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A state of awareness.*consciousness The special understanding of the self as distinct from other stimuli.

*self-aware ness A normal state of consciousness characterized by reduced awareness of external s timuli.*sleep A normal state of consciousness characterized by alertness and awareness of exte rnal stimuli.*wakefulness A daily biological rhythm.*circadian rhythm An internal mechanism that provides an approximate schedule for a wide variety o f physical processes.*biological clock A mood disorder in which depression occurs regularly at the same time each year, usually during the winter months.*seasonal affective disorder A waveform recorded by EEG that usually indicates alert wakefulness.*beta wave A waveform recorded by EEG that usually indicates relaxed wakefulness.*alpha wav e The component of sleep characterized by waveforms resembling wakefulness as meas ured by EEG acommpanied by rapid eye movements, muscular paralysis, and autonomi c nervous system activation.*REM sleep The components of sleep characterized by theta and delta wave activity as record ed by EEG and deep physical relaxation.*N-REM sleep A waveform recorded by EEG that is characteristic of lighter stages of N-REM sle ep.*theta wave A waveform recorded by EEG that usually indicates very deep N-REM sleep.*delta w ave A mental state that usually occurs during sleep that features visual imagery.*dr eaming A conscious awareness of dreaming accompanied by the ability to control the cont ent of the dream.*lucid dreaming A sleep disorder occurring in N-REM sleep in which the sleeper wakes suddenly in great distress, but without experiencing the imagery of a nightmare.*night terr or A sleep disorder characterized by an inability to either initiate or maintain no rmal sleep.*insomnia A sleep disorder characterized by the intrusion of REM phenomena into wakefulnes s.*narcolepsy A sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep.*sleep apnea A sleep disorder in which an otherwise healthy infant dies while asleep.*sudden infant death syndrome A disorder chracterized by the involuntary movement of an extremity, usually one leg.*restless legs syndrome An abnormal state of deep unconsciousness.*coma An abnormal state following brain injury featuring wakefulness without conscious ness.*persistent vegetative state An altered state of consciousness reported by people who were close to death due to cardiac or other medical problems that features out-of-body experiences, lig ht at the end of a tunnel perceptions, and a state of calmness.*near-death exper ience An abnormal level of brain activation with a sudden onset.*seizure Any drug with the capability of altering a person's state of consciousness.*psyc hoactive drug The need to administer greater quantities of a drug to achieve the same subjecti ve effect.*tolerance Physical responses to the removal of some habitually administered drugs.*withdra wal A physical or psychological dependence on a substance or activity.*addiction A drug that stimulates the experience of false perceptions.*hallucinogen Any drug that increases the activity of the nervous system.*stimulant A drug that reduces the overall activity of the nervous system.*depressant An altered state of consciousness characterized by relaxation and increased sugg estibility.*hypnosis

A voluntary alteration of consciousness characterized by positive emotion and ab sence of thought.*meditation