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the people. He introduced the system of State education, and trained a large number of teachers to educate the people.

The old and difficult Arabic script was replaced by the Roman script. It was done to make reading and writing easier to learn. He also simplified the Turkish language by freeing it of the Arabic and Persian words in it. Nobilities and old titles were abolished. The wearing of national head-dress called the Fez for men and the veil for women were also done away with. Women were asked to come out of their houses and take part in national life side by side with men. Steps were also taken for the economic welfare of the people. New roads and railways were constructed. The banking system was organized. New factories and industries sprang up day by day. Mustafa Kamal inaugurated great development and construction scheme both for railways and motor rods. There were only 150 factories in 1919 and by 1933 the number of factories in Turkey went to 2000. The five years plan, inaugurated in 1934 boosted the heavy industry still further. These reforms ensured rapid progress both in the economic & social spheres of national life. Turkey achieved the stage of development in a few years, which other European countries took in 150 years. Thus, Mustafa Kamal proved to be the Saviour of Turkish nation and the architect of the modern Turkey. 13- Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal in Turkey? Q 12. Describe the reforms introduced by Mustafa Kamal with reference to 1) the position of woman 2) removal of illiteracy 3) change in dresses 4) adoption of the Roman script 5) the industrial and economic development Introduction: Mustafa Kamal, After becoming the Governor-General of the Eastern Provinces, came to Anatolia and organized the dispersed, shattered remaining groups of disbanded Ottoman Empire Army. He was a very courageous person of great determination. He brought about major changes in the social, cultural and developmental sector of Turkey and put it on the way to progress. Mustafa Kamal introduced many reforms of very far-reaching results. His reforms in the social and economic fields were greatly welcomed by the Turkish masses. (1) The position of woman: Mustafa Kamal not only introduced social and economic reforms but took major steps to emancipate the women-folk. Early in 1923, Mustafa Kamal clearly identified the position and status of women in the new Turkish society. He made education necessary for women both in science and arts. They were allowed to cast their veil, once for all and come out to participate in the nation-building task. They should also receive education and degrees like men and would be given equal chances to work. He clearly indicated that their national status would not be less than men. (2) Removal of illiteracy: Mustafa Kamal treated education of the masses as the first requisite for national progress. As state education was unheard in Turkey, it was really a big problem that called for immediate attention along with that of providing trained teachers. Therefore, training of teachers to educate the masses were two major initial problems that Mustafa Kamal took first in this respect. (3) Change in dresses: It was a revolutionary change to modernize Turkish traditional dresses. He took steps to abolish wearing of the national head-dress, called Fez. The Fez was in origin Greek, but he ordered to give up and replace it with hats. (4) Adoption of the Roman script: He knew that until and unless the people of Turkey join hands together in an effort to move forward, nothing could be achieved. He himself chalks in hand, toured through villages and towns of Turkey, telling them how to adopt the new Roman script. Mustafa Kamal was a patriot and he knew well that Turkey could not be put to progress without education. He ordered to abolish the old Turkish script and replaced it with new Roman script. He appointed a committee for the purification of the language by substituting genuine Turkish words for those of Arabic and Persian origin. (5) The industrial and economic development: Turkey was too backward in both, communication and industry. Mustafa Kamal inaugurated great development and construction scheme both for railways and motor roads. There were only 150 factories in 1919 and by 1933 the number of factories in Turkey went to 2000. The five years plan, inaugurated in 1934 boosted the heavy industry still further. These reforms ensured rapid progress both in the economic & social spheres of national life. Turkey achieved the stage of development in a few years, which other European countries took in 150 years. This was achieved through collective efforts of the people under the able & unchaining powers of Mustafa Kamal. 14- Why did Mustafa Kamal tour the country side? While Greek troops were ordered to fight the rebels, Mustafa Kamal laid down his secret plan of ousting the enemy and toured the country side to raise a Turkish Patriotic Army. 15- Who were the first President and Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey? When was the Turkish Empire declared as the Turkish Republic? Who were its first president and first prime minister? The Turkish Empires was declared as the Turkish Republic on October 29, 1923. Mustafa Kamal was declared the President and General Ismat Inonu, the first Prime Minister of Turkey. 16- After the World War, how did the Turkish government react towards Allies? What was the attitude of the Turkish government towards the Allies after world war one? After the World War, the old Liberals had formed a government in Istanbul. However, the Padishah and the Liberals were eager to collaborate with the allies. They thought to cooperate with the occupying forces was in the best interest of the nation. 17- In the Eastern Anatolia, who blocked the Allies, when the liberals subdued? Who obstructed the allies in Eastern Anatolia when the liberals subdued? When the Liberals subdued, Kiyazim Karabekar with some undefeated remnants of the Ottoman Army, obstructed the Allied control officers and refused to disband his man. 18- Why was Mustafa Kamal sent to Anatolia? Mustafa kamal was sent to Anatolia to control the ever increasing number of little encounters in streets. These encounters were from Kiyazim Karabekar along with undefeated personals of the Ottoman Army. 19- Why and where did Musfafa KamaI go to the North-east coast of Anatolia? When did Mustafa Kamal sail for the north-east coast of Anatolia? He went for the north-east coast of Anatolia as Governor General of the East Provinces on May 1919. 20- What did Mustafa Kamal do in Anatolia? In Anatolia, he had a secret meeting with Patriots in which he sketched out his plan of resistance against the enemy. 21- What did Mehmet say when he heard of the activities of Mustafa KamaI? When Mehmet learnt about the activities of Mustafa Kamal, he ordered him to return and report at Istanbul. 22- What was political condition in Anatolia after Kiyazim Karabekar had deviated form the policy of the central government? Turks grew bolder and little encounters increased after Kiyazim deviated form the policy of the liberals. Moreover, there was consternation among the Allies as well as in the Istanbul itself.

23- What was the reaction of the Turkish Patriots to the intention of the Allies to partition the Ottoman Empire? A flame of indignation started burning in the heart of Patriots because all of them were infuriated by foreign occupation. 24- When did the Ottoman Empire of Izmir inform about Greek occupation? When was the ottoman empire of lzmir informed about Greek occupation? On May 15, 1919, the Admiral oft he British Mediterranean Fleet informed the Ottoman Governor of Izmir that the Province of Aydin were going to be occupied by the Greeks. 25- What did Mustafa Kamal suggest to the Patriots in Anatolia? Addressing the Patriots, Mustafa Kamal said, As the Sultan and the Central government were in enemy hands, they must setup a temporary government and a congress or National Assembly to represent real, free Turkey. 26- How did Mustafa Kamal respond to the orders of Mehmet? As a response, Mustafa Kamal sent a detailed telegram to padishah, urging him, as leader of his people, to come over to Anatolia to take lead against the Greek and other foreigners. 27- What did Mustafa Kamal do when the National Assembly was in session? When the National Assembly was in session in Istanbul, Mustafa Kamal, taking maximum benefit of the occasion, organized regular troops of the old imperial army, armed peasants, women, transporting ammunitions and supplies. 28- When and where did the Grand National Assembly meet in the president-ship of Mustafa Kamal? The Revolutionary Grand National Assembly met with Mustafa Kamal as President on 23rd April, 1920 in Ankara. 29- Why and when did Mustafa Kamal abolish the sultanate? Mustafa Kamal through verdict of the Grand National Assembly abolished the sultanate in 1922 a few days after the change of the government. 30- How and when did Mehmet IV leave on exile? Mehmet IV left Turkey on November 17th, 1922 by a British Ambulance. 31- What were the steps taken by Mustafa Kamal after gaining power? After gaining power, the first step taken by Mustafa Kamal was the beginning of mass education program. He replaced old manuscript by old roman script and he himself traveled in the length and width of the country to ensure provisions of the new script and implementation of his orders. He also simplified the language, abolished the use of Fez or cap and veil. 32- Who said this to whom: "1 shall stay in Anatolia until the nation has won its independence". This was said by Mustafa Kamal said it through a telegram as a response to the orders by Mhmet. In this order, the rebel was asked to report to the capital. 33- What did Allies do when Mustafa Kamal captured Anatolia? The Allies put Istanbul under a collective arrest and dissolved the National Assembly. 34- When did Mustafa Kamal get a decisive victory over the Allies? Mustafa Kamal got a decisive victory over the Allies on September 9, 1922 and entered in Izmir as conqueror. 35- What titles were given to the Ottoman King? The titles given to Ottoman King included sovereigns, distributor of crowns to the kings of the Earth, Master of Europe, Asia and Africa and High King of the two Seas. 1- The lesson "The Dying Sun" tells us about evolution of earth & beginning of life on it. 2- The lesson "Using The Scientific Method" tells us about how the scientific method benefited us. 3- In the lesson "Why Boys Fail In College" the writer tells us reasons of failure of college students. 4- The lesson "End Of Term" is about the feelings of the writer about his school routines. 5- The lesson "On Destroying Books" has the central idea that it is a public duty to destroy useless books. 6- The story "The Man was A Hospital" gives us a lesson that a little knowledge is dangerous. 7- The story "My Financial Career" is a humorous story. 8- The lesson "Hunger And Population Explosion" tells us about fast growing population and dangers associated with it. 9- In the essay "First Year At Harrow" Churchill describes his educational career & admission to Harrow School. 10- The lesson "Sir Alexander Fleming" tells us about the discovery of penicillin. 11- The lesson "Mustafa Kamal" tells us about freedom and Democratization of Turkey. 1- The writer tells that most of the stars are a thousand times bigger than the earth. 2- The average distance between neighboring stars is millions of miles. 3- The number of stars is maybe total number of grains of sand on all the sea shores of the world. 4- Some 2 thousand million years ago years ago it happened that a big wandering star come closer to the sun. 5- The gravitational pull of the wandering star caused a mountain of tides on the surface of the sun. 6- The tidal mountain built on the surface of the sun broke down due to gravitational pull of the wandering star. 7- The torn pieces of the mountain scattered in space and started revolving around sun. 8- These pieces are known as stars 9- The stars were too hot in the beginning. 10- The stars rarely come closer to each other because there are great distances between them. 11- The stars separated form the sun, formed the Milky way. 12- Milky way is name of a galaxy 13- The stars are warm due to the solar radiations. 14- The life on earth started in form of Unicellular organisms. 15- The main ability of the living organisms was that they could produce better living organisms before they die. 16- These humble beginning finally resulted in the form of human race. 17- The 1ife is possible only on a star where there is a moderate temperature. 18- Oxygen and water are also the basic physical conditions for life to exist. 19- When a man tries to understand the nature & purpose of universe & life in it he first feels fear. 20- The most important of the physical conditions, essential for life is Moderate Temperature. 21- Such temperature belts where life is possible are one million millionth part of the universe.