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Definition of Factory and procedure for Establishing a Factory Sec 2 (M) defines factory as any premises including the

precincts thereof. 1. Where 10 or more workers are working or were working in any day in the preceding 12 months with the manufacturing process being carried on with the aid of power. 2. Where 20 or more workers are working or were working in any day in the preceding 12 months with the manufacturing process being carried on with the aid of power. The term factory does not include mines because mines are covered under Indian Mines Act. Similarly mobile unit of armed forces, railway running shed or hotel, restaurant etc... Are not factory. The manufacturing processing may be carried on at two different sites. The following establishment has been held to be factories. 1. Railway workshops 2. Salt works even on open structure of land. 3. The premises employed seven permanent workmen in the manufacturing process using power.

4. Establishments which prepare food items, drinking items etc The following establishments have not been held to be factories: 1. Railway running sheds. 2. Exhibition or Cinema theaters. 3. Contraction Works. The state government may be official notification declare any establishment as factory even when the number of workmen is less than the prescribed minimum under the act. 1. Meaning of Manufacturing Process: a) Manufacturing process means any process of making altering, repairing, ornamenting packing, roiling, washing, cleaning breaking up any article or substance with the view to its use, sale, transport, delivery or disposal. b) Pumping oil, water and sewerage. c) Generating, transforming power. d) Composing types of printing, printing by letters presslethography, photography or other process of book binding. e) Construction, reconstructing, repairing or breaking up ships or vessels. f) Preserving or storing any article in cold storage.

Leading case laws have held the following process as manufacturing process a) Beedi making b) Use of electric motor for the purpose of lifting water. c) Work of composing in printing business. d) Spinning and pressing cottons. e) Use of refrigerators treating any article with a view for sale. f) Conversion of raw films into finished film products. g) Preparation of food stuffs and other eatables in the kitchen or restaurants. h) roProcess of moisturing, stripping and packing of tobacco. In deciding whether a particular business is a manufacturing process or not the circumstances and nature of each case must be considered. But in all manufacturing process there must be some transformation to make an article commercially know as another. 2. Meaning of worker: A worker is a person employed directly or through an agency in any manufacturing process or any other kind of work incidental to or connected with the manufacturing process. It does not include any member of the armed forces of the union. The worker may be employed for wages or not, but there must be some line between the

worker and the manufacturing process. The relationship between the worker and the employer is master and servant. The following persons have been held to be workers: a) Persons employed in a kitchen preparing food items. b) Persons selling the manufactured article in a factory. c) Watchman of a factory. d) Apprentices and trainees. e) An artist employed for remuneration. f) Persons employed in the manufacturing of match sticks. g) Persons employed in the manufacturing of cigarettes or beedies. The following persons have been held not to be workers: 1) Partners working in their business. 2) Students in a technical instate 3) Selling agents not connected with the manufacturing process 4) Independent contractor or his servants or his coolies under the complete control of the contractor. 3. Meaning of power: Power means electrical energy or any other form of energy which is mechanically transmitted and not by human or animal agency.

C) REGISTRATION OF FACTORIES: The state gov is empowered to make rules for licensing and registration of factories under Sec 6 of the Factories Act Before a site is used for a factory, the employer must get the previous permission in writing from the state gov or form the chief inspector. The following procedure must be complied with, before obtaining permission from the state gov or chief inspectors. D) OCCUPIER: An occupier of a factory is a person who has the ultimate control over the affairs of a factory. In the case The chief inspector additional inspector, deputy chief inspector and every other offer is deemed to be a public servant. POWERS OF INSPECTORS (SEC 9) 1. He and his assistants may enter any factory. 2. He can examine any premises, plant, machinery etc... 3. He can make inquiry as is necessary 4. If may require production of register or document relating to the factor.

5. He may seize or take copies of any register or document necessary for such inquiry. 6. For the purpose of examination, he may direct the occupier of the premises to leave anything undisturbed. 7. For examination of the premise, he may take measurement and photographs. 8. Any article dangerous to the health of workers shall be ordered to be dismantled. 9. Any other necessary power may be exercised. The inspector may give technical advice in the course of discharge of his duties. CERTIFYING SURGEONS (SEC 10) Qualified medical practitioners are appointed as certifying surgeons by the state gov for specific limits. A certifying surgeon may authorized any medical practitioner to exercise his powers with the approval of the state Gov. the occupier of a factory or a person directly or indirectly interested in a factory should not be appointed as certifying surgeon. The following are the duties of certifying surgeons: a) The examinations and certification of young person under the factories act. b) The examination of person engaged in factories in dangerous occupations.

c) Medical supervision for any factory may be prescribes under the following circumstances: 1) If illness have occurred which is believed to be due to the nature of manufacturing process 2) If injury to the health of the workers is likely due to any change in the manufacturing process or in the substances used in it. 3) If young persons are employed in any work like to cause injury to their health.

HEALTH
Sections 11 to 20 of the act deal with the provisions ensuring the health of the workers in the conditions under which work is carried on in the factories. 1. Cleanliness : (SEC 11) a) Every factory should be kept clean and free from dust arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance. Accumulation of dirt and refuse should be removed daily by some effective method. The floor of every work

room should be cleaned at least once in every week by washing by some effective method b) If a floor is liable to become wet in the course of any manufacturing process, effective means of drainage must be provided. c) Use of dis-infect ants, drainage, re paining, varnishing etc. should be restored to. In any other case, they should be kept white washed or color washed at least once in ever period of 14 months. The dates of this process should be entered in the prescribed register. 2. Disposal of waste and affluent ( Sec 12) a) Effective arrangements must be made in ever factory for the disposal of wastes and affluent due to the manufacturing process carried on therein. b) The state gov may make rules prescribing the arrangement to be made in this regard. 3. Ventilation and temperature (Sec 13) a) Effective and suitable provision should be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom. 1) Adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air and 2) Such a temperature to secure to worker herein seasonable comfort and prevent injury to health.

b) , The walls and roofs must be of such material and so designed that the temperature shall be kept low as possible. c) The state gov may prescribe a standard of adequate ventilation and reasonable temperature in any factory and direct that a thermometer shall be provided and maintained in such place and position as may be specified. d) Excessively high temperature can be reduced by white washing, spraying and insulating and screening outside wall, roofs or window. 4. Dust and Fume (Sec 14) a) If in a manufacturing process in a factory dust or impurity or natural gas likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers is given off, effective measures must be taken in the factory for prevention or inhalation or accumulation of dust and fumes in work rooms. b) A stationary internal combustion engine must not be operated unless the exhaust is conducted into the open air. 5. Artificial Humidification (Sec 15) a) In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the state gov may make rules prescribing standards of humidification. b) If any factory in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased the water used for the purpose should be taken

from a public supply or their service of drinking water or shall be effectively purified before it is used. 6. Overcrowding (Sec 16) a) There must not be overcrowding in any room of the factory so as to be injurious to the health of the workers. b) There must be at least 350 cubic feet for the factory in existence at the time of the commencement of the act, 500 cubic feet for the factories built after the commencement of the act of spaces for every worker. c) The chief inspector may, be ordered in writing require a notice to be passed to be pasted in each work room of the factory specifying the maximum number of workers who may be employed in the room. d) The chief inspector may, by order in writing exempt any work room from the provision on sec 16, if he is satisfied that compliance with the provisions of sec 16 is unnecessary in the interest of the health of the workers employed therein. 7. Lighting (Sec 17) a) In every part of the factory where workers are working or passing, sufficient and suitable lighting, natural or artificial or both shall be provided and maintained.

b) All glazed windows and skylights used for the lightening of the work room must be kept clean on both the inner and outer surface and free from obstruction. c) Effective provision shall also, as far as practicable be made for the prevention of 1) Glare, either directly from the source of light or by reflection from a smooth surface. 2) The formation of shadow to such an extent as to cause eye strain or the risk of accident to any worker. 8. Drinking Water (sec 18) a) In every factory, effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all the workers therein, a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. b) All such points shall be legibly marked, drinking water in a language understood by a majority of workers employed in the factory. Such a point should not be situated within 6 meters from any washing place, urinal, latrine spittoon or open drain or any other source of contamination. c) In every factory where more than 25 workers are ordinarily employed provision shall be made for cooling drinking water during hot weather by effective means and for distribution thereof.

d) The state gov may make rules for securing compliance with the above provisions and for an examination by prescribed authorities of the supply and distribution of drinking water in factories. 9. Latrines and Urinals (Sec 19) a) In every factory separated enclosed accommodation of latrines and urinals of prescribed types of male and female workers must be provided. Such accommodation shall be conveniently situated and accessible to workers at all times. It shall be adequate lighted and ventilated and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. Sweepers shall also be employed for keeping clean latrines, urinals and wasting places. b) In factories wherein more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed: 1) All latrines and urinals accommodation shall be of prescribed sanitary types. 2) The doors and internal walls upon 3 feet height, of the latrine and urinals shall be laid in glazed titles or smooth polished surface. 3) The sanitary pans of latrines and urinals are washed and cleaned with suitable detergents, disinfectants once in 7 days.

4) The state gov may prescribe the number of latrines/urinals to be provided in each factory and regarding sanitation in factories. 10. Spittoons (Sec 20) a) In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoon at convenient places. b) No person shall spit within the premises of a factory except in the spittoons provided for the purpose. c) Person who disobey the provisions shall be liable for fine not exceeding Rs.5/

SAFETY
(Sec 21-41) (Most Important) Questions: 1. State the provisions of factories act in respect of fencing of machinery. Who are responsible for such fencing?

2. Briefly describe the provisions of factories act 1948 relating to precautions in case of fire. 3. Summaries the provisions of the factories ace regarding the safety of workers. 4. Short Notes on : a) Dangerous operation or machinery. b) Self-acting machineries. c) Precautions are care of fire. It is obligatory on the part of every occupier of a factory to provide safety measures necessary to secure the safety of the workers in the factory. The factories act provides the guidelines for the occupier. The following are the provisions dealing with the safety of the workers. 1. Fencing of machinery (Sec 21) In every factory, dangerous part of any machinery must be securely fenced while the parts of the machinery are in motion. If it is not covered, it is an offence. Someone removing the fence without the knowledge or consent of the manager is not a valid defense. But if for some reasons, the fencing is breaks down and due to this the machine remains unfenced for short time, the manager is not liable. The burden of proof lies on the manager to prove that he has carried out his duty of keeping the guard in position while the machine is working, if he fails to prove this, he liable for penalty. In Caruil Vs Androw Baruay &

Sons Ltd, it was held that the duty of fencing extends to shutting of the machinery so that it cannot fly out and strike the workman if it breaks. Dangerous part means any machinery or its part which may cause reasonable danger during its working if it is without protection. The following are the provisions regarding precaution of dangerous machinery: 1) If the machine caused injury to anyone acting reasonable under normal circumstance (Walkers Vs Bletechley Fie tans Ltd) 2) If it is unfenced and if danger can be expected in the ordinary course of affairs by the alert, skilled workers then such a machine is dangerous. The fencing of machinery must be secure and safe, and should guard against reasonable dangers (Mitchell Vs North British Rubber co Ltd) 3) When the machinery is in motion, then the examination or correction of repairs must be only by specific trained adult mail worker wearing tight fitting clothing. Women and young children should not be allowed to clean any part of the machinery in monition.

4) Young persons should not employ to work at dangerous machines unless they are fully instructed as to the dangers involved in meeding with the machine. (Sec 23) 5) Suitable striking gears and other devices to cut of the power and electricity emergency must be provided (Sec 24) 6) In the case of self-operating machines. (Self-acting machines) there should be sufficient space i.e. distance 18 inches from any fixed structure or wall. (Sec 25) 7) All machines driven by power should be efficiently guarded to prevent dangers (Sec 26) 8) For pressing cotton, women or children should not be employed (Sec 27) 9) The hoists and lifts must be made of sound materials and should be properly maintained. Sufficient precautions and safeguard must be also provided (Sec 28) 10) In the case of lifting machines, chains and ropes, sufficient safeguards must be prescribed for the purpose of raising and lowering person, goods or material (Sec 29) 11) The revolving machines must be fenced to avoid dangers. (Sec 30) a notice indicating the speed of the machine shall be fixed near it. 12) If any manufacturing process takes places in a machine at a pressure the atmospheric pressure effective

measures must be provided for sage working pressure (Sec 31) 13) The floor steps and stairs cases must be in a sound condition. (Sec 32). 14) Hands rails and other safety measures must be provided for stair cases, steps etc., safe means of access to every place of the factory must be provided so that any worker in danger can be saved (Sec 33) 15) The pits opening in fences or floor which by its nature of construction is dangerous should be securely fenced or covered. (Sec 34) 16) Persons should be employed to lift, carry or move and loaded machineries which are likely to cause injuries. 17) If the manufacturing process in any factory involves risk of injuries to the eyes by exposure to excessive light then protection to eyes must be provided in the form of effective screen or suitable goggle. (Sec 35) 18) If the manufacturing process involves the emission of explosives, inflammable dust etc. such emission must be prevented at the sources of production. In such a case the worker must wear suitable breathing apparatus and a belt securely attached to rope, and the free end must be held by a person standing outside the confined space (Sec 37) 19) All means of escape from the factory must be provided in case of explosion or fire (Sec 38)

Inspectors powers regarding safety measures: 1) (Sec 40) If any part of the building, machinery or plant in a factory is in a dangerous condition, the inspector may require the Occupier or Manager to: a) Furnished the drawings and specifications which are necessary to determine whether such buildings etc. b) Conduct any test specified by him and inform the result to the inspector. 2) If any part of a building, machinery or plant is in dangerous conditions, the inspector may specify the measures to be adopted. Also if it involves imminent danger to human life, he may prohibit its use until proper repair. 3) If any part of a building appears to be detriment to health and safety of employees, the inspector may specify measures to be carried out by the occupier or manager of a factory (Sec 40A) 4) In a factory with more than 100 or more workers are employed which involves risk of bodily injury etc., the state gov may employ necessary number of safety officers. The duties of such officers shall be prescribed by the state Gov. (Sec 40 B)

Welfare (Sec 41-49)


Sec: 42 to 49 deal with the provisions for the welfare of the workers. They are: 1. Washing facilities : (Sec 42) In every factory, adequate and suitable facilities should be provided and maintained for the purpose of washing and bathing by the workers therein, Separate and adequately screened partition must be made for the use of male and female workers. Such facilities must be conveniently accessible and kept clean. The state gov may prescribe standards of adequate and suitable facilities for washing. 2. Facilities for storing and drying clothes (Sec 44) The state gov may make rules requiring the factories to provide suitable places for dying wet clothes. The places must be free from risk of theft. 3. Facilities for Sitting (Sec 44) Where workers are obliged to work in a standing position, suitable arrangements for sitting must be provided in every factory. This is to help the workers to take advantage of any opportunity for rest which may occur in the course of their work. The chief inspector may require the occupier of the workers engaged in a particular

manufacturing process. The state gov may also prescribe rules in this regard. 4. First-aid Appliances (Sec 45) First-aid boxes or cupboards with the prescribed contents must be provided and maintained in every factory. It must be readily accessible during all working hours. For every 150 workers there must be at least one such box. Such box must contain the prescribed contents and must be kept in charge of a responsible person trained in the first-aid treatment. He must be readily available during the working hours of a factory. In every factory where in more than 500 workers are employed an ambulance room with prescribed equipments must be provided. It must be charge or prescribed medical and nursing staff. 5. Canteens: (Sec 46) The state gov may make rules requiring any specified factory employing more than 250 workers ordinarily, to provide for a canteen and to be maintained by the state gov may provide the date of opening the canteen, the standards regarding construction, accommodation and other equipments of the canteen, the food stuff to be served on charges for the canteen and the representation of workers in the management of the canteen. The chief

inspector may also be authorized to make rules regarding this. Parimal Vs Chandra rana VS L.I.C (1995 SC) It was that: 1) If under the provisions of the factory acct it is obligatory for the employer to provide and maintain canteen for the use of the employees, then the canteen becomes part of the industrial establishment and the canteen workers are employees of the management. 2) The obligation to provide canteen is different from obligation to provide facilities to run canteen, such canteen, run under obligation to provide facilities to run canteen does not become part of the establishment and the employees of such canteen are not employees of the management. 6. Shelter, Rest Rooms and Lunch Rooms (Sec 47) In every factory, ordinarily employing more than 150 workers, the employer must provide for shelter, rest rooms and suitable lunch rooms. If a canteen is maintained under the provisions as under sec 46, lunch room may not be required to be provided. No worker shall eat any other food in the work room when a lunch room exists for eating meals etc. The shelters or rest room and lunch room must be clean condition. The state gov may prescribe the standards in respect of construction of

accommodation, furniture and other equipments of shelters rest room and lunch room. A factory may also exempt from the above requirements by official notification. 7. Creches: (Sec 48) In every factory ordinarily employing more than 50 women workers a suitable room or rooms for the use of children under the game of 6 yrs. of such women must be provided and maintained. The rooms must provide for adequate accommodation, light and ventilation must be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. It shall be under the charge of woman trained in the case of children and infants... the state gov may prescribe rules for the location and standards in respect of construction accommodation, furniture for the case of children to be provided. Additional facilities for the case of children belonging to women workers must be provided. It must facilitate the workmen and free milk for the children and for feeding the children by the mothers at suitable intervals. 8. Welfare Officers: Every factory ordinarily employing 500 or more workers must enjoy such number of welfare officers a may be prescribed for the factory. The state gov may prescribe the duties qualifications and conditions of services of such

officers. The state gov may exempt any factory from compliance with any of the above provisions.

WORKING HOURS OF ADULTS (Sec 55-65)


The following are the rules regulating the working hrs of the adults workers of a factory under the provisions of factories act. 1) An adult working cannot be required or allowed to work in a factory for more than 48 hrs in any week. 2) There should not be continuous working period exceeding 5hrs of continuous work, a worker must be given half hr interval or rest. The state gov or the chief inspector may however after continuous working period up to 6hrs. 3) The total period of working hrs include interval for rest should not exceed ten and a hall hrs in any day. However, with the permission of the chief inspector in writing it can be increased to 12 hrs. The period of work of an adult worker should be arranged in such a manner that the hrs of working include the time for rest does not exceed 10 hrs in any day. For valid

reasons specified in writing this period may be exceeded up to 12 hrs. 4) Any adult worker cannot be allowed to work in a factory for more than 9 hrs in any day. This limit may be exceeded with the previous approval of chief inspector of factories. 5) In the case of night-shifts, for any change in the shifts the management should give the worker 24 consecutive hours as weekly holiday. 6) The shift system must be so arranged that one relay of workers are alone engaged in work of the same kind at the same time, i.e. there should not be multiple shifts but with the permission of the state gov or chief inspector, multiple shifts may be allowed. 7) If a worker works for more than 9hrs in any day or more than 28 hrs in any week, then for the over time, he must be given wagers at twice the ordinary rate of wages. 8) IfxZ workers are paid on piece rate basis, then the state gov will fix the time rate equivalent to the average rate of wagers. 9) An adult worker cannot be required or allowed to work in any factory on any day, if he has already been working in any other factory on the same day that is double employment is probhited. 10) A notice of periods of work for adult worker must be displayed and properly maintained in ever factory. The

notice must be in English in a language understood by the majority of the workers in the factory. It must be displayed conspicuously and in a convenient place. The writing must be legible and the notice board must be clean. The manager shall fix the periods of the working hrs of adult workers. He must draw the scheme of shifts clearly. The forms of notice must be in the prescribed manner as the state gov notifies. Any change in the system of work must be previously notified to the inspector. 11) The manager must also maintain the register of adult worker showing their names their nature of work, the group in which each worker is included, shift numbered and such other particulars as my be prescribed. The inspector can inspect the register at all times during working hours. OVER TIME: 1. If a worker works in a factory for more than nice hrs in a day or more than forty eight hrs in any week, he shall be entitled to wages at the rate of twice his ordinary rate of wages. 2. Ordinary rate of wages means basic plus such allowances including cash equivalent of sale of food grains and other articles at concessional rate but does not include a bonus.

3. If the worker are paid on piece rate basis, time rate shall be fixed taking into account the daily Average, their full time earnings of days on which they actually worked during the preceding months. If he did not work in the preceding months his average earnings during the days in which he actually worked is taken into account. 4. The cash equivalent of the concessional sale of food grains and other articles shall be calculated on the basis of the maximum quantity of food grains and other articles admissible to a standard quality. The standard family means, the workers his or her spouse and two children. 5. The state gov may make rules prescribing the manner in which the cash equivalent shall be computed. Registers should be also be maintained for securing compliance with all the provisions regarding overtime wages.

EMPLOYEMNT OF YOUNG PERSONS AND WOMEN (SEC 66-77)


Introduction: A young person means a person who is either a child or an adolescent. A child means a person who has not completed his 15th yr. An adolescent means a person who has

not completed his 8th yr. A child who has not completed 14th yr. of age must not be allowed to work in any factory. In Machintosh Vs First brook Box Company: It was held that the employers must ascertain the age of the children whom he allows to work in any factory and that he should not depend upon the statement of the applicant. Children who have completed the 14th yr. of age or adolescent person are allowed to work in the factory provided the following conditions are satisfied: 1. Certificate of fitness. 2. A token to be carried by the children or adolescent in reference to such certificate. It the child has completed this 15th yr. the certificate of fitness entitles him to work in a factory as an adult. Certificate of Fitness: (Sec 69) This certificate is granted to a young person by a surgeon after physical examining him and ascertaining his fitness to work in a factory. The application for the examination may be made by the young person himself or by his guardian. The application must be accompanied by documents signed by the manager of the factory. The surgeon before issuing the certificate must have

personal knowledge of the work. Otherwise he must examine the place of work and the manufacturing process. A certificate of fitness is valid for 12 months from the date of issue but it can be renewed. It can be revoked at any time by the certifying surgeon if the holder is no longer fit to work. He may refuse to renew a certificate if he thinks fir but he must give his reasons in writing for doing so, fees for the certificate are payable by the occupier. It cannot be recovered from the young persons, his parents or guardian. Effect of certificate of fitness (Sec 70) An adolescent carrying a certificate of fitness to work in a factory shall be deemed to be an adult for the purpose of working hours, annual wages etc. but it the adolescent has not attained the age of 17 yrs., he cant be employed to work during night (10 pm to 7 am) Working hrs for children (Sec 71) A child should not be employed or permitted to work in any factory. 1) For more than 4 1/2 hrs in any day. 2) During night time. 3) For more than 2 shifts and such shifts should not overlap or spread over 5 hrs each.

4) The shift should not be changed more than once in a period of 30 days with the previous permission in writing to the chief inspector. 5) The provisions for weekly holidays apply to child workers also. 6) No child should be allowed to work in any factory on the same day wherein he had already been working in another factory. 7) A notice of periods of work for children must be displayed and correctly maintained (Sec 72) 8) It must show clearly for ever day the period of working hrs for the children. The working hrs must be fixed previously as in the case of adult workers. Register of child workers (Sec 73) The manager of every factory employing child workers must maintain a register for them. It must show: 1) The name for each child worker in the factory. 2) The nature of his work. 3) The group in which he is included. 4) If the group is in shift, the relay to which he is allotted. 5) The number of his certificate of fitness. 6) The time period during working hours. The state gov may prescribe the form of register of child workers, the manner in which it shall be maintained etc. The

hours of work display in the notice must correspond with the entries in the register of child worker. Safety Provisions: 1) Young persons should not be allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of machinery in motion, exposing the young person to risk of injury. 2) A young person should not be allowed to work at any dangerous machine, unless: a) He has received full instructions as to the danger arising in connection with the machine and precautions to be observed. b) He has received sufficient training in work at the machine. c) He is under adequate supervisions by a person having a thorough knowledge and experience of the machine. 3) No child should be employed in any party of a factory for pressing cotton in open air. 4) No young person shall be employed on any operation carried on in a factory which exposes young persons to serious risks of bodily injury or poisioning or other diseases. Medical Examination of child at work (Sec 75) If the inspector is of that the person working in a factory is a young person without certificate of fitness or with a certificate

of fitness but no longer fit or work in the capacity stated in the certificate, he may direct the manager of the factory to have the person medically examined by the certifying surgeon. The young persons should not work until he has been examined and granted certificates of fitness. The state gov may make rules prescribing the forms of certificate of fitness to be granted to young persons and the procedure for their issue. It may also prescribe the physical standards to be attained by the children and adolescents, the procedure regulating the issue of certificate by surgeon, etc. The employment of children act 1988 is also a protection of the interests of the child workers. Special provisions to female workers: Generally all the provisions of the factories act applicable to adult male workers are also applicable to adult female workers. However, the following provisions apply only to adult females: a) Women workers must not be allowed to clean lubricate of adjust any part of the machinery in motion involving any risk of injury. b) Woman workers are prohibited from the work of pressing cotton in open air. c) A woman worker should not be required or allowed to work for more than 28 hours in any week or 9 hours in any day.

d) A woman worker must be employed to work only between the hours of 6am to 7pm. However, the state gov by notification in the official gazette may exempt any class or description of factories form the operation of the rule. But there should not be employed of women between 10pm and 5am. e) No woman worker must be employed in dangerous, operations involving serious risk of bodily injuries poisoning or diseases.