knowledge that prepares the student for a vocational area of preference in order to be effectively employed. NC.B.5.1 Researches viable alternatives and applicable scientific methods to solve problems and real life controversies of a scientific nature in the place the experiment occurred. NC.B.5.2 Establishes connections between what the student studies in the classroom and the students greater understanding of life. NC.B.5.3 Uses scientific knowledge to explain and understand problems that affect humanity and analyzes situations that affect the students daily life. NC.A.2 Uses the scientific method and scientific knowledge to describe and explain nature. NC.A.2.1 Analyzes situations and makes decisions about environmental problems individually and in a group.

Natural Science Expectations NC.B.4.1 Aplica los adelantos cientficos y la tecnologa emergente de manera crtica para la solucin de problemas y toma decisiones en reas tales como trabajo, estudio y relaciones interpersonales. NC.B.5 Demuestra tener un conocimiento cientfico y tecnolgico que lo capacite en el rea vocacional de preferencia para ser efectivo al seleccionar un empleo. NC.B.5.1 Investiga alternativas viables y aplica metodologa cientfica para resolver problemas y controversias de la vida real de ndole cientfica en el lugar donde se desempea. NC.B.5.2 Establece conexiones entre lo que estudia en la clase de ciencia y su cosmovisin de la vida. NC.B.5.3 Utiliza el conocimiento cientfico para explicar y entender problemas que afectan la humanidad y analizar situaciones que afectan su diario vivir. NC.A.2 Utiliza la metodologa y el conocimiento cientfico para describir y explicar la naturaleza. NC.A.2.1 Analiza situaciones y toma decisiones individuales y grupales ante los problemas ambientales.

139

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.2.2 Proposes effective ways to raise awareness and promote possible solutions to environmental problems such as air, soil and water contamination, waste management, the protection of species and resources as well as sustainable development. NC.A.2.3 Discusses the sociocultural and environmental implications of socioeconomic development due to the change of an agricultural society to an industrial, technological and knowledgeable one. NC.A.2.4 Develops individual conclusions based on the analysis of findings in the investigations. NC.B.6 Employs technology as a tool in scientific work and explains with examples how this impacts quality of life. NC.B.6.1 Discusses with valid arguments the ethical and moral implications that recent scientific and technological advances have in our society. NC.B.6.2 Identifies the risks and benefits that scientific, economic, and technological development have on our society. NC.B.6.3 Identifies examples in which the application of science and technology has affected the economy and the quality of life. NC.B.6.4 Organizes and participates in activities that promote respect for life.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.2.2 Propone formas efectivas para concienciar y promover posibles soluciones a problemas ambientales tales como contaminacin de aire, suelo, agua, manejo de desperdicios, proteccin de especies y recursos al igual que el desarrollo sostenible. NC.A.2.3 Discute las implicaciones socioculturales y ambientales del desarrollo socioeconmico debido al cambio de una sociedad agrcola a una industrial, tecnolgico y de conocimiento. NC.A.2.4 Elabora sus propias conclusiones a base del anlisis de los hallazgos en investigaciones. NC.B.6 Emplea la tecnologa como herramienta en el quehacer cientfico y explica con ejemplos cmo sta impacta la calidad de vida. NC.B.6.1 Discute con argumentos vlidos las implicaciones ticas y morales que tienen los adelantos cientficos y tecnolgicos en la sociedad. NC.B.6.2 Identifica los riesgos y beneficios que tiene el desarrollo cientfico, econmico y tecnolgico para la sociedad. NC.B.6.3 Identifica ejemplos en los que las aplicaciones de la ciencia y la tecnologa han afectado la economa y la calidad de vida. NC.B.6.4 Organiza y participa en actividades que promuevan el respeto por la vida.

x x

140

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) NC.A.6 Identifies, evaluates and argues critically about different sources of information to determine the ethical and moral implications that scientific, economic and technological development have for society. NC.A.6.1 Reads, understands, analyzes and evaluates scientific literature to determine the validity and reliability of a source of information.

Natural Science Expectations NC.A.6 Identifica, evala y argumenta de manera crtica sobre las diversas fuentes de informacin para determinar las implicaciones ticas y morales que tiene el desarrollo cientfico, econmico y tecnolgico para la sociedad.

NC.A.6.1 Lee, comprende, analiza y evala literatura cientfica para discriminar sobre la validez y confiabilidad de la fuente de informacin. NC.A.6.2 Drafts reports of experiments and NC.A.6.2 Redacta informes de experimentos e investigations using scientific writing techniques and investigaciones al utilizar las tcnicas de redaccin correct bibliographic indexing styles. cientfica y estilos de fichas bibliogrficas apropiadas. NC.A.6.3 Analiza cmo el mal uso de la tecnologa puede crear problemas y causar daos a los seres vivientes y al medio ambiente. NC.A.6.4 Infers that advances in science are the result NC.A.6.4 Infiere que los avances de la ciencia son el of contributions from scientific communities. resultado de las aportaciones de las comunidades cientficas. NC.A.7 Applies scientific advances and emergent NC.A.7 Aplica los adelantos cientficos y la tecnologa technology in a critical and responsible way to solve emergente de manera crtica y responsable para la environmental problems. solucin de problemas ambientales. NC.A.7.1 Uses technology as a tool in scientific work. NC.A.7.2 Explains with examples how technology impacts the quality of life from an economic, social and environmental point of view. NC.A.7.1 Emplea la tecnologa como herramienta en el quehacer cientfico. NC.A.7.2 Explica con ejemplos cmo la tecnologa impacta la calidad de vida desde el punto de vista econmico, social y ambiental.

x x

141

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) Natural Science Expectations NC.A.7.6 Proposes or designs technology that NC.A.7.6 Propone o disea tecnologa que contribuya contributes to controlling or solving of environmental a controlar o solucionar problemas ambientales que problems that affect Puerto Rico such as afectan a Puerto Rico tales como la contaminacin por contamination by solid waste, biomedical waste, air desperdicios slidos, desperdicios biomdicos, aire, and water contamination, and the conservation of non- agua y para la conservacin de recursos no renewable resources. renovables. EM.B.3 Recognizes the interdependence of organisms, EM.B.3 Reconoce la interdependencia de los the diversity of life and its levels of organization. organismos, la diversidad de la vida y sus niveles de organizacin. EM.B.6 Formulates generalizations with respect to EM.B.6 Formula generalizaciones respecto a las adaptations that organisms show according to the adaptaciones que muestran los organismos de environment in which they live. acuerdo al ambiente en que viven. EM.A.1 Identifies the factors that affect the size and EM.A.1 Identifica los factores que afectan el tamao y growth of a population. el crecimiento de una poblacin. EM.A.3 Describes the interaction between abiotic and EM.A.3 Describe la interaccin entre los factores biotic factors in an ecosystem based on their distinct abiticos y biticos en un ecosistema a base de sus characteristics. caractersticas distintivas. EM.Q.1 Describes matter based on its characteristic EM.Q.1 Describe la materia a base de sus propiedades properties. caractersticas. EM.Q.4 Describes the processes for which substances EM.Q.4 Describe los procesos por los cuales las combine to form compounds. sustancias se combinan para formar compuestos. SM.B.4 Represents and explains the interdependence that exists between organisms in relation to the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem through diagrams and models. SM.B.4 Representa y explica la interdependencia que existe entre los organismos en relacin con el flujo de energa y la materia en un ecosistema por medio de diagramas y modelos.

x x x x x

142

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 x

Natural Science Expectations (English) SM.A.1 Identifies and establishes models to demonstrate the connections between components of an ecosystem in regards to the transfer of mass and energy. SM.A.1.1 Represents and describes different types of models to show the natural cycles.

Natural Science Expectations SM.A.1 Identifica y establece modelos para demostrar las relaciones entre los componentes de un ecosistema en cuanto a la transferencia de masa y de energa. SM.A.1.1 Representa y describe distintos tipos de modelos para representar los ciclos naturales.

SM.A.1.2 Explains the importance of processes that SM.A.1.2 Explica la importancia de los procesos que occur in the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles through ocurren en los ciclos del agua, de carbono y de the use of diagrams and models. nitrgeno mediante el uso de diagramas y modelos. SM.A.2 Constructs mathematical and graphical models SM.A.2 Construye modelos matemticos y grficos al using technological resources such as CBL, graphing utilizar recursos tecnolgicos tales como CBL, calculator. calculadora grfica. SM.A.2.1 Uses technological resources to explain the SM.A.2.1 Utiliza recursos tecnolgicos para explicar el behavior and changes that occur in a population. comportamiento y los cambios que ocurren en una poblacin. SM.A.2.2 Explores different cultural methods to SM.A.2.2 Explora diversos mtodos de cultivo al explain virtual simulation programs. explicar programas de simulacin virtuales. SM.A.2.3 Recognizes that the usefulness of a model is SM.A.2.3 Reconoce que la utilidad de un modelo est limited by its complexity. limitada por su complejidad. SM.F.1 Expresses scientific information and behavior SM.F.1 Expresa la informacin cientfica y el of nature in varied forms: pictograms, graphs, verbal comportamiento de la naturaleza en formas variadas: and mathematic expressions. pictogramas, grficas, verbal y expresiones matemticas. SM.F.1.1 Describes the different types of movement in SM.F.1.1 Describe los diferentes tipos de movimiento verbal, graphical and mathematical form. de forma verbal, grfica y matemtica.

x x x

143

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 x

Natural Science Expectations (English) SM.F.1.4 Constructs mathematic models that represent the relationships between variables of an experiment that are linear, quadratic, and inverse to one another. SM.F.1.5 Represents and calculates the magnitude and direction of various quantities of vectors through diagrams. SM.F.2 Employs the laws of Newton together with kinetic equations to predict the movement of an object. SM.F.4 Applies the kinetic-molecular model to explain physical changes in matter. SM.Q.2 Explains energy concepts related to systems through the use of models.

Natural Science Expectations SM.F.1.4 Construye el modelo matemtico que representa la relacin entre las variables de un experimento ya sea lineal, cuadrtica e inversa entre otras. SM.F.1.5 Representa y calcula la magnitud y direccin de algunas cantidades vectoriales mediante diagramas. SM.F.2 Emplea las leyes de Newton junto con las ecuaciones de cintica para predecir el movimiento de un objeto. SM.F.4 Aplica el modelo cintico-molecular para explicar cambios fsicos en la materia. SM.Q.2 Explica conceptos energticos relacionados a los sistemas mediante el uso de modelos.

x x x

SM.Q.3 Constructs and uses mathematical models to SM.Q.3 Construye y utiliza modelos matemticos para explain and analyze the behavior of chemical systems. explicar y analizar el comportamiento de sistemas qumicos. SM.Q.3.1 Uses technological resources such as a SM.Q.3.1 Utiliza recursos tecnolgicos tales como la calculator, graphing calculator, and computer to calculadora, la calculadora grfica y la computadora construct and analyze scientific and mathematical para construir y analizar modelos cientficos y models. matemticos. SM.Q.3.2 Constructs linear graphs to show properties SM.Q.3.2 Construye grficas lineales para representar of matter such as density. propiedades de la materia tales como la densidad. SM.Q.3.3 Interprets the slope of linear inclination graphs to determine the change in the dependent variable as a consequence of change in the independent variable. SM.Q.3.3 Interpreta la pendiente de grficas lineales de inclinacin para determinar el cambio en la variable dependiente como consecuencia del cambio en la variable independiente.

144

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) E.B.1 Explains the interdependence that exists between organisms with relation to the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem. E.B.3 Analyzes the flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem. E.B.3.1 Describes how nutrients are recycled in the biotic and abiotic parts of the biosphere. E.B.3.2 Identifies how energy flows in ecosystems. E.B.4 Evaluates the economic and environmental impact that the exploitation of different sources of energy has. E.F.1. Applies the law of conservation of energy to predict the result of a transformation. E.F.3 Explains the laws of thermodynamics. E.F.3.1 Describes the nature of thermal energy and how it is distinguished from temperature. E.Q.2 Explains the forms in which energy is manifested and its transformations. I.B.1 Analyzes how organisms relate to one another through the exchange of matter and energy in order to be able to grow, maintain themselves, and adapt. I.B.2 Analyzes the relationship between structure and function in living cells. I.A.1 Analyzes the interactions between organisms, environment, matter and energy.

Natural Science Expectations E.B.1 Explica la interdependencia que existe entre los organismos con relacin al flujo de energa y la materia en un ecosistema. E.B.3 Analiza el flujo de energa y materia en un ecosistema. E.B.3.1 Describe cmo los nutrientes son reciclados en la parte bitica y abitica de la biosfera. E.B.3.2 Identifica cmo fluye la energa en los ecosistemas. E.B.4 Evala el impacto econmico y ambiental que tiene la explotacin de diferentes fuentes de energa. E.F.1 Aplica la ley de la conservacin de la energa para predecir el resultado de una transformacin. E.F.3 Explica las leyes de la termodinmica. E.F.3.1 Describe la naturaleza de la energa trmica y cmo se distingue de la temperatura. E.Q.2 Explica las formas como se manifiesta la energa y sus transformaciones. I.B.1 Analiza cmo los organismos se relacionan entre s a travs del intercambio de materia y energa para poder crecer, mantenerse y adaptarse. I.B.2 Analiza la relacin entre estructura y la funcin en las clulas vivas. I.A.1 Analiza las interacciones entre los organismos, el ambiente, la materia y la energa.

145

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) I.A.1.1 Describes interactions that are produced between living organisms and the environment that surrounds them. I.A.1.2 Establishes the importance of the transport zone in the interaction and nature of populations.

Natural Science Expectations I.A.1.1 Describe interacciones que se producen entre los organismos vivientes y el ambiente que los rodea. I.A.1.2 Establece la importancia de la zona de acarreo en la interaccin y naturaleza de las poblaciones.

I.A.1.3 Recognizes that the food chain is an example of I.A.1.3 Reconoce que la cadena alimentaria es un the mutual relationship of survival between species. ejemplo de la relacin mutua de supervivencia entre las especies. I.A.1.4 Establishes relationships of interdependence I.A.1.4 Establece relaciones de interdependencia entre between the elements of an ecosystem, between the los elementos de un ecosistema, entre los ecosistemas ecosystems themselves and between the elements entre s y entre esos elementos y el planeta. and the planet. I.F.1 Uses the relationship between force, energy and I.F.1 Utiliza la relacin entre la fuerza, la energa y el work to predict the results of interactions between trabajo para predecir los resultados de las objects. interacciones entre objetos. I.F.2 Describes how forces within a material affect its I.F.2 Describe cmo las fuerzas dentro de un material behavior. afectan su comportamiento. I.F.5 Describes the interaction between electric fields, I.F.5 Describe la interaccin entre los campos magnetic fields and matter. elctricos, los campos magnticos y la materia. I.Q.3 Establishes that all interactions of matter involve I.Q.3 Establece que todas las interacciones de la the transference of energy, mass or both. materia implican transferencia de energa, de masa o ambas. I.Q.3.1 Explains the relationship between the structure I.Q.3.1 Explica la relacin entre la estructura de las of molecules, chemical bonds and chemical energy. molculas, los enlaces qumicos y la energa qumica. C.B.4 Explains the process by which biological systems C.B.4 Explica el proceso por el cual los sistemas seek equilibrium. biolgicos tienden a buscar el equilibrio.

146

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

Natural Science Expectations (English) C.B.5 Explains how some physical, chemical and environmental factors or the presence of pathogen agents can produce changes in cells, threatening the stability of the human body. C.A.2 Evaluates how equilibrium manifests in natural systems. C.A.2.1 Explains how balanced natural systems, upon being upset, tend to spontaneously return to a new state of equilibrium.

Natural Science Expectations C.B.5 Explica cmo algunos factores fsicos, qumicos y ambientales o la presencia de agentes patgenos pueden producir cambios en las clulas amenazando la estabilidad del cuerpo humano.

C.A.2 Evala cmo se manifiesta el equilibrio en sistemas naturales. C.A.2.1 Explica cmo los sistemas naturales en equilibrio, al perturbarse, tienden a retornar espontneamente a una nueva situacin de equilibrio. C.A.2.2 Describes how the equilibrium in systems C.A.2.2 Describe cmo se rompe el equilibrio en los breaks down if it is upset beyond its tolerance limit. sistemas cuando se perturban ms all de su lmite de tolerancia. C.A.2.3 Analyzes the actions that humans carry out in C.A.2.3 Analiza acciones que realiza el ser humano en the natural and urban environment and that affect the el ambiente natural y urbano y que afectan el ecological equilibrium. equilibrio ecolgico. C.A.2.4 Analyzes how population growth is determined C.A.2.4 Analiza cmo el crecimiento poblacional est by the birth rates, mortality rates, environmental determinado por las tasas de natalidad, mortalidad, factors and migratory movements. factores ambientales y movimientos migratorios. C.A.3 Analyzes patterns of change that are produced in nature. C.F.1 Explains why changes of state do not change the composition of matter C.F.3 Explains the concept of equilibrium applied to forces that act on the body. C.F.3.1 Describes the conditions in which two or more forces are in equilibrium. C.A.3 Analiza patrones de cambio que se producen en la naturaleza. C.F.1 Explica por qu los cambios de estado no varan la composicin de la materia. C.F.3 Explica el concepto equilibrio aplicado a las fuerzas que actan sobre un cuerpo. C.F.3.1 Describe las condiciones en que dos o ms fuerzas estn en equilibrio.

x x x x

147

## Curriculum Alignment Tool Puerto Rico Department of Education Science - Research

Studies in Science Using Inquiry, Scientific Method & Research Unit 1 Scientific Investigations using Morals & Judgement Unit 2 Using Safety & Using Processes of Math in Technology in Conservation Using Models to Science the Research of and Equilibrium Aid Scientific Investigations Science of Matter Research Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 x

Natural Science Expectations (English) Natural Science Expectations C.F.5 Describes conditions in which the total mass and C.F.5 Describe las condiciones bajo las cuales el total energy of the universe is conserved. de la masa y la energa del universo se conservan. C.F.5.1 Explains the transformations of energy based on the law of conservation of energy. C.Q.2 Describes changes in behavior of the states of matter. C.Q.2.1 Explains the phase changes of substances from the differences in energy content. C.F.5.1 Explica las transformaciones de la energa fundamentada en la ley de conservacin de energa. C.Q.2 Describe cambios en comportamiento de los estados de la materia. C.Q.2.1 Explica los cambios de fase de las sustancias a partir de las diferencias en contenido de energa.

x x x

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

x x x x

x x

158

x x x x

159

160

161