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NTPC

Summer Training

PROJECT REPORT
ON

N.T.P.C. SINGRAULI THERMAL POWER STATION


(18th June 17th July)

Reporting Officer:
Mr. N.N. Sinha
(HR-EDC)

N.T.P.C. SINGRAULI

Submitted by: Narendra Kumar Sharma B.Tech(4th YEAR)

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Introduction of NTPC Introduction about Project Production of Electricity Principal of Steam Power Plant H.T.Switch gear L.T.Switch gear Generators and Transformers D.C. System Switch Yard Coal Handling Plant Coal Handling Plant Power Distribution Demineral Plant(DM Plant) Coal ,Water and Steam Cycle Conclusion

INTRODUCTION OF NTPC
Established in 1975, NTPC the largest power company of the country has been consistently powering the growth of India.

With an installed capacity of 30,144 MW, it contributes 28.6% of the nations power generation with only 18.79% of Indias total installed capacity. An ISO 9001:2000 certified company, it is worlds sixth largest thermal power generator and second most efficient in capacity utilization.

The corporation recorded a generation of 206.94 billion units (bus) in 2008-09, an increase of 3.03% over 2007-08, through 13 coal based and 7 gas based power plants spreads all over the country. Rated as one of the Best companies to work for in India it has developed in to a multi-location and multi fuel Company over the past three decades.

Driven by its vision to lead, it has charted out an ambitious growth plan of becoming a 40,000 MW plus company by 2012.

Following are the other important highlights of 2008-09:

1.

Total Income of Rs.455, 000 million.

2.

Net profit in excess of Rs.78, 274 million

3.

A dividend payment of Rs.126, 865 million to the Govt. of India.

Received highest credit rating AAA by CRISIL and LAAA by ICRA for domestic bond and international rating for Eurobond.

INTRODUCTION ABOUT PROJECT

Singrauli Super Thermal Power Station (SSTPS)


This power station was set up in 1977. It is a pit head Thermal Power Station having an installed capacity of 2000 MW with five units of 200 MW each and two units of 500 MW each. Water supply for the purpose is drawn from the Rihand reservoir. Several States like U.P. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi etc. have benefited from electricity generated by the project.

Faced with financial crunch of its affairs, the Nigam was not able to operate the plan continuously at optimum capacity. Resulting in loss of generation the UPSEB was not able to pay charges to NTPC for energy bought. Then it was decided to sell of the project to NTPC to augment and continue generation of electricity at full level and commence actives the expansion project in the interest of power development.

The governor promulgate Uttar Pradesh Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (Acquisition and transfer of Undertaking) act. Consideration worth Rs.925 Crore was decided for takeover.

PLF in 1990-91 was 5.5% and at the time of take-over in 1992-93, it was around 20%. NTPC is managing the project well and the result is PLF of 54.9% in 1992-93, 68% in 1993-94 and

more there after. In the year 2000-2001 it has achieved 85.5%. PLF in March 2009 is highest at 100.03%. It supplies the produced electricity to region of Uttar Pradesh. The project is a coal-based thermal power project and the main constituents for production is coal, oil and water.

The NTPC has total installed capacity of 30, 144 Mega Watts and has the goal to reach the capacity of 40000 Mega Watts. Today it has project at the following places: -

1. Northern region station 1. 2. 3. 4. Singrauli Rihand Unchahar Tanda (5*2000+2*500) Mega Watts. (2*500) Mega Watts. (5*210) Mega Watts. (4*110) Mega Watts.

2. Southern region station 1. 2. Ramagundem Kayamkulam (3*200+3*500) Mega Watts. (2*155GT+1*120St) Mega Watts.

3. Western region station 1. 2. 3. Korba Vindhyanehal Kawas (3*200+3*500) Mega Watts. (6*210+2*500) Mega watts. (4*106 GT+2*105 ST) Mega Watts.

4. Eastern region station 1. 2. 3. Farakka Kahalgaon Takher (3*200+2*500) Mega Watts. (4*210) Mega Watts. (4*60+2*110) Mega Watts.

5. Nation capital region station 1. 2. 3. 4. Dadri coal Auta Auraiya Faridabad (4*210) Mega Watts. (3*88 GT+1*149 St) Mega Watts. (4*110 GT+2*106 ST) Mega Watts. (2*143 GT+1*144 ST) Mega Watts.

Installed Capacity
Be it the generating capacity or plant performance or operational efficiency, NTPCs Installed Capacity and performance depicts the companys outstanding performance across a number of parametres.

NO. OF PLANTS NTPC Owned Coal Gas/Liquid Fuel Total Owned By JVs Coal & Gas Total 16 7 23 7 30

CAPACITY (MW) 30,855 3,955 34,810 4,364 39,174

Regional Spread of Generating Facilities


REGION Northern Western Southern Eastern JVs Total COAL 8,515 9,840 4,600 7,900 2,424 33,279 GAS 2,312 1,293 350 1,940 5,895 TOTAL 10,827 11,133 4,950 7,900 4,364 39,174

PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY

The means and steps involved in the production of electricity in a coal-fired power station are described below. The coal, brought to the station by train or other means, travels from the coal handling plant by conveyer belt to the coal bunkers, from where it is fed to the pulverizing mills which grinds it as fine as face powder. The finely powdered coal mixed with pre-heated air is then blown into the boiler by fan called Primary Air Fan where it burns, more like a gas than as a solid in convectional domestic or industrial grate, with additional amount of air called secondary air supplied by Forced Draft Fan. As the coal has been grounded so finely the resultant ash is also a fine powder. Some of this ash binds together to form lumps which fall into the ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The water quenched ash from the bottom of the furnace is conveyed to pits for subsequent disposal or sale. Most of ash, still in fine particles form is carried out of the boiler to the precipitators as dust, where it is trapped by electrodes charged with high voltage electricity. The dust is then conveyed by water to disposal areas or to bunkers for sale while the cleaned flue gases pass on through ID Fan to be discharged up the chimney. Meanwhile the heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the many kilometres of tubing which line the boiler walls. Inside the tubes is the boiler feed water which is transformed by the heat into the steam at high pressure and temperature. The steam super-

heated in further tubes (Super Heater) passes to the turbine where it is discharged through the nozzles on the turbine blades. Just the energy of the wind turns the sail of the wind-mill, so the energy of the steam, striking the blades, makes the turbine rotate. Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the generator a large cylindrical magnet, so that when the turbine rotates the rotor turns with it. The rotor is housed inside the stator having heavy coils of copper bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of the magnetic field created by the rotor. The electricity passes from the stator winding to the step-up transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be transmitted efficiently over the power lines of the grid. The steam which has given up its heat energy is changed back into water in the condenser so that it is ready for re-use. The condenser contains many kilometres of tubing through which the colder is constantly pumped. The steam passing around the tubes looses the heat and is rapidly changed back to water. But the two lots of water (i.e. boiler feed water & cooling water) must NEVER MIX. The cooling water is drawn from the river, but the boiler feed water must be absolutely pure, far purer than the water we drink, if it is not to damage the boiler tubes. Chemistry at the power station is largely the chemistry of water. To condense the large quantities of steam, huge and continuous volume of cooling water is essential. In most of the power stations the same water is to be used over and over again. So the heat which the water extracts from the steam in the condenser is removed by pumping the water out to the cooling towers. The cooling towers are simply concrete shells acting as huge chimneys creating a draught (natural/mechanically assisted by fans) of air. The water is sprayed out at the top of towers and as it falls into the pond beneath it is cooled by the upward draught of air. The cold water in the pond is then circulated by pumps to the condensers. Inevitably, however, some of the water is drawn upwards as vapours by the draught and it is this which forms the familiar white clouds which emerge from the towers seen sometimes. Why bother to change steam from the turbine back into water if it has to be heated up again immediately? The answer lies in the law of physics which states that the boiling point of water is related to pressure. The lower the pressure, the lower the temperature at which water boils. The turbine designer want as low boiling point of water as possible because he can only utilize the energy of the steam when the steam changes back into water he can get NO more work out of it. So a condenser is built, which by rapidly changing the steam back into water creates a vacuum. This vacuum results in a much lower boiling point which, in turns, means he can continue getting work out of the steam well below 100 degree Celsius at which it would normally change into water.

Principle of the Steam Power Plan


The working principle of a steam plant is based upon the Rankine cycle. Generally steam is taken as the working medium due to its ability to be stable and that its readily stable. The flow of steam in the plant can be very easily be understood by the flow diagram of the plant. A graph plotted between the temperature and the entropy would indicate the

technical details of the working by the rankine cycle. The entropy of a system can be understood as an index of degradation of energy. Rankine cycle::

Modified Rankine cycle::

PLANT FLOW DIAGRAM

H.T.SWITCH GEAR

OPERATIONG VOLTAGE - 6.6KV

For low voltage circuits fuses may be used to isolate the faulty circuit. For voltage higher than 3.3 kV isolation is achieved by circuit breaker.

Requirement of circuit breaker:

1.

After occurrence of fault the switchgears must isolate the faulty circuit as quickly as possible i.e. keeping the delay to minimum. It should not operate when an over current flows under healthy condition.

2.

Basic principal of operation of circuit breaker:


Circuit breaker consists of a fix contact and sliding contact into which moves a moving contact. The end of moving contact it attached to a handle that can be manually operated or may operate automatically with the help of mechanism that has a trip coil energized by secondary of CT. Under normal condition the secondary of CT is not energized sufficiently to trip the coil but under false condition the coil is energized fully to operate the trip coil and the circuit breaker is operated.

1. 2.

MOCB (Minimum oil circuit breaker) SF6 (Sulphur hexafluoride circuit breaker)

Here oil and SF6 are used to quench the arc.

L.T SWITCH GEAR


OPERATING VOLTAGE- 415VOLT

TYPES OF CIRCUIT BREAKER: - Air break circuit breaker Air brake circuit breaker: The arc interruption process of air- based circuit breaker is based on the natural deionization of gases by cooling action. The arc is resilient and can be stretched, and has a resistance, which can be increased both by length and confinement. Hence the arc resistance is increased by stretching the arc and as the resistance increases to higher value, the short circuit current drops to zero and arc is extinguished. Reducing the phase difference between the system voltage and the short circuit current assure that when the are current is interrupt at its zero value, the recovery voltage has very low value at its not allowed to reach 2-3 times the value of the system peak voltage, a phenomenon that occurs in most cases, when arc current is interrupted at low power factor.

GENERATORS AND TRANSFORMERS


INTRODUCTION- The auxiliaries in a plant can be divided into two categories1. URGENT AUXILIARIES- the urgent auxiliaries are those, which are associated with running of unit. SERVICE AUXILIARIES- the service auxiliaries are those whose loss would not affect output.

2.

GENERATOR

SPECIFICATIONSTURBO GENERATOR (gen1, gen2)

KVA Pf Volts of stator Amperes of stator Volts of rotor Amperes of rotor Rpm Hz Phase Connection Coolant Gas pressure Insulation class

247000 0.85 15750 9050 310 2600 3000 50 3 YY Water (stator)& hydrogen (rotor) 3.5kg/cm-sq. B

EXCITATION SYSTEM1. STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM-The generators in stage -1(u-1&u-2) have this excitation system. Static excitation system has slip ring and carbon brush arrangement. It consists of step down transformer, converter and AVR (automatic voltage regulator). BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM The generators in stage -2(U-3, U-4& &U- 5) have this excitation system. It has two exciters, one is main exciter and other is pilot exciter.

2.

GENERATOR PROTECTION1. The neutral of star connected winding is connected to primary of neutral grounding transformer, so that earth fault current is limited by over voltage relay.
STATOR PROTECTIONDIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION-In case of phase-to-phase fault generator is

2.

protected by longitudinal differential relay. 3. Rotor winding may be damaged by earth faults or open circuits. The field is biased by a dc voltage, which causes current to flow through the relay for an earth fault anywhere on the field system.
ROTOR PROTECTIONOVER SPEED PROTECTION Mechanically over speed device that is usually in the

4.

form of centrifugally operated rings mounted on the rotor shaft, which fly out and close the stop valves if the speed of the set increase more than 10%. 5.
OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION It is provided with an over voltage relay. The

relay is usually induction pattern. The relay open the main circuit break and the field switch if the over voltage persists. 6.
SEAL OIL SYSTEM Hydrogen in the generator is under very high pressure. There is

a possibility of this hydrogen to come out of gaps, which is very hazardous. So, seal oil is used to seal the gaps so that hydrogen doesnt come out. 7.
LUBRICATION OIL SYSTEM Turbine lubrication-oil system seeks to provide

proper lubrication of turbo generator bearings and operation of barring gear. Pumps are used to circulate lubrication-oil inside the generator. The oil of the lubrication and the governing system is cooled in the oil coolers. The cooling medium for these coolers is circulating water.

TRANSFORMER
TYPE PF TRANSFORMERS
1. GENRATOR TRANSFORMER: -- This is a step up transformer. This supply gets its primary supply from generator and its secondary supplies the switchyard from where it is transmitted to grid. This transformer is oil cooled. The primary of this transformer is connected in star. The secondary is connected in delta. These are four in number.
2. STATION TRANSFORMER: --This transformer has almost the same rating as the

generator transformer. Its primary is connected in delta and secondary in star. It is a step down transformer. These are 4 in number. 3. This is a step down transformer. The primary receives from generator and secondary supplies a 6.6 KV bus. This is oil cooled. These are 8 in number.
UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER: --

4.

NEUTRAL GROUNDED TRANSFORMER: -- This transformer is connected with supply coming out of UAT in stage-2. This is used to ground the excess voltage if occurs in the secondary of UAT in spite of rated voltage.

SPECIFICATIONS
Generator transformer (GT-1 & GT-2)

KV MVA Phase Hz Connections Type of cooling Rated HV and IV (MVA) Rated LV (MVA) No Load Voltage HV (KV) No Load Voltage IV (KV) No Load Voltage LV (KV) Line current HV (Amps) Line current IV (Amps) Line current LV (Amps) Temp rise coil oC Temp rise winding oC

15.75/242 250 3 50 Y-D 11 OFAF/ONAF/ONAN 250/150/100 250/150/100 242

15.75 597.14/358.29/238.86

9175.15/5505.09/3670.66 50 55

Neural grounded transformer (NGT)

KVA Phase Hz Type of cooling No load voltage HV (volts) No load voltage LV (volts) Line current HV (Amps)

1150 3 50 ONAF/ONAN 6600 250 105.9

Line current LV (Amps) Temp rise oil oC Temp rise winding

2655.8 50 55

Potential Transformer

KVA Phase Hz Type of Cooling No Load Voltage HV (volts) No Load Voltage LV (volts) Line Current HV (Amps) Line Current LV (Amps) Temp rise oil oC Temp rise winding oC

1000 3 50 ONAN 6600 433 87.53 133.5 50 55

D.C SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION:
DC system is generally used for control and protection operation, as AC supply is not fully dependable. To maintain constant supply in case of power failure we use DC supply. DC system consists of a battery charger. These are the mode of energy storage.

CHARGING EQUIPMENTS:
The battery charging equipment comprises of trickle charger, quick charger, battery panel, main distribution board and switch control and signaling board.

In battery PbO2 used as positive plate and Pb as negative plate.

1. 2.

DISCHARGING PROCESS CHARGING PROCESS

BATTERY CHARGER:
Battery charger normally operates in two modes. 1. 2. Float charging: It is constant voltage mode and works as a trickle charger. Boost charging: It is constant current mode and works as a quick charger.

TRICKLE CHARGER:
This charger is fed from three-phase ac supply and gives a dc-stabilized output at rated full load current. The variation of the dc output voltage is limited to +/- 1% for 0 to 100% load variation and simultaneously ac voltage variation of +/- 10% of frequency variation of +/- 5% from 50 Hz.

The rectification is obtained through full bridge controlled silicon rectifier. Stack comprising of these SCR and three diode with the surge suppression RC network connected across each SCR and diode.

SWITCH YARD

As we know that electrical energy cant be stored like cells, so what we generate should be consumed instantaneously. But as the load is not constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.e. the generation depends upon load. The yard is the places from where the electricity is send outside. It has both outdoor and indoor equipments.

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF 220KV SWITCH YARD-

OUTDOOR EQUIPMENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

BUS BAR LIGHTENING ARRESTER WAVE TRAP BREAKER CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER CORONA RING EARTHING ROD CURRENT TRANSFORMER POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER LIGHTENING MASK LIGHTENING MOOSE

INDOOR EQUIPMENTS
1. 2. RELAYS CONTROL PANELS

CIRCUIT BREAKER:
The code for circuit breaker is 52. An electric power system needs some form of switchgear in order to operate it safely & efficiently under both normal and abnormal conditions. Circuit breaker is an arrangement by which we can break the circuit or flow of current. A circuit breaker in station serves the same purpose as switch but it has many added and complex features. The basic construction of any circuit breaker requires the separation of contact in an insulating fluid that servers two functions:

1. 2.

It extinguishes the arc drawn between the contacts when circuit breaker opens. It provides adequate insulation between the contacts and from each contact to earth.

The insulating fluids commonly used in circuit breakers are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Compressed air Oil which produces hydrogen for arc excitation. Ultra high vacuum Sulphur hexafluorides

The Specifications of the circuit breaker used are:

MAKE TYPE RATED VOLTAGE RATED LIGHTING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE RATED SHORT CIRCUIT BREAKING CURRENT

CROMPTON GREAVES LTD. AIR BLAST CIRCUITREAKER 245 KV

1050 KV 25 - 40KA

RATED FREQUENCY RATED NORMAL CURRENT RATED CLOSING VOLTAGE RATED OPENING VOLTAGE

50HZ 2000 A TO 4000 A 220 V DC 220 V DC

LIGHTING ARRESTER:

It saves the transformer and reactor from over voltage and over currents. We have to use the lightning arrester both in primary and secondary of transformer and in reactors. A meter is provided which indicates the surface leakage and internal grading current of arrester. 1. 2. Green arrester is healthy Red arrester is defective.

In case of red we first de-energize the arrester and then do the operation.

AIR BREAK EARTHING SWITCH: The code of earthling switch is 5, 6, 7.The work of this equipment comes into picture when we want to shut down the supply for maintenance purpose. This help to neutralize the system from induced voltage from extra high voltage. This induced power is up to 2KV in case of 400 KV lines.

The specification of earthling switch is:

MAKE TYPE VOLTAGE CURRENT MOTOR VOLT (AC) CONTROL VOLT (DC)

S & S POWER MADRAS 245 KV 10 KA 415 VOLTS 220 VOLTS

BUS BAR:

Bus bars generally are of high conductive aluminum conforming to IS-5082 or copper of adequate cross section .Bus bar located in air insulated enclosures & segregated from all other components .Bus bar is preferably cover with polyurethane.

1.

Current Transformer (CT):

A current transformer is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary

. Current Transformer Diagram Application:

1.

They are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages. The current transformer safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Often, multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). Similarly potential transformers are used for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of the power grid.

2.

3.

4.

Capacitive Voltage Transformer (CVT):

A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for measurement or to operate a protective

relay. In its most basic form the device consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split, an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a transformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective relay as shown in figure below.

The device has at least four terminals, a high-voltage terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal and at least one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protective relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would be uneconomical. In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stack of capacitors connected in series.This results in a large voltage drop across the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively small voltage drop across the second capacitor C2, and hence the secondary terminals.

The total number of bays is 22. Out of which we have 3 spare bays.

Bay 1 Bay 2 Bay 3 Bay 4 Bay 6

250 MVA 15.75/242 kV Generator transformer 1 Spare 40 MVA 220/7.1 kV Station Transformer- 3 40 MVA 220/7.1 KV Station Transformer - 1 40 MVA 220/7.1 KV Station Transformer - 2 250 MVA 15.75/242 KV Generator Transformer -2

Bay 7 Bay 8 Bay 9

220 Kv (Chin hut) Luck now Feeder - 1 220 KV Luck now Feeder -2 Bus couplets 220 KV

Bay 10 Bay 11 Bay 12 Bay 13 Bay 14 Bay 16 Bay 17 Bay 19 Bay 20 Bay 21 Bay 22

220 KV Fateful Feeder - 1 220 KV Fateful Feeder - 2 220 KV by Pass Breaker 210 MW Generators -3 40 MVA 220/6.9 KV Station Transformer - 3 210 Mw Generators - 3 220 KV Transfer Bus Coupler- 2 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 1 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 2 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 3 220 KV Kanpur Feeders - 4

COAL HANDLING PLANT


Introduction: NTPC Singrauli gets its coal supply mainly from Jayant Mines . Now coal is also coming from Australia, as coal produced in India is of low grade and ash content is more. The coal being filled in the wagons of the rail reaches plant. The purpose of this plant is to convey the coal to the bunker in the size not larger than 20mm.It handles and transports the coal to the bunker from the wagons by passing through various conveyors, transfer points, crusher houses, etc. Type of coal: BCCL costs Rs.4/kg CCl cost Rs.6/kg Type of unloading the coal: 1.

Manual Unloading: -Previously, manpower was used for unloading the wagons. But it was very time consuming and more workers were required for the job to be done.

2. Box in (using wagon tippler for unloading): -This method is still used in stage -1of NTPC Unchahar. For this method, Indian Railway grants 10 hours for unloading the 58 wagons. In this method, Wagons are separated and tippled by using wagon tippler. The Beetle Feeder is used to move the wagon on wagon tippler. The coal from the wagons gets accumulated in The Track Hopper. At this time; the size of the coal is approximately 300mm. 3. BOBR: - This method is used in used in stage -2 of NTPC Unchahar. Indian Railway grants only 2.5 hours for Unloading 58 BOBR wagons. This is an advanced technology in which we use the compressor system. In Bottom Open Bottom Release (BOBR) technology the wagons are opened from side. Pressure is applied by the compressor to open the bottom gates of the wagon so that the coal gets released over the track hopper and wagon get unloaded quickly.

Various equipment used in CHP: 1. WAGON TIPPLER: -The wagon tippler is a most important device in thermal power

project. The Wagon tippler turns back the wagon at 135-degree angle and the structure of the wagon tippler is to be very heavy. Upper side of the wagon is fixed with the many angles for supporting the wagon. When the wagon is fixed on the Platform then whole platform is turned back and the coal fall down in the wagon tippler hopper. The unloading time of the Rack is 6hours. Here the type of the rack is Box C / Box N type.

A- WTH, B-VF, C- BC, D- DS are the parts of the wagon tippler.

Wagon Tippler Hopper: - The Wagon tippler Hoper is a part of the wagon tippler where the coal is stored from the wagon tippler. The size of the coal here is less than 300mm. Vibrating Feeder: - The vibrating feeder is used for falling the coal on the conveyer through Wagon tippler Hoper. Before Wagon tippler Hoper and Vibrating Feeder the gate is providing to control the flow of the coal. Beetle Charger: -The Beetle charger is a traveling device that is used to carry the wagon on the wagon tippler platform. Dust Suppuration: -Dust Suppuration is a useful device. When the wagon are tippling then the dust is mixed in the air and that area becomes very dusty then Dust Suppuration operates and water flows through its points and the dust settles down. It is an automatic device.

2. PADDLE FEEDER: - They have been installed on conveyors below the manual unloading track hopper. There are 6 nos. of paddle feeders, 3 on each conveyer. 3 Paddle Feeders of each conveyer move to and fro within a limiting range. The rotating part of the paddle feeder is called as plough wheel. Plough wheel has 6 blades. By the rotation of the plough wheel, the coal of the track hopper gets accumulated between the blades and is discharged on the conveyor below it. The main components of paddle feeder are:

Plough wheel-It is the rotating part consists of 6 blades. It is attached with the rotor of 3-phase slip ring induction motor. Reduction gear box- It is installed to control the speed of plough wheel. End limit switch (left or right)-It provides the limiting motion of the paddle feeders. Anti-collision switch- It provides the prevention from collision between two paddle feeders. Interlock system-It is provided for safety purpose. By this, the conveyor belt moves first then paddle feeder starts.

3.

VIBRATING FEEDER: -They have been installed below the track hoppers of wagon tippler. The coal is accumulated over the vibrating feeder so by giving vibrations to the vibrating feeder we discharge the coal from track hopper to the conveyors. Their main purpose is to provide uniform feeding on the conveyors. The vibrating feeders consist of a tray to which vibrator body is fixed on the rear end.

4. TRANSFER POINTS: - Transfer Point is provided with flap gate and Conveyer. In transfer Point the coal is transferred from one conveyer to other conveyer. Flap Gate: - The flap Gate is a two-way device. It consists of two gates. Both gates cannot operate together. By help of the flap Gate, we change the way of coal that fall down on the conveyer. Conveyers: - The Conveyer Belt is a moving device. It travels on its platforms. The shape of the conveyer belt is to be flat but on the platforms it is to be in curve shape. The coal falls down the conveyer and goes to the primary Crusher House Platforms. The capacity of conveyer in Stage I is 800MT/ hr. & in Stage II is 1200MT / hr. Many protecting device provide to the Conveyer--a -Zero Speed Switch, b -Pull Cord Switch, c - Belt Sway Switch 1. Zero Speed Switch: - The Zero Speed Switch prevents the Conveyer from over load run. When the conveyer is over loaded, the speed of the conveyer is reduced and Zero Speed Switch is operated and stops the conveyer. This device is provided at Head End of the Conveyer. The Zero Speed Switch is a Centrifugal Switch. Pull cord Switch: - This is a manual protecting device. When the Worker sees any mistake like big stone or any dangerous fault, pulls this cord. The Pull Cord Switch is to be operated, and the Conveyer stops. Belt Sway Switch: - The Belt Sway Switch also protects the conveyer. This device is provided on both side of the conveyer. When the conveyer leaves its way the switch is operated and the conveyer stops. This is also an automatic protecting device.

2.

3.

. 5. PRIMARY CRUSHER (ROTARY BREAKER): - In Primary Crusher House, the coal breaks in Rotary Breaker. Here the coal comes from the Transfer point; breaks here and the stone fall down to a separate place. Coal is converted from 300mm to 150mm size. Part of the Primary Crusher House a- Rotary Breaker b- Belt Feeder

1.

ROTARY BREAKER: The Rotary Breaker has a rotating mechanism. It is rotated on the shaft. The coal come from the conveyer through the Flap Gate falls down into the rotary breaker. The rotary breaker is to be rotated and coal moves up and down and collides and hence breaks. The Rotary Breaker is H.T. 170KW 6.6KV Motor

2.

BELT FEEDER: - The Belt Feeder is a small size of the conveyer. It is used for feeding the coal to the conveyer through Flap Gate.

6.

SECONDARY CRUSHER (RING GRANULATOR): - In Secondary crusher House first the magnetic part separate from the coal and then feed to the Secondary Crusher. This Crusher breaks the coal in 20mm size and coal is sent to the Flap Gate and then feeded to the conveyer. The Secondary crusher is hammer type. H.T. motor are used for breaking of the coal. Specifications are 700KW 6.6KVMotor.

7. CROSS BELT MAGNETIC SEPRATORS: - They will remove the ferrous particles, which passes along with the coal. It consists of electromagnet around which a belt is moving. It is suspended from top, perpendicular to the conveyor belt at certain height. Whenever any iron particle passes below the CBMS, it is attracted by the magnet and stick to the cross belt below it. The CBMS capacity is of 50kg.

8. METAL DETECTOR: - The purpose of installation is to detect any metallic piece passing through the conveyor. Whenever the pieces pass below the search coil of the metal detector, it gives the trip command to the conveyor. Simultaneously, sand bag marker will fall on the conveyor belt so that the metal can be searched easily and removed. 9. STACKER/RECLAIMER: It is a very important device. The whole Structure of it is called Super Structure. It stacks the excessive coal and reclaims the coal on its requirement. It is a two-way device. It consists of following main parts. Stacker: The Stack is a position (1). When the rack comes, the excessive coal is send to the stacker through the conveyer from Secondary Crusher house. The coals are stacked at the Secondary Crusher Coal Heap. The coal falls down from the stacker through Boom Conveyer. Reclaimer: - The Reclaimer is position (2). When the rack is not coming and there is a shortage of coal, then reclaiming is to be started and the coal is lifted from the Secondary Crush Coal Heap and feeded to the bunker. Boom Conveyer: - The Boom conveyer is a Bi-directional conveyer. It moves clockwise & anticlockwise direction. In stacking position, it is moving in clockwise direction and in the reclaiming position its moving in anticlockwise direction. They are provided with Center Chute and End Chute on the both end. Boom hoist: - The Boom hoist is a link of the Super Structure. The hoist is moved up and down. For controlling the up & down position, limit switch is provided. Slew drive: - The Slew Drive moves at 180-degree. When the coal is stored on both the side of the track of travel, then the Slew Drive moves and lifts or fall the coal from Boom Conveyer. For control the rotation of Slew Drive, the limit switch is provided. Bucket wheel: The Bucket Wheel is used when there is a requirement of the coal. It is a rotary device. It is always rotated in anticlockwise. In the Reclaiming position, the Center Chute is to be up and End Chute of the Boom Conveyer is fixed on the conveyer. The Bucket Wheel rotates; when the Bucket of the wheel is full with

coal and the wheel is rotated the coal fall down on the Boom conveyer and the coal is send to the Super Structure. Travel: -It is a slip ring induction motor driven system. The Super Structure moves on it. The normal speed of the Travel is 10 meter / minute. It moves on its track from one end to other end.

10. TRANSFER TOWER: -Here the coal is send to the Tipper. Transfer Tower is provided with a coal sampler. 11. TIPPER: -The Tipper is a three-way device to feed the coal in Bunker. It is moveable device. It is move on its track. 12. BUNKER: -Here the coal is collected from the tipper and stored. The capacity of the bunker for Stage-I is 4800MT & Stage-II is 8700MT

COAL HANDLING PLANT POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


STAGE-1 S.NO MCC-1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CON1/A/B/C/D CON2A/B (P) CON2A/B (S) CON10A/B P/F 1-6 LCC PLOUGH WHEEL LONG TRAVEL PCRD SPEED CONTROL B/F-1, (PCH) MCC-2 11 12 13 14 15 B/F-2 (PCH) SUSPENDED MAG. LIGHTING BOARD DE-1 (SCH) MAG.SEP.(SCR) 22 NR-2 37A SF-1 63A SF-3 250A FSU-2 250A SF-2 63A 22 5.5 2.2 0.25 22 75 125 75 125 NR-3 134A BKR 228A NR-3 143A BKR 228A SF-2 100A NR-34A RV-11A NR-5A RV-0.6 NR-2,37A DRIVE (CONVEYOR) RATINGS (KW) TYPE-F.L

16

VIB.SCREEN-1, 2(SCH) CON-3A/B CON-4A/B B/F-4 (SCH) MCC-3

37

NR-3 64A

17 18 19

160 55 22

BKR 269 NR-3 96A NR-2 37A

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

CBMS-3 TP-8 TT-1 DE-4(BUNKER) DE-3(BUNKER) CON5A/B CON6A/B CON7A/B CON8A/B(P) CON8A/B(S) CON9A/B CON12 BEETLE 1,2 110 125 90 160 75 90 125 CHARGER 55

63A 63A 63A 250A BKR 195A BKR 228 159A BKR 269 BKR 134 159A BKR 228A RV-98A

32 33

BAGOB TRIPLER-1,2 71 VIB.FEEDERS 1,2,3,4

RV-126A SF-63A

STAGE 2

Equipment

KW

Conv14

2*95

Conv15

2*140

Conv16

2*115

Conv17

65

Conv18

160

Conv19

115

Conv20

315

Conv21

140

Conv22

140

Conv23

2*110

Conv24

110

Conv25

110

Conv26

2*115

R.B

160

Crusher

450

STAGE-2

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Drive (conveyor) CON14A/B CON15A/B CON16A/B CON17A/B CON18A/B CON19A/B CON20A/B (HT) CON21A/B CON22 CON23 CON24A/B CON25A/B CON26 R.B CRUSHER (HT)

Ratings (KW) 2*95 2*140 2*115 65 160 115 315 140 140 2*110 110 110 2*115 160 450

Type-F.L 161 237 195 115 269 195 34 237 237 182 182 182 195 269 54 35

BELT FEEDER (SCH) 18.5 1,2 BELT FEEDER (PCH) 25 4,5 PADDLE FEEDER 7,8,9,10 S/R-2 BOOM CONVEYOR S/R-2 BUCKET WHEEL S/R-2 SLEW/TRAVEL MOTOR 7.5(DC) 45

17

47

18

80

19

75

127

20

75

127

21

22 23 24 25

VGF 1,2,3,4 SWP 1A/B SWP 2A/B SUMP-PUMP

37 115 32 15

65 195

TERMS CBMS ILMS PF TT TP MD SM RB VGF RPG CR RH VS BF FG TC WT PH PCH SCH S/R CO CHP

FULL FORM Cross belt magnetic separator Inline magnetic separator Paddle feeder Transfer tower Transfer point Metal detector Suspended magnet Rotary breaker Vibro grizzly feed Rack and pinion get Crusher rotary Reclaim hopper Vibrating screen Belt feeder Flap gate Telescopic chute Wagon tippler Pent house Primary crusher house Secondary crusher house Stacker/Reclaimer Conveyor Coal handling plant

TH MCC LCS PCS BSS ZSS VF VF.

Track hopper Motor control center Local control switch Pull card switch Belt swag switch Zero speed switch Vibrating feeder Vibrating fan

SOME IMPORTANT FACTS Coal handling plant area Length of conveyor stage-1 Length of conveyor stage-2 M.U.T.H coal capacity stage -1 New track hopper coal capacity stage -2 Primary yard coal capacity stage -1 Secondary yard coal capacity stage -1 Secondary yard coal capacity stage-2 Bunker capacity stage -1 Bunker capacity stage-2 Coal used in 24 hrs(4 unit) Total plant area Total township area Coal import Water source Power line (220kv) 200acrs 13km 13.5km 2800 M.T 5400M.T 2.5 lac M.T 1.5 lac M.T 1.8 lac M.T 400*12=4800 M.T 730*12=8760 M.T 12000 M.T 550acrs 930acrs Jayant Mines Rihand Reservior

UP, J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, Haryana, Punjab & Delhi


Delhi, Punjab, Rajesthan, UP, Haryana, Chandigarh, J & K, HP

Power export

DEMINERAL (DM) PLANT


INTRODUCTION: -Water is required in plant for many purposes like for formation of steam, for removal of ash, for safety during fire, etc. But the water required for the formation of steam should be perfectly devoid of minerals because if minerals are present in the steam and the steam strike the blades of the turbine, then due to being high in pressure it produces scars or holes on the turbine blades.

PURIFICATION OF WATER: Water is purified in DM plant through a chain of processes as under: --

1.

Carbon filter Water taken from the river is first sent to the carbon filter for the removal of carbon contents in the water. Strong acid cation exchanger After passing through the carbon filter, water is sent to the strong acid cation exchanger, which is filled with the concentrated HCL. The acid produces anions, which get combined with the cations present in the water. Strong base anion exchanger After that the water is sent to the strong base anion exchanger, which is filled with the concentrated NaOH.The base produces cations, which get combined with the anions present in the water. Mixed bed exchanger And then water is sent to the chamber of mixed bed exchanger where the remaining ions are removed. This is the last stage of purification.

2.

3.

4.

COAL, WATER & STEAM CYCLES


COAL CYCLE

C.H.P Plant section

Bunker

R.C Feeder

Pulverization mill

Boiler

1.

R.C Feeder:

It is an induction motor driven device, which determine the Quantity

of coal enter in the pulverize mill.

2.

Pulverization mill:

Pulverization means exposing a large surface area to the action

of oxygen .Two types of mill are used in the plant.

Ball mill: A ball mill operates normally under suction. A large drum partly filled with steel balls, is used in this mill .The drum is rotated slowly while coal is fed in to it .The ball pulverize the coal by crushing. This type of mill is used in stage-1. Contact mill: This mill uses impact principle. All the grinding elements and the primary air fan are mounted on a single shaft. The flow of air carries coal to the primary stage where it is reduced to a fine granular state by impact with a series of hammers. This type of mill is used in stage-2.

WATER CYCLE
D.M Plant Hot well C.E.P Pump Low Pressure Heater 1, 2, 3 Derater Boiler Feed Pump High Pressure Heater 5, 6 Feed Regulating station Economizer Boiler Drum. 1. DERATER: 1. 2. 3. Feed strong tank of water To produce sufficient pressure before feeding to B.F.D. Filter the harmful chemicals. 2. FEED REGULATING STATIONS: Control the quantity of water in to boiler drum. 3. ECONOMISER: Flux gases coming out of the boilers carry lot of heat. An economizer extracts a part of this heat from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water. 4. DRAFTS SYSTEM: In forced draft system the fan is installed near the base of the boiler furnace. This fan forces air through the furnace, economizer, air preheater and chimney. In an induced draft system, the fan is installed near the base of Chimney.

STEAM CYCLE

Boiler Drum H.P Turbine

Ring Header Repeater

Boiler Drum (Steam chamber) I.P Turbine L.P Turbine

Super Heater condenser

1.

BOILER:Boiler drum consists two chambers water chamber, steam chamber. Before Entering in super heater the steam is going in to boiler drum, where the boiler drum filtered the moisture and stored in to water chamber. SUPER HEATER: The function of super heater is to remove the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the tube boiler. The temperature is approx.530 oC. TURBINE:Steam turbine converts the heat energy in to mechanical energy and drives the alternator. The velocity attained during expansions depends on initial and final heat content of the steam. Turbine having number of stages in which the pressure drops takes place.

2.

3.

Conclusion
On completion of my vocational training at NTPC Thermal Power Project, Shaktinagar I have come to know about how the very necessity of our lives nowadays i.e., electricity is generated. What all processes are needed to generate and run the plant on a 24x7 basis. NTPC Singrauli is one the plants in India to be under highest load factor for the maximum duration of time and that to operating at highest plant efficiencies. This plant is an example in terms of working efficiency and management of resources to all other thermal plants in our country. The operating plf of the NTPC as compared to the rest of country is the highest with 87.54% the highest since its inception. The training gave me an opportunity to clear my concepts from practical point of view with the availability of machinery of such large rating.

Acknowledgement

Everything that happens in the world is an out come of interaction of various factor, some of which are favourable while other not. Always for a desired result, the number of favourable factors is more. This work is NO exception to this fact. I acknowledge that Ive been fortunate enough to get the support, mentally and physically in everything that I do.

First of all I would like to thank Shri Ashish Acharya, Honourable DGM (C&I),NTPC Singrauli who led the entire team for functioning of each department in a modernized and techno-commercial atmosphere to make the project touch such peaking performance.

I would give our special thanks to Mr. N.N. Sinha (HR-EDC) and Mr.H.K.Verma (Sr. Superintendent), for giving his very kind permission to undergo the training programme under the able guidance of NTPC engineers. We would thank Mr. Vijay Kumar (Supdt Engg.) under whose able guidance I completed my training. All these people were of immense importance regarding the knowledge and supports for the well furnished equipments.

I greatly acknowledge the help and the mental strength provided by our entire family for encouraging me and providing me knowledge & guidance related with every deptt. of NTPC, Singrauli.

At last I conclude by thanking all the employees of NTPC, Singrauli (both executives & workers) who helped me in making our training a boon for me.

Narendra Kumar Sharma B.tech 4th Year, Electronics and Communication Engineering United College of Engineering & Research, Allahabad.