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Chapter 1.

Introduction

Introduction to Image Processing in Delphi Image Processing Types Digital Image Formats

Chapter 2. Delphi Components and Graphical User Interface TImage, An Image Component in Delphi Writing Simple Graphical User Interface for Image Processing

Chapter 3. Image Histogram What is An Image Histogram? The Purpose of Image Histogram Computing and displaying Image Histogram in Delphi

Chapter 4. Pixel Operation Pixel Operation: An Introduction Brightness Modification Brightness Manipulation in Delphi Contrast Enhancement Coding Contrast Enhancement in Delphi Color Inversion Color Inversion Processing in Delphi RGB to Gray Scale Conversion RGB to Gray Scale Conversion Using Delphi Thresholding Threshold Below, Threshold Above, and Threshold Inside Implementation in Delphi

CHAPTER 1 Introduction
Have you ever used Photoshop or other image processing software to make a cool impressive oil painting style of your photograph? Do you know that number of cars parking in basement can be deducted automatically by computer using the image captured by a camera in real time? That's what image processing done to make them possible. Using Delphi is fun because you can design graphical user interface easily and rapidly. If you're familiar with Photoshop, Gimp, or other image processing software, you might be wonder how such software is written. With image processing techniques, you can write a software to manipulate image brightness, contrast, finding the edge feature, giving emboss effect, or change the picture to an oil painting look. Learning image processing is really fun, and using Delphi as the development tools

make it more fun. You will learn basic image processing concept, formulas, and advanced application of it. Image processing deals with color manipulation, pixel-by-pixel operation, even frame-by-frame operation. In this blog, I will try to share and discuss many image processing techniques, rangin from basic to advanced topics.

Image Processing Types


Many types of image processing can be classified into some categories:

1. Pixel operation, is an operation of pixels, that each pixel in an image is operated


independently, means that the value of the pixel is not affected by other pixels value. It depends solely on its previous value and the operation parameters. Brightness and contrast manipulation are the examples. 2. Global operation, when a global characteristic of an image is used to deduct the parameter to operate each pixel. The global characteristic is usually determined using statistical method, for example is automatic brightness and contrast equalization, where the histogram is redistributed for a better distribution. 3. Multi-frame operation, where an image is operated with other images to get a result. For example is the generation of transitional image of subsequent slow motion picture. When a 20 fps (frames per second) movie will be played back four times slower, it looks smoother if we show them in 20 fps with 3 additional transition frames between the two original frames, rather than show only the original frames by 5 fps. 4. Geometric operation, where the shape, size, or the orientation is modified. Resizing and skewing are some examples.

5. Neighboring pixels operation, where the result of a pixel operation depends not only on its
previous value but also on other surrounding pixels values. Smoothing and sharpening operation are some examples.

6. Morphologic operation, is operation that is focused on specific image region. This operation is
closely related to image analysis, because it deals with object/morph detection algorithm.

Digital Image Formats


There are many digital image representation such as raster and vector format. The raster type represent the image in pixels, while vector type represent the image in vector notation (curve, line, circle, etc). Only raster type will be discussed here. Raster image is constructed by many pixels, where each pixel is arranged in rows and columns. Each pixel can be addressed by its Cartesian coordinate. Within raster image, there are some very popular formats: binary, gray scale, true color, and indexed color. Binary Image In binary image, there are only two values: 0 or 1, representing two different colors. Most common color mapping is black for 0 and white for 1. Example of binary image is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1. Binary Image Gray Scale Using gray scale, the intensity of a pixel can vary in many values, giving smoother image. Each pixel can has many possible values, depending on the bit-depth of the format, for example, an 8 bit gray scale has 256 possible value for each pixel to represent the dot intensity. The most common color mapping for gray scale is black for 0 (zero) value, white for maximum value (255 in case of 8-bit image), and gray for values in between. Other color mapping is possible such as dark brown for zero and light orange for maximum value. An example of a gray scale image is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2. Gray Scale Image True Color Image In a color image, a specific color of a pixel is represented as a combination of three primary color: red, green, and blue (RGB), therefor this true color format is also known as RGB format. This RGB primary color is using display format, where the display device normally has red, green, and blue light source to construct a pixel. This is different with printing based representation that normally uses

cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY) as their primary color, as used by printing devices. For 24-bit RGB format, each element (red, green, and blue) uses 8 bit depth to represent its intensity, so there are 2^24 or more than 16 million of possible color value for each pixel. An example of true color image is shown in figure 3.

Figure 3. A True Color Image Indexed Color Image The memory to store a true color image is three times than to store gray-scale image. Inpractical image, the number of colors is often limited, much less than 16 million combination, because the number of color in an image can't exceed the number of its pixels. Even if the number of pixels exceed 16 million, the number of colors can be much less. To reserve the computer's storage memory, an indexed color format is used for this case. In this format, each pixel is represent an index of a color table.

Figure 4. Indexed Color Image and Its Colormap This color table is known as color pallet or color map. Using this format, we can manipulate the color in all pixels faster, because we just need to manipulate the color map, which have much fewer element that the pixels.Figure 4 is a typical indexed 256-color image and its own palette (shown as a rectangle of swatches).

CHAPTER 2 Delphi Components and Graphical User Interface

TImage, An Image Component in Delphi


Delphi doesn't provide image processing component, so we have to write the processing algorithm by ourself, that's why this blog is written. Many third party image processing component are available, but we don't need it as we are going to learn on how to make it. To design the graphical user interface, Delphi (both Delphi pro and Turbo Delphi Explorer) provides TImage component.

This component has Picture property that can be used to store image data. Picture property has a method called LoadFromFile that can be used to retrieve image data from a file. Other important TPicture sub-properties are: Height, represent the value of the image's height in pixel unit. Width, represent the value of the image's width in pixel unit. Bitmap, contain the data format information and the pixels values of the image.

The most common used format for for the bitmap are: pf1bit The bitmap is a device-independent bitmap with one bit per pixel (black and white palette)

pf8bit The bitmap is a device-independent bitmap that uses a 256color palette. pf24bit The bitmap is a device-independent true-color bitmap that uses 24 bits per pixel.

When an image is first loaded from a file, the format will be the original format stored on that file, but we can change the bitmap format, and the data in the bitmap will be changed accordingly. Just be careful because this format conversion is not reversible.

Writing Simple Graphical User Interface for Image Processing


Basic Form To learn image processing in Delphi by directly coding the algorithm, first we need to make our GUI (graphical user interface) to load an image, view, process, and show the result.

1.

Create a new project (File->New->Application in Delphi 7 or File->New->VCL Form Application in Turbo Delphi Explorer).

2. Set the FormStyle property of the form to fsMDIForm. 3. Change the form name from Form1 to MainForm.
4. Add a main menu component (from Standard component pallet) on the form, double click it and set a menu item File, with Open, Save, Close, and Exit sub menus.

5. Add an OpenPictureDialog (from Dialogs component pallet) and SavePictureDialog (from


dialog component pallet) components on the form.

6. Set the Option.ofOverwritePrompt property of SavePictureDialog to true.


7. Add a status bar (from Win32 component pallet) on the form to ease the window resizing.

8. Resize the window as shown in figure 1.

9. Save the form (File->Save As), type MainUnit in the file name edit box. 10. Create a new form to display the the picture as a child window on the main form using menu
File->New->Form.

11. Set the FormStyle property of the form to fsMDIChild. 12. Change the form name to ImageForm.
13. Resize the form as shown in the figure 2. 14. Add an Image component (from Additional component pallet).

15. Set the Align property of the Image component to alClient.


16. Set the Stretch property of the Image component to "true". 17. Set the Proportional property of the Image component to "true".

18. Save the form using menu File->Save as, and name it as ImageUnit. 19. Save the project using menu File->Save project as , name it with ImageProcessor, so this will
be our executable file name if we compile it.

Figure 1. MainForm

Figure 2. ImageForm

After this steps, if we compile and run the executable, the child form will be shown because Delphi will auto-create it. This child form should be displayed only after executing a file operation, so we need to exclude the child form in auto-create: go to Project->Options->Form, point to ImageForm to select, and press the > button, so the ImageForm will move to Available forms box, then press OK.

Writing From Closing Event Handler for Image Form When the image form is closed, we have to free the resources used by the form, view the ImageForm (Shift+F12 and select the ImageForm and press OK), then click Events tab on the object inspector, double click the OnClose edit box, you'll be directed to the event handler, and change the Action variable to caFree between begin and end.
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1. procedure TImageForm.FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); 2. begin 3. Action:=caFree; 4. end;

Loading Image File Here some steps to load an image from a file:

1. To load and display an image file, we will use ImageForm defined in ImageUnit, so click on MainForm and click menu File->Use Unit, and select ImageUnit then press OK. Make sure that uses ImageUnit is automatically added below the keyword implementation.
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1. implementation
2. 4.

3. uses ImageUnit; 5. {$R *.dfm}


2. Add ActiveX in the uses , this trick is needed to resolve TOpenPictureDiaolog bug (showing access violation error, I find this bug on Delphi 7 running on Windows XP SP2). Now the uses section will look like this:
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1. implementation
2. 4.

3. uses ActiveX, ImageUnit; 5. {$R *.dfm}


As an integrated part of the trick, add an initialization and finalization just before the end of the file (before end.) like shown below:
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

initialization OleInitialize(nil); finalization OleUninitialize end.

3. Make an event handler of MainMenu1->File->Open, by double clicking the MainMenu1 component, and double click the Open menu. you will be directed to the script editor.
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1. procedure TMainForm.Open1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin


3.

4. end;
Edit that script as shown below:
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1. 2. 3. 4.

procedure TMainForm.Open1Click(Sender: TObject); var formatInfo:string; begin

5. if OpenPictureDialog1.Execute then 6. begin 7. Application.CreateForm(TImageForm, ImageForm); 8. ImageForm.Image1.Picture.LoadFromFile( 9. OpenPictureDialog1.FileName); 10. ImageForm.ClientHeight:= 11. ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Height; 12. ImageForm.ClientWidth:= 13. ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Width; 14. case (ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat) of 15. pf1bit : formatInfo:='Binary'; 16. pf8bit : formatInfo:='Gray scale'; 17. pf24bit: formatInfo:='True color'; 18. end; 19. StatusBar1.SimpleText:= OpenPictureDialog1.FileName +' '+ 20. IntToStr(ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Width) + 'x'+ 21. IntToStr(ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Height) + ' '+ 22. formatInfo; 23. end; 24. end;
Saving The Image to A File Although we haven't implemented the image processing code, we can implement file saving function right now. To write File->Save event handler, follow this steps:

1. Double click the MainMenu1 component, and double click the Save item, you'll be directed to the event handler sript:
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1. procedure TMainForm.Save1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin


3.

4. end;
2. Edit that script as shown below:
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1. procedure TMainForm.Save1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. try 4. begin 5. if SavePictureDialog1.Execute then 6. TImageForm(ActiveMDIChild).Image1.Picture.SaveToFile( 7. SavePictureDialog1.FileName); 8. end 9. except 10. ShowMessage('Operation is not complete'); 11. end; 12. end;

Figure 3. The Executable

Writing File->Close Event Handler

1. Double click the MainMenu1 component, and double click the Close item, you'll be directed to the event handler sript:
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1. procedure TMainForm.Close1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin


3.

4. end;

2. Edit that script as shown below:


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1. procedure TMainForm.CLose1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. try 4. ActiveMDIChild.Close; 5. except 6. ShowMessage('Operation is not completed'); 7. end; 8. end;

Writing File->Exit Event Handler


To write File-Exit event handler, double click the MainMenu1 component, and double click the Close item, you'll be directed to the event handler sript, and add close; inside the begin-end:
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1. procedure TMainForm.Exit1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin

3.

4. end;

Close;

Now you can compile and run the executable. Figure 3 show the executable viewing an image. You can download the source code of this GUI for Delphi 7here, and for Turbo Delphi Explorer here.

Chapter 3. Image Histogram

What Is An Image Histogram?


Image histogram (gray level histogram) is one of simple and easy statistical tool for image analysis. From the histogram, many useful information of an image can be represented from an image. Image histogram is easy and fast to compute. Gray level histogram is a function that show how many pixels for every gray level exist in an image. The x-axis is the gray level, and the y-axis is the number of pixels that have certain level appear on an image.

Figure 1. An Image And Its Histogram

Figure 1. Show an image and its histogram, you can show in the histogram that the pixels values (the gray level values) is distributed only on the middle part of the available level, at levels between 100200. We can say that the image doesn't maximize the usage of the available bit-depth (0-255).

Figure 2. The Image And Its Histogram After Equalization

Using image processing techniques, we can manipulate the image to equalize the histogram, so we will have a better picture. The image and it's histogram after equalization is shown in Figure 2.

The Purpose of Image Histogram Analysis


Image histogram analysis is very useful in image processing, some of the purposes are: 1. Selecting appropriate digitizing parameter. Histogram can be used to visually judge if
an image is in an appropriate range of gray level. Ideally, digital image should use all available gray scale range, from minimum to maximum. This is important to optimize the display and other imaging devices to use all their potential capability. The imaging devices will be

optimum if the they display (or print) the image data that contain optimum usage of its format (for example 0-255 for 8bit monochrome image).

2. Selection of Thresholding Level. One of image processing technique is thresholding,


where all pixels above certain brightness level is maximized to the maximum value and others

are minimized to the minimum value. This is very useful in object and background separation if there is significant difference between an object and its background on an image.

Computing and Displaying Image Histogram in Delphi


To make our own histogram analysis using Delphi, first you need to make (or download the source code) of the graphical user interface for image processing we described in the previous chapter. To compute the image histogram, you need to make a vector variable to store the count of each pixel level. After that, you may begin to check the pixel value, and increment the variable that store the pixels count for that level. Histogram for color pixel is computed in the same way, but independently done for each R, G, and B element.

Creating Histogram Form

1. Open the GUI project created in the previous chapter. 2. Create a new form, change the form name property to HistogramForm, change the Caption to
'Histogram', set the ClientHeight property to 170, set the ClientWidth property to 275, and set the form style property to fsMDIChild.Make OnClose event handler, click Events tab on the object inspector, double click the OnClose event handler edit box. You'll be directed to the event handler, and change the Action variable to caFree between begin and end.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

procedure THistogramForm.FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); begin Action:=caFree; end;

3. Go to menu Project->Options, on the Forms page, click HistogramForm to select, and press >
to move the it from auto created forms list to available forms list.

4. Save the unit (File->Save) as HistogramUnit.


Adding Vector Variables to Store The Histogram To add variables to store the histogram, add the variables to the original HistogramForm abstraction in private section. Also add a procedureShowHistogram() to compute histogram in the public section. Add ExtCtrls in under the uses of the interface section, as we're going to use TImage in the form class abstraction.
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1. uses
2. ExtCtrls, Windows, Messages, SysUtils, Variants, Classes, Graphics, Controls , Forms, Dialogs; 3. 4. type 5. THistogramForm = class(TForm) 6. procedure FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); 7. private 8. { Private declarations } 9. MaxCount:Integer; 10. HistogramGray:Array[0..255]of Integer; 11. HistogramRed:Array[0..255]of Integer; 12. HistogramGreen:Array[0..255]of Integer; 13. HistogramBlue:Array[0..255]of Integer; 14. public 15. { Public declarations } 16. procedure ShowHistogram(Image:TImage); 17. end;

Writing The Histogram Computation Procedure In the implementation, write the ShowHistogram procedure as shown below:
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1. procedure THistogramForm.ShowHistogram(Image:TImage); 2. var 3. i,j:integer; 4. pixelPointer:PByteArray; 5. begin 6. try 7. begin 8. for i:=0 to 255 do 9. begin 10. HistogramGray[i]:=0; 11. HistogramRed[i]:=0; 12. HistogramGreen[i]:=0; 13. HistogramBlue[i]:=0; 14. end; 15. if Image.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat=pf8bit then 16. begin 17. for i:=0 to Image.Height-1 do 18. begin 19. pixelPointer:=Image.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i];

20. for j:=0 to Image.Width-1 do 21. begin 22. Inc(HistogramGray[pixelPointer[j]]); 23. end; 24. end; 25. MaxCount:=0; 26. for i:=0 to 255 do 27. if HistogramGray[i]>MaxCount then 28. MaxCount:=HistogramGray[i]; 29. end; 30. if Image.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat=pf24bit then 31. begin 32. for i:=0 to Image.Height-1 do 33. begin 34. pixelPointer:=Image.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 35. for j:=0 to Image.Width-1 do 36. begin 37. Inc(HistogramBlue[pixelPointer[3*j]]); 38. Inc(HistogramGreen[pixelPointer[3*j+1]]); 39. Inc(HistogramRed[pixelPointer[3*j+2]]); 40. end; 41. end; 42. for i:=0 to 255 do 43. begin 44. if HistogramRed[i]>MaxCount then 45. MaxCount:=HistogramRed[i]; 46. if HistogramGreen[i]>MaxCount then 47. MaxCount:=HistogramGreen[i]; 48. if HistogramBlue[i]>MaxCount then 49. MaxCount:=HistogramBlue[i]; 50. end; 51. end; 52. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 53. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clBlack; 54. for i:=0 to 255 do 55. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 56. 160-round(150*HistogramGray[i]/MaxCount)); 57. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clRed; 58. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 59. for i:=0 to 255 do 60. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 61. 160-(round(150*HistogramRed[i]/MaxCount))); 62. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clGreen; 63. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 64. for i:=0 to 255 do 65. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 66. 160-(round(150*HistogramGreen[i]/MaxCount))); 67. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clBlue; 68. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 69. for i:=0 to 255 do 70. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 71. 160-(round(150*HistogramBlue[i]/MaxCount))); 72. end; 73. except

74. Free; //free the histogram form if an exception happens 75. ShowMessage('Operation is not completed'); 76. end; 77. end;
Histogram Form Repainting When the form is activated from minimized condition, we need to redraw the canvas we have drawn on ShowHistogram procedure. Place a focus on the histogram form, go to object inspector, on the Events tab, double click OnPaint event and we will be directed to the event handler, edit as shown below:
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1. procedure THistogramForm.FormPaint(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i:integer; 4. begin 5. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160);; 6. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clBlack; 7. for i:=0 to 255 do 8. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 9. 160-round(150*HistogramGray[i]/MaxCount)); 10. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clRed; 11. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 12. for i:=0 to 255 do 13. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 14. 160-(round(150*HistogramRed[i]/MaxCount))); 15. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clGreen; 16. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 17. for i:=0 to 255 do 18. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 19. 160-(round(150*HistogramGreen[i]/MaxCount))); 20. Canvas.Pen.Color:=clBlue; 21. Canvas.MoveTo(10, 160); 22. for i:=0 to 255 do 23. Canvas.LineTo(10+i, 24. 160-(round(150*HistogramBlue[i]/MaxCount))); 25. end;

Calling Histogram Procedure from Main Form To call showHistogram procedure, we need the user interface in the main form. On the main form, double click the MainMenu component, and add menu item Image->Histogram (see figure 1), then double click the Histogram item, so we will be directed to its event handler, and edit as shown below:
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

procedure TMainForm.Histogram1Click(Sender: TObject); begin if ImageForm<>nil then begin ImageForm:=TImageForm(ActiveMDIChild); try begin Application.CreateForm(THistogramForm,HistogramForm); HistogramForm.ShowHistogram(ImageForm.Image1);

10. end; 11. except 12. HistogramForm.Free; 13. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 14. end; 15. end; 16. end;

Figure 1. Image Histogram Main Menu Make sure that in that main unit uses HistogramUnit under the uses ofimplementation section. Now you can save all form, compile, and run the executable. The example of executable running is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2. Image Histogram Execution

Source Code Download You can download the source code for both Delphi 7 and Turbo Delphi Explorer. The Delphi 7 source code can be downloaded here, and the Turbo Delphi Explorer source code here. Chapter 4. Pixel Operation

Pixel Operation: An Introduction


Pixel operation is operation of an image where each pixel's intensity value is modified. The modification/transformation depends solely on it's previous value, regardless of its position and other pixels value. Some image operation in this category are brightness modification, contrast enhancement, color inversion (negation), and thresholding operation.

Pixel operation is done by transforming each pixel value to new value according to a transformation function, known as gray-scale transformation (GST) function. This function map the gray-level input (Ki) to an new gray-level output (Ko). In general, a GST function can be expressed as: Ko=f(Ki)

Figure 1. typical Gray-Scale Transformation (GST) Function Plot The mapping of typical GST function can presented as transformation curve, as shown in Figure 1. The function can be linear or non-linear. In a true color image, GST function is applied to each RGB elements. Each function for each color element can take the same form or different depends on the application.

Brightness Modification
We can't read a book or see something clearly in a room with low light source. In real life, we can improve brightness by exposing the object with strong light source. In image processing, it's equivalent to white color (analogous to light source) addition. This is done by simply adding a constant to each color element. When the constant is positive then the image become brighter and when the constant is negative then the image will be darker.

Figure 1. Brightness Manipulation Function Plot The GST function for brightness manipulation ca be plotted as shown in figure 1. Remember that the addition with the constant is limited to 0-255 (8bit monochrome or 24bit true color format). The effect on the image's histogram is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2. Brightness Manipulation Effect on Image Histogram

For true color image, the modification for each color elements can be different. We can add more blue and reduce the red element to make different color source addition (equivalent to color light source exposure in real life).

Brightness Manipulation in Delphi


To manipulate an image's brightness is easy, first we can make the graphical user interface (GUI) to ease the manipulation. The GUI consist of a form with three sliding bar (TScrollBar). Each scroll bar is used to adjust the brightness constant for each color element.

1. Open our previous image histogram project (you can download the source code there if you
don't have it). 2. Create a new form (File->New->Form).

3. Change the name property to BrightnessForm, change the Caption property to 'Brightness'.
Set the FormStyle property to fsMDIChild. Resize the form to fit the main form (parent form).

4. On the Object Inspector, click on Events tab, and double click in the OnClose event. You'll be
directed to the event handler, and assign the Action variable with caFree between begin and end.
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

procedure TBrightnessForm.FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); begin Action:=caFree; end;

5. Add three scroll bar components (from the standard component pallet) to the form. Change
the Name property to RedScrollBar, GreenScrollBar, and BlueScrollBar. Set the minimum and maximum property of each scroll bar to -255 and 255.

6. Place three label components (from the standar component pallet) to the form, place the
layout to associate each label to each scroll bar. Change the Label's caption to Red, Green, and Blue, to label the scroll bar functions (See Figure 1).

7. Add two buttons (from standard component pallet), change their caption to OK and Cancel,
and set their name to OKButton and CancelButton accordingly.

8. Save the unit as BrightnessUnit (using menu File->Save As). 9. Go to Project->Options->Form, point to BrightnessForm to select, and press the > button, so
the BrightessForm will move to Available forms box, then press OK.

Figure 1. Brightness Modification GUI

To modify the image, it's common to backup the original image, so we can do a cancel operation after displaying the change on the original image form. To do this, we have to provide TImage object in the form to temporarily store the image. A procedure (SetBrightness) to associate the image input to the brightness form is also needed.

1. Edit the BrightnessForm abstraction to provide TImage object and the SetBrightness
procedure. Add ExtCtrls under uses in the Interfacesection because we're gonna use TImage component.
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1. uses
2. ExtCtrls, Windows, Messages, SysUtils, Variants, Classes, Graphics, C ontrols, Forms,Dialogs, StdCtrls 3. 4. type= class(TForm) 5. TBrightnessForm = class(TForm) 6. RedScrollBar: TScrollBar; 7. GreenScrollBar: TScrollBar; 8. BlueScrollBar: TScrollBar; 9. Label1: TLabel; 10. Label2: TLabel; 11. Label3: TLabel; 12. OKButton: TButton; 13. CancelButton: TButton; 14. procedure FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); 15. private 16. { Private declarations } 17. TemporaryImage:TImage; 18. OriginalImage:TImage; 19. Applied:boolean; 20. public 21. { Public declarations } 22. procedure SetBrightness(Image: TImage);

23. end; 2. Write the SetBrightness procedure in the implementation section


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1. procedure TBrightnessForm.SetBrightness(Image: TImage); 2. begin 3. try 4. begin 5. TemporaryImage:=Image; 6. OriginalImage:=TImage.Create(self); 7. OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.Assign(Image.Picture.Bitmap); 8. end; 9. except 10. begin 11. Free; //free the brightness form 12. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 13. end; 14. end; 15. end;

2. Double click the RedScrollBar component, the you'll be directed to its event handler, edit as
shown below
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1. procedure TBrightnessForm.RedScrollBarChange(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i,j:Integer; 4. temp:integer; 5. pixelPointer:PByteArray; 6. originalPixelPointer:PByteArray; 7. begin 8. try 9. begin 10. for i:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Height-1 do 11. begin 12. pixelPointer:=TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 13. originalPixelPointer:=OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
26. ]; for j:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Width-1 do begin temp:=originalPixelPointer[3*j+2]+ RedScrollBar.Position; if temp<0 then temp:=0; if temp>255 then temp:=255; pixelPointer[3*j+2]:=temp; end; end; TemporaryImage.Refresh; end; except begin Free; ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); end;

27. 28.

29. end; 30. end;

2. Double click the GreenScrollBar component, the you'll be directed to its event handler, edit as
shown below
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1. procedure TBrightnessForm.GreenScrollBarChange(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i,j:Integer; 4. temp:integer; 5. pixelPointer:PByteArray; 6. originalPixelPointer:PByteArray; 7. begin 8. try 9. begin 10. for i:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Height-1 do 11. begin 12. pixelPointer:=TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 13. originalPixelPointer:=OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
]; for j:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Width-1 do begin temp:=originalPixelPointer[3*j+1]+ GreenScrollBar.Position;

if temp<0 then temp:=0; if temp>255 then temp:=255; pixelPointer[3*j+1]:=temp; end; end; TemporaryImage.Refresh; end; except begin 26. Free; 27. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 28. end; 29. end; 30. end;

2. Double click the BlueScrollBar component, the you'll be directed to its event handler, edit as
shown below
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1. procedure TBrightnessForm.BlueScrollBarChange(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i,j:Integer; 4. temp:integer; 5. pixelPointer:PByteArray; 6. originalPixelPointer:PByteArray; 7. begin 8. try 9. begin

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
];

for i:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Height-1 do begin pixelPointer:=TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; originalPixelPointer:=OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i

for j:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Width-1 do begin temp:=originalPixelPointer[3*j]+ BlueScrollBar.Position; if temp<0 then temp:=0; if temp>255 then temp:=255; pixelPointer[3*j]:=temp; end; end; TemporaryImage.Refresh; end; except begin 26. Free; 27. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 28. end; 29. end; 30. end;

2. Double click OKButton component, you'll be directed to its event handler, and edit it as shown
below:
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1. procedure TBrightnessForm.OKButtonClick(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. Applied:=true;


4. Close(); 5. end;

2. Double click CancelButton component, you'll be directed to its event handler, and edit it as
shown below:
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1. procedure TBrightnessForm.OKButtonClick(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. Applied:=false;


4. Close(); 5. end;

2. Edit BrightnessForm's OnClose even handler as shown below:


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

procedure TBrightnessForm.FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); begin if Applied=false then TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.Assign( OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap); Action:=caFree; end;

Showing The Brightness Manipulation Form from Main Form

Now you can call the brightness form from main form. To do this, we need to add a menu to provide the access, double click the main menu component in the main form, and add Brightness menu item under menu Image (Image->Brightness), see Figure 2.

Figure 2. Brightness Menu

Write the event handler for the menu as shown below:


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1. procedure TMainForm.Brightness1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. if ImageForm<>nil then 4. begin 5. ImageForm:=TImageForm(ActiveMDIChild); 6. try 7. begin 8. Application.CreateForm(TBrightnessForm,BrightnessForm); 9. Brightnessform.SetBrightness(ImageForm.Image1); 10. end; 11. except 12. BrightnessForm.Free; 13. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 14. end; 15. end; 16. end;

Figure 3. Brightness Modification Execution

Don't forget to add BrightnessUnit under the uses in the MainUnit's implementation. Use menu File>Use Unit (Alt+F11). Now you can save, compile and run the executable. The execution look like figure 3. Here you can download the source code for Delphi 7 project , and Turbo Delphi Explorer project source code here.

Contrast Enhancement
Contrast in an image is the difference between pixels values. Without contrast we can't see anything because everything will be white or black, or just gray. If an image has a low contrast, it means that different objects in the image have low luminosity difference, and and it'll be difficult to separate them in our perception. Contrast enhancement will be helpful in increasing the visibility of an image. Figure 1 show two images with different contrast and their histogram.

Figure 1. Histograms of An Image Before Contrast Enhancement (upper image) and After Contrast Enhancement (lower image)

Contrast enhancement can be done using various gray scale transformation (GST) formulas. The following is one of contrast enhancement GST formula:

Po=G(Pi-C)+C Which G is contrast gain, and C is the center for contrasting reference. At point C the pixel value is not modified, at above C point the pixels values is increased, and below C they're decreased.

Coding Contrast Enhancement in Delphi


Designing the GUI and The Processing Algorithm To make our contrast enhancement processing, we need to design the graphical user interface (GUI) first. The GUI is similar with our previousbrightness modification user interface. The following steps explains how to make it:

1. Open (or download first) our previous brightness modification project.


2. Create a new form (File->New->Form).

3. Change the name property to ContrastForm, change the Caption property to 'Contrast'. Set
the FormStyle property to fsMDIChild. Resize the form to fit the main form (parent form).

4. On the Object Inspector, click on Events tab, and double click in the OnClose event. You'll be
directed to the event handler, and assign the Action variable with caFree between begin and end
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

procedure TContrastForm.FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); begin Action:=caFree; end;

5. Add two scroll bar components (from the standard component pallet) to the form. Change the
Name property to CenterScrollBar and ContrastScrollBar. Set the Minimum property of CenterScrollBar to 0 and the Maximum to 255. Set the minimum property of ContrastScrollBar to -100 and the maximum to 100. Set the position of CenterScrollBar to 127, set the position of ContrastScrollBar to 0.

6. Place two label components (from the standar component pallet) to the form, set the layout to
associate each label to each scroll bar. Change the Label's caption to 'Center' and 'Contrast' accordingly (see Figure 1).

7. Add two buttons (from standard component pallet), change their caption to OK and Cancel,
and set their name to OKButton and CancelButton accordingly.

8. Save the unit as ContrastUnit (using menu File->Save As). 9. Go to Project->Options->Form, point to ContrastForm to select, and press the > button, so
the ContrastForm will move to Available forms box, then press OK.

Figure 1. Contrast GUI Form

To modify the image, it's common to backup the original image, so we can do a cancel operation after displaying the change on the original image form. To do this, we have to provide TImage object in the form to temporarily store the image. A procedure (SetContrast) to associate the image input to the brightness form is also needed.

1. Edit

the

BrightnessForm

abstraction

to

provide

TImage

(TemporaryImage

and

OriginalImage) object and the SetBrightness procedure. A boolean flag (Applied) is also needed to mark whether a Cancel or OK button has been pressed. Add ExtCtrls under uses in theInterface section because we're gonna use TImage component. Edit as shown below:
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1. type 2. TContrastForm = class(TForm) 3. CenterScrollbar: TScrollBar; 4. ContrastScrollBar: TScrollBar; 5. Label1: TLabel; 6. Label2: TLabel; 7. OKButton: TButton; 8. CancelButton: TButton; 9. procedure FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TCloseAction); 10. private 11. { Private declarations } 12. TemporaryImage:TImage; 13. OriginalImage:TImage; 14. Applied:boolean; 15. public 16. { Public declarations } 17. procedure SetContrast(Image: TImage); 18. end;

2. Write the SetContrast procedure definition in the implementation section:


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

procedure TContrastForm.SetContrast(Image: TImage); begin try begin TemporaryImage:=Image; TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat:=pf24bit; OriginalImage:=TImage.Create(self);

8. OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.Assign(Image.Picture.Bitmap); 9. end; 10. except 11. begin 12. Free; //free the contrast form 13. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 14. end; 15. end; 16. end; 2. Double click the CenterScrollBar component, the you'll be directed to its event handler, edit as
shown below
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1. procedure TContrastForm.CenterScrollbarChange(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i,j:Integer; 4. temp:real; 5. pixelPointer:PByteArray; 6. originalPixelPointer:PByteArray; 7. begin 8. try 9. begin 10. if TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat=pf8bit then 11. for i:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Height-1 do 12. begin 13. pixelPointer:=TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 14. originalPixelPointer:=OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 15. for j:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Width-1 do 16. begin 17. temp:=((originalPixelPointer[j]-CenterScrollBAr.Position) 18. *exp(ContrastScrollBar.Position/50)) 19. + CenterScrollBar.Position; 20. if temp<0>255 then temp:=255; 21. pixelPointer[j]:=round(temp); 22. end; 23. end; 24. if TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat=pf24bit then 25. for i:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Height-1 do 26. begin 27. pixelPointer:=TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 28. originalPixelPointer:=OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 29. for j:=0 to TemporaryImage.Picture.Width-1 do 30. begin 31. temp:=((originalPixelPointer[3*j]-CenterScrollBAr.Position) 32. *exp(ContrastScrollBar.Position/50)) 33. + CenterScrollBar.Position; 34. if temp<0>255 then temp:=255; 35. pixelPointer[3*j]:=round(temp); 36. temp:=((originalPixelPointer[3*j+1]-CenterScrollBAr.Position) 37. *exp(ContrastScrollBar.Position/50)) 38. + CenterScrollBar.Position; 39. if temp<0>255 then temp:=255; 40. pixelPointer[3*j+2]:=round(temp); 41. temp:=((originalPixelPointer[3*j+2]-CenterScrollBAr.Position)

42. *exp(ContrastScrollBar.Position/50)) 43. + CenterScrollBar.Position; 44. if temp<0>255 then temp:=255; 45. pixelPointer[3*j+2]:=round(temp); 46. end; 47. end; 48. TemporaryImage.Refresh; 49. end; 50. except 51. begin
52. Free; 53. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 54. end; 55. end; 56. end;

In

the

code

shown

above,

you

can

see

the

contrast

gain

is

computed

as

exp(ContrastScrollBar.Position/50), with this formula, when the scroll bar position is zero (the default), the gain will be exp(0/50)=1, and at maximum the contrast gain will be exp(100/50)=100, and at the minimum the contrast gain will be exp(-100/50)=1/100.

2. On the ContrastForm, double clicks the OKButton component, you'll be directed to its event
handler, then edit as shown below:
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1. procedure TContrastForm.OKButtonClick(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. Applied:=true;


4. Close(); 5. end;

2. Double click the CancelButton component in the ContrastForm, and you'll be directed to its
event handler, edit as shown below:
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1. procedure TContrastForm.CancelButtonClick(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. Applied:=false;


4. Close(); 5. end;

2. To implement the decision whether the image on the source form will be modified or reverted
to the original bitmap, edit the ContrastForm's OnClose event handler as shown below:
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1. procedure TContrastForm.FormClose(Sender: TObject; var Action: TClose 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


Action); begin if Applied=false then TemporaryImage.Picture.Bitmap.Assign( OriginalImage.Picture.Bitmap); Action:=caFree; end;

Calling the GUI Module from The Main Application To show the contrast enhancement interface and to connect the active image form to the contrast GUI, we need to add a new item in the main menu. Double click the main menu component in the main form, and add a Contrast menu item under menu Image (Image->Contrast, see Figure 2.

Figure 2. Contrast Menu Item

Write the event handler for the menu as shown below:


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1. procedure TMainForm.Contrast1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. begin 3. if ImageForm<>nil then 4. begin 5. ImageForm:=TImageForm(ActiveMDIChild); 6. try 7. begin 8. Application.CreateForm(TContrastForm,ContrastForm); 9. ContrastForm.SetContrast(ImageForm.Image1); 10. end; 11. except 12. ContrastForm.Free; 13. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 14. end; 15. end; 16. end;

Figure 3. Contrast Processing Execution Don't forget to add ContrastUnit under the uses in the MainUnit's implementation. Use menu File>Use Unit (Alt+F11). Now you can save, compile and run the executable. The execution look like figure 3.

Source Code Download The source code can be downloaded here for Delphi 7 project, and here for the Turbo Delphi Explorer source code. Besides contains new source codes for contrast enhancement, if you compare to our previous brightness modification project's source codes, you'll see that in the codes for the brightness manipulation codes has also been updated to accommodate both two different image formats, pf8bit (8 bit monochrom/gray sacle) and pf24bit (true color). When applied to a monochrome image, sliding one scroll bar will move other two scroll bars to reflect that monochrome image doesn't have any separate RGB components.

Color Inversion
Color inversion in digital image processing is done by inverting all color element. For monochrome image, the dark pixel in the original image will be the bright pixel in the inversed image. The effect show horizontal mirroring in the histogram.

The GST function is simple, the Intensity of the output Io=Imax-Ii, where Imax is the maximum Intensity value, and Ii is the input pixel's intensity. The maximum intensity value is 255 for 8bit monochrome or 24bit true color. For 24 bit true color, each RGB elements is operated independently.

Color Inversion Processing in Delphi


To implement color inversion is very easy, we don't need a special form for user interface. We can directly implement the code in the main unit.

1. Open our previous contrast enhancement project.


2. Double click the main menu component, and add a menu item 'Invert' under Image menu (see figure 1). 3. Double click on the menu item, and you'll be directed to the event handler, edit as shown below:
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1. procedure TMainForm.Invert1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i,j:integer; 4. ptr:PByteArray; 5. begin 6. try 7. ImageForm:=TImageForm(ActiveMDIChild); 8. for i:=0 to (ImageForm.Image1.Height-1) do 9. begin 10. ptr:=ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 11. for j:=0 to (ImageForm.Image1.Width-1) do

12. begin 13. if ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat 14. =pf8bit then ptr[j]:=255-ptr[j]; 15. if ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat 16. =pf24bit then 17. begin 18. ptr[3*j]:=255-ptr[3*j]; 19. ptr[3*j+1]:=255-ptr[3*j+1]; 20. ptr[3*j+2]:=255-ptr[3*j+2]; 21. end; 22. end; 23. ImageForm.Image1.Refresh; 24. end; 25. except 26. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 27. end 28. end;
4. Save all files and now you can compile and run the executable. The execution is shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Figure 1. Invert Menu

Figure 2. Color Inversion of Monochrome Image

Figure 3. Color Inversion on True Color Picture

Source Code Download You can download the source code for Delphi 7 here and for Turbo Delphi Explorer here.

RGB to Gray Scale Conversion


Intensity of an image is the average of the three color elements, so the gray scale image that represent the original color image can be computed as:

I0=(Ri+Gi+Bi)/3 Io is the output intensity, Ri, Gi, and Bi are the red, green, and the blue element intensity. The formula for more realistic result is by adding different weight for each R,G, and B element. We normally percept green color brighter that red color, and red color brighter than blue color. That's why we usually set the weight higher for red and higher for green. Io=(0.299Ri + 0.587Gi + 0.144Bi)/3

Actually there is no absolute reference for each weight values because it depends on the display

technology that might change in the future. The above formula is standardized by NTSC (National Television System Committee), and its usage is common in computer imaging.

RGB to Gray Scale Conversion Using Delphi


We can code an RGB to Gray scale conversion directly in the main unit of ourcolor inversion project. It is easy, as easy as our color inversion project.

1. Open our previous color inversion project.


2. Double click the main menu component, and add a menu item 'Convert to Gray Scale' under Image menu (see figure 1). 3. Double click on the menu item, and you'll be directed to the event handler, edit as shown below:
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1. procedure TMainForm.ConverttoGrayScale1Click(Sender: TObject); 2. var 3. i,j:integer; 4. ptr:PByteArray; 5. begin 6. try 7. ImageForm:=TImageForm(ActiveMDIChild); 8. for i:=0 to (ImageForm.Image1.Height-1) do 9. begin 10. ptr:=ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Bitmap.ScanLine[i]; 11. for j:=0 to (ImageForm.Image1.Width-1) do 12. begin 13. if ImageForm.Image1.Picture.Bitmap.PixelFormat 14. =pf24bit then 15. begin 16. ptr[3*j]:=round(0.114* ptr[3*j] 17. +0.587*ptr[3*j+1] + 0.299*ptr[3*j+2]); 18. ptr[3*j+1]:=ptr[3*j]; 19. ptr[3*j+2]:=ptr[3*j]; 20. end; 21. end; 22. ImageForm.Image1.Refresh; 23. end; 24. except 25. ShowMessage('Cannot complete the operation'); 26. end 27. end;

4. Save all files, and now you can compile/run the project. The execution looks like shown in figure 2.

Figure 1. RGB to Gray Scale Conversion Menu

Figure 2. RGB to Gray Scale Conversion

Source Code Download You can download the Delphi 7 source code here, and the Turbo Delphi Explorer source code here.

Thresholding
Thresholding in image processing is used to convert a gray scale image to binary format, where only two values are possible for the pixel, zero ore one. Thresholding can be viewed as the simplest method of image segmentation. Thresholding is common step in an image analysis, where we need to differentiate the pixel area by two different brightness area, for example between object and the background. Thresholding is the simplest method of image segmentation. From a gray scale image, thresholding can be used to create binary image(Shapiro, et al 2001:83). During the thresholding process, individual pixels in an image are marked as object pixels if their value is greater than some threshold value (assuming an object to be brighter than the background) and as background pixels otherwise. This convention is known as threshold above. Variants include threshold below, which is opposite of threshold above; threshold inside, where a pixel is labeled "object" if its value is between two thresholds; and threshold outside, which is the opposite of threshold inside (Shapiro, et al 2001:83). The most important key in the thresholding process is the threshold point. Manually, the threshold pint can be visually judged by trial and error, adjusting the value is you don't get the desired background-object separation.

For Automatic thresholding, many methods have been implemented in many research. You can simply use the mean or median value, or you can analyze the histogram and find a valley for the threshold value.

Threshold Below, Threshold Above, and Threshold Inside Implementation in Delphi


Image Format Image thresholding process change the image to binary value, zero or one. Ideally, this binary data is stored in the computer memory as bit format, where 1 byte memory could store 8 pixels. Unfortunately, the modern computer hardware organization and software (compiler) technology doesn't handle the bit operation as fast and efficient as byte operation, so it is better to use ordinary 8bit or 24bit for practical reason, although it use actually only the least significant bit to store zero or one.

The Graphical User Interface (GUI)

To implement threshold various basic thresholding (below, above, and inside thresholding points), we need to design the graphical user interface first.

1. Open our previous RGB to gray scale conversion project. 2. Create a new form, resize the form to fit the main form. Set the name property to
ThresholdForm, and set the FormStyle to fsMDIChild. Save the unit as ThresholdUnit.pas.

3. On the menu Project->Options->Forms, select ThresholdForm (in the auto created form list)
and click the > button, so the ThresholdForm will move from auto created form list to available forms list, then press OK.

4. Add two CheckBoxes (from standard component pallet) to the form, set the name properties
to InvertCheckBox and ThresholdInsideCheckBox. Set the captions to "Invert" and "Threshold Inside" respectively.

5. Add two ScrollBars (from standard component pallet) to the form. Set the name properties to
LowScrollBar and HighScrollBar. Set their maximum properties to 255. Set their position properties to 127. Add two labels to address them with "low" and "high" (see figure 1).

6. Add two buttons to the form, set their name properties to OKButton and CancelButton, and
set their caption properties to OK and Cancel accordingly. To modify the image, it's common to backup the original image, so we can do a cancel operation after displaying the change on the original image form. To do this, we have to provide TImage object in the form to temporarily store the image. A procedure (SetThreshold) to associate the image input to the threshold form is also needed. To do this, edit the ThresholdForm abstraction (in the ThresholdUnit.pas) to provide TImage (TemporaryImage and OriginalImage) object and the SetThreshold procedure declaration. A boolean flag (Applied) is also needed to mark whether a Cancel or OK button has been pressed. Add ExtCtrls under uses in the Interface section because use TImage component. After we edit the ThresholdForm abstraction, the code should look like below:
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1. interface
2.

3. uses
4. ExtCtrls, Windows, Messages, SysUtils, Variants, Classes, Graphics, Controls , Forms, 5. Dialogs, StdCtrls; 6. 7. type 8. TThresholdForm = class(TForm) 9. LowScrollBar: TScrollBar; 10. HighScrollBar: TScrollBar; 11. InvertCheckBox: TCheckBox; 12. ThresholdInsideCheckBox: TCheckBox; 13. Label1: TLabel;

14. Label2: TLabel; 15. OKButton: TButton; 16. CancelButton: TButton; 17. private 18. TemporaryImage:TImage; 19. OriginalImage:TImage; 20. Applied:boolean; 21. public 22. procedure SetThreshold(Image: TImage); 23. { Public declarations } 24. end;
The Implementation