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Acknowledgement :

Completing a job has never been an easy go for single person ; often it is the result of invaluable contributions from individuals in the surrounding in a direct or indirect manner. We are deeply grateful to our advisor Prof.K.N.Das and Er.Gouttam Bhattacharya for having been a constant source of encouragement for our Project Report on DEVLOPEMENT OF DESIGN USING CAD . In association with our guide for this purpose, we experienced not only his in-depth knowledge but also his affection towards us. We would like to thank Mr.S.Chand who have helped us for completion of our report. Finally we thank Mr. Kedar Nath Das ,for his continued drive for better quality in everything that happens at C.E.T, This report is a small contribution towards the greater goal.

Table of contents :
PREFACE............. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INTRODUCTION................................... DETAILS OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT................................................................... ADVANTAGES OFCAD.. ARHAPAINT ARHADRAPE.. ARHAWEAVE CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................

PREFACE
As far as the textiles from our country is considered, we are more

renowned for our handloom products as compared to that of the mill sector. The boom in the software sciences have really enhanced the rate of development in all aspects. Same in textile also. All machines, manufacturing products, marketing, sales promotion, everything is done through computers. Computer aided designing(CAD)and computer aided manufacturing (CAM)have really catalysed the system. In a country like ours where there is still massive unemployment, we can not just do with computerized systems with lower manpower engagements.We have to think of alternatives. CAD system can be very well utilized to solve the process.Handloom sector can be a very good application of this developing technology.The following few aspects on CAD are to be success story in the field of handloom weaving.

IntroductionComputer Aided Design (CAD) has completely changed the drafting business and made the storage and retrieval of projects much easier. However, manual drawing is still very important and provides the basics of learning to draw.

Advantages of CAD software


On e of the most obvious advantages of CAD software is the use of digital models instead of paper blueprints. Here measurements are automatic, and

lines, shapes and objects can be created with simple mouse clicks as opposed to slide rulers and calculators. Models can also be viewed in three dimensions. Another advantage of CAD software is data centralization. All digital blueprints are saved on the same server, not in disparate file cabinets, and can be accessed by anyone who uses the software. (Some CAD software also gives users the chance to view files on mobile devices.) This lets designers in different locations work on the same project, sharing edits and modifications, which reduces communication bottlenecks and improves efficiency, accountability and project execution. Finally, many CAD software tools integrate with cost estimating software or, at the very least, let users export information such as lists of building components (windows, doors, pieces of furniture, etc.) This, too, saves time and reduces the likelihood of transcription errors, since part lists need not be recreated. Overall, there are several advantages of CAD software that your company can and should realize. Computer-aided design should save time (by letting you produce 2-D and 3-D models faster) and money (by limiting the need for change orders). CAD software packages will also improve the quality and integrity of the information that you present to prospective clients and project stakeholders, reduce the risk of cost overruns and allow you to standardize the processes that help you finish projects faster.

1.DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DESIGN-A traditional artist or painter needs lot of time or patience to develop a design and apply the same to textiles. With the help of a computer system, the paint brush is an easier tool for developing a new and variety of designs of all natures. Even intricate and colourful carpets, matt, sarees, shirtings,suttings, furnishing fabrics can be quickly and easily designed to be woven on the weaving m/c. 2.FABRIC QUALITY ASSESMENT-Normally, a fabric can be assessed as and when produced. In a computerised design system, before weaving one can examine and see the appearance on the computer monitor. 3.ASSESMENT OF RAW MATERIAL-It is very essential for a handloom fabric to decide with what kind of yarns it is to be woven. In a cad system, there is ample scope to verify and rectify any defects in the quality of yarns to be used, count, colour, shade,

ends/inch, picks/inch etc. Can be set and the proper kind of raw material can be chosen on the basis of optimised fabric with the aid of computers. 4.FASTER PROCESSING DESIGN DEVELOPEMENTS-Time being the most essential element for any process, electronics, circuits and their outputs are most successful. In a computer aided designing system it is very very less as compared to manual designing. 5.DESIGN OF DEFECTFUL PRODUCT-Though time consumed in a computerised process is very less, defects are judged and can be eliminated before actually weaving a fabric. 6.EASIER MODIFICATION IN PRODUCT QUALITY PARAMETERS-On the part of a weaver, it is not very easy to modify a product after it is woven. So before actually producing the fabric with a design, modification if any desired, can be brought and appearance can be judged. 7.EASIER METHOD TO SELECT COLOUR COMBINATION-Handloom products can be diversified with application of different colours and their combinations. The colour ways application module in a CAD system provides this facility. A large number of colour combinations can be made and even be presented to the customers. 8.STORAGE OF DESIGN AND RELATED DATA-Once a design has been developed that can be stored along with the product specification inside the memory of computers. Storage of design and their re-production will empower the handloom sectors of different regions to exchange their skills and have an integral development. 9.CONSERVATION OF TIME AND ENERGY-Avoidance of the manual point paper process of designing, eliminates chances of error fatigue on the part of the weaver. 10-LEAST CHANCES OF ERROR-All the above aspects lead to overall quality maintenance and with least cause of any error cause of error in designing.

Welcome to ArahPaint - a drawing tool, which helps textile designers in editing pictures in repeat. These pictures are mainly used for jacquard woven fabrics. ArahPaint is the first step in preparation of a design for weaving. The program supports both drawing operations as sophisticated textile functions. Drawing operations have unlimited undo capability; allowing you to quickly correct undesired modifications to the picture. The topics of this manual are arranged in a similar way to the sequence in design preparation procedure. The reader should be familiar with graphical user interfaces, since its basics (selection with mouse, double click, buttons, file selection boxes, text entry and editing, etc.) will not be explained here. ArahPaint is aimed at designers, who have some knowledge of the weaving process. Namely, the manual does not contain complete instructions to develop a design into a fabric. ArahPaint contains many tools to assist a textile designer, but they can not replace the skills and knowledge of a professional textile designer.

ArahDrape
In this software, we will present the whole procedure of making your own drape models from zero; in a real-life presentation you will have the models already prepared, so you will just apply the different fabric textures from your current collection. You will need a picture of the model or the product, with fabric areas in white or in single color. We want to keep the shades and ambient of the original photo, and just replace the fabric. If the model will already have the fabric with a pattern, we will not be able to remove the pattern and insert

a new one, while keeping the shades of the original image. You can scan the picture, or make a photo with a digital camera, and transfer the image into the coFirst you have to draw limitation vectors around each region. Region is an area within the image, where you want to overlay a fabric texture, or a hole within a fabric. The default color of the active region is blue, while the color of unselected regions is red. The colors of lines can be changed in Files On many occasions, the limits of one region will border to another region. You will need to draw the points of your new region on the same point as the border regions, otherwise they will not join correctly and some pixels will "shine" through the borders. This can be quite dull and time consuming task. We will show you a trick, which will allow the program to automatically draw the area border vectors along the existing area. You must draw region borders for all areas - including the holes in regions, like the buttons. Once you have drawn all the borders, you will be ready to load the texture, which you want to drape over the area. Texture can be any picture in a supported graphical format (PNG, TIFF, GIF, JPEG). It will probably be in repeat, but you may also use texture pictures, which do not repeat themselves. If you scan in the fabric picture, you will probably spend some time putting it in repeat. The easiest way to make a fabric texture is to save a fabric simulation from ArahWeave. This way you can be sure that the image will be in repeat. The following screen shot shows the window for saving fabric textures in ArahWeave. We are at at the point where we need to specify the textures to our areas, so you must change the View mode from Regions to Regions and Drape in the toplevel menu. Each region can be be any of three types: 6Initially, all the regions will be of the type color, so the shirt will look like a

patchwork. We want to change them from color to texture. It is a very easy thing to do, and experienced ArahWeave users will know what to do.Every region can have one of two states - flat or shaded First select a region, which you want to change, and then click on the icon on the top right angle to change its state. Flat region will have the whole area replaced with a single color, repeat of fabric texture, or image background. Shaded region, on the other hand, will be a sum of background image shades and the specified color or fabric texture. If you are draping based on a photo, you will prefer to have it shaded, while flat might be more appropriate for quick fashion sketches. We must specify the geometric distortions in the fabric caused by perspective view, creases or simply the 3D volume of the product. Use Simple when you have an easy perspective mapping, like a carpet on the floor. You will have a rectangle, which you should distort into a trapezoid which matches the desired geometry of the making a good drape model requires some work, so we want to use the same model many times with different texture. If your drape model contains many regions, like on the shirt form our example, you will quickly become tired from clicking on regions with right mouse button to apply a different texture. One would like to copy the new fabric texture to all regions .As always, we are doing this to impress our potential customers, or to help them choosing between the different variations of our products. So we need to find a good way of showing our draped images to them. One way is to invite them in front of the computer, and insert the textures from your collection as you talk to them. This will probably be the most effective way, since it will also involve the customer.

In Arhaweave,It is relatively easy to construct a fabric. The whole art is to combine these elements:
weave (the way the threads interlace) dobby weaves are mostly small and can be drawn by hand, while jacquard weaves are big, and are constructed from color image, where each color is replaced by one weave. warp and weft sequence yarn, count and structure colors

density of weaving

Still, sometimes you will be surprised by what a simple interplay of these factors will produce. This is the very reason why you should use ArahWeave:
to play with these settings without constraints and with minimal expenses to communicate the result of your creative work to non-textile people, by printing out the simulation and to provide your production departments with printouts of production ticket or CAM data for production

In this way, expensive design errors will be avoided, and CAD system will soon pay itself back. You will also gain a lot in response time, since you will be able to give an answer to customer inquiry in just a few minutes.

Shaded integer view


This mode shows the fabric in repeat, but on zoom levels higher than 300 % adds shadows to threads, so you can easier see interlacing and distinguish between warp and weft.

Simulation view setting the density The Simulation mode shows the fabric in real 1:1 density with respect to finished fabric. You must enter the density for warp and weft, expressed as the number of threads per centimeter (or inch You can set the density as number of threads per centimeter (inch), or as size of repeat in cm (inches), for both warp and weft. Note that only number of threads per one cm is saved in file, repeat size is calculated from the other data. You can also set Zoom (%) to any value between 5% and 1500%. The Simulation view shows the fabric in real 1:1 size, including yarn diameter with holes (in background color, which can be defined in the Edit colors window), if the yarns are thin with respect to density.

Raised finish simulation


If you want raised finish simulation on your fabrics, activate function Simulation from the Fabric menu. You will be able to enter the length of raising in tenth of mm for warp and weft, as well as direction (up / down / left / right) and intensity (0-10). Use length of 10 (1 mm) and strength of 4 (40% points affected) to create a haze around the threads of the fabric. You should play a little with these parameters to find values which best represent the finishing that you are actually using. The raised finish window automatically shows you the preview of the selected effect. Once you are satisfied, click the OK button, and it will be applied to the whole fabric display window.

Fringe option
This option will enable you to view warp and weft pattern on the left and bottom of the main ArahWeave window.

Editing the weave


The weave is basic element of fabric construction, which controls the way in which threads will interlace. Black point means warp (vertical thread) will be on top, and white point means weft (horizontal thread) will be on top. While you are editing the weave, you can check at any time what will the new weave look like in the fabric. Setting weave size Repeat - size for warp and weft (maximum 32000 by 32000, minimum 2x2) Grid - how many pixels should be used for one weave point (on screen only, proper value depends on your eyesight, monitor size and chosen resolution of the graphics card Thicken - every how many lines one should be thickened to facilitate counting (on screen and in print) System - the number of threads in warp and weft (leave on 1 for single layer fabrics). They are meant only for documentation. It shows the user's intent for this weave, and does not reflect the real effect of the weave on the fabric. Shafts - how many shafts do you intend to use (do not be disturbed by large value on jacquard weaves, just leave it as it is)

Elements of the Weave editor

The weave itself is in the lower left angle. To draw a black point (warp over weft),. Starting point of the weave first warp thread, first weft thread is in the lower left corner. On top you have the drafting, on right is the dobby card and in the upper right angle you see tie-up. Tie up is fixed, since it can not be changed on industrial dobby looms. You can, however, choose between configuration of dobby on left and dobby on right of the loom. warp pattern (starting from left). This can be very useful when warp and weft patterns must be aligned with weave. A denting is displayed on top of the weave and below drafting. A regulator is displayed to the right of the dobby card. There are three ways to draw a weave: Set the size of the weave you want to use, draw the weave, apply the function Check weave > Optimize the number of shafts from the Dobby menu in the Edit weave window. The dobby card and drafting will be drawn automatically. Just draw the dobby card followed by drafting, while the weave will be drawn automatically. You can also draw the weave (or load it from a database), set the number of desired shafts, and draw the drafting with middle mouse button yourself the card is drawn automatically. This case is most common in industrial setups (and small weaves), when users want to have certain non-optimal drafting with bigger number of shafts, which is more suitable for weaving (for example, step 2 or step 3 instead of straight draft).

When you insert a drafting point, the program automatically translates the points drawn anywhere in the pattern draft across other elements. In this way, pattern draft stays consistent. This can be disturbing, if you want to freely draw the weave, while you have a drafting, which you plan to change. To avoid this effect, clear drafting by Dobby > Drafting > Clear (keyboard shortcut is x). You can The Edit weave window title displays some additional information: weave filename, weave repeat size in warp and weft, the number for shafts used in this weave (if it is a dobby weave), and the number of warp / weft threads system (if different from 1). If number of shafts is not minimal, it will display them as 8/6, which means 8 shafts, but only 6 are really needed. Bigger number of shafts is often used in weaving to balance weight of shafts. Weave editor supports very big weaves; actually - full jacquard weave can be loaded in ArahWeave. In such case, the program does not show dobby card and drafting. It stops displaying this data when the number of shafts is superior to 99. Actually, nobody uses more than 36 shafts, but having up to 99 shafts can be useful for editing purposes.

Weave editor view modes Yarn


If you enable the Yarn colors toggle button from the View menu, the weave will be rendered in warp / weft colors. On the card, weft points are drawn in weft colors, while warp points remain black. Other elements of weave remain unchanged. Mouse drawing in color weave is also supported.

Jacquard

Jacquard colors is additional view of weave in weave editor. You can access it from the View menu of weave editor. It is intended for use in jacquard design, when you are fixing the long floats, and want to be able to precisely see the transition between the two color effects. If you only see the weave in black and white, you can not see the exact transition from one weave effect to another, since weaves are sometimes similar. This view is enabled only if jacquard weave size in jacquard conversion matches the weave size. This view mode also works on decomposed weave view.

Regulator view
The Regulator view helps you to distinguish between normal and regulator wefts. It is useful on a large Jacquard weaves, especially if you want to draw some regulator controls manually (with mouse). Warp points of the extra weft are drawn in blue, weft points are drawn in yellow.

Dobby view
The dobby view just enables you to switch dobby card on or off, since sometimes you do not wish to be disturbed by it. For examples, customers who only have jacquard looms, don't need to look a the dobby card and drafting.

Cross section view


You can also enable the display of horizontal and vertical cross section. Cross section is interactive - it shows you the cut at the current mouse position. You can draw over cross section with mouse to change position of threads, and weave will be modified accordingly.

To control a number of threads in the cross section at a time, set the System parameter in the Change weave dimension window

Decomposed colors view


The Decomposed colors view mode is the great tool for composing multilayer weaves, especially for placing the stitching points between the fabric layers. Each layer has different color pair for presenting warp and weft points, which enables faster and more accurate placement of stitching points.

Drafting
The drafting determines which shaft controls which warp threads, and the number of shafts used depends on the complexity of the weave. left mouse button click draws a draft point and copies corresponding shaft points from card into weave middle mouse button click draws a draft point and copies corresponding warp points from weave into card You can access to the drafting functions trough the Dobby menu of the Weave editor.

Optimizing the number of shafts Balancing the weight of shafts


In practice it is sometimes better to use more shafts then the least possible number, mainly because of high warp threads number.

Reducing the number of shafts (dobby)

In dobby weaving, we will often weave a simple weave on a bigger number of shafts then its minimal value. For example, we will weave plain weave on 6 or 8 shafts. In this paragraph, we will deal with the opposite situation our weaving looms can operate at a maximum of 16, 20 or 24 shafts, and we want to weave a fairly complex weave. Of course, we first try to optimize the number of shafts, and computer will automatically display the minimum number of shafts, draw the card and drafting. But what if the number of shafts is still too big for our production? With ArahWeave, you have one more possibility we can make a small change in the weave, which will enable further reduction of number of shafts

Denting
Denting is used to make variations in warp density. You can use parenthesis in denting / regulator like: 2 2 10(3) which will expand to: 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3. You can have several dents within repeat section, like 2 2 7(1 2 3). ArahWeave supports up to 125 threads in one dent.

Empty dents
To mark an empty dent enter 0 in the denting pattern. A green line and a number in the Weave editor indicate a position of empty dent(s) Important note: a fabric in ArahWeave can not start on empty dent. Weave, which has empty dents in the denting pattern looks slightly different on a printout as it does in the Weave editor. Empty space in the weave area and dents in a green color indicate empty dents .To get a proper fabric simulation of fabric with empty dents, you need to set technical data (Threads in fabric width, Reed width, Finished width, Denting, Weft density) in the Calculation of thread consumption window (Fabric > Consumption), and mark the Density from technical data check box.

Denting and regulator are handled in a different way in weave editor, The denting, on the other hand, is not directly linked to the weaveDobby and Jacquard Some looms have both lifting mechanisms, dobby and jacquard. Dobby threads pass through heddles, which are hold and lifted by shafts, Jacquard part of warp ends are lifted by hooks. To distinguish between threads, which are lifted by dobby (shafts), and threads, lifted by jacquard (hooks), mark the dents, where the jacquard warp ends are, with negative number. Jacquard dents are indicated by gray color in the Weave editor

Regulator
Looms advance (take-up) the fabric after each weft insertion. Sometimes we need to stop automatic advance on certain wefts, so that two or more weft threads can be inserted during one advance. When we do this, we use regulator. Regulator is also called dead pick in USA. It makes sense, since on weft with regulator on, the fabric does not advance. In England, it is sometimes called cramming, since we cram two or more threads in the same space. In ArahWeave, regulator has the same format of entry as denting. If you do not use regulator, just leave it at 1, or even empty. You can use parenthesis in the regulator like: 2 2 10(3) which will expand to: 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3. In the regulator we don't use 0 for marking weaving without weft (fringe). Instead we use y in the weft pattern. The weave is extended on the y. Fabric can not start with active regulator on the first weft thread. Maximal number consecutive wefts with regulator active is 125 (that is 1 normal thread plus 8 crammed, or in other words, 1 advance of warp beam and 8 wefts without advance). Denting and regulator are handled in a different way in weave editor, in spite of the fact that they can be both entered in the

Edit weave window in the same way. The reason is, that a regulator is directly linked to the weave, since it must be present on the dobby card (punched or electronically transmitted on jacquard floppy). The repeat size of the regulator should not be bigger than the weave; if it is, the weave must be enlarged accordingly. The program gives you a warning if your regulator pattern does not divide the height of the weave it draws the regulator field in red. If it divides, the regulator field is green.

ADVANTAGE OF ARHAWEAVEExtending weaves which helps you copy (extend) the weave across the whole sub-section.

Replacing weave (Jacquard) Replace weave is a very useful function for loom editing, which enables you to replace a single weave in a finished jacquard card design, or also reconstruct the original color image based on the jacquard card image. This function is mainly intended for jacquard mills with old designs on floppies in jacquard formats, which they would like to modify and re-use, to create new designs with different weaves inserted. Inserting and deleting warps or wefts in weave If the warp / weft pattern toggle button in the Insert/delete warps/wefts window is on, then the program will also insert

the thread pattern, which you write in the field on the right of toggle button, into main thread pattern. Figure 70 shows example, where we insert four threads in the weave, and the pattern of inserted threads is 1a1b (one orange thread, one blue thread). Extending the weave Extracting the weave from floppy (jacquard) ArahWeave enables you to adapt / change / correct old designs prepared for weaving. Choose Weave > Read Jacquard floppy. Wait until the program reads the floppy, and then load the desired file. To work within the logic of ArahWeave, you must extract only the weave information, deleting the fields for empty hooks, selvedges, control information, etc. Once you have only the weave, you can correct the long floats, if any, and save the jacquard floppy in a different format or layout. Long floats statistics and correction (jacquard) One of the most important properties of the weave is the maximal length of floats that is over how many warp (weft) threads does one weft (warp) thread pass without interruption (stitch point). There are no golden rules for these it all depends on your density and the purpose of the fabric. Usually you will only remove long floats in jacquard fabrics; dobby weaves are relatively simple, so that long floats are not an issue. In any case, it can be quite informative to look at the report of long floats. Why do we have problem with long floats in jacquard, and not in dobby? In jacquard, we are putting together many different weaves, each of them will be OK, but on their junctions (point where one weave will

change into another), long floats are almost certain to popup. The quality of weave selection, and resulting number of long floats, depends a lot on the experience of the designer. You can use the long float report as an early warning something could be wrong with your weave selection, if you have many long floats. You can also use the automatic float correction, but do not over exploit it. If you have over 1000 long floats, you should reconsider your design and weaves. Spelling checker can hide your language incompetence to some extent, but bad writing will remain bad, even if all the words are correct. Same goes for automatic float correction. Saving and loading yarns Editing warp and weft pattern Loading and saving thread patterns Replacing yarns in thread pattern Inserting or deleting yarns from thread pattern Adjusting warp symmetry Splitting or merging weft threads Sorting The Sort option will rewrite the pattern so that it starts with yarn A, followed by B, etc., as this is required by production department of many mills

Remapping yarns The yarn remapping function helps to change yarn letters in the complex patterns (in simple pattern you can just retype it). For instance, if you want to change yarn a to yarn c, but

there are one hundred entries with letter a, retyping would be a time consuming task. But with Remap yarns, you can do it in Editing decomposed The purpose of this function is to enable designer to easily enter complex warp and weft patterns with one pattern on the face, and another on the back of the fabric, or to enter complex ground patterns in the extra warp/weft fabric. Resizing warp or weft pattern Changing design from one density to another Exchanging warp and weft (rotation by 90) Gamma correction Monitor gamma correction is a function with which we try to make the non-linear response of monitor phosphor perceptually linear. It can be set in the box labeled Gamma on the right of color edit window. Converting images into Jacquard weaves About Jacquard conversion Jacquard image conversion enables the user to load a color image, select a weave for each color and make a jacquard weave. You can load a full 256-color image, if you want to use that many different weaves. Changing the Jacquard weave size Reverse shading The Reverse shading function enables you to check the internal picture of the color shading conversion. Loading and saving jacquard conversion

Loading / saving loom layout Converting the jacquard design from one loom layout into another loom layout

CONCLUSIONCAD technology has come a long way since the early, esoteric, command-driven systems, which required as much if not more of an engineer s attention as the actual process of design, and now helps manufacturers to streamline their design processes, reduce costs, and improve product quality. Today s engineering and manufacturing professionals need a design platform that complements their creativity, innovation, and engineering skills so that they can approach design and manufacturing challenges without distraction. Today s CAD systems have progressed a great deal toward achieving that goal, requiring less mental energy to run so that an engineer can focus more on bringing better products to market faster. CAD technology operates efficiently on affordable computing hardware.

Yarn with twist sense S, Z, and without twist