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Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2011 with funding from


Library

Solomon

R.

Guggenheim Museum

and Archives

http://www.archive.org/details/systemicpaintingOOallo

SYSTEMIC PAINTING

THE SOLOMON

R.

GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM. NEW YORK

Published by The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation,


Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number: 66-20425

New

York, 1966

All Rights Reserved

Printed in The Netherlands

THE SOLOMON

It.

GUGtiGMIKIM l'Or.MIATION

TRUSTEES

HARRY

!".

GVGGENHEIM, I'HKSinKNT
THIELE, VICE PRESIDENT

ALBERT
II. II.

!:.

ARNASON, VICK PRESIDENT, ART ADMIMSTKATIO.N

PETER

O.

LAWSON-JOHNSTON, VICK PRESIDENT, BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

ELEANOR, COINTESS

f'ASTJ.E

STEWART

DANA DRAPER
A.

CHAINCEY XKWI.IX
MRS, HENRY OBR]

DANIEL CATTON RICH

MICHAEL

F.

WETTACH
WHEI.PLEY

MEDLEY

<i.

II.

CAUL ZICROSSKH

Exhibitions at the

Guggenheim Museum

in recent years,

have been concerned most often with the creative contribution of a single artist. At times, the source, in

form

of an already existing collection, would determine an


exhibition's scope. Surveys of painting in a particular

region,

or worldwide assessment
at

within a particular

period have also been held


to time.

this
all

museum from

time

The current show avoids

these categories

by

aiming, instead, to isolate a recognizable visual pheno-

menon and
its specific

to pursue, in the

subsequent catalogue pages,

meaning.

The

exhibition of "Systemic Painting" has been assem-

bled by Lawrence Alloway, the Guggenheim Museum's


curator.

Thomas M.

Messer, Director

LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION

Steve Schapiro, Brooklyn Heights, Neiv York

Mr. and Mrs. Robert

Scull,

New

York.

Bykert Gallery,

New

York

New York New York Robert Elkon Gallery, New York Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York Fischbach Gallery, New York Sidney Janis Gallery, New York Kornblee Gallery, New York Pace Gallery, New York Park Place Gallery, New York Betty Parsons Gallery, New York Stephen Radich Gallery, New York
Leo Castelli Gallery,
Galerie Chalette,

A.

M.

Sachs Gallery, Neiv York

Allan Stone Gallery,

New

York

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks are due

to

the

Galerie

Chalette,

Andre Emmerich Gallery,

Kornblee Gallery, and the Pace Gallery for paying the cost of color plates.

Mary

Grigoriadis worked closely with

me on

every phase of the exhibition,

including the preparation of a working bibliography, which was completed

by Diane Waldman. The catalogue ivas edited by Linda Konheim

and

Susan Tumarkin. I am grateful for

their collaboration

and

support.

L.A.

11

INTRODUCTION

New York between The improvisatory capacity of the artist was enlarged and the materiality of media stressed. The process-record of the creative act dominated all other possibilities of art and was boosted by Harold Rosenberg's term Action Painting. This phrase, though written with de Kooning in mind, was not announced as such, and it got stretched to cover new American abstract art in general. The other popular term,
The painting
first

that

made American

art

famous, done mostly in

1947 and 1954,

appeared as a drama of

creativity.

Abstract Expressionism, shares with "action" a similar over-emphasis on work-procedures,


defining the

work of art

as a seismic record of the artist's anxiety.


fitted the lore of violence that

However, within

this period,
art.

there were painters

who never
Barnett

surrounded American

The

work of Clyfford
in his

Still,

Newman, and Mark Rothko was


that,

clearly not offering revelatory


artist like Pollock,

brushwork with autobiographical implications. Not only

but an

who

own

time,

seemed

all

audacious gesture, appears very differently now. His large drip


it

paintings of 1950 have been, as


like

were, de-gesturized by a few years passing: what once looked


fields of color.

impulsive directional tracks have condensed into unitary

This all-over

distribution of emphasis
Still,

and the consequent pulverizing of hierarchic form

relates Pollock to

Newman, and Rothko.


Meyer Shapiro compared the non-expressionistic, non-gestural painting of Rothko to Later H. H. Arnason if internalized, sensation of dominant color"
1 .

"an all-pervading, as

proposed the term Abstract Imagist for those

artists

who were not

expressionist (7)*. This

is

recognition of the fact that the unity of Action Painting and Abstract Expressionism was purely
verbal, a product of generalization

from incomplete

data. (Obviously,

any generalizations are

subject to scepticism, revision,


It is

and

reversal, but these

two terms seem especially perfunctory.)

the "sensational", the "Imagist", painters

artists. Dissatisfaction

with the expressionist bulk of

who have been ratified by the work of younger New York painting was expressed by the
gestural art or never entered
it.

number
targets

of

young painters who turned away from


circles

Jasper Johns

from 1955, Noland's


are,
it

from

late 1958,

and

Stella's

symmetrical black paintings of

1958-59

can

now be

seen, significant shifts

from the

directional

brushwork and projected

Factum I and Factum II, 1957, along with duplicated photographs, included almost identical paint splashes and trickles, an ironic and loaded image. A gestural mark was turned into a repeatable object. The changing
anxiety of the Expressionists. Rauschenberg's twin paintings.
situation can be well indicated

by the opinions of William Rubin


",

six years

ago

he not only

deplored "the poor quality of 'de Kooning style painting'

he also assumed the failure of de


in foreseeing

Kooning himself and praised Clement Greenberg's "prophetic insight"


expressionist cul-de-sac
(3). It is

the

symptomatic that three years

later

Ben

Heller stated, "the


to the

widespread interest in de Kooning's ideas has been more of a hindrance than a help

younger

artists" (14). In fact,


italics).
it

it

was now possible for Heller

to refer to "the post-de

Kooning
Field

world" (my

In the late 50's de Kooning's example was oppressively accepted and


visible.

alternatives to
painters, 2.

were only fragmentarily

There was,

1.

the

work of the older

the development of stained as opposed to brushed techniques (Pollock 1951.


3.

Frankenthaler 1952. Louis 1954), and,

the

mounting

interest in symmetrical as

opposed

to

amorphous formats,

clear color as opposed to dirty, hard edges as opposed to dragged ones.

Numbers

in parentheses refer to the bibliography.

12

Barnett
hail

Newman's

paintings have
first

two different audiences:

the com-

pact group of admirers of his exhibitions in

New York

in

1950 and 1951. Second, the

large audience of the later 50's, with the shift

of sensibility away from gestural

art.

As with

any

artist

who

is

called "ahead of his time"

he has a complex relation with subsequent


history.

On

the one

hand he has created


art

his

own audience and influenced younger artists


on the other hand, his
There was
talk

was waited

for.

and speculation about Newnot seen


wholistic

his work.

man even among artists who had New man asserted the
:

character of painting with a rigour previously

unknown;

his paintings could not

be seen

or analyzed in terms of small parts. There


are no subdivisions or placement problems;

the total field

is

the unit of meaning.

The

expressionist element in Still (who signed

himself Clyfford in emulation of the Vincent


signature of
air of

Van Gogh) and


less to a

the seductive

Rothko, despite their sense of space

as field,
Barnett

meant

new generation

of

Newman. EVE.

1950. Oil on canvas, 96 x 68".

artists

than Newman's even but not polished,

brushed but not ostentatious, paint surface.


In addition, the narrow canvases he painted
in 1951. a few inches in height to a

wide and closely related


size,

man's

prefigure the de-

velopment of the shaped canvas ten years


later.

Greenberg, considering the structural

principles of

Newman's painting

in the ab-

sence of internal divisions and the interplay


of contrasted forms, suggested that his vertical

bands are a "parody" of the frame.


picture

"Newman's
self",

becomes

all

frame in
is

it-

because "the picture edge

repeated

inside,

and makes the picture instead of


.

merely being echoed'' 2 This idea was

later

blowm up by Michael Fried into deductive


structure (40) and applied to Frank Stella's

paintings in which the stretcher, as a whole,

not just the sides, sets the limits for the de-

velopment of the surface 3 Although


.

this idea
it

is
is

not central to the paintings of

Newman,

indicative of his continuous presence

on

^*5-

the scene in the 60's that a proposed esthetic should rest, at least partially,

on

his

work.

Barnett

Newman

Exhibition, Betty Parsons Gallery, 1951. Left original plaster cast at Here, right The Wild, 1950.

13

Alternatives

to

Abstract Expres-

sionism were not easily come by in the 50's

X~

and had
artists

to

be formulated experimentally by

on

their

own. Leon Smith, who had

already suppressed modelling and textural


variation in his painting, studied in 1954,

the stitching patterns on drawings of tennis


balls, footballs,

and basketballs. These im-

ages laid the foundations of his continuous,

flowing space, both in tondos, close to the


original balls,

and transferred

to rectangular

canvases. In France, Ellsworth Kelly


a series of panel paintings, in

made
is

which each There

panel carried

single solid color.

an echo of Neo-plastic pinks and blues in his


palette,

but his rejection of visual variation

or contrast was drastically fresh, at the time,

1952-53.
all

Ad

Reinhardt, after 1952 painted


all

red and

blue pictures on a strictly

symmetrical

lay-out,

combining elements
art

from early 20th century geometric


close- valued color).

and
or

mid-century Field painting (saturated

These three

artists de-

monstrate an unexpected reconciliation of


geometric
art, as

structural precision,

and

recent American painting, as colorist intensity.

They showed

at

Betty Parsons Gallery

and her adjunct Section Eleven, 1958-61,


along with Alexander Liberman, Agnes Martin,

and Sidney Wolfson.

It is to this

phase

of non-expressionistic
that

New York

painting

the term

Hard Edge
is

applies.

"The

phrase 'hard-edge'

an invention of the Ca-

^^J"4.
Leon Smith. Drawing 1954. 8i x 3f.
Pencil and ink on cardboard,

lifornia critic, Jules

Langsner,

who suggested

Ellsworth Kelly.

Red Yellow Black W hites

Blues. 1953. Synthetic paint on canvas. 7 panels, each 41

x 22*

14

it

at a gathering in

Claremont in 1959

as a title for

an exhibition of four non-figurative

Cali-

4 fornia painters" records George Rickey. In fact. Langsner originally intended the term to refer

to geometric abstract art in general,

because of the ambiguity of the term "geometric", as he told

me

in conversation in 1958. Incidentally, the exhibition Rickey refers to was called eventuallv

Four Abstract

Classicists. The purpose of the term, as I used it 1959-60, was to refer to the new development which combined economy of form and neatness of surface with fullness of color, without continually raising memories of earlier geometric art. It was a way of stressing

the wholistic properties of both the big asymmetrical shapes of

Smith and Kelly and the


the following way.

symmetrical layouts of Liberman and Martin.

Hard Edge was defined in opposition


'cone, cylinder,

to

geometric

art. in

"The

and sphere' of Cezanne-fame have persisted in much 20th century painting.

Even where

these forms are not purely represented, abstract artists have tended toward a

compilation of separable elements.

Form

has been treated as discrete entities", whereas "forms


.

are few in hard-edge and the surface immaculate

The whole

picture

becomes the

unit: forms
this

extend the length of the painting or are restricted to two or three tones. The result of
sparseness
is is

that the spatial effect of figures

on a

field is

avoided" (5). This wholistic organization


.

the difference that Field Painting had


article

made

to the

formal resources of geometric art 5 The


is

fundamental
early

on

this

phase of the development of systemic painting

Sidney Tillim"s

"W

hat

Happened

to

Geometry?", in which he formulated the situation in terms of


(2).

geometric art "in the shadow of abstract expressionism"

The emerging non-expressionist tendencies were often complimented as Timeless Form's latest embodiment, as in the West Coast group of Abstract Classicists. Jules Langsner
defined Abstract Classicism as form that
is

"defined, explicit, ponderable, rather than ambigu-

ous or fuzzily suggestive", and equated this description with the "enduring principles of
Classicism" 6
.

It is

a tribute to the prestige of the Expressionist-Action cluster of ideas that


artist

it

was assumed any

who

did not belong there must, of necessity, be a

classicist.

Langsner
its

wrote in 1959 but, as late as 1964, E. C. Goossen could refer, when discussing symmetry, to

"underlying classical conventions"

(86). \^ hereas

Mondrian and Malewitch.

in the formative

period of their ideas, believed in absolute formal standards, of the kind a definition of Classicism
requires.

American

artists

had more

alternatives.

The 1903-13

generation, by stressing the

existential presence of the artist in his

work, had sealed

off the strategies

of impersonality and

timelessness by which earlier artists had defined and defended their work.

Now. because

of the

intervening generation of exploratory


as

artists,

the systematic and the patient could be regarded


cathartic.

no

less idiosyncratic

and human than the gestural and

Only defenders of the idea

of classicism in

modern life resisted Alexander Liberman


in

this idea of the arbitrariness of the systemic.

produced paintings
immaculate
was taken up
finish

which the
associated

with international geometric art


to a physical scale to the

and fullness comparable


of Americans.

work of the 1903-13 generation

The completeness
activation of

of symmetry, in his paintings of


1950. the

random

a field without gestural traces in

1953. are remarkably early.

symmetrical

and

immaculate

painting of his was seen at the

Guggenheim Museum
where
its total

in 1951.

absence of touch

was remarked

on

by,

among
Alexander Liberman. Diptych. One
ay. L950.

11

4i x 80".

Alexander Liberman. 639. 1959. 49i x 98s

others, Johns

and Rauschenberg. Several of Liberman's paintings of

this period

were designed
a real link with

by him and executed by workmen, an anticipation of much


witch's

later practice.

Here

is

Malewitch, incidentally, though not one likely to have occured to Liberman at the time; in Male-

book The Non-Objective World,

his

Suprematist compositions are rendered by pencil

drawings, not by reproductions of paintings.

The conceptual
is

act of the artist, that

is

to say,

not his physical engagement with a medium,


as a traditional geometric artist,

the central issue.

Ad

Reinhardt, after working

began
50's,

his symmetrical, one-color paintings in 1953,

which

darkened progressively through the


squares. His

culminating in 1960 in the series of identical black


in catalogues or

numerous statements, dramatic but flamboyant,

even in Action

Painting-oriented Art News, were well known.

"No

accidents or automatism"; "Everything,


;

where

to

begin and where to end, should be worked out in the mind beforehand"
is

"No symbols,

images, or signs" 7 are characteristic, and prophetic (the date


It is

1957).
styles,

not necessary to believe in the historical succession of

one irrevocably

displacing

its

predecessor, to see that a shift of sensibility had occurred. In the most extreme
it

view, this shift destroyed gestural painting; in a less radical view,

at least

expanded

artists'

possible choices in mid-century


hibition at

New

York, restoring multiplicity. Newman's celebrated ex-

Bennington College in 1958 was repeated in

New York

the following year,

and the

echoes of his work were immense. In 1960 Noland's circles which had been somewhat gestural
in handling,

became more

tight and, as a result, the

dyed color became disembodied, without

hints of modelling or textural variation. Stella's series of copper paintings in 1961 were far

more

elaborately shaped than the notched paintings of the preceeding year;


like

now

the stretchers were

huge

initial letters.

In 1962 Poons painted his

first

paintings in which fields of color were

inflected

by small

discs of color;

Noland painted

his first chevrons, in

which the edges of the

canvas, as well as the center, which had been stressed in the circles,

became

structurally

important; and Downing, influenced he has said by Noland. painted his grids of two-color dots.
In 1963 Stella produced his series of elaborately cut-out purple paintings and Neil
\S

illiams

made

his
is

series

of saw-tooth edged shaped-canvases. Other examples could be cited, but


to

enough

recorded

show the momentum and

diversity of the

new

sensibility.

A series
first

of

museum

exhibitions reveals an increasing self-awareness

among

the artists

which made possible group appearances and public recognition of the changed
of these exhibitions

The Museum, Summer 1963) was Toward a New Abstraction (The Jewish
sensibility.

in

which Ben Heller proposed,

as a central characteristic of the artists, "a conceptual

approach

to painting" (14). In the following year there

was Post Painterly Abstraction (The Los Angeles


artists

County Museum of Art, Spring)


in the

in

which Clement Greenberg proposed that the

included

show revealed a "move towards

a physical openness of design, or towards linear clarity,

or towards both" (23a). Heller


earlier writing,

and Creenberg, the former no doubt affected by Greenberg's


fall

were anti-expressionist. In the


at the

of 1964

a significant

though

time

little

noticed exhibition of 8

The Hudson River Museum put on Young Artists* among them

Robert Barry and Robert Huot. E. C. Goossen described the group characteristics as follows:

16

"none of them employs

illusion, realism, or
artists'

anything that could possibly be described as


(28).

symbolism" and stressed the


Jewish

"concern with conceptual order"

Noland occupied

half the U.S. Pavillion at the Venice Biennale in 1964

and had

a near retrospective at

The

Museum

in the following year. In the

summer

of 1965 the

Washington Gallery of

Modern Art presented The Washington Color Painters, which included Noland. Downing and
Mehring. Finally, in the spring, 1966 The Jewish

Museum

put on a sculpture exhibition.

Primary Structures 9
in the early 60's
it

This
left

list

of

museum

exhibitions shows that critical and public interest

had

Abstract Expressionism, and the main area of abstract art on which


identified with

now concentrated can be

Clement Greenberg's

esthetics.

Greenberg's Post Painterly Abstraction was notable as a consolidation of the nullexpressionist tendencies so
"clarity

open

in this critic's later work.

He sought an

historical logic for

and openness" and

in painting

by taking the

cyclic theory7 of

W olfflin,

according to which

painterly

linear styles alternate in cycles. Translated into present requirements, Abstract

Expressionism figures as painterly,

now degenerated into mannerism, and more


These
criteria are so

recent develop-

ments are equated with the

linear.

permissive as to absorb Frankenthaler's


color,
all

and

Olitski's free-form improvisation

and atmospheric
It
is

on the one hand, and Feeley's and


similarly

Stella's uninflected

systemic painting as well.

Post Painterly Abstraction, a term

certainly adapted

from Roger Fry's Post-Impressionism, which

lumped together
by

painters as antithetical as

Van Gogh, Gauguin,

Seurat.

and Cezanne. The core of Post Painterly

Abstraction

is

a technical procedure, the staining of canvas to obtain color uninterrupted

pressures of the hand or the operational limits of brush work. Poured paint exists purely as
color, "freed" of

drawing and modelling; hence the term Color Painting for stain painting g
it

It is characteristic of criticism preoccupied with formal matters that

should give a movement

name

derived from a technical constituent.

The question arises

are other, less narrow, descripIt is

tions of post-expressionist art possible than that

proposed by Greenberg?

important

to

go

into this because his influence is extensive, unlike that of

Harold Rosenberg (associated with

Action Painting), but there

is

a ceiling to Greenberg's esthetic

which must be faced.

tion

The basic text in Greenberg-influenced criticism is an article, written after the publica10 of Art and Culture, but on which the essays in his book rest, called "Modernist Painting"
.

Here he argues
which
is

for self-criticism within each art.

"through the procedures themselves of that

being criticized". Thus "flatness, two-dimensionality, was the only condition shared
art,

with no other

and so modernist painting oriented

itself to flatness".

This idea has been

elaborated by Michael Fried as a concentration on "problems intrinsic to painting itself" (40).

This idea of

art's

autonomy descends from 19th-century

estheticism.

"As the laws of

their Art

were revealed

to

them

(artists),

they saw, in the development of their work, that real beauty

which, to them, was as

much

a matter of certainty

and triumph

as

is to
.

the astronomer the

verification of the result, foreseen with the light given to

clearly the idea of

medium

purity as operational
first

him alone" 11 Here Whistler states self-criticism, on which American formalist art
first,

criticism

still rests.

Whistler typifies the

of three phases of art for art's sake theory:

the precious and, at the time, highly original estheticism of

W alter

Pater,

W lustier, and W ilde;


and
color, with

second, a classicizing of this view in the early 20th century, especially by Roger Fry, stressing

form and

plasticity with a

new

sobriety; and, third, Greenberg's zeal for flatness


art.
is

a corresponding neglect of

non-physiognomic elements in

hat

is

missing from the formalist approach to painting

a serious desire to study


all

meanings beyond the purely visual configuration. Consider the following opinions,
formalist-hased. which acknowledge or suppose the existence of meanings feelings.
writes that

of them
Heller

Ben

Noland "has created not only an

optical but an expressive art" (14)

ami Michael

Fried calls Noland's paintings "powerful emotional statements" (40). However, neither writer
indicated what was expressed nor what emotions might be stated. Alan

Solomon has written of

17

Noland's

circles,

which

earlier

he had called "targets" (14)


than one hopes
states,

"some

are buoyant

and cheerful

others are sombre, brooding, tense, introspective" (228), but this "sometimes-I'm happy,

sometimes-I'm blue" interpretation

is less

for. It

amounts

to a

reading of color

and concentric density


According

as

symbols of emotional

which takes us back

to the early 20th-

century belief in emotional transmission by color-coding.


to

Greenberg the Hard-Edge

artists in his

Post Painterly Abstraction

exhibition "are included because they have

won

their 'hardness'

from the softness of Painterly

Abstraction" (23a).

It is

certainly true that "a


it",

good part of the reaction against Abstract Expres"they have not inherited
it

sionism is... a continuation of

but

to say of the artists,

(the
is

hard edge) from Mondrian, the Bauhaus, Suprematism. or anything that came before",

exaggerating. Since Greenberg believes in evolutionary ideas, and his proposal that Hard-Edge
artists

come out

of gestural ones shows that he does,

it is

unreasonable to sever the later


clearly exists. If

artists

from the renewed contact with geometric abstract


to the

art

which

we omit Greenart.

berg's improvisatory painters, such as Francis, Frankenthaler, Louis, and Olitski, and attend

more systemic
in

artists,

there are definite connections to earlier geometric


art, for

Kelly,

Smith, and Poons had roots in earlier geometric

example, and

it is

hard

to isolate

modular painting

New York from

international abstract art.


is

What seems

relevant

now

is

to

define systems in art, free of classicism, which

to say free of the absolutes

which were

previously associated with ideas of order. Thus, the status of order as

human
it

proposals rather

than as the echo of fundamental principles,

is

part of the legacy of the 1903-1915 generation.

Their emphasis on the

artist as a

human

being at work, however

much

led, in

one direction

to autobiographical gestures, lessened the prestige of art as a mirror of the absolute. Malewitch,

Kandinsky, and Mondrian, in different ways, universalized their


there
is little

art

by theory, but
is

in

New York

reliance
so

on Platonic or Pythagorian mysteries.


the splash gets routinized.

system

as

human

as a splash

of paint,

more

when

Definitions of art as an object, in relation to geometric art, have too often consolidated
it

within the

web
art.

of formal relations.

The

internal structure, purified of all reference,


is

became

the essence of

The

object quality of art

stressed in shaped canvas paintings, but without a


is

corresponding appeal to idealism.

When

the traditional rectangle

bitten into or thrust out-

wards, the spectator obviously has an increased consciousness of the ambience.

The

wall

may

appear

at the center of the painting or intersect the painted surface.


it

Despite the environmental

space of the shaped canvas, however,


thick stretchers (Stella, Williams).

has also a great internal solidity, usually emphasized by


of the painting
is

The bulk

physical and awkward, not a pure

essence of
internal

art.

On

the contrary, the contoured edges are highly ambiguous: the balance of
in suspense so that there are connections with painting (color),

and outside space is kept

sculpture (real volume and shaping), and craft (the basic carpentry). Shaped canvases tend to

mix these

possibilities.

Another non-formal approach

is

indicated by Robert Smithson's

reaction to Stella's "impure-purist surface", especially the purple, green,


"like Mallarme's

and

silver series:

Herodiade, these surfaces disclose a 'cold


is

scintillation'

they seem to 'love

the horror of being virgin' " (60). Mallarme


literary terms,

being quoted, not to take possession of the work in


It is

but to indicate experiences beyond the eyeball.

reminder that shaped

blocks of one color have the power of touching emotion and


are being seen.
Stella's recent paintings (started in the fall of

memory

at the

same time

that they

1965 from drawings made in 1962) are

asymmetrical and multi-colored, compared to the symmetrical and/or one-color paintings done
since 1958.

The change

is

not a

move

to a

world

full of possibilities

from one

that

was con-

stricted. Simplicity is as sustaining in art as elaboration. It is


is

more probable
work
is

that the

new work
at a

prompted

aggressively, as a renewal of the problematic, for the style change

came

time

when an

esthetic for minimal, cool, or

ABC

art (to

which

his earlier

central),

was out in

18

the open.

The new

paintings are a kind of two-level image, with the contoured stretcher pro-

viding one kind of definition and the painted forms, cued by the stretcher but not

bound

to

it,

making another. Color


effect of

is

bounded by painted bands

or by the edge of the canvas, which has the

scrambling the spatial levels of the painting. This act of superposition disregards the
obedient to the shape of the perimeter. Each

idea of deductive structure which Michael Fried proposed as the present historical necessity of

"modernist" painting in which the painted image


of Stella's

is

new shaped canvases

exists in four permutations, with alternate colors

though with

fixed boundaries.

Kenneth Noland painted


use

a series of square canvases in 1964, a shape that


its

is

more

in

now than

at

any other time in the 20th century. Presumably


its

non-directional character,

with neither east-west nor north-south axes, accounts for


laid in bars of color parallel to the sides of his squares,

currency. However, Noland,

who
long

was oppressed by the sense of the edge.


this led

For

this reason

he turned the squares 45, making them diamonds;

him

to the

diamond format, of which one is in the present exhibition. The points of the diamond are the farthest points from the center, a format which frees Noland from his sense of confinement by the edge. The edge is reduced to a functional oblique, linking the most distant parts of the
painting. Thus, the

diamond format
and

is

not so

much

shaped canvas, with consequent connec-

tions to the pictorial

to the object-like,

but the discovery of a format highly suited to the

"disembodied" color

effects of staining.

The

essentializing

moves made by Newman

to

reduce the formal complexity of the

elements in painting to large areas of a single color, have an extraordinary importance.


paintings are a saddle-point between art predicated

The

on expression and

art as

an object. Newis

man's recently completed Stations of the Cross represent both


of Christ, but each Station
is

levels: the

theme

the Passion

apparently non-iconographical, a
all art,

strict

minimal statement. Levels

of reference and display, present in


antagonistically.
signification.

are presented not in easy partnership but almost


it

When we

view art as an object we view

in opposition to the process of


art,

Meaning follows from the presence of the work of

not from

its

capacity to

signify absent events or values (a landscape, the Passion, or whatever). This does not

mean we

are faced with an art of nothingness or

boredom

as has

been said with boring frequency.

On

the

contrary,

it

suggests that the experience of meaning has to be sought in other ways.

First is the fact that paintings,

such as those in

this exhibition are not, as has

been

often claimed, impersonal.


is

The personal

is

not expunged by using a neat technique; anonymity


artist's

not a consequence of highly finishing a painting. The

conceptual order

is

just as

personal as autographic tracks. Marcel


consider this
less of
its

Duchamp reduced
is

the creative act to choice and

we may
the fact

irreducible personal requirement. Choice sets the limits of the system, regardor

how much

how

little

manual evidence

carried

by the painting. Second


"I

is

that formal complexity is not

an index of richness of content.

am

using the same basic


its

composition over and over again", Howard Mehring has said, "I never seem to exhaust
possibilities" (218).

third related point

is

that

most of the

artists in this exhibition

work

in

runs, groups, or periods.

diverse than, say,

The work that constitutes such runs the work of other artists' periods.

or periods

is

often less outwardly

A possible term for the repeated


grids, Feeley's quatrefoils,

use of a configuration

is

One Image

art (noting that

legible repetition requires a fairly simple form).

Examples are Noland's chevrons, Downing's

and Reinhardt's
the

crosses.

The

artist

painting further along, deeper into the process, than an expressionist,


lost in

who uses a given form begins each who is, in theory at least,
is to

each beginning;

all

One Image

artist

has to have done

have painted his

earlier
is

work.

One Image

art abolishes the lingering

notion of History Painting that invention

the

19

test of the artist.

Here form becomes meaningful, not because of ingenuity or


is

surprise, but

because of repetition and extension. The recurrent image


tion, destruction

subject to continuous transforma-

and reconstruction

it

requires to be read in time as well as in space. In style

analysis

we

look for unity within variety; in

One Image

art

we look

for variety within con-

spicuous unity.
self,

The run

of the image constitutes a system, with limits set

up by the
is

artist

him-

which we learn empirically by seeing enough of the work. Thus the system

the

means by

which we approach the work of art.


its

When a work

of art

is

defined as an object

we

clearly stress

materiality

and

factualness, but its repetition,

on

this basis, returns

meaning

to the syntax.

Possibly, therefore, the evasiveness about

meaning

in

Noland already mentioned, may have

to

do with the expectation that a meaning


over a run or a
set.

is

complete in each single painting rather than located

it is

The application applied more widely

of the term systemic to

One Image

painting

is

obvious, but, in fact,


field of color, or

here. It refers to paintings

which consist of a single

to

groups of such paintings. Paintings based on modules are included, with the grid either

contained in a rectangle or expanding to take in parts of the surrounding space (Gourfain and
Insley respectively). It refers to painters

with either a wholistic area or a reduced


tively).

who work number


its

in a

much

freer

manner, but who end up

of colors (Held and

Youngerman

respec-

The

field

and the module (with

serial potential as

an extendable grid) have in

common
say,

a level of organization that precludes breaking the system. This organization does not
art,

function as the invisible servicing of the work of

but

is

the visible skin.

It is not, that is to

an underlying composition, but a factual display. In


is

all

these works, the end-state of the

painting

known prior
system
is

to

completion (unlike the theory of Abstract Expressionism). This does


it

not exclude empirical modifications of a work in progress, but


system.

does focus them within a


regularities.

an organized whole, the parts of which demonstrate some

A system is not antithetical to the values suggested by such art world word-clusters as humanist,
organic,
trial

and process.

On

the contrary, while the artist

is

engaged with

it,

a system
off

is

a process

and

error, instead of

being incorporated into the painting, occur

the canvas.
is

The

predictive
operative,

power of the
from ideas and
assistants.

artist,

minimized by the prestige of gestural painting,

strongly

early sketches, to the ordering of exactly scaled

and shaped

stretchers

and help by

The spread of Pop Art


as

in the 60's coincides with the

development of systemic abstract

painting and there are parallels. Frank Stella's paintings, with their bilateral symmetry, have

much
is

in

common
to
is

with Johns' targets as with Reinhardt and,

if this is so, his early

work can

be compared
"what

Yves Klein's monochromes, which were intentionally problematic. The question


raised

art?"

more than the question,


which
logic

"is this a

good example of art?" This skeptical


is

undercurrent of
of

Stella's art, in

and doubt cohabit,

analogous to those aspects

Pop Art which

are concerned with problems of signification. Lichtenstein's pointillism and


is

more like systemic art in its lack of formal diversity than it is like A lack of interest in gestural handling marks both this area of Pop Art and systemic abstract art. In addition, there are artists who have made a move to introduce pop references into the bare halls of abstract art theory. One way to do this is by using
Warhol's repetitive imagery,
other styles of 20th century
art.

color in such a

way

that

it

retains a residue of environmental echoes

commercial and industrial

paint and finishes can be used in this way. For example, Al Brunelle has written of this painting
in the present exhibition:

"Jayne has a blue edge on the

left,

superimposed upon the under-

lying scheme.

On

this side

she does not silhouette as brightly as on the right, nor do the edges

on

left 'track' as

they do so nicely within the painting. The blue line does not remedy any of
.

this. It

has a function similar to eyeliner" 12

The

reference to eyeliner, combined with the

20

"cobra skin"
culture that
is

finish, the crystals,

and the pink

plastic surfaces, raises

an association of pop

hard

to shake.
is

Irving Sandler's term for systemic painting, both abstract and pop,
as characterized

"Cool- Art" (36),

by calculation, impersonality, and boredom. "An


futility
;

art as negative as Stella's


art as

cannot but convey utter


nistic". \S hat

and boredom" he considers conceptual


is

merely "mechait

Sandler has done


at least a

to take the Abstract Classicist label


art,

and then attack

like a

Romantic, or

supporter of Abstract Expressionist

should.

He

is

against "one-shot
is

art" because of his requirement of

good

artists:

"they have to grope". This quotation

from

a catalogue of Concrete Expressionism, his

term for a group of painters including Al Held.

He

argues that theirs

is

struggle painting, like expressionism, but that their forms are "disassoci-

ated", his term for non-relational.


to

Thus Sandler

locates an energy

and power

in their

work

said

be missing from hollow and easy "Cool-Art "'. The difference between so-called Concrete
is

Expressionist and Abstract Expressionist paintings, however,

significant; they are flatter

and

smoother. Al Held's pictures are thick and encrusted with reworkings, but he ends up with a
relatively clear

and hard

surface.

The

shift of sensibility,

which

this exhibition records, is

evident in his work. Held

may

regard his paintings as big forms, but


is

when

the background

is

only a notch at the picture's margin, he

virtually dealing with fields.

The pressing problem of art

criticism

now

is

to re-establish abstract art's connections

now general sense of art's autonomy. One way is by the repetition of images, which without preassigned meanings become the record and monument of the artist. Another way is by the retention of known iconography, in however
with other experience without, of course, abandoning the
abbreviated or elliptical form. Priscilla Colt, referring to
earlier paintings it

Ad

Reinhardt's basic cross noted: "In


crucifix; in the black squares the
it

assumed the elongated proportions of the


is

pointedness of the reference

diminished, since the arms are equal, but

remains". Miss Colt

also notes the expressive connotations of Reinhardt's

"pushing of the

visible

toward the brink

of the invisible" 13 Noland's circles, whatever he


.

may have

intended, never effaced our knowl-

edge, built-in and natural by now, of circular systems of various types. Circles have an iconog-

raphy; images become motives with histories. The presence of covert or spontaneous iconographic images
ascribed to
it.

is

basic to abstract art, rather than the purity


formalist critics splits the

and

pictorial

autonomy

so often

The approach of
from
all its

work of

art into separate elements,


at the

isolating the syntax

echoes and consequences. The exercise of formal analysis,


art,
.

expense of other properties of

might be called formalistic positivism 14 Formal analysis

needs the iconographical and experiential aspects, too, which can no longer be dismissed
as "literary" except

on the basis of an archaic estheticism.

Lawrence Alloway

21

\OTE

1.

Meyer Shapiro. "The \ounger American Painters of Today", The


1956, pp.

Listener,

London, no. 1404, January 26,

146^7.
the verbal echo and opposite of what William Rubin called "'inductive' or indirect

2.
3.

Clement Greenberg. "American-type Painting", Art and Culture, Boston, Beacon Press 1961, pp. 208-29.
Deductive structure
painting"
(3),
is

but the phrase (which meant painting without a brush) never caught on.

4.

George Rickey. "The


York,
vol.

XXIII, no.
difference

4,

New Tendency (Nouvelle Tendence Summer 1964, p. 272.

Recherche Continuelle)", Art Journal,

New

5.

The formal

between wholistic and hierarchic form

is

often described as "relational"

and "non-

relational". Relational refers to paintings like that of the earlier geometric artists

which are subdivided and

balanced with a hierarchy of forms, large-medium-small. Non-relational, on the contrary, refers to un-

modulated monochromes, completely symmetrical layouts, or unaccented


ships (the

grids. In fact, of course, relation-

mode

in

which one thing stands

to

another or two or more things to one another) persist, even

when

the relations are those of continuity and repetition rather than of contrast and interplay.
:

(For more information on Hard-Edge see John Coplans


Painting") Artforum, San Francisco, vol.
6.
7.
II,

"John McLaughlin, Hard Edge, and American

no. 7, January 1964, pp. 28-31.

Ad

The Los Angeles County Museum, July 1959, Four Abstract Classicists. Text by Jules Langsner. Reinhardt. "Twelve Rules for a New Academy", Art News, New York, vol. 56, no. 3, May 1957,
the present exhibition was proposed originally in June 1964

pp. 37-38, 56.


8.

When
show

it

was intended
it.

to

show painting and


for planning to

sculpture, but
flat

Primary Structures covered the ground too closely

to repeat

The reasons
the

and

3D work

are (1) analogies between

work

in both

media and

(2)

number

of artists

who

combine the technology of one with the formal

characteristics of the other.

The shaped canvases


is to say,

in this

exhibition are those with lateral variations rather than with volumetric projections; that
to painting.
9.

closer

Optical has, at present, two meanings in art criticism. In Greenberg's esthetics color

is

optical

if it

creates a

purely visual and non-tactile space.

It is

one of the properties of "Color" Painting, the term Greenberg


it

applied to Louis and Noland in 1960 (which has been widely used, including adaptations of

such as

W illiam
using
in
10. 11.
it

Seitz's

"Color Image").

It is

curious, since color

is

mandatory for
its

all

painting, that one

way of

should be canonized. The other meaning of optical, and

best

known

usage,

is

as the optical

Op

Art,

meaning

art that shifts

during the spectator's act of perception.


4,

Clement Greenberg. "Modernist Painting", Arts Yearbook


Unpublished statement by the
Priscilla Colt.

New

York, 1961, pp. 101-108.

James A. McNeill Whistler. Ten O'Clock, Portland, Maine, Thomas Bird Mosher, 1925.
artist,

12.
13.

1966.
8,

"Notes on

Ad

Reinhardt", Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, no.

October 20, 1964,

pp. 32-34.
14.

Adapted from Leo


imagery
at the

Spitzer's "imagistic positivism"

by which he deplored

literary critics'

overemphasis on

expense of a

poem

as a whole.

23

STATEMENTS

JO BAER
These paintings form part of a
series of twelve.

There are

use color because of

its relativity

to the

human

eye and

four colors in the .series: blue, green, purple, yellow.

believe in color

and not color dogma.

There are

also four sizes

and shapes large squares, small


:

Formally they contain the tensions and lucid changes that


exist

squares, vertical rectangles, horizontal rectangles.


particular size

Each

between the diagonal and the horizontal and

vertical.

and shape needs particular properties of

We

are already aware of the passivity of the horizontal,

color: intense, or pale, or grayed, or bright.


ties for

The possibili.

the ascension

and descension of the

vertical,

and the

combination or grouping of the paintings are the

dynamics of the diagonal.


I

permutations of twelve (831,753,600) or whatever set


factors are chosen.

am

using these things as tools to evoke like states in the

The paintings here

are the three large

receiver.

squares and they use the intense color bands. All the
paintings are color in a luminous mode, but this group
also renders the

The

effectiveness of the painting can be facilitated

by the

ability

of the observer to be free

of references and

primary colors of light:

a red (magenta),

attitudes.

a green, a blue.

They

are each constructed equivalent to

Like music, this work can be best received in silence.


Blue, red, black, white and yellow have natures of their

one another as a color presence.

Summer, 1966

own which vary according


server

to the receptivity of

each ob-

and must be absorbed according

to the individual

rhythm and time-grasp of each person concerned.


These can be a way of understanding yourself in a primal
position.

DEA\
I

FLElIIXft
primal and

The
If an

painting must transcend

its

materiality both as a

canvas and in the viewer's eye.

am

working in the area of the

totally

open viewer allows the reading


to receive

to

be in his own time

available.

he can begin

an experience which separates

Geometry, optics, science and psychology are here used


only as tools and, therefore, have only a relative bearing

from the work he


reversals of space

sees

and he can

participate in the

and the apparent contradictions begravita-

on the significance of the work.

tween
is its effect

stillness

and sudden motion, weight and

The dominant subject of the painting


individual observer.
paintings
I

on each

tionlessness.

In the case

of these immediate

deeply experienced participation with the work can

have limited the relationships to only the

yeild a sense of transcension


light

and can create an intense


January 1965

most primary and intense.


In an effort to clarify the subject
lines.
I

which contains no

color.

have used only straight

Most of these paintings can objectively be defined by


saying that they are composed of one or two points within
the canvas

and the connection of these points

to the

The

subject of art

is

ultimately spiritual. That vibrant

outer edges.

aspect of the nature of existence which demands to be


created though
it is it

This approach to the work yields nothing whatsoever and we must venture further to reach significant understanding.

not called

for. Still this

new work

is

utilitarian in that

serves to extend the consciousness of

space and time, a necessity for the psychic survival of


is

The

situation

one of polar contrasts and their inevitable

every

new

society.

Now, when
it

basic forms and primary


to

interchange of space; the aggression or recession of a


color, the ability of a single color to

colors have the strength

and velocity

communicate

change in terms of

new dimension,

is

the spirit of our times an artist

dark and

light, the

redness and blueness

when

related to

expresses rather than the fact.

another color.

1966

24

WILL I\SLL1
NOTEBOOK EXCERPTS
Physical

\l\

\UI

KCKATAMA
my work

Ideas, thoughts, philosophy, reasons, meanings, even the

Engineering

practical

function

bridge
art

or

humanity of the
There
is

artist,

do not enter into That


is all.

at all.

building
Visual Engineering

only the art

itself.

only visual function


flat

1964

Grid

select

vary
law-

freedom within

Form

perceived in most basic sense as

shape

Silhouette

Object motivated by surrounding space

Diagram of

visual forces

Form movement parallel to the eye plane Color movement perpendicular to the eye plane
Resultant conflict

visual experience
work of
art

DAVID

III

transcends physical limitations of the material


Physical structure a support for the visual experience
the reality of the
Flat visual object

EXCERPTS FROM STATEMENT


3
1

am tempted

to distinguish three stages in the recent

The painting
appear

is

an object.

Any

attempt to consider

history of painting or if
likely, three attitudes

you

prefer,

which
framed

fear

is

nn

the painting as a field or space in which other objects


to exist is

toward decoration. Image. Object.


I

avoiding the issue of historical necesis

Environment. By image

refer to the

illustrations

sity today.

The painting

the object itself and exists

which used

to

be so prevalent and whose dimensions


result of convienience than

in the space of the viewer.

Problem

devise structural form system


lies in

seemed more the

any

art.

The

second stage corresponds to those paintings, occasionally


resembling a familiar object, often abstract, often very
large,

Future of art

mass production

Objects capable of economic repetition

and usually unframed, whose content,


is

at least in

stock material the necessary Grid space


Simple units
select

the most famous examples,


spirit

precisely equivalent in

and

in fact to its dimensions.

One hopes no more


environmental stage

1964

will
I

be said of cubism.
like to say of the third, the

would

that these paintings have

no beginning and no end, but

Painting

the diagramed object


historical

despite our wishful thinking paintings don't naturally

Abandon
illusion

rectilinear

context

of

contained

exist in time.

Perhaps they have no middle. They exhibit

a penchant for presenting materials factually and for

Extend into actual surrounding space


to

employing
nothing but

numerical
itself.

set

as

something signifying
these paintings
is

motivate and be motivated


flat

The content of

Fragment of

visual material

certain quantity, an accumulation,

and they are some-

Problem

clarified

and reduced
and
important

times quite witless. Their distinction, and their vulnerability, is that

Possibilities

diminish
less

they don't exist except on a wall, at best on

Particular color seems less

a particular wall, the wall for

which they were designed,

Color a material coating


visual extension to base material object

often no other wall than the painter's own.

Like most labor-saving devices, the reduction of a painter's aesthetic

Reduce painting
Expose
to

to flat silhouette
test

choices to what sets and

how

fine a series is

most stringent

spiritualizing.

Unfortunately an
is

effect of

employing labor-

proportion of elements
relation of closed

saving devices

that people get out of the habit of


it

and open spaces

working, in our case of looking, and

shows.

On

the

Only basic relationships withstand observation


Emotional and seductive icing of historical cake removed
Painting becomes wall

other hand, the perfection of technique by which

we we

reduce labor
izing end.

is

not generally intended for any spiritualdon't respect a perfected technique;

wall becomes environment


beyond material thing
1966

We

Systematic relationship of measured elements


calculated to project visual force

say we're bored. Charles Baudouin says of technique that

when

it is

any use

it

advances
it

to close the circle of


at

man's

Grid space

select the necessary

achievement where

began,

mysticism.

25

Here are some questions for

critics to

ask themselves.

and preventing the surface


illusionary.

itself

from becoming too

What

is

the combination of need and desire in the dis-

tinction of art? Is there

any sense in decorating a wall


is

if

Working with both symmetric and assymmetric formed


pieces.

the wall

is

not then more interesting to see? If it

tedious
wall,

to describe the details of the construction of a


is

blank

New works

have incorporated the curve. The curve


is

the wall therefore boring to see?

Can there be progress


if

forming the lower edge,

a segment of a circle, rather

except toward an ideal, an end-point, and,


progress,
to
is

there
If a

is

no
is

than an organic or eliptical curve.

there value in a thing being

new?

work

June 1966

be judged by arrangement with the intentions of

its

author, does the critic require the authority to

make

assurances that a work of art


or a fact, exist out of time

is

intended? Can an object,

and

still

be up-to-date?

1966

i-:imi\

it I

i>\

scale

my

painting to the

maximum
mean.

visual limit. If the


feet
I

painting extended outward

more than twenty

would no longer

see that

ROBERT MANGOLD
Right and
left
is

symmetry are more opposite than


it

alike.

WORK COMMENTS
1965-66

Repetition

different because
is

occurs "elsewhere".

The
architectural,
flat,

subtle paradox

maddening, curious and amusing.


I

Working on
Began
to

cut-out forms of masonite-

By
at

getting rid of extraneous, generalized notions

arrive

faced plywood.

the leanest possible shape

focus that allows a

develop certain potentialities of the spray

"large" picture to be seen at once.


Simplification
is

technique; atmosphere like quality of sprayed surface,

not synonymous with boredom but on


visual acuity.

blending possibilities of color and tone.


Gradations of tone occur at lower edge of piece, and are

the contrary

demands

Summer 1966

kept subtle to allow a primary


expands, dissolves.
pictorial or

total

form reading, surface


that

Did not use ideas

were too

where the gradation was too strong.

Pieces follow in series of similar formal structures

and
is

similar color ranges. Oil paint thinned with turpentine the

LARR1 KOX
SCISSORS JACK SERIES
Once the proportions and outside
scale of the paintings
is

medium

used, because of
finish.

more

flexible color

mixing

and the matte open

Primarily concerned with evasive color, difficult to pin

down

or define.
is

are determined, the interior structure


either (going

established.

Color sequence
neutral

from top

to bottom),

Inverted V's or triangles repeat four times to become the


structure

moving

into color, color

moving
same

into neutral, or
color.

upon which the

final

dimensions depend. Each


16 units of space

from lighter
is

to darker value of the

Where

it

V contains four units of space, therefore


within the total painting.

a neutral to color or color to neutral sequence, the


is

value of the two tones

similar.

Various systems of color are used to correspond to the

Have used
as a

the 4 foot width of sheets of building material


total size is

compartments of space. General arrangements of color


are used. (Four different colors in alternating intervals,

working element, a piece whose

96 x 96
vertical

inches, (2-4 foot x 8 foot sheets),

would have a

continuous color moving across the horizontal in fluctuating zones, sixteen color combinations separating each

division occuring in the middle, the division

becoming

black line at this point. Chose not to allow the panel

unit vertically and horizontally.)

break to occur, except

at the

measured center, keeping

it

from becoming a proportional-compositional


point to

division.

Visually the central black line gives the eye a neutral

move through

the surface, bringing the periphery

The SCISSOR'S JACK SERIES was executed in 1965. The particular choice of color was arbitrary in that colors were chosen at random in the execution of the paintings. This specific structure became dominant as a foundation
for

line inside,

preventing a too simple, total contour reading,

my work

at the time.

June

16,

1966

Measurements

in inches:

Height precedes width; depth, where given,

is

the last figure.

27

Paul Feeley. Asellus. 1964. Acrylic on canvas, four canvases each 47* x 471". Lent by Betty Parsons Gallery,

New

York.

28

Agnes Martin. The

City. 1966. Acrylic

on canvas, 71 i x

72".

Lent by Robert Elkon Gallery.

New

York.

29

Will Insley. Wall at

Dawn,

Heights, 1963. Acrylic on masonite, 1031 x 103 i". Collection Steve Schapiro, Brooklyn

New

York.

fti

o
a-

"So

fts

34

Ralph Humphrey. Three Lines,

I.

1966. Acrylic on canvas, 69J x 70". Lent by Bykert Gallery,

New

York.

35

Tadaaki Kuwayama. Untitled. 1965. Acrylic on canvas with chrome stripping, two canvases each 961 x 42". Lent by the

artist.

Howard Mehring. In

the

Key of Blue

II.

1965. Acrylic on canvas, 85i x 70". Lent by A. M. Sachs Gallery,

New

\ot\s..

<

39

<

41

cd

H-l

<^>

Pi

44

Al Brunelle. Juync. 1965. Metalized cellulose acetate butyrate on wood with acrylic and
Lent bv the
artist.

crystals, six panels

each 21 x 21 x 3"

45

<

..:..

:.,.-.

Frank

Stella. TTolfeboro, 4.

1966.

Epoxy and

fluorescent alkalide on canvas, 160+ x 100 x 4". Lent by Leo Castelli Gallery,

New

Yorl

Larry Poons.

Mary Queen of Scots.

Acrylic on canvas, 135 x 90". Collection Mr. and Mrs. Robert Scull,

New

York.

Robert Ryman. Allied. 1966. Oil on canvas, 751 x 753". Lent by the

artist.

51

Al Held. The Big End. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 1071 x 108i". Lent by Andre Emmerich Gallery,

New York

'-!

;'

">**

'''--:::.:.

J'"
I

M
68". Lent

Leon Smith. Correspondence Orange-Blue. 1965. Oil on canvas, 90 x

by Galerie Chalette,

New

York.

53

Jack Youngerman. Blue White Red. 1965. Polymer emulsion on canvas, 107 i x 87 i". Lent by Betty Parsons Gallery,

New

York.

54

75+". Lent by Pace Gallery, Nichola s Krushenick. Tel Aviv Hippy. 1966. Acrylic on canvas, 90 x

New

York.

56

II

II 1,1

III. It

I'll

Bibliographies: references are to one-man exhibitions, unless otherwise stated. Numbered exhibition entries mean that a catalogue was published: un-numbered entries mean that only an announcement was printed.

Existing bibliographies of artists have not been duplicated. Key to biographies date of birth, present residence and
:

year of arrival, and

New York

gallery.

4.1

IE

VI

goossen, e. c. "The Big Canvas", Art International, Zurich, vol. II, no. 8, 1958, pp. 45-47. 2. tillim, Sidney. "What Happened to Geometry: An Inquiry into Geometrical Painting in America", Arts, New York, vol. 33, no. 9, June 1959, pp. 38-44.
1.

16.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Rubin, william. "Younger American Painters'", Art International, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 1, January 1960, pp. 2431. Includes Kelly, Noland, Stella, Youngerman. David Herbert Gallery, New York, February 8-27, 1960, Modern Classicism. Text by Barbara Butler. Includes Kelly, Smith. alloway, Lawrence. "On the Edge", Architectural Design, London, vol. XXX, no. 4, April 1960, pp. 164-165. butler, Barbara. "Contemporary Classicism", Art International, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 5, 39-40.

17.

18.

The Poses Institute of Fine Arts, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, December 1, 1963-December 6, 1964, New Directions in American Painting, circulating exhibition. Text by Sam Hunter. Includes Held, Noland, Kelly, Smith, Stella, Youngerman. The Jewish Museum, New York, December 12, 1963February 5, 1964, Black and JVhite. Text by Ben Heller. Includes Kelly, Stella, Youngerman. Reviews: kozloff, max. "The Many Colorations of Black and White", Artforum, San Francisco,
vol. II, no. 8,

19.

rose, Barbara.

February 1964, pp. 22-25. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 1, February

May

25, 1960, pp.

15, 1964, pp. 40-41. 20a Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, January 9February 9, 1964, Black, White and Gray. Includes

7.

New York, October 1960October 1961, Purist Painting, circulating exhibition. Checklist, includes Kelly, Martin, Smith. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York,
American Federation of Arts,
October- December 1961, American Abstract Expresand Imagists. Text by H. H. Arnason. Includes Held, Humphrey, Kelly, Noland, Smith, Stella, Youngerman. Bibliography. Reviews: kroll, jack. "American Painting and the
sionists

Kelly, Martin, Stella.

20b Review:

8.

convertible Spiral", Art


60, no. 7,
9.

News, New York,

vol.

judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 6, March 1964, p. 38. 21. The University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor, January 15-February 9, 1964, The New Formalists: Contemporary American Painting for Purchase Consideration. Foreword by Robert Inglehart. Includes Noland, Smith. 22. tillim, Sidney. "The New Avant-Garde", Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 5, February 1964, pp. 18-21. Includes
Stella.

1961, pp. 34-37, 66-69. alloway, Lawrence. "Easel Painting at the Guggenheim", Art International, Zurich, vol. V, no. 10, Christmas 1961, pp. 27-34.
Art,

November

10.

Whitney Museum of American

New York, March 20-

1962, Geometric Abstraction in America. Text by John Gordon. Includes Held, Kelly, Martin, Noland,

May 13,
Smith,

23a The Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, April 23June 7, 1964, Post Painterly Abstraction. Text by Clement Greenberg. Includes Downing, Feeley, Held, Kelly, Krushenick, Mehring, Noland, Stella. 23b Reprinted in Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos.
5-6,
24.

Summer

1964, pp. 63-65.

Stella.

Review:

11.

Reviews: kozloff, max. "Geometric Abstraction in America", Art International, Zurich, vol. VI,
nos. 5-6,

coplans, john. "Post Painterly Abstraction: the Long-Awaited Greenberg Exhibition Fails to Make its Point", Artforum, San Francisco,
vol. II, no. 12,

Summer

1962, pp. 98-103.


25. rose,

Summer

1964, pp. 4-9.

12.

13.

14.

15.

michelson, annette. "L' Abstraction geometrique en Amerique", AA Siecle, Paris, vol. 24, no. 20, December 1962, supplement. ahlander, Leslie judd. "The Emerging Art of Washington", Art International, Zurich, vol. VI, no. 9, November 25, 1962, pp. 30-33. Includes Downing, Mehring, Noland. The Jewish Museum, New York, May 19-September 15, 1963, Toward a New Abstraction. Introduction by Ben Heller. Includes text on Al Held by Irving Sandler; on Ellsworth Kelly by Henry Geldzahler; on Kenneth Noland by Alan R. Solomon; on Frank Stella by Michael Fried. Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington D.C., June 6-July 7, 1963, Formalists. Introduction by Adelyn
D. Breeskin. Includes Kelly,
Stella,

Barbara. "The Primacy of Color", Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, no. 4, May 1964, pp. 22-26. Includes Downing, Poons, Williams. 26. "New Talent USA: Newly Nominated", Art in America, New York, vol. 52, no. 4, August 1964, pp. 81-111. Includes Krushenick, Kuwayama, Poons. 27. "56 Painters and Sculptors", Art in America, New York, vol. 52, no. 4, August 1964, pp. 22-79. Includes Held, Kelly, I oungerman. 28. The Hudson River Museum. Yonkers, New York, October 11-25, 1964, 8 Young Artists. Text by E. C. Goossen. Includes Barry, Huot.

Kuwayama, Martin, Poons,

Youngerman.

57

29.

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New \ork, December 1964, The Shaped Canvas. Text by Lawrence

Alio way. Includes Feeley, Stella, Williams. Reviews: judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 5, February 1965, p. 56. 31. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March
30.

Washington Gallery of Modern Art, Washington, D.C., June 25-September 5, 1965, The Washington Color Painters. Text by Gerald Nordland. Includes Downing, Mehring, Noland. Bibliography. 46. Review: stevens, Elisabeth. "The Washington Color Painters", Arts, New York, vol. 40, no. 1,
45.

November
47. Kunsthalle, Basel,

1965, pp. 30-33.


5,

1965, p. 46. 32. tillim, Sidney. "Optical Art: Pending or Ending?", Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 4, January 1965, pp. 16-23. 33. Sandler, irving. "The New Cool-Art", Art in America, New York, vol. 53, no. 1, February 1965, pp. 96-101.

June 26-September

1965, Signale.

The Museum of Modern Art, New York, February 23April 25, 1965, The Responsive Eye. Text by William C. Seitz. Includes Downing, Feeley, Kelly, Martin, Noland, Poons, Smith, Stella. 35. Review: rickey, george. "Scandale de Succes", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May, 1965, pp. 16-23.
34.

Text by A. Riidlinger. Includes Held, Kelly, Noland. 48. Review: "Basel: Signale; Ausstellung in der Kunsthalle", Werk, Winterthur, Switzerland, vol. 52, no. 8, August 1965, supplement, pp. 179-180. 49. robins, corinne. "Six Artists and the New Extended Vision", Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10, SeptemberOctober 1965, pp. 19-24. Includes Held. 50. rose, Barbara. "The Second Generation: Academy and Breakthrough", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. IV, no. 1,

Loeb Student Center, New York University, New York, April 6-29, 1965, Concrete Expressionism. Text by Irving Sandler. 37. Reprinted as "Expressionism with Corners", Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 2, April 1965, pp. 38^0, 65-66. Includes Held. 38. Reviews: lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 5, July 1965, pp. 51-52. 39. ashton, dore. Studio International, London, vol. 170, no. 868, August 1965, pp. 87-89.
36. 40.

51.

September 1965, pp. 53-63. Includes Held, Kelly, Noland, Youngerman. rose, Barbara. "ABC Art", Art in America, New York, vol. 53, no. 5, October 1965, pp. 56-69. Statements by
Stella,

Zox.
21,

52.

San Francisco Museum of Art, San Francisco, October 15-

November
53. plessix,

1965,

Colorists

1950-1960.

Includes

Feeley, Noland, Poons, Smith, Stella, Williams.

54.

Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 21-May 30, 1965, Three American Painters: Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Frank Stella. Text by Michael Fried. Two parts of the introduction appeared earlier in slightly different form: Section I in

Fogg Art Museum,

Harvard University,

55.

francine du. "Painters and Poets", Art in New York, vol. 53, no. 5, October-November 1965, pp. 24-56. Includes drawings by Feeley, Youngerman. bourdon, david. "Park Place: New Ideas", The Village Voice, New York, November 25, 1965, pp. 11 + bourdon, david. "E = Mc 2 a go-go; Ten Painters and
America,
.

Sculptors

Form

a Lively, Objective Collective in

New

41.

American Scholar,

vol. 33, no.

4,

Autumn

1964, pp.

56.

642-649, as "Modernist Painting and Formal Criticism" Section III as the introduction to Kenneth Noland's retrospective exhibition at The Jewish Museum, New York, February 4-March 7, 1965. 42. lippard, lucy R. "The Third Stream", Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, no. 2, Spring 1965, pp. 44-49. Includes Mangold, Ruda, Stella, Williams. 43. "Neue Abstraktion", Das Kunstwerk, Baden-Baden, vol. XVIII, nos. 10-12, April-June 1965, Special number. Introduction by Klaus Jurgen-Fischer, pp. 3-6. Includes Held, Kelly, Krushenick, Kuwayama, Noland, Stella. 44. VIII Bienal of the Museum of Modern Art, Sao Paulo, Brazil, Summer 1965. Exhibition of the United States of America. Text by Walter Hopps. Includes Poons, Stella.

57.

58.

59.

60.

York", Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 9, January 1966, pp. 22-25, 57-59. Park Place artists. welsh, Robert. "The Growing Influence of Piet Mondrian", Canadian Art, 100, Toronto, vol. 23, no. 1, January 1966, pp. 44-49. lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 1, January 20, 1966, p. 91. Includes Fleming, Novros, Ruda. "A New Abstraction: A Discussion Conducted by Bruce Glaser", Art International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 2, February 20, 1966, pp. 41-45. Includes Held. robins, corinne. "Four Directions at Park Place", Arts, New York, vol. 40, no. 8, June 1966, pp. 20-24. Includes Ruda, Novros. smithson, robert. "Entropy and the New Monuments", Artforum, Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 10, June 1966, pp. 26-31.

58

JO BAER
1929. Seattle, Washington
72.
73.

Tibor De Nagy Gallery, New \ork, February- 1958. Reviews: Campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York,

New

York, 1960

61.

Fischbach Gallery, New \ ork, February 1966. Reviens: ashbery. john. Art News. New York, no. 10, February, 1966, p. 13.

vol. 64,

74.

March 1958. p. 13. warren. Arts, New York. vol. 32. no. 6. March 1958, p. 60. goossen, e. c. "The End of Winter in New
vol. 57, no. 1,

dash.

R.

It

ork",

Art

International.

Zurich,

vol.

2.

62.

lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 4, April 20.
1966, p. 73.
75.

nos. 2-3, 1958, pp. 37-38. Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 1960.

Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art News,


vol.

New

York,

63.

goldin. amy. Arts.


April 1966. p. 69.

New

York.

vol. 40, no. 6.

59.

no. 3,

May

1960, p. 15.

76.

judd, donald. Arts, New York. vol. 34. no. 8, May 1960, p. 60. Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 14-June 2, 1962. 77. Reviews: campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York,
vol. 61, no. 4,

ROBERT BARRY
New York Resident New \ork
1936.

78.

judd, donald. Arts,

Summer 1962, p. 17. New York, vol. 36,


p. 47.

no. 10,

September 1962,
79.

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, May 13-31, 1963. Reviews: sandler. irvixg h. Art News, New York, vol.
62. no. 3.

64.

Westerly Gallery, New York, October 6-24, 1964. Review: stevens, Elisabeth. Art News, New York,
vol. 63, no. 7,

May

1963, p. 58.

80.

November

1964. p. 53.
81.

New York, vol. 37, no. 10, September 1963, p. 59. alloway, Lawrence. "Paul Feeley", Living Arts 3, Lonjudd, donald. Arts,
don, 1964, pp. 26^47. Includes interview with the Kasmin Limited, London, Fall 1964.
-

artist.

82.

Review:

AL BRUNELLE
1934, Minneapolis. Minnesota

lynton, norbert. "London Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. 8, no. 10, December

New

York. 1962

1964, pp. 44-45. Bettv Parsons Gallerv. New \ ork. October 27-November 21, 1964. 83. Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 63,
84.

THOMAS DOWNING
Resident
1928, Ivor, \ irginia ^ ashington, D.C.
85.

no. 8, December 1964, p. 14. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 3, December 1964, p. 69. rose, Barbara. "New York Letter", Art International. Luaano. vol. 8. no. 10. December

Allan Stone Gallery, New York, June 1962. 65. Review: sharpless, ti-grace a. Art News, New York, vol. 61, no. 5, September 1962. p. 16. Stable Gallery, New York, October 1-19, 1963.
66.

86.

1964, p. 50. "Paul Feeley", Art International, Lugano, vol. 8, no. 10, December 1964, pp. 31-33. Betty Parsons Gallery. New \ork, December 7-31, 1965.

goossen,

e. c.

87.

Reviews: Art News.

New York,

vol. 64. no. 8.

December
York,
Arts,

Reviews: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York. vol. 62. no. 6. October 1963, p. 12. 67. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 2,

1965. p. 14.
88.
89.

glueck, grace. Art


vol. 53, no. 6,

in

America,

New

November
68.

1963, p. 35.

December 1965, p. 124. baro, gene. "Paul Feeley: The Art of the Definite",

rose, Barbara.
5,

"New York

Letter", Art In-

New York,
7

vol. 40, no. 4,

February 1966, pp. 19-25.

ternational, Lugano, vol. VII. no. 9.

December

1963, p. 65. Stable Gallery, New York, January 5-23, 1965.


69.

70.

71.

Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 63, no. 10, February 1965, p. 14. grossberg, Jacob. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 5, February 1965. p. 65. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March
1965, p. 51.

DEAN FLEMING
1933. Santa Monica. California

New

York, 1961 Park Place Gallery,

New \ ork

Park Place Gallery, New York, December 19, 1965January 20, 1966. Dean Fleming and Anthony Magar. 90. Revieivs: bourdon, david. "Parallelogram Backflip", The Village Voice, New \ork, December 23,

PAUL FEELEY
1913, Des Moines, Iowa
91.

1965, p. 12.

Lived in Bennington. Vermont after 1946 Died 1966, New York Bettv Parsons Gallerv. New York

92.

berrigan, ted. Art News, New York, vol. 64. no. 10, February 1966, p. 15. adrian. dennis, "New York", Artforum, Los
Angeles, vol. IV, no.
7,

March 1966,

p. 52.

59

93. 94.

berkson, william. Arts,


no. 5,

New

York,

vol. 40,

111. Galerie
112. 113.

March 1966,

p. 60.

FLEMING, DEAN, PETER FORAKIS, PHYLLIS YAMPOLSKY. Grope, New York, January 1964, vol. 1, no. 1, Ergo-Suit Productions, Tibor de Nagy Editions. 95. "New Talent USA", Art in America, New York, vol. 54, Selected by Larry no. 4, July-August, 1966, p. 45 Aldrich. Statement by the artist. 96. FLEMING, DEAN, PHYLLIS yampolsky. The Blown Mind, New York, New York Express, 1966.
.

Renee Ziegler, Zurich, October 2-30, 1964. Text by Harald Szeemann. Review: H.C. Werk, Winterthur, Switzerland, vol. 51, no. 12, supplement, p. 292, December 1964. baigell, matthew. "American Abstract Expressionism and Hard Edge: Some Comparisons", Studio International, London, vol. 171, no. 873, January 1966, pp.
10-15.

RALPH HUMPHREY
1932, Youngstown, Ohio

PETER GOURFAIN
1934, Chicago, Illinois

New

York, 1956 Bykert Gallery, New York


Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, February 3-21, 1959. Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, vol. 57, no. 10, February 1959, p. 17. Tibor de Nagy Gallery, New York, February 2-21, 1960. 115. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, vol. 58, no. 10, February 1960, p. 14. 116. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 6,
114.

New

York, 1961

Bridge Gallery, New York, March 9-27, 1965. Peter Gourfain and David Lee. 97. Reviews: waldman, diane. Art News, New York, vol. 64,
no.
98.
1,

Review:

March 1965,

p. 15.

judd, donald.
p. 65.

"New York

national, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4,


99.

Notes", Art InterMay 1965,


9,

hoene, anne. Arts, May-June, 1965, p.

New
64.

York, vol. 39, no.

117.

March 1960, p. 54. Mayer Gallery, New York, May 1961. Review: sandler, irving. Art News, New York,
no. 3, May 1961, p. 15. Green Gallery, New York, May 5-29, 1965.

vol. 60,

118. Reviews: levine, neil a. Art

News, New York,

vol. 64,

no. 4,

AL HELD
New York Resident New York
1928,

119.

1965, p. 16. goldin, amy. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10, September-October 1965, p. 66.

Summer

Andre Emmerich

Gallery,

New York
News,

Poindexter Gallery,
57, no. 9,

New

York, January 1959.

100. Reviews: sandler, irving h. Art


101.

New

York,

vol.

ROBERT HUOT
1935, Staten Island

January 1959, p. 17. b.d.h. Arts, New York, vol. 33, no.
1959, p. 64.

5,

February
6,

Resident New York Stephen Radich Gallery,

New York
New
York,

Poindexter Gallery,
1960.

New

York, January 18-February

Stephen Radich Gallery,

102. Reviews: crehan, Hubert. Art


58, no. 9,

News,

New

York,

vol.

120. Reviews: edgar, natalie. Art


121.

News,

May 4-30, 1964. New York, vol.

63,

January 1960, p. 15. 103. dennison, george. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 4, January 1960, p. 58. Poindexter Gallery, New York, May 1-20, 1961. 104. Review: sandler, irving h. Art News, New York, vol.
105.

no. 4, Summer 1964, p. 59. fried, michael. "New York

Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6,

"New
no.
1,

60, no. 3, May 1961, p. 15. Talent USA", Art in America, New York, vol. 50, 1962, p. 26. Chosen by Richard Brown Baker and

Summer 1964, p. 82. 122. Vassar College Art Gallery, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, May 4-31, 1964. New Directions 1964. Text
by Linda Nochlin.
Stephen Radich Gallery,
1965.
123. Reviews: 124.
125.

New

York, March 9-April

3.

Dorothy Gees Seckler.


Poindexter Gallery,
1,

New

York, November 13-December

berkson, william. Arts,


no. 9,

New New

York, vol 39, York,


vol. 64,

1962.

May

1965, p. 68. 1965, p. 46.

106. Reviews: sandler, irving h. Art


61, no. 8,

News,

New

York,

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126.

greene, sue. Art Voices,


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2,

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WILL INSLEY
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York. .May 11-29, 1965 128. Reviews: edgar, Natalie. Art News, New York,
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129.

vol. 64,

May

1965, p. 18.

130.

lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 6, September 20, 1965, p. 59. hoene, anne. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10.
Stable Gallery,

Arthur Tooth and Sons, Ltd., London, May 29-June 23, 1962. Text by Lawrence Alloway. Original layout by Kelly. 151. RUBIN, WILLIAM. "Ellsworth Kelly: the Big Form", Art News, New York, vol. 62, no. 7, November 1963. pp.
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131.

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September-October 1965, p. 68. New York. April 12-30, 1966. BURTON, SCOTT. Art News, New York,
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vol. 65,

32-35. Bettv Parsons Gallerv, New York, October 29-November 23, 1963. 153. Review: fried, michael. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 10,

January 16, 1964,


154.

p. 54.

W ashington

Gallery of

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Art, Washington, D.C.,

December 11, 1963-January 26, 1964, Paintings, Sculpture and Drawings. Includes an "Interriew with Ellsworth Kelly" by Henry Geldzahler, November 1963.

ELLSWORTH KELLY
1923, Newburgb,

155. Reprinted in Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, no.

1,

New York
156.

February

15. 1964, pp. 47-48.

New

York, 1954 Sidney Janis Gallery,

New York New


York,

Betty Parsons Gallery,

132. Reviews: butler, Barbara. Arts,

May 21-June New York,

9.

1956.

vol. 30,

no. 9, June 1956, p. 52.


133. 134.

'"Realists" and Others", Arts, NewYork, vol. 38, no. 4, January 1964, p. 22. 157. johnson, philip. "Young Artists at the Fair", Art in America, New York, vol. 52, no. 4, August 1964, p. 121. Sidney Janis Gallery, New York, April 6-May 1, 1965. 158. Revieivs: barnitz. Jacqueline. Arts, New York, vol. 39.

kramer, hilton.

tyler. parker. Art News,

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no. 4, June 1956, p. 51. hitney Museum of American Art,

159. 160.
161.

May 1965, p. 58. levin, kim. Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 3. May 1965, p. 10. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 108. ashton, dore. Studio International, London,
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135. Reviews: S.B. Arts, 136.

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York,

vol. 32, no. 1.

October

vol. 170, no. 867, July 1965, pp. 40-42. 162. michelson, annette. "Paris Letter", Art International,

1957, p. 56.

tyler, parker. Art News, New York, vol. 56, no. 6, October 1957, p. 17. 137. Galerie Maeght, Paris, October 24, 1958. Article by E. C. Goossen, "Ellsworth Kelly", Derriere le Miroir, Paris, A. Maeght, no. 110, 1958. Bettv Parsons Gallerv. New York. October 19-November
7,

Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 1965, p. 39. Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, March 15, 1966. 163. Review: von meier, kurt. "Los Angeles Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 5, May 1966.
164.

"Four

Drawings:

pp. 58-59. Ellsworth


6,

Angeles, vol. IV, no.

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138. Revieivs: Campbell,


139.
140.

Lawrence. Art News, New York, October 1959, p. 13. tillim, Sidney. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 1, October 1959, pp. 48-50. ashton, dore. Arts and Architecture, Los
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NICHOLAS KRUSHENICK
1929,

New York

Angeles, vol. 76, no. 12, December 1959. p. 7. 141. tillim, Sidney. "Profiles: Ellsworth Kellv", Arts Yearbook 3, New York, 1959, pp. 148-151. 142. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, December 16, 1959-February 14, 1960, Sixteen Americans. Introduction

Resident New York Pace Gallery, New \ ork

Camino

Gallery,

New York, May 1956. John and Nicholas


at 3,

by Dorothy C. Miller. Statement by the artist. 143. seuphor, michel. "Sens et Permanence de la Peinture
144. Arthur

Krushenick. 165. Review: tyler,

parker. "Brothers Krushenick Camino", Art News, New York, vol. 55, no.
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Quadrum, Brussels, no. 8, 1960. p. 52. Tooth and Sons, Ltd., London, January 24February 18, 1961, 6 American Abstract Painters. Text by Lawrence Alloway. Includes Kelly, Martin, Smith.
Construite",

May
Camino
1957.

Gallerv,

New

York. January 25-Februarv 14,

166. Reviews: tyler, parker. Art 167.

News, New York.

vol. 55,

Bettv Parsons Gallerv, 4, 1961.


60, no. 8,

New

^1

ork, October

16-November
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vol.

no. 10, February 1957, p. 51. young, vernon. Arts, New York, vol. 31. no.

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145. Reviews: sandler, irving h. Art

News,

New

November

1961, p. 13.

146.

tillim, Sidney. Arts,

New York,

vol. 36, no. 3,

February 1957, p. 65. Brata Gallery, New York, November 1958. 168. Revieiv: burckhardt, edith. Art News,
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New

lork.

December 1961,
147. seckler,

p. 48.

dorothy gees. "American Art International: Gallery Notes", Art in America, New York, vol. 49, no. 2.

Brata Gallery.
169. Reviews:

Yew

1958. p. 17. York, October 7-27, 1960.

November

beck, james h. Art Neivs,

New

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vol. 59,

61

170.

no. 6, October 1960, p. 15. raynor, vivien, Arts, New no.


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DAVID LEE
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1937, Charlottesville, Virginia

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171.

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New
6,

York, 1960

Bridge Gallery,

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York, February 11-29, 1964.

Reviews: edgar, Natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 61, no. 5, September 1962, p. 12. tillim, Sidney. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 1, 172. October 1962, p. 53. ashton, dore. Studio, London, vol. 164, no. 173.

193. Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art


vol. 63, no. 1,

News,
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York,

March 1964,

194.

judd, donald. Arts, April 1964, p. 34.

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174.
175.
176.

December 1962, p. 248. Graham Gallery, New York, March 31-April 25, 1964. Reviews: benedikt, michael. Art News, New York, vol.
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63, no. 2, April 1964, p. 13. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 9, May 1964, p. 33.

Bridge Gallery, New York, March 9-27, 1965. David Lee and Peter Gourfain. 195. Reviews: waldman, diane. Art News, New York, vol. 64,
196.
1, March 1965, p. 15. judd, donald. "New York Notes", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May 1965, p.

no.

65.

rose, Barbara.
1964, p. 78.

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197.

hoene, anne. Arts,

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national, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6,


177. Fischbach Gallery,

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May-June 1965,

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New York, April 6-24, 1965. Text by Robert Rosenblum. 178. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York,
vol. 64, no. 2,

April 1965, p. 17.

ROBERT MANGOLD
no. 9,

179.

raynor, vivien. Arts,

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New
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181.

1965, p. 65. greene, sue. Art Voices,

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York, January 4-25, 1964.

no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 111.

lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter": Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 6, Sep-

Thibaut Gallery,

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198. Reviews: campbell, lawrence. Art


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199.

News, New York, January 1964, p. 19. Harrison, jane. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 6,

TADAAKI KUWAYAMA
1932, Nagoya, Japan

March 1964, p. 67. 200. lippard, lucy r. "New York", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. II, no. 9, March 1964, p. 19. 201. Fischbach Gallery, New York, October 12-30, 1965. Robert Mangold: Walls and Areas, text by Lucy R.
Lippard.
202. Reviews: Art News,
203.

New

York, 1958

New

York,

vol. 64, no. 5,

October

1965, p. 10.

Green Gallery, New York, January 10-February 4, 1961. campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, vol. 59, no. 9, January 1961, p. 18. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 34, no. 4, 183. January 1961, p. 55. Green Gallery, New York, February 20-March 10, 1962. 184. Reviews: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 60, no. 10, February 1962, p. 53. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 7, 185.
182. Reviews:

International,

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204.
no. 2,

20, 1965, p. 41.

berkson, william. Arts,

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April 1962, p. 54.

Kornblee Gallery, New York, April 14-May 2, 1964. 186. Reviews: castile, rand. Art News, New York, vol. 63,
no. 2, April 1964, p. 13.

AGNES MARTIN
1921, Maklin, Canada

barnitz, Jacqueline. Art Voices, New York, vol. 3, no. 4, April-May 1964, p. 30. 188. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 10, Summer 1964, p. 68. Southampton East Gallery, New York, June 1964. Tadaaki Kuwayama, Lil Picard, Rakuka Naito. 189. Reviews: brown, Gordon. Art Voices, New York, vol. 3,
187.

Resident New York Robert Elkon Gallery,

New York

Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, December 2-20, 1958. 205. Reviews: burckhardt, edith. Art News, New York, vol. 57, no. 8, December 1958, p. 17. ventura, anita. Arts, New York, vol. 33, no. 4, 206.

no. 5, June 1964, p. 12.


190.

swenson,

g. r.

Art News,

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York,
1,

vol. 63,

no. 4, Summer 1964, p. 17. John Daniels Gallery, New York, April
191. Reviews: levine, neil a. Art

January 1959, p. 59. Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, 29-January 16, 1960.
207. Reviews: b.b. Arts,
208.

New

York, December
January

6-May

1965.
vol. 64,

New

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vol. 34, no. 4,

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1960, p. 50.
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no. 3,
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62

Bettv Parsons Gallery, New York, September 25-October 14, 1961. 209. Review: edgar, natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 60, no. 6, October 1961, p. 11.

11-February 15, 1963, Three New American Painters: Louis, Noland, Olitski. Text by Clement Greenberg.
226.

Robert Elkon Gallery.

New

York, November 27-Decem-

227.

ber 15, 1962. 210. Reviews: beck, james h. Art News, New York, vol. 61, no. 9, January 1963, p. 13. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 37, no. 5, 211.

228.

January 1963, p. 48. Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, November 12-30, 1963. 212. Reviews: lonngren, lillian. Art News, New York,
vol. 62, no. 8,

229. 230. 231.

Reprinted as "Three American Painters", Canadian Art, Ottawa, vol. XX, no. 3, May-June 1963, pp. 172-175. rose, Barbara. "Kenneth Noland", Art International, Lugano, vol. VIII, nos. 5-6, Summer 1964, pp. 58-61. XXXII International Biennial Exhibition of Art, United States Pavilion, Venice, June 20-October 18, 1964. Text by Alan R. Solomon, pp. 275-276. The Jewish Museum, New York, February 4-March 7, 1965, Kenneth Noland. Text by Michael Fried. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York,
vol. 64, no. 1,

December 1963,

p. 52.

March 1965,

p. 12.
vol. 39, no. 6,

judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 4, January 1964, p. 33. greene, sue. Art Voices, New York, vol. 4, 214. no. 2, Spring 1965, p. 110. Robert Elkon Gallery, New York, April 10-30, 1965.
213. 215. Reviews: Johnston, jill. Art News, no. 2, April 1965, p. 10. 216.

judd, donald. Arts,

New

York,

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232.

p. 54.

judd, donald. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 3, April 1965,
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York, York,

vol. 64,

Andre Emmerich
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York, November 10-28,

berkson, william, Arts,


no. 9,

New

vol. 39,

233. Reviews: kozloff, max. Arts, 234. 235.

1965, p. 66. Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, December 14, 1965-January 8, 1966. snyder, susan r. "Los Angeles", Artforum, 217. Review: Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 6, February 1966,
p. 15.

May

New York, vol. 39, no. 4, January 1965, p. 48. ashton, dore. Studio International, London, vol. 169, no. 862, February 1965, p. 92. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 1, February
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Gallery,
r.

Andre Emmerich March 13, 1966.


236. Revieu):

New

York,

February 22Letter",

lippard, lucy

"New York

Art

HOWARD MEHRING
1931, Washington D.C. Resident Washington, D.C. A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York

International, Lugano, vol. X, no. 4, April 20, 1966, p. 74.

218. ahlander,

Leslie judd. "An Artist Speaks: Howard Mehring", Washington Post, Washington, September 2,
1962, p. 67.

DAVID NOVROS
1941, Los Angeles, California

New
May

A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York, April 27-May 15, 1965. 219. Reviews: berrigan, ted. Art News, New York, vol. 64,
no. 3,

York, 1964 Park Place Gallery,

New York

1965, p. 16.

Park Place Gallery,


237. Reviews:

hoene, anne. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 10, September-October 1965, p. 65. 221. benedikt, michael. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 6, September 20, 1965, p. 61. A. M. Sachs Gallery, New York, April 19-May 7, 1966. 222. Review: waldman, diane. Art News, New York, vol. 65,
220.
no. 4,

1966. David. Novros,


no.
1,

New York, January 23-February 24, Mark di Suvero and Dean Fleming. ashbery, john. Art News, New York, vol. 65,
March 1966,
p. 13.

238.

Adrian, dennis. "New York", Artforum, Los Angeles, vol. IV, no. 8, April 1966, p. 48.

Summer

1966, p. 13.

LARRY POONS
1937, Tokyo, Japan

New

York, 1938
Castelli Gallery,

KENNETH NOLAND
1924, Asheville, North Carolina

Leo
1961

New York
York, November 4-23, 1963.

From Washington

to

New York

Green Gallery,

New

Vermont Andre Emmerich Gallery, New York


Lives South Shaltsbury,

239. Reviews: swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 62, no. 7, November 1963, p. 19. 240.

fried, michael.

"New York

Letter", Art In-

For a full bibliography see no. 229. 223. greenberg, clement. "Louis and Noland", Art
national, Zurich, vol. IV, no.
5,

ternational, Lugano, vol. VII, no. 10, January


Inter-

16, 1964, p. 55-56.

May

I960, pp. 26-29.

224. greenberg, clement. "After Abstract Expressionism",

Art International, Zurich, vol. VI, no. 8, October 25, 1962, pp. 24-32. 225. Norman Mackenzie Art Gallery, Regina, Canada, January

Harrison, jane. Arts, New York, vol. 38, no. 4, January 1964, p. 31. 242. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, September-October 1964, American Drawings. Text by Lawrence Alloway.
241.

63

243. Review:

judd, donald. Arts,

New

York,

vol. 39,

no

2,

257. Review:

tyler, parker. Art News,


no. 8, Gallery,

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York,

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November
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1964, p. 59.

December 1956,

p. 11.

New

244. Reviews: baker, Elizabeth


vol. 64, no. 1,

York, February 10-March 6, 1965. c. Art News, New York,

Camino
1958.

New

York,

January

24-February

13,

245.

judd, donald.

March 1965, p. 12. "New York Letter", Art

258. Review:
In-

ashbery, john. Art News, no. 9, January 1958, p. 19.

New

York,

vol. 56,

ternational, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 3, April 1965,

pp. 74-75. 246. tillim, Sidney. "The Dotted Line", Arts, vol. 39, no. 5, February 1965, pp. 16-21.

Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, 10-29, 1958.


259. Reviews: 260.
vol. 57, no. 7,

New

York, November

New

York,

burckhardt, edith. Art News, New York,

November

1958, p. 16.

247. JOHNSON, E. H. "Three Young Americans: Poons, Williams", Oberlin College Bulletin,

Hinman,

b. b. Arts,

New York,

vol. 33, no. 2,

November

College, Oberlin, Ohio, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 82-86. 248. Reprinted with minor changes as "Three New, Cool, Bright, Imagists", Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 42, Summer 1965, pp. 42-44, 62-64.

Oberlin Spring 1965,

1958, p. 58. Section 11, Betty Parsons Gallery, 9-27, 1960.


261. Reviews: a.

New

York, February

249. kozloff, max. "Larry Poons", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. 3, no. 7, April 1965, pp. 26-29. 250. coplans, JOHN. "Larry Poons", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. 3, no. 9, June 1965, pp. 33-35.

s., Art News, New York, vol. 58, no. 10, February 1960, p. 15. mott, helen de. Arts, New York, vol. 34, 262. no. 5, February 1960, p. 67. 263. "Leon Polk Smith", Quadrum, Brussels, no. 12, 1961,

pp. 150-151. See bibliography no. 144.


Stable Gallery, New York, January 2-20, 1962. 264. Reviews: raynor, vivien. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 5, February 1962, p. 41. 265. swenson, g. r. Art News, New York, vol. 60, no. 10, February 1962, p. 12.
266.

EDWIN RUDA
1922,

New York New York

ashton,

dore.

"New York Commentary",

Resident New York Park Place Gallery,

Studio, London, vol. 163, no. 828, April 1962, p. 157.


267. gray,

cleve.

"The

Artist

in

Feiner Gallery, New York, March 9-April 6, 1963. 251. Review: sharpless, ti-grace a. Art News, New York, vol. 62, no. 2, April 1963, p. 56. Globe Gallery, New York, April 10-May 6, 1962. 252. Review: edgar, Natalie. Art News, New York, vol. 61, no. 4, Summer 1962, p. 58. Great Jones Gallery, New York, May 3-20, 1960. Spoerri, Kim, Forakis, Ruda. 253. Review: Schuyler, james. Art News, New York, vol.
59, no. 3,

Album", Art

in America,

New

America: Anniversary York, vol. 51, no. 1,

February 1963, pp. 64, 76, 81. Stable Gallery, New York, March 12-April 6, 1963. 268. Reviews: Campbell, Lawrence. Art News, New York,
vol. 62, no. 1,

March 1963,

p. 14.
vol. 37, no. 9,

269.

tillim, Sidney. Arts,

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May
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1963, p. 107.

270. alloway, Lawrence. "Leon Smith:

New Work and

Its

May

1960, p. 20.

Park Place Gallery,


254. Review:

New

York,

May 8-June

9,

1966.

Edwin Ruda and Peter


vol. 65, no. 4,

Forakis.

Art International. Lugano, vol. VII, no. 4, April 25, 1963, pp. 51-53. 271. brown, Gordon. "International Art Trends: U.S.A.: The Purists", Art Voices, New York, vol. 2, no. 5, May 1963,
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schjeldahl, peter. Art News,

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York,
272.

Summer

1966, p. 14.

"A

Conversation between Leon Polk Smith and d'Arcy Literature, Lausanne, no. 3, AutumnWinter 1964, pp. 82-103. Galerie Chalette, New York, October 2-November 31,

Hayman", Art and

1965.

ROBERT RYMAN
1930, Nashville, Tennessee

273. Reviews: goldin, amy. Arts,

New

York,

vol. 40, no. 1,

November
274.

1965, p. 57.

New

York, 1952

lippard, lucy R.

"New York Letter", Art


1,

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national, Lugano, vol. X, no.

January 20,

1966, p. 92. 275. smith, leon. Portfolio of Draivings, Galerie Chalette, New York, 1965.

LEON POLK SMITH


1906, Chickasha,

Oklahoma

New

York, 1950

Galerie Chalette,

New York

FRANK STELLA
Mills College of Education Gallery,

New

York, November

1936, Maiden, Massachusetts

22-December, 1955. 255. Reviews: mellow, james


no. 3,

New
r.

York, 1958
Castelli Gallery,

Arts,

New

York,

vol. 30,

Leo

New York

256.

December 1955, p. 54. tyler, parker. Arts News, New York,


Camino
no. 9, January 1956, p. 68. Gallery, New York, December 1956.

vol. 54,

276. "Three

Young Americans", Oberlin College Bulletin, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, vol. 17, no. 1, Fall 1959, pp. 18-19.

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Leo

Castelli Gallery,

New

York, September 27-October

300. leider, philip. "Frank Stella", Artforum, San Francisco, vol. Ill, no. 9, June 1965, pp. 24-26.
301. Review:

15, 1960. 277. Reviews: mott,

helen

de. Arts,

New York, vol. 35, no. New

1,

278. 279.

October 1960, p. 64. Petersen, valerie. Art Neivs,


vol. 59, no. 7,

Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles, January 26, 1965. marmer, nancy. "Los Angeles Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 4, May
1965, pp.

York,
302. kozloff,

43^4.

November

1960, p. 17.
Letter", Art

sandler, irving H.

"New York

International, Zurich, vol. IV, no. 9, December 1, 1960, pp. 25-26. Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, April 28-May 19, 1962.
280. Reviews: Campbell, lawrence. Art News, New York, vol. 61, no. 4, Summer 1962, p. 17. judd, donald. Arts, New York, vol. 36, no. 10, 281.

September 1962,
Leo
Castelli Gallery,

p. 51.

York, October 16-November 7, 1962. Frank Stella and John Chamberlain. 282. Reviews: ashton, dore. Das Kunstwerk, Baden-Baden,
vol.

New

Critic and the Visual Arts, New York, A.F.A., 1965, pp. 46-54. Paper given at A.F.A. 52nd Biennial Convention, Boston. 303. Reprinted as "Critical Schizophrenia and the Intentionalist Method", The New Art, edited by Gregory Battcock, New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1966, pp. 123-135. Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, March 5-29, 1966. 304. Reviews: kozloff, max. The Nation, New York, vol. 202, no. 13, March 28, 1966, p. 370-372. lippard, lucy R. "New York Letter", Art 305. International, Lugano, Switzerland, vol. X,

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283.

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284.
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NEIL WILLIAMS
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286. Gottlieb, carla. "Pregnant

Woman,

the Flag, the Eye:

Three New Themes in Twentieth Century Art", Journal of Aesthetics, Cleveland, vol. 21, no. 2, Winter 1962, p. 181 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, Januarv 4-February 6,
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September 1964, p. 62. See bibliography no. 247 and no. 248. 309. lippard, lucy r. "New York Letter", Art International, Lugano, vol. IX, no. 2, March 1965, pp. 46+ Dwan Gallery, Los Angeles, February 15-AIarch 12, 1966. 310. Revieivs: factor, don. "Los Angeles", Artforum, Los
Angeles, vol. IV, no. 8, April 1966, p. 14.
311.

von meier, kurt. "Los Angeles


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JACK YOUNGERMAN
1926, Louisville,

Kentucky

Kasmin Limited, London, September 29-October


1964.
294. Reviews: lynton, norbert.

24,

York, 1956 Betty Parsons Gallery,

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\ ork

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ber 1964, pp. 44-^5. BARO, gene. Arts, New York, vol. 39, no. 4, January 1965, p. 73. 296. judd, donald, "Local Historv", Arts Yearbook 7, New York 1964, pp. 22-35.
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"A

Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, March 10-28, 1958. Reviews: dash. r. warren. Arts. New York, vol. 36, no. 6, March 1958, p. 57. 313. schuyler, james. Art News, New York, vol. 57, no. 1, March 1958, p. 16. 314. "New Talent USA", Art in America, New York, vol. 47, no. 1, Spring 1959, p. 47. See bibliography no. 142. Betty Parsons Gallery, New York, January 11-30, 1960. 315. Reviews: a. s. Art News, New York, vol. 58, no. 10,
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321. benedikt, MICHAEL. " Youngerman Liberty in Limits", Art News, New York, vol. 64, no. 5, September 1965, pp. 43-45, 54-55.

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327. rose, Barbara.

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LAWRENCE ZOX
1936, Des Moines, Iowa

New

York, 1958 Kornblee Gallery,

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328. Review:

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PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS
All photographs except the following were

made by Robert

E. Mates

and Paul Katz:

Oliver Baker Associates,

New \ork:

p. 13

Geoffrey Clements,

New \ork:

pp. 32, 46

John A.

Ferrari, Brooklyn: p. 51

Jonathan Holstein,

New York:

p. 53 14. 15
p.

Edward Kasper, New York: pp.


Marion
F.

Mecklenburg, Washington, D.C.:

37

Robert Murray,

New York:
p.

p.

48

Hans Namuth, New York:


0. E. Nelson,

p. 12

New York:

52

Eric Pollitzer, Garden City Park,


\\

alter

Rosenblum, Long Island


J.

City,

New York: pp. 29, 41, New York: p. 33

50

Walter

Russell.

New

York: p. 12

THE SOLOMON

R.

GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM

STAFF

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Exhibition 66/4

September-November, 1966

2,000 copies of this catalogue

designed by Herbert Matter

have been printed by Joh. Enschede en Zonen, Haarlem, Holland


in

August 1966

for the Trustees of The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation

on the occasion of the exhibition


"Systemic Painting"

THE

SOI 0>I0\

II. i.l

4.4.IMItl>l

MISIIM

071 FIFTH

AVKM

K.

XKW

VOIIK

002