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UK P&I CLUB

NOVEMBER 1996

ENGINE ROOM WATCHKEEPING MANUAL SECTION 1 TECHNICAL ENGINE ROOM WATCHKEEPING MANUAL SECTION 1....................................1 TECHNICAL......................................................................................................................1

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INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................4 1.1 RESPONSIBILITIES.................................................................................................................5 1.1.1 Chief Engineer................................................................................................................5 1.1.2 Second Engineer/1st Assistant Engineer......................................................................5 1.1.3 Communications with the Company ..........................................................................5 1.1.4 Discipline.........................................................................................................................5 1.1.5 Reports - Officers and Ratings......................................................................................6 1.1.6 Repairs.............................................................................................................................6 1.1.7 Speed and Fuel Consumption........................................................................................6 1.1.8 Freshwater.......................................................................................................................6 1.1.9 Joining and Leaving.......................................................................................................6 1.1.10 Inspections.....................................................................................................................6 1.1.11 Engine Room Log Books..............................................................................................6 1.1.12 Reports...........................................................................................................................7 1.1.13 Fire and Safety Regulations.........................................................................................7 1.1.14 Allocation of Watchkeeping Duties.............................................................................8 1.1.15 Accident Prevention.....................................................................................................8 1.1.16 Duty Engineer - Responsibilities.................................................................................8 1.1.17 Officers - Responsibilities............................................................................................8 1.1.18 Periodically Unattended Machinery Spaces (UMS)..................................................9 1.1.19 Handover: Duty of Responsibility...............................................................................9 1.1.20 Pollution Prevention Control......................................................................................9 1.2 CARE OF MACHINERY AND VESSEL................................................................................9 1.2.1 General............................................................................................................................9 1.2.2 Alarms............................................................................................................................10 1.2.3 Operation of Machinery in an Emergency.................................................................10 1.2.4 Planned Maintenance Systems....................................................................................10 1.2.5 Critical Equipment and Systems.................................................................................10 1.2.6 Specialised Equipment.................................................................................................12 1.2.7 Deck Maintenance........................................................................................................12 1.2.8 Engine Maintenance.....................................................................................................12 1.2.9 Electrical Maintenance................................................................................................12 1.2.10 Reliability of Equipment............................................................................................12 1.2.11 Main Engine Trials.....................................................................................................12 1.2.12 Lubricating Oils..........................................................................................................13 1.2.13 Electrical Installation.................................................................................................13 1.2.14 Auxiliary Machinery..................................................................................................14 1.2.15 Boilers..........................................................................................................................14 1.2.16 Emergency Steering Gear..........................................................................................14 1.2.17 Continuous Survey of Machinery.............................................................................14 1.2.18 Stern Tubes.................................................................................................................15 1.2.19 Indicator Cards and Condition Monitoring............................................................15 1.2.20 Vibration Monitoring.................................................................................................15 1.2.21 Testing of Hold/Bilge Suction Lines.........................................................................15 1.3 BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE..........................................................................................16 1.4 UPGRADING............................................................................................................................16 1.5 MODIFICATIONS...................................................................................................................16 1.6 MONITORING.........................................................................................................................16 1.7 CONTINUOUS SURVEY OF MACHINERY (CSM)..........................................................17 1.8 STATUTORY/FLAG SURVEYS AND CLASSIFICATION...............................................17 1.9 COMPANY REPORTS............................................................................................................17 1.10 ON BOARD INSPECTIONS.................................................................................................18 1.11 CHARTERERS INSPECTIONS...........................................................................................18 1.12 DOCUMENTATION..............................................................................................................18
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1.13 SUB-CONTRACTORS..........................................................................................................18 1.14 PREVENTION OF CRANKCASE EXPLOSIONS............................................................19 1.15 OPERATIONAL INFORMATION......................................................................................19 1.15.1 Valves - General..........................................................................................................19 1.15.2 Stops - Scheduled and Unscheduled.........................................................................19 1.15.3 Emergencies................................................................................................................19 1.15.4 Alteration of Speed.....................................................................................................20 1.15.5 Starting Aids...............................................................................................................20 1.15.6 Heavy Fuel Oil............................................................................................................20 1.16 REPAIRS AND DRY DOCKING.........................................................................................20 1.16.1 General........................................................................................................................20 1.16.2 Inspection and Verification.......................................................................................21 1.16.3 Reporting.....................................................................................................................22 1.16.4 Alterations of Fittings.................................................................................................22 1.16.5 Supervision of Repairs...............................................................................................22 1.16.6 Dry Docking................................................................................................................22 1.16.7 Dry Dock Inspection...................................................................................................22 1.16.8 Gas Free Certificate....................................................................................................23 1.16.9 Boiler Blow Down.......................................................................................................23 1.16.10 Undocking.................................................................................................................23 1.16.11 Repairs in service......................................................................................................23 1.16.12 Repair Lists and Advice of Defects ........................................................................23 1.16.13 Major Spare Gear.....................................................................................................23 1.17 BUNKERS AND BUNKERING............................................................................................23 1.17.1 Liaison.........................................................................................................................23 1.17.2 Bunkers - Safety Margin............................................................................................24 1.17.3 Specification................................................................................................................24 1.17.4 Blending.......................................................................................................................24 1.17.5 Bunkering Procedures................................................................................................24 1.17.6 Samples........................................................................................................................25 1.17.7 Fuel Quality Testing Programme..............................................................................25 1.17.8 Pollution Prevention...................................................................................................25 1.17.9 Microbiological Degradation.....................................................................................25 1.18 TANK/HOLD INSPECTIONS..............................................................................................25 1.19 UNSCHEDULED INSPECTIONS........................................................................................26 1.20 TESTING OF EQUIPMENT.................................................................................................26 1.20.1 Machinery Alarms and Shutdown Devices..............................................................26 1.20.2 Smoke/Fire Detection and Alarm Systems...............................................................26 1.20.3 Fixed and Portable Gas Detection Equipment........................................................26 1.20.4 Gauges and Tools........................................................................................................26 1.21 OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR DUTY ENGINEERS................................................27 1.21.1 Introduction................................................................................................................27 1.21.2 Engineering Watch Underway..................................................................................27 1.21.3 Taking Over the Watch.............................................................................................28 1.21.4 Periodic Checks of Machinery...................................................................................28 1.21.5 Engine Room Log.......................................................................................................28 1.22 PREVENTIVE AND REPAIR MAINTENANCE...............................................................28 1.23 BRIDGE NOTIFICATION....................................................................................................29 1.23.1 Navigation in Congested Waters...............................................................................29 1.23.2 Navigation During Restricted Visibility...................................................................29 1.24 CALLING THE CHIEF ENGINEER...................................................................................29 1.25 WATCHKEEPING PERSONNEL.......................................................................................29 1.26 ENGINEERING WATCH AT AN UNSHELTERED ANCHORAGE.............................30 1.27 ENGINEERING WATCH IN PORT....................................................................................30
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1.27.1 Watch Arrangements.................................................................................................30

INTRODUCTION The instructions, guidelines and allocation of responsibilities, as set out in this section are intended to ensure that the Company's managed vessels are maintained to a uniform standard and that sound engineering practice is applied.

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1.1 RESPONSIBILITIES The C/E shall keep the Master advised of all matters relating to E/R staff, the technical maintenance of the vessel and the operational state of equipment under his control. The C/E and the Master are to come to a clear understanding on the procedures to be adopted and followed for engine manoeuvres in circumstances of reduced visibility, upon entering confined/ pilotage waters, and in the event of sudden emergencies. The following procedures are to be promulgated in writing and posted on the Bridge and in the Engine Control Room: Main Engine Failure Controllable Pitch Failure (where applicable) Black Out Collision or Stranding Steering Gear Failure. 1.1.1 Chief Engineer The Chief Engineer Officer is responsible to the Master and the Company for the following: a) b) c) d) The technical maintenance of the vessel and all its equipment. The safe operation of all machinery and equipment on board. The administration of the Technical Department. The supervision of all repairs carried out by shore contractors.

Ref the Bridge/Deck Watchkeeping Manual for full details on the Chief Engineer's responsibilities together with those of all other ranks (Deck and Engine Room) on board. The Chief Engineer is required to become conversant with the contents of this section and the applicable sections of the STCW Regulations. The provision of this guidance to other Engineer Officers is not a substitute for written standing orders, which shall always be provided by the Chief Engineer to specify his own particular requirements. Such standing orders should draw the attention of watchkeeping officers to the guidance laid down in this manual and emphasise those points which are of special importance to the particular ship. 1.1.2 Second Engineer/1st Assistant Engineer The Second Engineer/1st Assistant Officer is responsible to the C/E for the efficient running and maintenance of all technical equipment except Radio and Navigational Aids. In the absence of the C/E, the 2nd Engineer will deputise for him on all matters. 1.1.3 Communications with the Company The C/E is to keep the Master advised on all occasions when he wishes to communicates directly with the Company. 1.1.4 Discipline The C/E is responsible for the supervision and discipline of all members of his staff and for ensuring that they observe all Company Standing Instructions.
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1.1.5 Reports - Officers and Ratings The C/E is responsible for completing the staff appraisal form for those personnel in his department, and forwarding same to the Company. 1.1.6 Repairs The Master's agreement must be obtained before undertaking any repair work which necessitates immobilising the vessel's engines or reducing the standby power (electrical) capacity. 1.1.7 Speed and Fuel Consumption Strict economy in consumption of bunkers is to be observed where reasonably practicable. The Master, in consultation with the C/E, will decide upon the vessel's service speed between ports in order to maintain the schedules required by the Owner/ Charterer. 1.1.8 Freshwater The C/E is to confer with the Chief Officer concerning the quantity of fresh water to be carried and is to exercise strict control over the use of fresh water in the engine room. The Chief Officer and C/E must closely liaise on the daily consumption of fresh water. The soundings of fresh water tanks must be entered daily in the Deck Log Book. 1.1.9 Joining and Leaving The off-signing C/E must prepare The Handover Report and the Chief Engineer's Checklist for Relief and discuss them with the on-signing C/E. All C/E's are required to complete this form and send a copy to the vessel's FS. This checklist serves as a reminder and must be used when reporting to the relief Chief Engineer. A copy of this report, signed by both Chief Engineer's must be forwarded to the Company. The information given in this checklist will assist the relief Chief Engineer during the first period on board. When completing the checklist, the best efforts should be made to inform about potential problems and irregular operations which have been experienced during the service period on board. 1.1.10 Inspections The C/E is to be at all times familiar with the condition of the vessel and/or equipment under his control. He is to accompany the Master on inspections of the vessel and is to co-operate fully with other Departments to preserve the efficiency of the vessel. 1.1.11 Engine Room Log Books The Engine Room Log Book is to be completed in ink by the Duty Engineer. The C/E is to enter all the additional information required by these instructions and sign the Log Book daily. For UMS operated vessels, the Log Book entries shall be made at noon and 23.00hrs each day. On occasions where the main engine is not running at these times the C/E is to ensure that, where reasonably practicable, all engine pressures and temperatures are recorded along with the status of all plant, e.g. parts dismantled for repair or inspection etc. The Log Book is to be kept clean and it is essential that only factual information is recorded.
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The original of the Engineers Log Book is to be forwarded to the office when completed. 1.1.12 Reports The following reports are to be completed by the C/E at the frequency as indicated and forwarded to the FS. Status reports of major items of machinery and any particular problems encountered or rectified to be forwarded monthly. The manufacturers "Machinery Operation Report" is to be completed when running at full speed in good weather during each passage of more than 24 hours, and at monthly intervals on long voyages. Indicator cards for main engine should be enclosed with each report and for the auxiliary engines, where possible, about every 2,000 running hours. "Condition Report, Aux. Eng." ref form TECH/012/CAE to be completed and forwarded at each cylinder head or major overhaul. "Report on Bearing Clearances" ref form TECH/011/RBC to be completed and forwarded every 6 months. "Report on Crosshead Guide Clearances" ref form TECH/010/CGC to be completed and forwarded every 6 months. "Piston and Liner Inspection Report" ref form TECH/008/PLI to be completed and forwarded after every inspection. "Crank Shaft Deflection" ref form TECH/009/CSD to be completed and forwarded every 6 months. Machinery Component Running Hours ref form TECH/019/UCH to be completed and forwarded every 6 months. Boiler and cooling water logs to be completed and forward (also to the Chemical company) every month ref form Chemical Company Form. Impressed current log to be completed and forwarded every month ref form System Makers Form. Electrical Machinery & Equipment megger readings to be completed and forwarded every three months as per planned maintenance system. 1.1.13 Fire and Safety Regulations The C/E must endeavour to ensure that all members of his staff are made aware of all Company, statutory, local authority and installation fire and safety regulations, and that such legislations are strictly adhered to. He is to ensure that all safety equipment assigned to those parts of the vessel under his direct control are properly maintained and, in particular, he is also to satisfy himself that lifeboat engines and emergency electrical and mechanical equipment are at all times ready for use.

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The C/E is also to be actively involved in the vessel's Safety Committee meetings. He is to liaise with the designated officer with regard to checking and maintaining fire protection equipment throughout the vessel. 1.1.14 Allocation of Watchkeeping Duties The C/E is to allocate watchkeeping duties to his staff, ensuring that a competent Officer is always in charge of the machinery spaces. When the vessel is in port the C/E is to ensure that either himself or the 2nd Engineer/1st Assistant is available at any time. When the vessel is navigating in pilotage waters, during river transits and at all times as directed by the Master, the Chief Engineer must ensure that sufficient qualified personnel are on duty in the engine room. When the vessel is running UMS, any alarms that occur must be answered by either the Duty Engineer or the Chief Engineer if he is not the Duty Engineer. Under no circumstances whatsoever is the engine room rating, or any other personnel, authorised to answer any alarm condition in the engine room. 1.1.15 Accident Prevention The C/E is to make every effort to promote Accident Prevention on board the vessel. He is to ensure that his staff are fully conversant with the correct operating methods for all machinery. Particular attention is to be paid to instructing staff in correct procedure for lighting boiler oil fuel burners and opening up any pressure vessel for internal inspection. The entire engine room staff should be familiar with the relevant sections of the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen, and the Company's Safety Manual. A routine should be established for checking and recording the condition of all hand tools and portable equipment, particular attention should be given to any electrical connections and cables. 1.1.16 Duty Engineer - Responsibilities The Duty Engineer is directly responsible to the C/E and has full authority over the safe and economic operation of the main and auxiliary machinery during his duty period. Before being relieved, the Duty Engineer will complete all entries, as required, in the Engineers Log Book. The relief Duty Engineer will carry out a thorough examination of machinery spaces before taking over responsibility for the next duty period. When the vessel is running UMS, the Duty Engineer is to ensure that all normal Watchkeeping duties are carried out during his period of duty. He is to make a final inspection of all machinery spaces no earlier than 23.00 hrs and is also to make the final Log Book entries at this time. The Duty Engineer will not leave the machinery space without ensuring that all alarms are in working order. A check list relevant to the particular engine room, is to be completed before changing to UMS. The checks are to include function checks of the fire detection system. 1.1.17 Officers - Responsibilities The Duty Engineer is responsible to the Bridge OOW for: a) Ensuring that the main engines are running or manoeuvring in accordance with requirements.

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b)

Providing the electrical power necessary for navigational and operational equipment, including steering gear.

1.1.18 Periodically Unattended Machinery Spaces (UMS) It is the responsibility of the Duty Engineer to notify the C/E of any malfunction or failure of any item affecting control and/or alarm systems. Upon receiving such information the C/E in consultation with the Master will then decide if it is necessary to revert to manned watchkeeping. When the vessel is running UMS and it is necessary for a person to enter the machinery spaces alone, he must: a) b) c) Inform the bridge OOW of his presence Report to the bridge OOW by telephone at intervals, not exceeding 20 minutes, or utilise the dead man alarm facility if fitted Inform the bridge OOW on departure from the engine room that the vessel had resumed UMS operation.

1.1.19 Handover: Duty of Responsibility The Duty Engineer shall not be released from his duties until formally relieved by another duty engineer. When handing over to his relief the Duty Engineer shall inform him of all matters relating to the status of all machinery. 1.1.20 Pollution Prevention Control Every endeavour must be made to avoid pollution of the atmosphere, seas and inland waterways. The provisions of the International Convention(s) for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil shall be complied with. In addition to local port regulations no pollutant is to be discharged overboard without the permission of the Master. Oil record books should be kept fully up to date at all times. Where the MARPOL 73/78 (as amended) limits are exceeded, please refer to Vessel Response Plan (SOPEP) and Oil Record Book Regulations. Any overboard discharge valve, that if inadvertently opened could result in oil pollution, must be locked closed during the vessel's port stay or when transiting restricted waters. 1.2 CARE OF MACHINERY AND VESSEL 1.2.1 General The main and auxiliary machinery includes different engines from various manufacturers. Instruction manuals dealing with the correct operation of machinery and equipment etc. are supplied to each vessel. These manuals, together with the Planned Maintenance Systems, must be used for the satisfactory operation and maintenance of machinery and equipment. Reference is made to "Machinery Operation Reports" in this section. The basic schedule for the maintenance programme is the assigned Classification Society statutory certification and Continuous Machinery Survey (CMS) system. In addition the Company maintains each vessel in compliance with Charterers' and Owners' written and recorded requirements. To supplement this, specific items of machinery are maintained on a running hours schedule, based on manufacturers recommendations and operational experience. Maintenance records are kept by the Chief Engineer and copies are sent to the FS on a monthly basis.
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Where an Owner's written specification requires a computerised planned maintenance system, the hardware and software are provided as appropriate and the system is maintained on board by the Chief Engineer accordingly. Status computer disks are sent by the Chief Engineer to the FS on a monthly basis. Where applicable, Quarterly or 4 monthly Technical Reports are provided to Owners. 1.2.2 Alarms All machinery protection devices and alarms must be tested at maximum 3 month intervals. Should any protection device or alarm become defective, the C/E must be advised immediately in order that he can decide upon the necessary precautions to be taken until the equipment has been repaired. See checklist of protection devices (C/E Standing Instructions). 1.2.3 Operation of Machinery in an Emergency In all vessels the manufacturers instructions regarding the operation of the main machinery under normal service conditions must be strictly adhered to except under emergency conditions involving the saving of life or the safety of the vessel. In such cases, entries are to be made in the relevant log book(s). 1.2.4 Planned Maintenance Systems The Planned Maintenance Systems are designed to incorporate as many items as possible of the vessel's equipment. It is important that maintenance work is kept to the schedule and that the required records are properly maintained. The frequencies given for overhauls/ inspections are, and can only be, guidelines. The trading pattern of the vessel, climatic conditions and operational circumstances must be carefully considered and, when necessary, frequencies increased to cater for the prevailing conditions. The frequencies quoted should therefore be looked upon as minimums. Vessels which do not have formal planned maintenance systems should undertake overhauls and inspections at regular intervals as advised in the manufacturers' instruction manuals. 1.2.5 Critical Equipment and Systems The Company have identified the following equipment and systems as being critical in that should they fail, may result in a hazardous situation Systems identified for programmed testing within the planned maintenance system are: Hull & Cargo Systems Water tight closures Vents Cargo Gear Cargo Pumps Oil Transfer Pipelines Tank Gauging Systems Atmosphere Monitoring and Testing Equipment Inert Gas System Hydraulic Pipelines ODME Bilge System and Equipment
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Safety Fire lines, Pumps, Hydrants and Hoses Fixed Foam System Fixed Gas Extinguishing System Breathing Apparatus and Firemans Outfits Fire Detection and Alarm System Internal Communications Fire Dampers, Vents and Stops Lifeboats, Davits and Equipment Liferafts, Release System, and Equipment Lifejackets, Lifebuoys, and Flotation Aids Instruction Notices and Plans Epirbs and Transponders Permit to Work Systems and Personal Safety Equipment Bridge Radars/ Arpa Speed Log Navigation Lights and Shapes Ships, Gong and Whistle Gyro and Repeaters Auto Pilot and Steering Stand Rudder Indicators Signal Lamp ME Control System and Emergency Stop Internal Communications Equipment Echo Sounder Magnetic Compass Charts and Publications RDF Alarms including UMS Standby/ Backup Equipment and Systems Radio Main Radio Emergency Radio Emergency Batteries. EPIRBS & SARTS Each failure of this equipment or systems is a non conformance. Where the failure has been rectified onboard without need to contact this office and without safety or pollution hazards this is a internal non conformance on the vessel and need not be reported to this office unless a specific problem is reoccurring or the Master feels that other vessels may benefit from feedback due to this incident e.g. Radar antenna fuse blowing. Where external help or spares are required in any form or the threat to safety of the vessel or environment is real, e.g. oil transfer pipeline failure, then the vessel must report it to this office as a non conformance.
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1.2.6 Specialised Equipment Specialised items of equipment may require maintenance by shore based technicians. In these circumstances the vessel advises the Company of the requirements and the responsible FS ashore makes the necessary arrangements for a suitable technician to attend. 1.2.7 Deck Maintenance General deck maintenance is ongoing under the supervision of the FS and the day to day supervision of the Master. A monthly record of work carried out is forwarded to the office by the Master (and Chief Engineer where appropriate). All maintenance and repairs are recorded in the vessels filing system and copies forwarded to the Company. Vessel defects are notified to the responsible FS by Defect Reports or may be telexed if the operational capacity of the vessel is effected. These reports are used to assist in the formulation of a running repair list which forms the basis for riding squad repairs and docking repair lists. 1.2.8 Engine Maintenance Engine and machinery maintenance is an ongoing operation under the supervision of the FS and the day to day supervision of the Chief Engineer. Records of maintenance are forwarded on a monthly basis to the responsible FS. All maintenance and repairs are recorded in the Vessel's Filing System (VFS) and copies forwarded to the Company. The Chief Engineers Monthly Report, Voyage Abstract, Running Hours Report and Survey Reports enable the Company to monitor the maintenance progress and take any supportive/corrective action necessary. 1.2.9 Electrical Maintenance Electrical, navigational and communications equipment are maintained under the day to day supervision of the Master and Chief Engineer. Status reports are forwarded periodically which include operational efficiency of equipment and insulation test results. All records of maintenance and repairs are maintained in the VFS. 1.2.10 Reliability of Equipment In order to maintain an efficient record of reliability of equipment it is required that reports shall be made on any operating problems experienced. 1.2.11 Main Engine Trials Engines must not be turned or trials carried out until the Duty Engineer has confirmed with the Master that the propeller is clear, moorings are adequate and it is safe to do so. When preparing the main engine for manoeuvring after the completion of repairs, or after a period in port or at anchor, a full turn shall be made observing the open indicator cocks, after which the turning gear will be disengaged, thus ensuring that all moving parts are free and clear of fuel and water prior to further test. Before starting the main engine it must be turned on air, with the cylinder indicator cocks open. Steam turbine engines are to be kept up to working temperature by turning the engine at very low RPM whilst the vessel is stopped. Prior to manoeuvring main steam lines must be
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thoroughly warmed through to prevent water damage or thermal shock damage to the turbine. 1.2.12 Lubricating Oils Irrespective of the vessel's trading pattern, the Company requires the taking of lubricating oil samples on a regular basis, as directed by the supplier. The intervals for the taking of these samples must not exceed the following: Main Engine: (slow speed) 3 months Main Engine: (medium speed) 2 months Stern Tube 6 months Alternators 3 months ME Gearbox (where applicable) 3 months C/P Propeller (where applicable) 3 months Other auxiliaries, hydraulic systems etc. 3 months The samples taken from the main engine and the auxiliary engines must be a representative sample with the oil in circulation. It is important that all samples are subsequently taken from the same location. The instructions supplied with the sample kit are to be strictly adhered to when the samples are drawn and sent for analysis. The analysis results will be sent to the Company by the Laboratory. Any abnormalities will immediately be informed to the Chief Engineer. The stern tube system must be tested monthly for water using the on board test kit and the results recorded in the ER log book. When receiving large quantities of lubricating oil a sample must be drawn and retained on board until the next delivery of lubricating oil has been received on board. The main engine sump must be fully charged as recommended by the manufacturer. The main engine lubricating oil must be continuously centrifuged and, when circumstances permit, the engine charge will be transferred to the renovating tank for heating, settling and subsequent return to the crank case through the centrifuge. All lubricating oils must be ordered through the Company. Should any contamination be suspected, the oil samples should be landed at the first available port and the necessary steps taken to prevent machinery damage. The lub oil purifiers must be continuously monitored and maintained to provide optimum efficiency. The C/E must be vigilant to ensure that the lubrication systems are not contaminated by water. Masters and Chief Engineers must be aware that machinery damages resulting from the ingress of water into lubricating systems may not always be covered by underwriters, especially if it can be proved that the vessel's personnel have been negligent. 1.2.13 Electrical Installation The number of alternators on load, either at sea or in port depends upon the vessel's operational and domestic requirements, and must at all times be adequate to ensure the safe continuity of supply. Under normal circumstances at sea only one alternator should be required. During idle periods, main and emergency diesel alternators are to be tested weekly and, where fitted, remote and automatic controls checked. When the vessel is navigating in narrow waters, entering and leaving port etc., the stand-by alternator must be in use and sharing the load on the main switchboard.
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The vessel's shaft alternators if fitted, must not be used for E/R or domestic loads when the vessel is navigating in pilotage waters or during river transits. 1.2.14 Auxiliary Machinery In all cases where duplicate units are fitted, the operating time is to be equally shared between the two units. All automatic changeover devices are to be tested when putting units into service and when shutting them down. Shutdowns should be tested at regular intervals. 1.2.15 Boilers Adjustment of safety valves. It is required that after every survey, the safety valves be adjusted to the correct safe working pressure. This adjustment must be done to the satisfaction of the surveyor on the first occasion when steam is raised on the boiler. Where the firing arrangements are such that normal working pressure of the boiler cannot be attained until the vessel is under way, the safety valves are to be adjusted by the Chief Engineer to the correct safe working pressure. This is to be recorded in the vessels log book and the Classification Society and Company informed by telex. The logbook entry must be presented to the next attending Class Surveyor for verification and to complete the societies records. The Company issues the following advice: a) i) ii) iii) b) i) When the boilers are in service: Proper feed treatment should be administered at all times and alkalinity, suspended solids, and reserve levels maintained within the required parameters. The boiler water tests are to be made at least twice weekly and recorded. Maker's instructions should be followed. During maintenance, routine cleaning and out of service periods: Boilers when not in use should either be kept full of water which is alkaline or completely empty and dry and should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

1.2.16 Emergency Steering Gear The emergency steering gear is to be tested and the vessel steered from the emergency position for at least one hour every three months. A suitable entry is to be made in the Engine Room Log Book recording the test, and the OLB (official log book) or deck log. Instructions for the operation of emergency steering must be posted. Further details on the SOLAS regulations for the testing of steering gear can be found in SOLAS Chapter V Safety of Navigation. These regulations shall be strictly adhered to and regarded as the minimum requirements. USA CFRs require additional testing prior to entering US waters in excess of SOLAS requirements. 1.2.17 Continuous Survey of Machinery Planned Maintenance is carried out by ship's staff and based on the CSM schedule. Additionally, specific items of machinery have running hours recorded and maintenance schedules are based on manufacturers recommendations, and operational experience.
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It is the responsibility of the C/E to ensure that the CSM cycle is maintained up to date. Where applicable the C/E will arrange to progress the CSM and forward to the Head Office a list of items completed. Originals of Classification Interim Certificates are to be retained on board, duplicates are to be forwarded to the Company. 1.2.18 Stern Tubes In vessels fitted with water cooled oil lubricated stern tubes there must always be sufficient water in the lower after peak, (or stern tube cooling tank), to cover the stern tube before using the main engine. 1.2.19 Indicator Cards and Condition Monitoring Indicator diagrams from the main engine, where applicable, must be taken as per Machinery Operation Report instructions or as considered necessary by the Chief Engineer to satisfy himself that the timing and combustion conditions are correct. This information should be forwarded to the Company in the monthly status report. Vessels with main engines fitted with the facilities for obtaining data for the manufacturers performance program, must forward the relevant data to the Company in the monthly status report. This data must be forwarded more frequently if the C/E has reason to believe that poor or reduced performance is suspected. 1.2.20 Vibration Monitoring On specific vessels portable vibration monitoring equipment is provided in order to assess the performance of rotating machinery. The manufacturer's instructions provided with the equipment are to be adhered to. The concept behind the use of this equipment is to identify trends. Therefore the accurate keeping of records and analysis of previous readings are essential in order to identify changes in the levels of vibration present in equipment. By this means, costly breakdowns may be avoided. Conversely routine maintenance may be deferred if the readings taken remain at constant levels. Where not provided by the Company, the Chief Engineer is to list all major rotating and reciprocating machinery for monitoring. Three positions on each item of equipment are to be selected and marked with paint. Tests are carried out on a quarterly basis and the results sent to the FS. The results are used to supplement the maintenance systems. 1.2.21 Testing of Hold/Bilge Suction Lines When testing hold bilge and suction lines there is a possibility for water to flood into the engine room. To avoid this possibility the following practice should be adopted when carrying out these tests. 1. 2. Testing of the suctions is to be carried out using practical pumping tests. Leakage tests on the valves are to be carried out by pressurising the main. Conversely, an inspection as to the condition of the valves may be carried out in lieu of a pressure test, but verification as to the tightness of the valves must be ensured. Hold and ballast suction lines must not be subjected to a pressure greater than 3 bar during testing.
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3. 4.

Tests carried out should be entered in the Deck Log Book. All isolating and crossover valves between the ballast pumping systems and the hold/bilge suctions are to be shut and the pressure in the hold suction lines should be monitored to ensure that over-pressurising of the main is avoided. After pumping of ballast and bilges, the securing and isolating of these individual systems should be checked. The practice of just shutting the minimum number of valves to save time at future pumping must be avoided. During the voyage, soundings of holds should be taken daily. A record of the results should be kept in the Deck Log Book.

5.

6.

1.3 BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE All breakdowns are to be reported by the Master to the Company. In circumstances where the nature of the breakdown may be beyond the capacity of personnel on board to repair, Management ashore will arrange for sub contractor assistance. Details of each breakdown are to be recorded in the vessel's Deck and Engine Log Books, Underwriters and Classification Society are to be informed as deemed necessary by the FS/TD after consultation with the Insurance Manager. 1.4 UPGRADING Where the vessels Owner decides or the Company recommends that certain areas or items of equipment require upgrading, the appropriate FS provides a proposed schedule of work, with estimated costs for approval by the Owner. When agreement is reached, the FS arranges for the necessary materials and resources to be made available. Instructions are then given to the vessel concerned, in writing, according to the conditions contained in the written agreement with the Owner by the appropriate FS. 1.5 MODIFICATIONS May be required by new legislation or to Owners' written requirements. Each vessel's Master may also make recommendations to improve the vessels operating efficiency to the appropriate FS in writing. The Company studies the requests/requirements and submits to the Owner an implementation schedule, with costs. Classification approval, if necessary will be obtained by the FS for any modification. When modifications are to be carried out the vessel is instructed accordingly. 1.6 MONITORING The effectiveness of the maintenance programs are monitored by: Classification Survey Reports and Periodical and Annual Listings The Company reporting system Planned maintenance system database (as applicable) On board Inspections by Company's Management
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Charterers' and Owners' Inspections Internal Safety Audits Frequency of Machinery Failure and consequential off-hire periods.

1.7 CONTINUOUS SURVEY OF MACHINERY (CSM) The Technical Director is responsible for ensuring that approximately 20% of each vessel's CSM items are credited each year. This is monitored by referring to the Periodical and Annual Listings received from the Classification Society. 1.8 STATUTORY/FLAG SURVEYS AND CLASSIFICATION Surveys of hull, machinery, electrical and safety equipment are planned and carried out in accordance with the appropriate rules and regulations. Certificates and periodical printouts from the vessel's Classification Society provide the necessary records of surveys and the next due date for survey. Whenever a Planned Maintenance System is in place, it is co-ordinated with Class requirements in order to avoid duplication of overhauls or inspections. Records are maintained by the Chief Engineer and the FS in the vessels filing system. If the Planned Maintenance System has been approved by Class, Continuous Machinery Surveys (excluding crankshafts, crankshaft bearings and pressure vessels) may be carried out by the Chief Engineer during planned maintenance overhauls, provided the Planned Maintenance System is audited by Class annually. Records of such maintenance is recorded by the Chief Engineer in the vessels filing system. If the Chief Engineer has been given dispensation from Class to undertake Continuous Machinery Surveys, this is taken advantage of whether or not a formal Planned Maintenance System is in place and is recorded by the FS in the vessels filing system maintained by the Technical Department. Records of all surveys are kept in the appropriate files on board the vessel. Copies of survey reports are also kept in the corresponding files in Technical Department for a minimum of 5 years. Inspections by Port State Control and Flag State may be performed unannounced at any time. In such cases the Master, Chief Engineer and ship's staff render full co-operation. The above inspections take priority over commercial and operational considerations. Summary reports are handed to the Master and retained in the VFS with copies to the Technical Department for the attention of the FS and MS. Any non-conformities must be corrected immediately. Where this is not possible due to new equipment/spares being required, the Technical Department are responsible for arranging the supply of such equipment in consultation with the FS and MS. The Technical Department will advise the inspecting authority when all non-conformities are corrected. The vessel's statutory and trading certificates are retained on board for inspection by Port State Control/Flag/Class as appropriate. 1.9 COMPANY REPORTS The Company has a standard set of forms that give positive feed-back on the condition and maintenance status of the monitoring system and affected equipment. The Technical Director is responsible for ensuring this reporting system is complied with. A Master checklist of all reports
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is maintained and incoming reports from vessels verified. The FS scrutinises all reports, takes any necessary action, initials each report before filing by the Fleet Secretary. 1.10 ON BOARD INSPECTIONS Each vessel is inspected by FS, Technical Director or by a representative appointed by the Technical Director at least twice per annum. An inspection report is compiled and signed before submitting to the Master and the Technical Director. A copy is made available for the Owners as required. 1.11 CHARTERERS INSPECTIONS The vessel's FS is responsible for monitoring and recording all charterers, and in the case of tankers, Oil Majors Inspections. The Master is responsible for advising the Company of all inspections carried out. Each vessel may be, with the Owner's permission inspected by Charterers. Reports received by the Company are scrutinised and if deficiencies are noted, the vessel is instructed to take corrective action. The vessel is to report when deficiencies are corrected. The FS and MS are responsible for informing the inspecting company that all deficiencies are corrected. Should corrective action require a period of time to rectify the FS is to advise the inspecting company of this fact immediately. 1.12 DOCUMENTATION Records and reports are kept on board in the Company's Vessel Filing System (VFS) and Deck and Engine Log Books. Where a vessel has a computerised Planned Maintenance System, it is the Chief Engineer's responsibility to maintain the computer files and forward copies to the Company. Copies of all records and reports from the vessel are kept by the Company in the VFS ashore. In the event that a vessel leaves the Company's management, the VFS will be archived for a period in accordance with the Records Procedure or until any outstanding insurance claims are settled, whichever is the later and then destroyed. 1.13 SUB-CONTRACTORS Where a vessel requires assistance from sub-contractors, a quote for the specified work is obtained whenever possible and approved by the FS before a purchase order is generated and the work authorised. If the expenditure is not within the budget or is in excess of limits previously agreed with the Owner, then the Owner is advised. It is the responsibility of the Master and/or Chief Engineer to monitor the performance of the work being carried out if a member of the shore management is not present. On completion of the work the Master and Chief Engineer are to sign for the work completed and verify that the hours on the time sheet are correct. The responsible FS ashore checks the invoice against the work done report/timesheet before authorising payment.
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1.14 PREVENTION OF CRANKCASE EXPLOSIONS Care must be taken to avoid the conditions that are necessary for a crankcase explosion to occur. These are normally caused by excessive local over heating of moving parts and/or blowpast in the case of medium speed engines. Checking of bearing clearances, crankcase inspections and regular LO analysis will significantly reduce the chances of a crankcase explosion occurring. Where vessels are fitted with a mist detector this unit is to be operational at all times. In addition routine inspection of the crankcase and feeling by hand for any hot spots should be carried out. Where vessels are fitted with bearing temperature sensors these should be closely monitored and any significant change in temperature investigated. Should a crankcase overheat the engine should be slowed immediately and stopped as soon as possible. The LO supply should be maintained and the turning gear engaged and operated. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES MUST ANY CRANKCASE DOOR BE OPENED UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN. THE ENGINE MUST NOT BE RESTARTED UNTIL THE CAUSE OF OVERHEATING HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED AND RECTIFIED. 1.15 OPERATIONAL INFORMATION 1.15.1 Valves - General All valves that are not generally opened or closed frequently must be lubricated and regularly operated to ensure that they will operate in an emergency and recorded in the ER log book. 1.15.2 Stops - Scheduled and Unscheduled Stops at sea, due to scheduled or unscheduled circumstances must be clearly defined in the Deck and Engine Room Log Books. Included in unscheduled stops will be any delays that interrupt cargo operations or cause delays during the period from End of Passage arrival to Full Away departure. Where vessels are on charter, the charter party clauses must be fully understood in relation to stops and the possible resultant off hire. 1.15.3 Emergencies The following circumstances constitute an emergency requiring immediate action: a) b) c) Fire or flooding in any space or compartment. Difficulty in complying with orders received from the Bridge. Difficulty in complying with instructions or standing orders for the proper operation of machinery.

In any one of the above circumstances the Duty Engineer must immediately inform the OOW on the Bridge and the C/E. The Duty Engineer should not hesitate before taking immediate action to prevent an emergency situation deteriorating.

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1.15.4 Alteration of Speed Any alteration to the operational speed of the vessel must be agreed between the Master and the C/E. If this conflicts with the instructions received from the Company or Charterer then the reasons for the alteration must be communicated to the Company, with full details recorded in the Deck and Engine Room Log Books. The Duty Engineer must not alter the vessel's speed (pitch or rpm, as applicable) without informing the OOW on the Bridge beforehand, unless it is in response to orders direct from the Bridge or if exceptional circumstances in the engine room call for emergency action. 1.15.5 Starting Aids All persons concerned with the operation of diesel engines are advised to bear in mind the dangers that can arise from the use of volatile low flash point starting fluids in engines, particularly those which are started by admission of compressed air to the cylinders. Regardless of the engine starting arrangements such fluids should always be used in accordance with the makers instructions but never at the same time as cylinder or manifold heater plugs are being used or when the engine is hot. 1.15.6 Heavy Fuel Oil Particular attention is drawn to the makers operation instructions for engines designed to operate constantly on heavy fuel oil. The engine manufacturer's instructions must be observed with all engines when changing from heavy fuel oil to diesel oil operation. 1.16 REPAIRS AND DRY DOCKING 1.16.1 General Prior to carrying out major repairs and/or drydocking the ship, there are a number of considerations to bear in mind as outlined in the following paragraphs. The Company is responsible for ensuring that each vessel is drydocked in accordance with Classification Societies rules. Special circumstances may occur that require the scheduled docking to be brought forward or deferred. In this case the Company advises the vessel's Owner and makes the necessary arrangements. Major refits may be required as a result of unforeseen damage, changes to International Rules and Regulations, or major modifications required by the vessel's Owner. An Advice of Defect system of reporting is maintained. Each vessel's Master/Chief Engineer reports, as necessary, any defects or repairs for inclusion in the docking specification. Each vessel's FS prepares a full docking specification against information obtained from: Classification Society requirements Owners requirements Inspection reports Planned maintenance reports Advice of defects report Incident/damage reports Masters/Chief Engineers reports Changes in legislation, National, Port State and International.

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The docking/refit specification contains advice on the vessel's date of availability and defines the work to be covered in the following areas: General services Drydocking Hull preparation Painting Steel repairs/renewals Deck repairs Engine repairs Electrical repairs Accommodation repairs Outside contractors Surveys.

The completed specification is checked for accuracy and detail and then presented to the Technical Director for authorisation. If required, a copy is forwarded to the vessel's Owner. Once the quotation is approved by Technical Director the authorised specification is tendered to several company approved shipyards for quotation. A comparison summary containing all anticipated expenditure, authorised by the Technical Director, with the Company recommended yard is forwarded to the vessel's Owner for authorisation. On receipt of the Owner's written approval, the contract is awarded by the Technical Director or his designated FS to the selected yard. The vessel is advised of the selected yard and the Master is sent an approved specification. The vessel's Underwriters and Class are informed of the selected yard and the docking schedule. 1.16.2 Inspection and Verification All drydocking/major refits are attended by at least one Company superintendent and/or a representative nominated by the Technical Director. In conjunction with the Company representative, the vessel's Senior Officers monitor the work carried out on board for compliance with the repair specification. The progress of the docking/repair is monitored at a daily meeting attended by both company representatives and responsible shipyard personnel. This meeting ensures that resources are allocated in the most effective manner to enable completion of the docking/repair within time and budgetary limits. All maintenance work carried out by ships staff or sub-contractors is recorded in the VFS on board and by the Company. Additional work, not included in the original specification, is only approved by the attending FS

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1.16.3 Reporting The attending FS forwards progress/status reports, in writing, to the Company and owners as required by the Technical Director. On completion of the docking a full drydock repair report is prepared. This report is forwarded to the Owner and copies kept in the VFS on board and by the Company. A drydocking/repair analysis form is prepared and forwarded to the owner if required and kept in the VFS on board and by the Company. 1.16.4 Alterations of Fittings No structural alterations to the vessel or her fittings, including the re-locating of safety equipment, shall be made without the sanction of the Company. Should this sanction be obtained then the Master and the Chief Engineer must ensure that the appropriate drawings on board are correctly amended. Copies of amended drawings must be forwarded to the Company with all changes highlighted in order for the office copies of the same drawings to be similarly amended. Stability information must reflect any substantial changes BEFORE the vessel leaves the ship yard or repair berth. The Master and the C/E must liaise with the Company on this matter as a matter of extreme importance. Additional steelwork may result in the requirement for an inclining experiment to be carried out. 1.16.5 Supervision of Repairs It is usual for all work in connection with the dry docking, repair and upkeep of the ship to be carried out under the supervision of the vessel's FS. Additions to the original specification shall not be put in hand without the permission of the FS or the Company. It is the responsibility of the vessel's staff to thoroughly test and prove satisfactory all repairs and for quality control and report any defects to the FS. Regular meetings between the vessel's senior officers, superintendent and repairer are held to monitor work progress and discuss difficulties and work schedule. 1.16.6 Dry Docking Before entry into drydock, the C/E is responsible for ensuring that the bilge wells and engine room tank tops are dry and that all double bottom tank lids are in place and secured. Fire pumps, sanitary pumps and sewage unit pumps are to be isolated when the vessel is dry docked and the shore fire main has been connected. Before the vessel enters dry dock the C/E and C/O must discuss and decide upon the distribution of both ballast and bunkers to obtain the correct docking condition and thus avoid undue stress to the hull when the vessel takes the blocks. Records of the draft forward and aft, and the ullages or dips of water or oil in double bottom tanks, peaks, cofferdams and bunker compartments, must be entered on the Dry Dock Report and in the E/R and Deck Log Books. 1.16.7 Dry Dock Inspection When the dock is dry, the outside and bottom of the hull, propeller, rudder etc. must be inspected by the Master, Chief Engineer and the Company's representative to ascertain the condition and if any damage has been sustained since the previous docking.

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1.16.8 Gas Free Certificate During repair periods no space is to be considered Gas Free unless a gas free certificate has been obtained and maintained. The certificate must state whether the space is gas free for hot-work or entry only. 1.16.9 Boiler Blow Down When it is necessary to steam a boiler during dry dockings the blow down valves and cocks must be secured to prevent accidental discharge into the dry dock. 1.16.10 Undocking Prior to flooding the dock the C/E and Master will satisfy themselves that all drain plugs are properly fitted and that all sea valves are shut. All such plugs should be held by C/O whilst removed. Distribution of weight and trim of the ship must be the same on leaving dry dock as on entering. Special sanction must be obtained from the FS in charge of repairs and from the Docking Authorities for any departure from this instruction. The C/E is to station Officers to inspect all sea connections and hull repairs while the dry dock is being flooded. Flooding is to be stopped before the vessel lifts off the blocks and a full examination is to be carried out to ensure that the vessel is watertight. 1.16.11 Repairs in service When essential repairs are required, the Company must be informed by telex or cable giving the nature of the work to be undertaken, the time required, likely delays to vessel. Under no circumstances must repairs be initiated without the prior consent of the Company. 1.16.12 Repair Lists and Advice of Defects The Chief Engineer is to continually advise the Fleet Superintendent, of all outstanding repair items. There items will form the basis of a drydock repair specification for the vessel and must be noted on the appropriate company form. Whenever goods are landed for repair, shipment or storing the Company must be advised on the appropriate company form. 1.16.13 Major Spare Gear Many of our vessels carry major items of spare gear such as tailshafts, thrust bearings, tailshaft coupling bolts, main engine studs and main and cross head bearings. Much of this equipment, particularly the latter, is susceptible to corrosion on the machined portion. This equipment is extremely valuable. To ensure readiness, equipment should be adequately protected from the elements and the bearing surfaces cushioned on lead. The use of sacking and canvas should be avoided as this tends to attract dampness when the oil/grease level falls and pockets of moisture form which then cause pitting. 1.17 BUNKERS AND BUNKERING Prior to bunkering the vessel, there are a number of considerations to bear in mind as outlined in the following paragraphs. 1.17.1 Liaison The C/E will liaise closely with the Master to ensure that sufficient bunkers and lubricating oils are on board to meet operational requirements in accordance with general instructions. A
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daily log entry is to be made showing the bunkers and lubricating oils remaining on board. All bunker receipts are to be signed by the Chief Engineer. 1.17.2 Bunkers - Safety Margin The Master must ensure that the quantity of bunkers stemmed is sufficient to enable the vessel to arrive at the next bunkering port with an adequate safe margin of usable oil. Although the Master should consider the relative bunker costs and other commercial factors involved, he must consider all aspects of the vessels minimum stability requirements, the weather prospects and ensure a minimum safe margin. Normally this would be 5 days fuel oil and 7 days diesel oil where used for aux. engines. 1.17.3 Specification Prior to commencement of bunkering the Chief Engineer must obtain from the supplier a specification of the fuel being supplied to ensure that this fully meets with the engine manufacturers' limitations on fuel quality. The Company should be advised immediately if this specification is unacceptable. Bunkers should not be accepted without further authorisation. 1.17.4 Blending Fuel oils are generally blends of different grades of oil. These oils will separate out if left in tanks for long periods. Bunkers should not be shipped unless they have been blended ashore and under no circumstances shall they be shipped in separate parcels and mixed in the vessels bunker tanks. When bunkering ex-barge it is important to ascertain that any blending has been carried out ashore before shipment. 1.17.5 Bunkering Procedures The C/E must ensure that all personnel engaged in bunkering operations are thoroughly familiar with the vessel's bunkering arrangements including air pipes, valves and sounding pipes. Prior to commencement of bunkering all pipework, air vent pipes and flame screens must be examined to ascertain that air and gas can escape freely. Unused connections must be properly blanked with all bolts fitted. Blanks must be refitted to the bunker connection being used immediately on completion of bunkering operations. It is important that bunker tanks are free of water before taking bunkers. New bunkers should as far as possible be segregated from bunkers remaining on board and not used until an analysis has confirmed that they are acceptable. Bunkering procedures with a fuel pipeline plan must be permanently displayed at the bunkering station and ECR. The procedures must clearly state who is in charge of the operations and the communications procedures that are to be adopted. Emergency stop instructions are to be clearly stated. Before bunkering operations can be allowed to begin, the C/E must ensure that the quantity to be delivered can be safely received by the vessel and that the pumping rate (tonnes/hour) is agreed with the supplier. All measuring equipment to be used throughout the operation must be checked for accuracy prior to commencement. The C/E must ensure that continuous supervision by Officers is maintained during the bunkering operation. and the C/E must ensure by careful ullaging/sounding, that the specified quantity has been received. The bunker manifold must be attended at all times during the operation.
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Heavy and diesel bunkering must not be carried out concurrently and no internal transfers of heavy or diesel should take place during bunkering operations. 1.17.6 Samples Sealed samples drawn off during bunkering in the presence of the C/E must be retained on board for a period of twelve months. If samples are not delivered on board, the Company must be advised. 1.17.7 Fuel Quality Testing Programme Unless otherwise advised all Vessels are entered in a Fuel Quality Testing Programme. Samples drawn off during bunkering in the presence of the supplier's representative should be sent off without delay. Samples must be taken by the continuous drip method throughout the whole bunkering operation. Batch samples cannot be considered as being representative samples. 1.17.8 Pollution Prevention Every precaution to prevent spillage must be taken and the C/E must be in attendance throughout bunkering operations and during any transfer of bunkers. Pollution prevention measures must be taken. Should weather conditions develop or be likely to develop into an electrical storm bunkering operations should be stopped, tank openings and valves should be closed. It should be noted that this instruction applies to all vessels. Oil spill equipment must be deployed before operations commence. The Company requires that all manifold and airpipe containment should be plugged and clearly marked with the capacity of the saveall in US barrels. The above procedure is also to be followed when transferring sludge ashore. 1.17.9 Microbiological Degradation Care must be taken to prevent occurrence for fuels and LO's, particularly those that are likely to remain unconsumed for a prolonged period. Seawater is the primary source of the microbes, therefore it is essential to check that bulk storage tanks are clean and dry. 1.18 TANK/HOLD INSPECTIONS The Master is to inspect cargo tanks and fuel oil tanks at least every 2 years. All other holds, tanks and enclosed spaces are to be inspected at least once per year. When carrying out inspections Masters of bulk carriers should carry out the following procedure: After discharge the following specific hold checks should be carried out. 1. 2. Toe or root of lower bracket connection to hopper tanks. Toe or root of upper bracket connection to topside tanks.
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3. 4.

Welded attachment of frames to ship's shell and to brackets. Deformation of frames and brackets

Special attention should be paid to the forward two holds and to the aftermost hold. 1.19 UNSCHEDULED INSPECTIONS The Technical Director will ensure that the FS directly responsible for the vessel visits the vessel at least twice per year and formulates full reports which are evaluated by the Technical Director. 1.20 TESTING OF EQUIPMENT 1.20.1 Machinery Alarms and Shutdown Devices It is the responsibility of the Chief Engineer to ensure that machinery alarms and emergency shutdown devices are at all times functional. Dates and results of last test/simulation should be recorded in the alarm checklist as submitted to the classification society. Details of any alarm or device found to be faulty should be entered in the engine room log book. All primary equipment used in the above procedure shall be subject to a check as to its fitness for purpose. 1.20.2 Smoke/Fire Detection and Alarm Systems It is the responsibility of the Master to ensure that the smoke and fire detection and alarm systems are tested in accordance with makers instructions. Records of tests and results are kept in the Solas Maintenance Record book. 1.20.3 Fixed and Portable Gas Detection Equipment

Fixed O2 Meter For IG System The Chief Engineer is responsible for ensuring that prior to using the I.G. system the fixed O2 meter is calibrated using span gas. The results are to be recorded in the E.R. log book. Portable Gas Detection Equipment The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that portable gas analysers are tested before use and at least once per month. The results of tests using the appropriate span gas in accordance with the manufacturers instructions are kept. 1.20.4 Gauges and Tools The Chief Engineer is responsible for ensuring that all critical pressure gauges (excluding those covered by classification CSM) are checked annually. Where a deadweight tester is on board this may be used for the testing of pressure gauges but must itself be checked ashore annually. Torque wenches are to be sent ashore annually for accuracy checks. All micrometers, verniers and dial gauges should be tested prior to use by the means of slip and thickness gauges and at least once per year the results of these tests should be recorded.

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The Chief Engineer should notify the FS in good time when equipment requires to be sent ashore for accuracy checks. 1.21 OPERATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR DUTY ENGINEERS 1.21.1 Introduction The Chief Engineer shall supplement this operational guidance with written instructions/ standing orders as appropriate. This section contains operational guidance for Engineer Officers in charge of a watch (Duty Engineer) Every Duty Engineer must appreciate that efficient performance of his duties is necessary in the interest of the safety of life and property at sea and the prevention of pollution of the marine environment. 1.21.2 Engineering Watch Underway

General The Duty Engineer is the Chief Engineer's representative and his primary responsibility, at all times, is the safe and efficient operation and upkeep of machinery affecting the safe operation of the ship. He should ensure that at all times Bridge orders relating to changes in speed or direction of operation are immediately implemented. The Duty Engineer shall ensure that the established watchkeeping arrangements are maintained. Under his general direction, engine room ratings, if forming part of the watch, should assist in the safe and efficient operation of the propulsion machinery and auxiliary equipment. The Duty Engineer should keep the main propulsion plant and auxiliary systems under constant supervision until properly relieved. He should also ensure that adequate tours of the machinery and steering gear spaces are made for the purpose of observing and reporting equipment malfunctions or breakdowns, performing or directing routine adjustments, required upkeep and any other necessary tasks. The Duty Engineer should take all action necessary to contain the effects of damage resulting from equipment breakdown, fire, flooding, rupture, collision, stranding, or other cause. The Duty Engineer should ensure that all members of the watch are familiar with the number, location and types of fire-fighting equipment and damage control gear, their use and the various safety precautions to be observed. The Duty Engineer should be aware of potential hazards in the machinery spaces which could cause injury, and be able to administer first aid. The Duty Engineer should continue to be responsible for machinery space operations despite the presence of the Chief Engineer in the machinery spaces, until the Chief Engineer informs him specifically that he has assumed that responsibility and this is mutually understood. The Duty Engineer should direct any other member of the watch to inform him of potentially hazardous conditions which may adversely affect the machinery and jeopardise the safety of life or the ship. The Duty Engineer should ensure that the machinery space watch is supervised and arrange for substitute personnel in the event of the incapacity of any watch personnel. The watch
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should not leave the machinery spaces unsupervised in a manner which would prevent the manual operation of the engine room plant. 1.21.3 Taking Over the Watch The Duty Engineer should not hand over the watch to the relieving Duty Engineer if he has reason to believe that the latter is obviously not capable of carrying out his duties effectively, in which case he should notify the Chief Engineer accordingly. The relieving Duty Engineer should satisfy himself that the members of his watch are apparently fully capable of performing their duties effectively. The relieving Duty Engineer should not take over the watch until he has examined the engine room log and checked that it is in accordance with his own observations. Prior to taking over the watch the relieving Duty Engineer shall follow any supplementary orders left by the Chief Engineer. 1.21.4 Periodic Checks of Machinery It is the responsibility of the Duty Engineer to periodically inspect the machinery in his charge. Such inspection should verify that: a) b) c) d) e) f) Main and auxiliary machinery, control systems, indicating panels and communications systems are functioning satisfactorily. Steering system and all associated gear are functioning satisfactorily. Water levels are properly maintained in boilers and heat exchanger equipment. Engine or boiler exhausts indicate good combustion characteristics and soot has been blown where applicable. Condition of the bilges with respect to water level and contamination is satisfactory. Various piping, including control and machinery systems piping are free from leaks, functioning properly and being adequately maintained; special attention is given to pressurised oil piping.

1.21.5 Engine Room Log Before going off duty, the Duty Engineer should ensure that all events related to the main and auxiliary machinery which have occurred during the watch are suitably recorded. 1.22 PREVENTIVE AND REPAIR MAINTENANCE The Duty Engineer should co-operate with any engineer officer in charge of maintenance work during the watch to ensure the following are suitably recorded: a) b) Isolating and bypassing machinery to be worked on. Adjusting the remaining plant to function adequately and safely during the maintenance period.

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c)

Recording, in the Engine Room log or other suitable document, the equipment worked on and the personnel involved, the safety steps taken and by whom, for the benefit of relieving engineer officers and for record purposes. Testing and putting into service, where necessary, the repaired machinery or equipment.

d)

The Duty Engineer should ensure that any engine room ratings who perform maintenance duties are available to assist in the manual operation of machinery in the event of automatic equipment failure. 1.23 BRIDGE NOTIFICATION The Duty Engineer shall bear in mind that changes in speed, resulting from machinery malfunction or loss of steering, may imperil the safety of the ship and life at sea. The Bridge should be immediately notified of impending actions in machinery spaces that may cause a reduction in ship's speed, imminent steering failure, stoppage of the ship's propulsion system or any alternation in the generation of electric power or similar threat to safety. This notification, where possible, should be accomplished before changes are made, in order to afford the Bridge the maximum available time to take whatever actions are possible to avoid a potential marine casualty. 1.23.1 Navigation in Congested Waters When navigating in confined or congested waters the Duty Engineer should ensure that all machinery involved with the manoeuvring of the ship can immediately be placed in manual modes of operation . The Duty Engineer should also ensure that an adequate reserve of power is available for steering and other manoeuvring requirements. Emergency steering and other auxiliary equipment should be ready for immediate operation. 1.23.2 Navigation During Restricted Visibility The Duty Engineer should ensure a permanent supply of air pressure for fog sound signals. He should be ready to respond to any bridge orders and should ensure, in addition, that auxiliary machinery used for manoeuvring is readily available. 1.24 CALLING THE CHIEF ENGINEER The Duty Engineer should notify the Chief Engineer without delay, in the following circumstances: i) ii) iii) iv) When engine damage or malfunctions occur which in his opinion are such as to endanger the safe operation of the ship. When malfunctions occur which in his opinion may cause damage or breakdown of propulsion machinery, auxiliary machinery or monitoring and governing systems. In emergencies or in situations when he is in doubt as to what decision or measures to take. In other circumstances as required in the Chief Engineers standing orders.

Despite the requirement to notify the Chief Engineer in the foregoing circumstances, the Duty Engineer should in addition not hesitate to take immediate action for the safety of the ship, its machinery and crew. 1.25 WATCHKEEPING PERSONNEL The Duty Engineer should give the watchkeeping personnel all appropriate instructions and information which will ensure the keeping of a safe watch. Routine machinery upkeep, performed as incidental tasks as a part of keeping a safe watch, should be set up as a part of the watch routine. Repairs and maintenance involving to electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic or applicable
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electronic equipment throughout the ship should be performed with the cognisance of the Duty Engineer and the Chief Engineer. These repairs shall be recorded. 1.26 ENGINEERING WATCH AT AN UNSHELTERED ANCHORAGE When the ship is at anchor in an open roadstead or any other virtually 'at sea' condition, the Duty Engineer shall ensure that: a) b) c) d) e) An efficient watch is kept. Periodic inspection is made of all operating and stand-by machinery. Main and auxiliary machinery is maintained in a state of readiness in accordance with orders from the Bridge. Measures are taken to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and that applicable pollution regulations are complied with. All damage control and fire-fighting systems are in readiness.

1.27 ENGINEERING WATCH IN PORT This section applies to a ship in service while in port, safely moored or safely at anchor and relates to the requirements for watchkeeping by Engineer Officers during these periods. Particular requirements may be necessary for special types of propulsion systems or ancillary equipment and for ships carrying hazardous, dangerous, toxic or highly flammable materials or other special types of cargo. 1.27.1 Watch Arrangements The Chief Engineer of every ship is bound, in consultation with the Master, to ensure that the engineering watchkeeping arrangements are adequate to maintain a safe engineering watch while in port. When deciding the composition of the engineering watch, which may include appropriate engine room ratings. The following points are among those to be taken into account: a) b) c) d) e) f) Type of ship. Type and condition of the machinery. Special modes of operation dictated by weather, ice, confined or shallow water, emergency conditions, damage containment or pollution prevention. Qualifications and experience of the ratings forming part of the watch. Safety of life, ship, cargo, port and the environment. Observance of international, national and local rules.

Under the direction of the Chief Engineer, the Duty Engineer is responsible for inspection and testing, as required, of all machines and equipment under his responsibility. The composition of the watch shall, at all times, be adequate to ensure the safe operation of all machinery related to cargo operation, the safety of the ship, the port and its environment.
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The Duty Engineer while in charge of a watch, should not be assigned or undertake any task or duty which would interfere with his supervisory duty in respect of the ship's machinery system.

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