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Alcoa Collaborative Design and Development

Answering the Navys Call for New Lightweight Materials and Structures to Optimize Naval Vessel Cost, Weight & Performance
Nate Beavers SNAME-ASNE Joint SDC Meeting (June 25, 2008) Alcoa Technical Center 724-337-4189

Presentation Overview
Aluminum is a significant enabler of lightweight ship designs such as LCS, JMAC, and JHSV, as well as, other ship applications where weight reduction is important. Alcoa has significant resources and expertise for developing optimized aluminum structures - weight, cost and performance. It is in Alcoas interest that the Navy and shipbuilders are successful with current round of Al based ships. Achieving next-generation breakthroughs in aluminum ship structures, materials, coatings and manufacturing technologies requires collaboration and pull from the Navy and shipbuilders.



Founded in 1888. 40 countries; 450 locations. 130,000 employees. $30B revenue in 2006. Innovation Leader Most Vertically Integrated Al Co. in the World. Environmental Sustainability Leader.




Commercial Vehicles





Al, SA, Ti Castings





Over 100 Years of Technical Innovation

Unparalleled Lightweight Metallics Technology Metallics database unrivaled by any firm anywhere in the world, the product of more than 100 years of research and engineering expertise More than 60 years of experience in developing alloys and products for defense applications

Structural Design Competencies

Critical design tools and competencies recognized in multiple industries, including automotive, aerospace and defense Design capabilities not limited to a single material or product, but covering a range of solutions, including those that call for integration of aluminum with other materials

Fabrication and Assembly Capabilities

Strong manufacturing pedigree, chiefly born of its work manufacturing integrated structures for the automotive industry Extensive experience in producing prototypes ranging from full assemblies to individuals parts Manufacturing and assembly issues viewed as critical elements in the design process

Alcoa Science & Technology

Alcoa Technical Center (ATC)

7 Research & Development Locations: Alcoa Technical Center, PA, USA Alicante, Spain (fabrication) Carson, CA, USA (fastening systems) Crawfordsville, IN, USA (closures) Kwinana, Australia (refining) Richmond, VA, USA (packaging) Whitehall, MI, USA (castings) 3 External Technology Offices: Beijing, China Moscow, Russia New Delhi, India

Worlds largest light metals research facility ~600 scientists, engineers, technicians & support personnel Full range of lab capabilities Bench-scale to full production-scale equipment & facilities Research, Development and Applied Engineering across all products, markets and processes

ATC Core Capabilities

Product Design / Development Basic Science & Metallurgy Alloy & temper development Mechanical characterization Deformation process design Manufacturing Systems / Numerical simulations Technology (material & process) Control systems Metallurgical & engineering stds. Measurement systems Microstructure Manufacturing systems characterization analysis Constitutive equation dev. Statistical methods Thermal process design Subscale experimental simulation Analytical Chemistry Metal Processing Environmental Science Surface Science Melting/recycling Metal treatment Ingot casting Continuous casting Process analysis Solidification Particulate processing Product design for: Performance Manufacturing Cost Computer-aided-engineering / design (CAE/CAD) Design systems / methods / guidelines development Material mechanics / characterization Validation testing

Product Manufacturing Metal shaping / forming Machining / Metal removal Joining & assembly Rapid prototyping & tooling Engineered Surfaces & Finishes

Multi-Disciplinary Teams Enable a Systems Based Approach to Product Design and Development
Material Analysis & Selection Test Development Testing Labs and Capabilities CAE Structural Design FMEA CAD QFD Design for Manufacturing & Assembly

Materials and Testing

Systems Design & Engr

Analysis Driven Design
Fracture Mechanics Design Tools Failure Analysis Joint Performance Models

Alloy Experts
Corrosion Knowledge Alloy Development Surface Technology Coating / Cleaning Technology

Structural Design Capabilities

Alcoas design technologies have been successfully leveraged across multiple commercial and defense market segments Rail cars Transportation systems such as bulk trailers and intermodal containers Cars and trucks Commercial aerospace Defense aerospace and land systems Design is driven by customer performance requirements and standards Alcoa has found that its design competencies and toolkits are fully transferable to other market segments once we learn a customers performance requirements and standards Alcoa is not as deeply immersed in maritime design requirements and needs guidance on the communitys performance standards

Collaborative Development
Structural Design & Technology development is driven by customer and market requirements and is filtered through three critical concept areas.
Design Options

Understanding how the product works to optimize new feature sets

Customer Needs Customer Needs Performance Drivers Performance Drivers Market Requirements Market Requirements Mission Requirements Mission Requirements

Manufacturing Limits

Understanding potential barriers presented by manufacturability

Optimized Optimized Solution Solution

Material Science Objectives

Understanding the underpinning science to bridge ideal & achievable goals


Ground Systems Collaboration

Lockheed Martin JLTV

Lockheed Martin Announces Alcoa as a principal team member to compete for its Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV) program. Alcoa will supply materials knowledge, design services and aluminum components that will give the vehicle its structural strength at reduced weight.

Blast and Shock Competencies

Alcoa is providing aluminum for uparmoring kits used to upgrade Humvees and heavy trucks that are being targeted by insurgents in Iraq and Afghanistan.


Ground Systems Collaboration

75 lbs (12%) weight savings vs. Al baseline Prototype delivered Apr2006


Focus on manufacturability Prototype delivered Aug2006

760 lbs (51%) weight savings vs. Al baseline Prototype delivered Sep2006

Additional Areas
Gun Mount Structure Lower Mission Module Structure Top Structure (32% weight savings over Al baseline)


Air Systems Collaboration

Three Point Bend Test Bonded EA9360 Loaded to Failure

Nose Landing Gear Door

Load, lb.



Redesign resulting in lower cost and improved fit up



Visible Upper Surface Buckling Ultimate Load .


Limit Load












Displacement, inches

Test Development Development Corrosion Testing and Expertise

CAD/FEA Product and Manufacturing Knowledge

Component Design

Air Systems Collaboration

JSF Design Concepts

Alcoa Solutions Flying Today Forged Bulkheads

Replaces multi-piece design 10 - 15% wt saved Improved buy-to-fly 50% current design


Alcoa Alloy, Processing & Fabricating Technologies Enable Large Aerospace Structures

Inner Front Spar 1

7085 Wing spar produced at Cleveland Plant for A380 plane

(Largest die forging in the world)

Inner Centre Spar 1 Inner Rear Spar Gear rib/Sidestay attached

Location of 7085 die forgings on the A380 wing


Analysis, Testing, Validation and Certification

Definition, coordination and execution of internal and external concept validation test programs (Large Panel Test Programs at Vought and Purdue)

Alcoa Trade Study Tools

To ol Fu se lag e

ing W ol To

Op Com tim pre iza ss tio ion nT oo l

Aspan-W Aspan-CO

Fl at P To an ol el

Aspan-F Aspan-FP



ASPAN-W Wing Tool (cont.)

Solution Page

Model Output
K vs. a

Stress Output

Deformation Output


Alcoa is unique: Aluminum competency bred design tools that bred design capability that bred ACDA (DFM/DFA)

Partners: Lockheed Martin Boeing Northrop Grumman

cu Inc sto rea me se rs d v is alu ti m e e d to o ep ur en de nt

Structural Design Capabilities ACDA and DFA/DFM

Partners: Lockheed Martin General Dynamics BAE Systems Oshkosh Truck Company AM General

Design Tools and Models

Al and Ti Products and Process Expertise


Focus for Navy Shipbuilding

1 Structural Design 2 Alloy Development


- pl asti c


Alcoa is a proven industry partner in providing design solutions for aluminum structures and draws on a wealth of propriety tools and models

Alcoa is a leader in aluminum alloy research and development and has led in custom breakthroughs in close cooperation with industry partners

Marine Coatings

Joining Technology

Alcoas coatings expertise promises to address critical fire resistance, friction and non-skid issues and can be delivered as a systems solution to the Navy

Alcoas advances in next-generation joining technology has made it an industry leader in Friction Stir Welding and related process tool development


Collaboration Approach
Alcoa Collaborative Development Approach (ACDA IPTs)
- Collaborative IPT Teams (OEM, Alcoa, Military) Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Phase V -Identify and Select Candidate Assemblies/Components -Develop and Evaluate Conceptual Designs -Finalize Conceptual Designs and Analyses -Develop and Evaluate Prototypes -Implement Designs in Production

Part ID

1st gate

Concept Design

2nd gate

Final Design

3rd gate


4th gate


Gather geometry, packaging, load reqs Develop concept redesign options Prelim. evaluation of conceptual redesigns Down-select concepts for further development

Finalize part redesigns detailed CAD and analysis Evaluate advanced design concepts Finalize total costs and plans for prototyping

Develop prototype part fabrication and test plans Produce prototype parts Test prototypes and approve for production

Ex. Activities:
Opportunity identification


Current Activities
Aluminum Lightweight Ship Structures Contract with Carderock
LCS/High-Speed Vessel Structural Design: LM LCS IPT GD LCS IPT Austal JHSV IPT Bollinger JHSV IPT Materials development with Carderock New Alloy Development Materials development workshop at Alcoa ATC

Engaging NSRP Panels

Trying to get Alcoa ManTech Divisions Involved

CG Superstructure Repair Assistance Participating with ASNE and SNAME Activities Other Ideas???


Alcoa Navy Program A Plan for Success

New Shipyard Capability - Shrink Technology Gap Meet Navys Cost, Weight & Performance Targets Improved Global Competitiveness Optimized Structure New Design Capability - Decreased Risk Lower Life-Cycle Costs - New Production Technology - Part Reduction Lower Labor Costs Shortened Production Schedule - More Unit Profit Differentiated Products New Advanced Materials - Supply Chain Management

IPT DESIGN EFFORTS (Shipbuilder Discreet) Innovative Structures Collaborative Development Phased Approach Concept Validation & Prototyping Optimized Cost, Weight & Performance


Ship Builders

Optimized Al Ship Structure

R&D Orgs

INDUSTRY APPLIED R&D EFFORTS (Broad Technology Diffusion) -Lightweight Structural Design -Materials Development -Coatings Development -Joining Technologies