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INTRODUCTION

A Yagi-Uda antenna is familiar as the commonest kind of terrestrial TV antenna to be found on the rooftops of houses. It is usually used at frequencies between about 30MHz and 3GHz, or a wavelength range of 10 metres to 10 cm. The rod lengths in a Yagi-Uda are about a half wavelength each, and the spacings of the elements are about 1/3 of a wavelength. Yagi-Uda antenna is called after two Japanese engineers, Yagi and Uda, who researched how parasitic elements affect the directional properties of an antenna. An array of parallel, straight antenna elements, one or more driven and one or more parasitic, was originally called a YagiUda array. In recent years this has been shortened to Yagi. Sometimes an antenna of this kind is called a beam. Still most yagis are for tv-reception and they are also used for more specialized purposes with transmitting too. It is the most popular directional array antenna on the radio amateur bands from 14MHz through VHF and UHF. It is sometimes seen on the 30 and 40 meter bands too. Most hams use rotators with their Yagi arrays so that the antenna can be pointed in any horizontal direction. Yagis Design Now let's take a look at the design of the yagi antenna and the elements. Again, in an antenna with parasitic elements, those elements connected to the transmission line are called driven elements. In most parasitic arrays, there is one driven element, one reflector, and one or more directors. The driven element The driven element(s) is/are connected to the feed line. In yagi antennas for ham radio, there is usually just one driven element. This element is sometimes physically shortened by inductive loading. It might contain traps so that it resonates on more than one band. It is half wave resonant, is center fed, and by itself would be a dipole antenna. The driven element can be either as an electrically separate dipole or together with the boom and the other elements, as a gamma match. When several parasitic antennas are operated together, such as in a collinear or stacked array, there are several driven elements. Each driven element receives a portion of the output power of the transmitter. Generally, the power is divided equally among all of the driven elements. [In some phased arrays, all of the elements are driven.] The driven element in a parasitic array is always resonant at the operating frequency. The parasitic elements are usually (but not always) slightly off resonance; the directors are generally tuned to a

higher frequency than that of the driven element, and the reflector is generally set to a lower frequency (thus longer). The impedance of the driven element, at the feed point, is a pure resistance when the antenna is operated at its resonant frequency. When parasitic elements are near the driven elemt, the impedance of the driven element is low compared to that of a dipole in free space. For the purpose of providing an impedance match between a driven element and a transmission line, the driven element can be folded or bent into various configurations. Among the most common matching systems are the delta, gamma and T networks. Sometimes the driven element is a folded dipole rather than a single conductor.

The driven element is a dipole.

Dipole as the driven element The basic design uses a dipole as a driven element. It is resonant when the electrical length is 1/2 of the wavelength, for the used frequency, applied to the feed point. Folded Dipoles are commonly used in Yagi design. Gamma match on the driven element A gamma match makes it easier to adjust the antenna. It matches the impedance of the feedpoint which is rarely is 50 Ohm, to the 50 Ohm coax. On Yagi antennas with more than 4 elements, the impedance at the feedpoint becomes low (like 20 Ohms).

With a gamma match driven element, the elements may be, or not be electrically connected.

Parasitic elements - Reflector Director A parasitic element is an element that is not directly connected to the feed line. Parasitic elements are used for the purpose of obtaining directional power gain. Generally, parasitic elements can be classified as either directors or reflectors, hence they work in opposite ways. Parasitic elements operate by electromagnetic coupling to the driven element. Parasitic elements are parallel to a radiating element, at a specific distance from it, and of a certain length, causes the radiation pattern to show gain in one direction and loss in the opposite direction. For many years now, Yagi's principle is used at high frequencies by amateur and commercial radio operators. At high frequencies, parasitic elements are often used in directional antennas. The most common of these are the quad antenna and the Yagi.

MATERIALS USED Coaxial cable

Aluminum Rod Boom

Four Element

Antenna Balun transformer

Cable Ties

COMPUTATIONS

Channel 13 Frequency: 210-216 MHz Median Frequency:

Driven Element:

Reflector: 0.55 = 0.7746m Director 1: 0.45 = 0.6338m Director 2: 0.40 = 0.5634m Yagi 4 element Spacing: Reflector to Driven Element: 0.19 = 0.2676m Director 1 to Driven Element: 0.16 = 0.2253m Director 1 to Director 2: 0.16 = 0.2253m

FINAL OUTPUT:

DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY DASDMARINAS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE AND TECHNOLOGY ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

FINAL OUTPUT IN TRANSMISSION LABORATORY

YAGI-UDA ANTENNA

SUBMITTED BY: ALMIRA, RANEL DELA CRUZ, BERNARD LANSANGAN, RYANN NADELA, PRECIOUS SUNGA, LUIS GABRIEL ZURBITO, STEPHEN LOUIS ECE 52 SUBMITTED TO: ENGR. CONRADO MONZON DATE OF SUBMISSION: OCTOBER 2012