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GSM Global System for Mobile Communication. Switching, Services and Protocols.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. J. Eberspcher, HansJrg Vgel


Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze (Institute for Communication Networks) Technische Universitt Mnchen (Munich University of Technology), Arcisstr. 21, 80290 Mnchen, Germany http://lkn.ei.tum.de/

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Contemporary and future mobile communication systems


Packet Radio Private Mobile Radio Analog cellular systems C-Netz, NMT, AMPS Analog cordless phone Cordless public telephone Satellite systems Inmarsat Paging systems Mobile data networks, mobile IP, Wireless LAN (HIPERLAN, 802.11) Digital trunked radio TETRA Digital cellular systems GSM Digital cordless systems Cordless PBX, DECT Wireless Local Loop WLL Radio in the Local Loop RTLL Satellite systems LEO, MEO Paging systems ERMES UMTS IMT 2000 Mobile ATM

1st generation
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2nd generation

3rd generation
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Milestones in the evolution of GSM


Year Event 1982 Groupe Spcial Mobile established by the CEPT. 1987 Essential elements of wireless transmission are specified, based on prototype evaluation (1986). Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) Association founded in September with 13 members from 12 countries. 1989 GSM becomes an ETSI Technical Committee (TC). 1990 The Phase 1 GSM900 specifications (designed 1987 through 1990) are frozen. Adaption to DCS1800 commences. 1991 First GSM networks launched. The DCS1800 specifications are finalized. 1992 Most European GSM networks turn commercial by offering voice communication services. Some 13 networks in 7 countries are on air by the end of the year. 1993 First roaming agreements in effect By the end of 1993, 32 networks in 18 countries are operational.
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Year Event 1994 Data transmission capabilities launched. The number of networks rises to 69 in 43 different countries by the end of 1994. 1995 MoU counts 156 members from 86 countries. After the GSM standardization Phase 2 including adaptations and modifications for the PCS1900 (Personal Communication System) is passed, the first PCS1900 Network is launched in the USA. Facsimile, data and SMS roaming starts. Videosignals are transmitted via GSM for demonstration purposes. An estimated 50 000 GSM base stations are in use all over the world. 1996 January: 120 networks in 71 countries operational. June: 133 networks in 81 countries operational. 1997 July: 200 GSM networks from 109 countries operational, amounting to 44 million subscribers worldwide.

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Simplified twopath model of radio propagation

h1

h2

L 2ph 1h 2 h 1h 2 4 PE + P0 + P0 2 2 lL (4pL l) L
2 2

P E2 L1 aE + + P E1 L2

L1 a E + 40 log [dB] L2
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Typical signal in a channel with Rayleigh fading

Received signal level/dB

typ. 3040 dB

 l/2
heavily impacted undisturbed time slot
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Distance

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Frequency selectivity of a mobile radio channel


broadband Received signal level/dB narrowband

narrowband

f
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Frequency and time duplex


frequency duplex transmitter receiver
transmission filter reception filter

band gap

Duplexing Unit time duplex transmit Uplink receive T receive Downlink transmit

transmit

receive f

transmit Uplink receive

receive Downlink transmit t

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Multiple access procedures

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

FDMA system channels

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

TDMA channels on multiple carrier frequencies

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

TDMA with use of frequency hopping technique

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Propagation delay and synchronization (TDMA)


Downlink Uplink advance BTS

propagation delay
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher


time

delay

Uplink without advanc collision without advance Downlink MS 1 Uplink

distance

Downlink MS 2 Uplink

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Spread spectrum technique for direct sequence CDMA


1 bit binary 0 1 0

bipolar +1 data sequence 1 bipolar +1 spreading sequence 1 spread signal


+1 1 1 Chip
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signal spectrum

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Simplified scheme of code division multiple access (uplink)

d1(t) c1(t)

modulator MS 1 demodulator BTS

d1(t) c1(t) d2(t) c2(t)

d2(t) c2(t)

modulator MS 2

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mulitpath signal at an antenna array


b 1 s 1(t) + s 1(t) b 2 s 1(t) b 3 s 1(t) D l 2p q3 D l 2p D l 2p

q1 q2

antenna elements

a 2(q i) AAA a M(q i)


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a 1(q i)

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Schematic representation of spatial multiple access

d1(t)

modulator MS 1 demodulation & separation BTS MS 2

d1(t) d2(t)

d2(t)

modulator

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Model of a cellular network with frequency reuse


D D

cochannel interference
D D

MS user signal

2R
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Frequency reuse and cluster formation


1 6 6 5 4 6 5 4 1 3 5 7 2 6 1 4 3 1 3 5 4 7 2 7 2 6 1 3 5 4 5 4 7 2 6 1 3 1 3 1 3 5 4 7 2 1 3 2 1 3
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2 4 3 1 3 4 2 4 3 2

1 4 2 3 1 4

2 3 1 4 2 3 2 3

7 2 6 1 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 7 2 1 4 1 2

k=4

k=7

k=3

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Cell structure of a real network

31 35 30 33 36 38 38 33 32 21 23 27 35
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21 22 29 31 23 33 28 30 32 36 30 22 21

36

32 30 26 33 31

38 21

35 30

38

28

33
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM system hierarchy


GSM Network (PLMN)

MSC Region

MSC Region

Location Area

Location Area

BS Controller Cell DDD Cell

BS Controller DDD BS Controller DDD


Location Area

DDD

MSC Region

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Evolution of a GSM network in Germany End of 1992 Total completion Cells approx. 500 approx. 7000 BSC 7 20 50 MSC 7 20 50

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM system architecture with essential components PLMN & Internat.


ISC MS BTS

OMC

BSC MSC EIR

PSTN ISDN PDN


GMSC

BTS MS

BSC

AUC HLR MS BTS VLR MS Mobile Station HLR Home Location Register BTS Base Transceiving Station VLR Visited Location Register BSC Base Station Controller EIR Equipment Identity Register MSC Mobile Switching Center AUC Authentication Center GMSC Gateway MSC ISC International Switching Center OMC Operation and Maintenance Center
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mobile equipment personalization with the SIM

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Components of the GSM radio network


OMC PLMN PSTN & Internat. ISDN PDN ISC BSC GMSC BTS MS BTS MS
MS HLR VLR EIR AUC OMC

MS

BTS

BSC

MSC EIR AUC

HLR

VLR

BTS BSC MSC GMSC ISC

Base Transceiving Station Base Station Controller Mobile Switching Center Gateway MSC International Switching Center
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Mobile Station Home Location Register Visited Location Register Equipment Identity Register Authentication Center Operation and Maintenance Center 24
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Components of the GSM mobile switching network


OMC

PLMN & Internat.


ISC

MS

BTS

BSC GMSC BSC MSC EIR AUC HLR

PSTN ISDN PDN

BTS MS BTS MS
MS HLR VLR EIR AUC OMC

VLR

BTS BSC MSC GMSC ISC

Base Transceiving Station Base Station Controller Mobile Switching Center Gateway MSC International Switching Center
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Mobile Station Home Location Register Visited Location Register Equipment Identity Register Authentication Center Operation and Maintenance Center 25
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Components of the GSM OMSS


OMC

PLMN & internat.


ISC

MS

BTS

BSC MSC EIR AUC

PSTN ISDN PDN

GMSC BTS MS BTS MS


MS HLR VLR EIR AUC OMC

BSC

HLR

VLR

BTS BSC MSC GMSC ISC

Base Transceiving Station Base Station Controller Mobile Switching Center Gateway MSC International Switching Center
V 31.1.2000-26

Mobile Station Home Location Register Visited Location Register Equipment Identity Register Authentication Center Operation and Maintenance Center 26
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of addresses and pertinent data bases

MSC (SPC) IMEI

LMSI MSRNIMSI TMSI MSISDNLAI

VLR (SPC) EIR Equipment (IMEI) Cell (CI,LAI) BTS (BSIC)

IMSI MSISDN MSRN

Subscriber (IMSI, MSISDN, TMSI, MSRN) IMSI RAND SRES Ki Kc


HLR (SPC) AUC
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

V 31.1.2000-27

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mobile subscriber data in the HLR


Subscriber and subscription data International Mobile Subscriber Identity IMSI International Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number MSISDN Bearer and telesevice subscriptions Sevice restrictions, e.g. roaming restrictions Parameters for additional services Information on the subscribers equipment (if available) Authentication data (subject to implementation) Tracking and routing information Mobile Station Roaming Number MSRN Current VLR address (if available) Current MSC address (if available) Local Mobile Subscriber Identity LMSI (if available)

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mobile subsriber data in the VLR


Subscriber and subscription data International Mobile Subscriber Identity IMSI International Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number MSISDN Parameters for supplementary services Information on subscriber-used equipment (if availiable) Authentication data (subject to implementation) Tracking and routing information Mobile Station Roaming Number MSRN Temporary Mobile Station Identity TMSI Local Mobile Subscriber Identity LMSI (if available) Location Area Identity LAI of LA, where MS was registered (used for paging and call setup) i d ll t )

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Signaling and user data transport in a GSM PLMN


MSC AUC HLR MSC VLR VLR VLR

PSTN ISDN PDN


GMSC

EIR BTS MS
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AUC BSC HLR user data signaling data


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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

BTS

MS

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Interfaces in a GSM PLMN

EIR F E BSC A Um BTS MS MS-SIM VLR G VLR


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MSC

MSC C B D HLR

BTS

Abis

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Basic configuration of a GSM PLMN

SP HLR SP VLR SP GMSC MSC BTS MS


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PSTN ISDN

SP

SP

BSC

MSC

BTS

MS
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Configuration of a GSM PLMN with a VLR for each MSC

SP HLR SP SP GMSC VLR MSC MSC BTS MS


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PSTN ISDN

SP

SP

HLR

VLR

BSC

VLR

BTS

MS
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Bearer and teleservices


Teleservices Bearer services PLMN section section outside of PLMN TE (MS) GSM Interworking network Function IWF Transit network Terminating network TE (MS)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Phases of implementation and introduction


Class E1 E2 Introduction 1991 1994 Services Basic operation consisting of telephone services and some appropriate supplementary services Extended operation with telephone services , first non-speech services (e.g. BS26) and an extended range of supplementary services Enhanced service range with even more telecommunication and supplementary services

E3

1996

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM bearer services (excerpt)


Service Data Structure BS no. asynch 21 22 23 24 25 26 31 32 33 34 41 42 43 Bit rate [bit/s] 300 1200 1200/75 2400 4800 9600 1200 2400 4800 9600 300 1200 1200/75 Mode T or NT T or NT T or NT T or NT T or NT T or NT T T or NT T or NT T or NT T or NT T or NT T or NT Transmission UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI or 3.1 kHz UDI UDI UDI
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Data

synch

PAD

asynch

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Service PAD

Structure BS no. asynch 44 45 46 51 52 53 61 81

Packet

synch

Altern. speech/ data Speech followed by data

Bit rate Mode [bit/s] 2400 T or NT 4800 T or NT 9600 T or NT 2400 NT 4800 NT 9600 NT 13 000 or 9600 13 000 or 9600

Transmission UDI UDI UDI UDI UDI UDI

T, NT = transparent, non transparent UDI = Unrestricted Digital Information PAD = Packet Assembler/Disassembler asynch, synch = asynchronous, synchronous

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM teleservices (excerpt)


Category Speech Short Message Services TS no. 11 12 21 22 23 31 41 42 43 51 61 62
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MHS access Videotex access

Teletext transmission Fax transmission

Service Telephone Emergency call Short Message Mobile Terminated, Point to Point Short Message Mobile Originated, Point to Point Short Message Cell Broadcast Access to Message Handling Systems Videotex access profile 1 Videotex access profile 2 Videotex access profile 3 Teletext Speech and fax group lt ti 3 alternating Fax group 3 automatic ti T NT T NT

Class E1 E1 E3 A

A A A A A E2 A

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of GSM supplementary services (GSM Phase 1)


Category Abbrev. Call Offe- CFU ring i CFB CFNRy CFNRc Call R ti Restriction BAOC BOIC BAIC BOICexHC BICRoam
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Service Call Forwarding Unconditional Call Forwarding on Mobile Subscriber Busy Call Forwarding on No Reply Call Forwarding on Mobile Subscriber Not Reachable Barring of All Outgoing Calls Barring of Outgoing International Calls Barring of All Incoming Calls Barring of Outgoing International Calls Except Calls to Home PLMN Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming outside the Home PLMN

Class E1 E1 E1 E1 E1 E1 E1 A

A
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of GSM supplementary services (GSM Phase 2)


Category Number Identification Abbrev. CLIP CLIR COLP COLR MCI Call Offering CT MAH Community of In- CUG terest Charging AoC FPH
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Service Calling Line Identification Presentation Calling Line Identification Restriction Connected Line Identification Presentation Connected Line Identification Restriction Malicious Call Identification Call Transfer Mobile Access Hunting Closed User Group Advice of Charge Freephone Service

Class A A A A A A A A E2 A
40

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Category Charging Add. Information Transfer Call C l ti Completion

Abbrev. REVC UUS CW HOLD CCBS 3PTY CONF

Service Reverse Charging User-to-User Signaling Call Waiting Call Hold Completion of Call to Busy Subscriber Three-Party Service Conference Calling

Class A A E3 E2 A E2 E3

Multi-Party

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Classification of logical channels in GSM


Traffic Channels Bidirectional Signaling Channels Unidirectional, Unidirectional, Bidirectional Downlink Down- or Uplink Traffic Channel Broadcast Common Control Dedicated Control TCH Channel BCH Channel CCCH Channel DCCH Full-rate channel Broadcast Control Random Access Standalone Bm Channel BCCH Channel RACH Dedicated Control Channel SDCCH Half-rate channel Synchronization Access Grant Associated Lm Channel AGCH Control Channel Channel SCH ACCH Frequency Paging Channel Slow Associated Correction Channel PCH Control Channel FCH SACCH Fast Associated Control Channel FACCH
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Logical channels of GSM Protocol Layer 1


Channel type Net data Block length throughput [bit] [kbit/s] 13.0 182+78 standardization standardization in progress in progress 12.0 60 6.0 60 3.6 72 9.2 184 4.6 184 598/765 184 115/300 168+16 299/765 168+16 598/765 184 n*598/765 184 p*598/765 184 r*27/765 8 Block distance [ms] 20 standardization in progress 5 10 20 20 40 3060/13 480 6120/13 3060/13 3060/13 3060/13 3060/13
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TCH (full-rate speech) TCH (half-rate speech) TCH (data, 9.6 kbit/s) TCH (data, 4.8 kbit/s) TCH (data,  2.4 kbit/s) Full-rate FACCH Half-rate FACCH SDCCH SACCH (with TCH) SACCH (with SDCCH) BCCH AGCH PCH RACH
V 31.1.2000-43

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Channel combinations offered by the base station


Bm B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 Lm Lm
FACCH SACCH SDCCH

FCCH SCH BCCH CCCH

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Channel combinations used by the mobile station


Bm M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 Lm Lm
FACCH SACCH SDCCH

BCCH CCCH

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Logical channels and signaling


MS Paging Request Immediate Assignment Authentic. Req. Cipher Mode Com. Setup Assignment Command PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH TCH Paging Response Auth. Response Cipher Mode Compl. Call Conf. Assign Compl. Alert Connect Data
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

BSS/MSC Channel Request

Connect Ack. Data


V 31.1.2000-46

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Steps of GSM digital modulation

d i(t)

Differential encoding

a i(t)

Transm. filter

(t)

Phase modulation

x(t)

d i + ( d i ) d i*1 ) mod 2; d i g(t) + h(t) <rect (t T) 1 T rect (t T)+ 0 h(t) +


V 31.1.2000-47

(0; 1)

a i + 1 * 2d i

for for

|t | t T 2 |t | w T 2 ln 2 s + ; BT + 0, 3 2pBT
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

1 exp * t 2 2s 2T 2 2p sT

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Impulse responses for the building blocks of the GMSK filter


rect(t/T) h(t) 1 2p sT

1/T

T/2

T/2

t
t*iT

(t) +
i

a i ph
*R

g(u) du

x(t) +
V 31.1.2000-48

2E c cos(2pf 0t ) (t) ) 0) T
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Impulse response g(t) of the frequency filter (transmitter filter)


1.0 BT=0.3 BT=0.1 BT=0.5 BT=1.0 0.8

0.6

g(t)
0.4 0.2 0.0 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t/T
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Carrier frequencies, duplexing and TDMA frames


960 MHz 959.8 MHz 124 123 ... 200 kHz ... ... 2 935.2 MHz 1 935 MHz 915 MHz 914.8 MHz 124 123 ... ... ... 200 kHz 2 890.2 MHz 1 890 MHz
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Downlink 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Data burst, 156.25 bit periods = 15/26 ms  576.9 ms Delay

8 Uplink

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Bursts of the GSM TDMA procedure


1 signaling bit (stealing flag) 3 tail bits

8.25 bit guard period

Normal Burst Frequency Correction Burst Synchronization Burst Dummy Burst

3 3

57 data bits

26 bit training 57 data bits sequence

3 8.25 3 8.25

142 fixed bits

64 bit training se39 data 39 data 3 quence (synchroniza- bits 3 8.25 bits tion sequence)

26 bit training sequence 3

3 8.25

Access Burst
V 31.1.2000-51

8 41 bit training 36 data bits sequence

68.25
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM full rate traffic channel with frequency hopping


TDMA frame frequency 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 012345 Downlink frequency 2 01234567 (mobile station frequency 3 receiving) frequency 4 01234567 delay frequency 1 Uplink (mobile frequency 2 station frequency 3 transmitting) frequency 4 Downlinks of adjacent cells frequency 5 (mobile station frequency 6 monitoring)
V 31.1.2000-52

01234567 01234567 01234567

012

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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Typical power spectrum of a BCCH Carrier


spectral power density

FCCH

10 dBm

67 kHz

939.8 MHz
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940.2 MHz

frequency 940.6 MHz


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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Values T2 and T3 for the calculation of RFN

50 T3 25 T2 0 51 2 1 0 51
V 31.1.2000-54

FN

(T3 T2)mod26 102 FN


54
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Simplified synchronization timers


QN 624 0

BN 156 0 7 0

time

TN

time

FN

2715647

time

0
V 31.1.2000-55

time
55
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Generation of the GSM frequency hopping sequence

FN(T1,T2,T3) MAIO HSN


HSN + 0 Yes M + (T2 ) RNTABLE [HSN XOR MAI + (FN ) MAIO) mod N ((T1 mod 64) ) T3)] M T
+ (M mod 2 INT(log2(N))1)) + (T3 mod 2 INT(log2(N))1)) M t N Yes No

No

S + (M

) T ) mod N

S + M

MAI + (MAIO ) S) mod N

RFCHN + MA[MAI]
V 31.1.2000-56

56
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Operation of Timing Advance


Downlink
without timing advance

Uplink
with timing advance

propagation delay Timing Advance time


V 31.1.2000-57

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Collision without timing advance Downlink


without timing advance

Uplink
with timing advance

57
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Timing for RACH random multiple access


Downlink BTS Uplink

AB Guard Period Uplink MS Downlink Propagation Delay Time


V 31.1.2000-58

58
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM frame structures

2048 Hyperframe

1 1 2

25

26 50 51 Superframe

50 51 1 2 25 26 26-frame Multiframe
59
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

51-frame Multiframe

V 31.1.2000-59

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM multiframes Multiframe with 26 frames ( Traffic, Associated Control ) 120 ms 1 2 12 13 14 25 26

TDMA frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

12

13

14

50

51

Multiframe with 51 frames, (3060/13) ms=235.4 ms


V 31.1.2000-60

60
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Channel organization in a 26 frame multiframe


1 TC1 2 TC2 12 TC12 13 AC 14 TC13 25 26

TC24 IDLE/ AC

TC + (FN div 51) mod 8

V 31.1.2000-61

61
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Channel organization in a 51frame multiframe


Downlink Uplink
1 FS B 10 C FS C 20 C FS C 30 C FS C 40 C FS C 50 C

BCCH+ SDCCH RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR

FS B C FS C C F S D0 D1 F S D2 D3 F S A2 A3 BCCH+ CCCH+ SDCCH D3 RR A2 A3 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 RR D2

Downlink

FS

FS

F S D0

D1 F S D2

D3 F S A0

A1

Uplink Downlink
SDCCH+ SACCH

D3 RR A0 D0 D0 A5 A1 D1 D1 A6 A2 D2 D2

A1 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D3 D3 D4 D4 D5 D5 D1 D1 D6 D6 D2 D2 D7 D7 D3 D3 A0 A4 D4 D4 A1 A5 D5 D5

D1 RR D2 A2 A6 D6 D6 A3 A7 D7 D7 A0 A4

Uplink

A7 D0 A3 D0

F: TDMA frame for frequency correction bursts S: TDMA frame for synchronization burstsB: TDMA frame for BCH C: TDMA frame for CCCH
V 31.1.2000-62

R: TDMA frame for RACH

D: TDMA frame for SDCCH

A: TDMA frame for SADCH

62
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mapping of frame number onto BCCH message


TC 0 1 2, 6 3, 7 4, 5 System information message Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 any (optional)

V 31.1.2000-63

63
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

SACCH block format bit number 8 1 octet number 2 3 layer 2 data (21 octets) ... 23
V 31.1.2000-64

7 free

power level timing advance

free

64
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principal operation of the radio subsystem link control


Init BSS_Power_Control BSS_HO_Control Measuring Measurement Info (Up/ Downlink, adjacent BCCH) Calculate mean values: RXLEV & RXQUAL Up/Downlink RXLEV(n) n adjacent cells RXLEV/RXQUAL UL/DL TO BSS_Power_Control PWR_CTRL Waiting
V 31.1.2000-65

start transmitter power control process start handover control process

PWR_CTRL Waiting

PWR_CTRL _SUCCESS Connection closed RXLEV/RXQUAL UL/DL RXLEV_NCELL, Power OK, TO BSS_HO_Control

PWR_CTRL _FAIL

RXLEV/RXQUAL UL/DL RXLEV_NCELL, Power FAIL,TO BSS_HO_Control

Measuring
65
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Measurement range of the received signal level


Level RXLEV_0 RXLEV_1 . . . RXLEV_62 RXLEV_63 Received signal level From To 110 dBm 110 dBm 109 dBm . . . . . . 49 dBm 48 dBm 48 dBm

V 31.1.2000-66

66
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Measurement range of bit error ratio


Level RXQUAL_0 RXQUAL_1 RXQUAL_2 RXQUAL_3 RXQUAL_4 RXQUAL_5 RXQUAL_6 RXQUAL_7 Bit error ratio From To 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 0.8% 1.6% 1.6% 3.2% 3.2% 6.4% 6.4% 12.8% 12.8%

V 31.1.2000-67

67
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Synchronization with adjacent cells during a call


120 ms 1 12 13 14 26 1 12 13 14 26 1 12 13 14 26

Search Frame TCH TCH SACCH TCH IDLE

TCH Up/Downlink MS

FCCH
V 31.1.2000-68

CCCH CCCH

CCCH FCCH SCH

BCCH other BTS


68

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Principle of FCCH search during the search frame


240 ms 1 51 1 1 1 1 1 1 31 1 1 1 11
V 31.1.2000-69

11 31 11 41 21 41 11 41 21 1 21 1 1

21

26 1

31 11 31 11 41 11 41 21 21 41

41 21 1

26 51 26 26 26 26

11 31 11 41 11 41 21 21 1 41

21 1

26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 31 26 1 26 1 31

26 1 51 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 31 26 1 26 1 26 1 11

21 1

21 1 31 1 31

26 26 26
69

11 41

31

31

26 1

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

GSM power classes


Power class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Max. peak transmission power Mobile station Base station 20 W (43 dBm) 320 W 8 W (39 dBm) 160 W 5 W (37 dBm) 80 W 2 W (33 dBm) 40 W 0.8 W (29 dBm) 20 W 10 W 5W 2.5 W

V 31.1.2000-70

70
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Thresholds for transmitter power control


Threshold parameter L_RXLEV_UL_P L_RXLEV_DL_P L_RXQUAL_UL_P L_RXQUAL_DL_P U_RXLEV_UL_P U_RXLEV_DL_P U_RXQUAL_UL_P U_RXQUAL_DL_P Typical value 103 to 73 dBm 103 to 73 dBm Meaning

Threshold for i i Th h ld f raising of f transmission power in uplink or downlink

Th h ld f reducing of f Threshold for d i transmission power in uplink ower u link or downlink

V 31.1.2000-71

71
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Schematic operation of transmitter power control

Init Info Waiting Mean RXLEV/ RXQUAL UL/DL


Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel
V 31.1.2000-72

RXLEV_UL<L_xx_P RXQUAL_UL>L_xx_P Yes

No

RXLEV_DL<L_xx_P RXQUAL_DL>L_xxP Yes Yes 2

No

MS transm. power max. ? No Power Increase TO MS 1

...

BTS transm. power max. ? No Power Increase TO BTS 1

Yes

72

Schematic operation of transmitter power control (2)


No 1 Yes

RXLEV_DL<U_xx_P RXQUAL_DL>U_xx_P

BTS transm. power max. ? Yes

No Power Increase TO BTS No Power Increase TO MS 2 1

No

RXLEV_UL<U_xx_P RXQUAL_UL>U_xx_P

MS transm. power max. ?

...

Yes

Yes

V 31.1.2000-73

73
Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Schematic operation of transmitter power control

PWR_CTRL_SUCCESS TO BSS_LINK_CONTROL

PWR_CTRL_FAIL TO BSS_LINK_CONTROL

Info Waiting

Info Waiting

V 31.1.2000-74

74
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MS disconnect procedure
Start SACCH Waiting Correct SACCH message S< RADIO_LINK_ TIMEOUT Yes S := S + 2 Non-decodable SACCH message S := S 1 No S <= 0 No Power Control, Timing Advance etc. SACCH Waiting
V 31.1.2000-75

S := RADIO_LINK_TIMEOUT SACCH Waiting

Yes

Radio Link Failure Indication TO MM

75
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

BCCH search in the power density spectrum (schematic)

Stored BCCHlist Network BCCHRFCHN 200 kHz

V 31.1.2000-76

76
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Schematic representation of speech functions (transmitter)


VAD Voice Activity Detection

VAD

Voice, 13 bit 8000 samples/s

Speech Coder

Voice Frame

DTX Discontinuous Transmission

Comfort Noise Synthesizer


V 31.1.2000-77

SID Frame
77
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Schematic representation of speech functions (receiver)


Bad Frame Replacement

BFI

Voice Frame

DTX Discontinuous Transmission

Voice Decoder

Voice, 13 bit 8000 samples/s

SID Frame
V 31.1.2000-78

Comfort Noise Synthesizer


78
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Simplified block diagramm of the GSM speech coder


Short-term LPC analysis 1 Voice data preprocessing Short-term analysis filter RPE analysis and encoding RPE decoding and analysis 1 Reflection coefficient 2 RPE parameter 3 LTP parameter 447 bit/20 ms 49 bit/20 ms 36 bit/20 ms 260 bit/20 ms LTP analysis
V 31.1.2000-79

Long-term analysis filter 3

79
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Simplified block diagramm of the GSM speech decoder


1

RPE 2 decoding and analysis

Short-term synthesis filter

Long-term synthesis filter Voice data preprocessing 3


V 31.1.2000-80

80
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MOS results of codec hearing tests


CODEC FM SBC-ADPCM SBC-APCM MPE-LTP RPE-LPC RPE-LTP Process Frequency Modulation Subband-CODEC Adaptive Delta-PCM Subband-CODEC Adaptive PCM Multi-Pulse Excited LPC-CODEC Long Term Prediction Regular-Pulse Excited LPC-CODEC Regular Pulse Excited LPC-CODEC Long Term Prediction Adaptive Delta Modulation Bit rate [kbit/s] 15 16 16 13 13 MOS 1.95 2.92 3.14 3.27 3.54 4 4

ADPCM

32

V 31.1.2000-81

81
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Stages of channel coding


External error protection Internal error protection

Block code

Convol. code

Interleaving

Deinterleaving

Convol. decoder

Parity check

V 31.1.2000-82

82
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Error protection coding and interleaving of logical channels


Channel type Abbr. Bit per block Data TCH, full-rate Voice Class I Voice Class II TCH, full-rate, 9.6 kbit/s TCH, full-rate, 4.8 kbit/s TCH, half-rate, 4.8 kbit/s TCH, full-rate, 2.4 kbit/s TCH, half-rate, 2.4 kbit/s FACCHs TCH/FS 182 78 TCH/F9.6 TCH/F4.8 TCH/H4.8 TCH/F2.4 TCH/H2.4 FACCH 460 60 460 72 72 184 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 4 0 4 16 4 4 4 4 1/2 244/456 1/3 244/456 1/6 1/3 1/2 Parity Tail Convol. code rate Encoded bits per block 456 (378) (78) 456 228 456 456 228 456 Interleav. leav depth 8

19 19 19 8 19 8
83

V 31.1.2000-83

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Channel type

Abbr.

Bit per block Data Parity Tail 40 4

Convol. code rate 1/2

Encoded bits per block 456

Interleav. leav depth 4

BCCH, AGCH, PCH

RACH SCH

BCCH, AGCH, PCH RACH SCH

184

8 25

6 10

4 4

1/2 1/2

36 78

1 1

V 31.1.2000-84

84
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of block coding for logical channels


TCH Voice FACCH SACCH BCCH, PCH AGCH, SDCCH RACH SCH TCH Data 2.4 kbit/s Other N0 bit N0 bit

260 bit

184 bit

184 bit

P0 bit

Cyclic Code + Tail

Fire Code + Tail

Cyclic Code + Tail

Tail

267 bit

228 bit

228 bit

P1 bit

N1 bit

N1 bit

V 31.1.2000-85

85
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Feedback shift register for CRC

D(x) + D 49 x 49 ) D 48 x 48 ) AAA ) D 1 x ) D 0 x 3 @ D(x) R(x) + Remainder G CRC(x) C(x) S(x) + Remainder + Remainder G CRC(x) u(k) + d(2k) d(2 (184 * k) ) 1) p((k * 91) ) 1) 0 x 3 D(x) ) R(x) + x2 ) x ) 1 G CRC(x) k + 0, AAA , 90 k + 94, AAA , 184 k + 91, 92, 93 k + 185, AAA , 189
86
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

V 31.1.2000-86

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Block formation for data traffic channels


Data channel TCH/F9.6 TCH/F4.8 TCH/F2.4 TCH/H4.8 TCH/H2.4 N0 4  60 2  60 2  36 4  60 4  36 Tail bits 4 2  16 4 4 24 N1 244 2  76 76 244 2  76

V 31.1.2000-87

87
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Block lengths for the RACH and SCH channels


Data channel RACH SCH P0 8 25 Redundancy Tail bits bits 6 4 10 4 P1 18 39

V 31.1.2000-88

88
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Cyclic codes used for block coding in GSM


Channel TCH/FS DCCH and CCCH (part.) RACH SCH Polynomial x3+x+1 (x 23 + 1) (x 17 + x 3 + 1)

x6+x5+x3+x2+x+1 x 10 + x 8 + x 6 + x 5 + x 4 + x 2 + x + 1

V 31.1.2000-89

89
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of a convolutional coder


G 0(d)

di

K=5

n+2

cj

G 1(d) r + k n ; in GSM : r GSM + 1 v GSM + 1 2 G 0(d) + d 4 ) d 3 ) 1 G 1(d) + d 4 ) d 3 ) d ) 1


90
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

V 31.1.2000-90

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of convolutional coding for logical channels


TCH Voice FACCH SACCH BCCH, PCH AGCH, SDCCH RACH SCH TCH Data 2.4 kbit/s other

267 bit

228 bit

228 bit

2  P1 bitP1 bit

N1 bit N1 bit

Convol. code K=5, 2 classes

Convol. code K=5, rate=0.5

Convol. code K=5, rate=r

456 bit

456 bit

456 bit

456 bit 456 bit

V 31.1.2000-91

91
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Generating polynomials for convolutional codes


Type G0 G1 G2 G3 Polynomial 1+d3+d4 1+d+d3+d4 1+d2+d4 1+d+d2+d3+d4

V 31.1.2000-92

92
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Usage of generating polynomials


Channel type TCH, full-rate Voice Class I Voice Class II TCH, full-rate, 9.6 kbit/s TCH, full-rate, 4.8 kbit/s TCH, half-rate, 4.8 kbit/s TCH, full-rate, 2.4 kbit/s TCH, half-rate, 2.4 kbit/s FACCHs SDCCHs, SACCHs BCCH, AGCH, PCH RACH SCH
V 31.1.2000-93

Generating polynomial G0 G1 G2 G3

93
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Interleaving, spreading and merging

Spreading

Merging

V 31.1.2000-94

94
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Distributing bit errors through deinterleaving

Interleaving Signal

Despreaded Signal
95
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

V 31.1.2000-95

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of block interleaving Interleaving Matrix

Write

Read

V 31.1.2000-96

96
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Transmission delay caused by interleaving


Channel type TCH, full-rate, voice TCH, full-rate, 9.6 kbit/s TCH, full-rate, 4.8 kbit/s TCH, half-rate, 4.8 kbit/s TCH, full-rate, 2.4 kbit/s TCH, half-rate, 2.4 kbit/s FACCH, full-rate FACCH, half-rate SDCCH SACCH/TCH SACCH/SDCCH BCCH, AGCH, PCH Interleav. depth 8 22 (19) 22 (19) 22 (19) 8 22 (19) 8 8 4 4 4 4 Transmission delay [ms] 38 93 93 185 38 185 38 74 14 360 14 14

V 31.1.2000-97

97
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview: interleaving of logical channels


RACH SCH SACCH BCCH, PCH AGCH, SDCCH 456 bit TCH Voice 456 bit FACCH TCH Data 2.4 kbit/s Other 456 bit 456 bit Diagonal interleaving & stealing flags Subblocks

2  P1 bit

456 bit

Bit sorting, partitioning & stealing flags 8 subblocks, 57 bits each Block interleaving of subblocks Diagonal interleaving of subblocks pairs of 57-bit subblocks Intraburst interleaving pairs of subblocks
V 31.1.2000-98

98
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Interleaving TCH/FS: block mapping


Data block n

B+1

B+2

B+3

B+4

B+5

B+6

B+7

Interleaving block Even Odd Bit positions Data block n+1


V 31.1.2000-99

99
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mapping of data block n onto interleaving block B


0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 392 400 408 416 424 432 440 448

14 16 28 30 42 44 56 58 70 72 84 86 98 100 112
V 31.1.2000-100

100
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mapping onto a burst


Interleaving block b Normal burst

hl(b)

hu(b)

57 data bits

26 bit training sequence

57 data bits

8.25

V 31.1.2000-101

101
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Insertion of a FACCH message into the TCH/FS data stream


FACCH message

TCH/FS Data block n

B hu=1 hl=0

B+1 hu=1 hl=0

B+2 hu=1 hl=0

B+3 hu=1 hl=0

B+4 hu=0 hl=1

B+5 hu=0 hl=1

B+6 hu=0 hl=1

B+7 hu=0 hl=1

Data block n1
V 31.1.2000-102

Data block n+1


102
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Encrypted transmission of the temporary subscriber identity


MS LAIold, TMSIold BS/MSC/VLR

Resource setup and ciphering commencement

Assign TMSInew
Ciphered(TMSInew) Ack.

V 31.1.2000-103

103
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Clear text transmission of the IMSI when the TMSI is unknown


MS LAIold, TMSIold BS/MSC/VLR TMSIold unknown Request ID IMSI Resource setup and ciphering commencement Assign TMSInew

Ciphered(TMSInew) Ack.
V 31.1.2000-104

104
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of subscriber authentification


MS Network IMSI RAND Ki Ki

A3 SRES SRES

A3

=
V 31.1.2000-105

105
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Generation of a set of security data for the HLR


HLR Authentication Information Request (IMSI) Ki RAND A3 & A8 Kc Authentication Information (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES) SRES AUC

V 31.1.2000-106

106
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Highly secure authentication (no transmission of Ki)


BS/MSC/VLR Authentication Information Request IMSI RAND[n] generation HLR/AUC

Ki

A3 Authentication Vector Response (RAND[n],SRES[n])


V 31.1.2000-107

107
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Weakly secure authentication (transmission of Ki to VLR) MS VLR

IMSI

Ki

RAND

Ki

A3 SRES SRES

A3

=
V 31.1.2000-108

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Encryption of payload data in the GSM transport chain

Block code Convol. code Interleaving

User data encryption

Burst building

Differential coding and modulation

Trans ceiver

V 31.1.2000-109

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Generation of the cipher key Kc MS Network


IMSI

RAND Ki

Ki

A8

A8

Kc
V 31.1.2000-110

Kc
110
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of symmetric encryption of user data MS BTS

Data

Kc

Kc

Data

A5

A5

Kc(Data)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Combining payload data stream and ciphering stream


Synchronization Kc FN A5 Key flow 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 Key flow 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Kc A5 FN

User data flow 1 0 1 1 0 0 1

User data flow 1 0 1 1 0 0 1

Ciphering
V 31.1.2000-112

Deciphering
112
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Synchronized start of the ciphering process MS


Start ciphering

BS/MSC/VLR

Start of deciphering Start of ciphering and deciphering

Correctly decipherable message

Start of ciphering
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Logical channels at the air interface (ISDN reference model)

V 31.1.2000-114

114
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

User data and control at the air interface


Dm Signalling User Data (SMS) Bm User Data Layer 3

Multiplex

Layer 2 Layer 1

SDCCH

SACCH

TCH

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Connection elements

Radio Interface Connection Element MS GSM-specific signaling BSS

A Interface Connection Element MSC ISDN-specific signaling

V 31.1.2000-116

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Speech transmission in GSM

Voice
TRAU GSC GSC ALaw MPX MSC BSS MSC Interface
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ITU-T A-Law

FEC MS (MT0)

FEC MPX BSS

Radio Interface
V 31.1.2000-117

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

BTS architecture variations and TRAU placement


BTS 1 TRAU TRX BCF TRAU TRX TRAU TRX BCF MSC BSC TRX TRAU TRX BCF TRX TRX BCF BTS 2

BTS 3

BTS 4
BCF Base Control Function TRX Transceiver TRAU Transcoding and Rate Adaptation Unit
118
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TRAU

Inband remote control


V 31.1.2000-118

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM protocol architecture for speech (TRAU at BTS site)


MS BTS BSC MSC

GSM Voice

GSM Voice

ISDN Voice

FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA

FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA

G.703 G.705 G.732

G.703 G.705 G.732

G.703 G.705 G.732

Um
V 31.1.2000-119

Abis

A
119
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM protocol architecture for speech


MS
GSM Voice FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA G.703 G.705 G.732

BTS
TRAU Inband Sign.

BSC
GSM Voice Sub-Ch. ISDN Voice G.703 G.705 G.732

MSC
TRAU at BSC site
G.703 G.705 G.732

G.703 G.705 G.732

Um
GSM Voice FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA

Abis Sub-channel multiplex & InbandTRAUSign.


TRAU Inband BSCMSCLink Sign. G.703 G.705 G.732

A
GSM Voice Sub-Ch.

BSCMSCLink
ISDN Voice

TRAU at MSC site


G.703 G.705 G.732

FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA

G.703 G.705 G.732

G.703 G.705 G.732

Local Interface

Um
V 31.1.2000-120

Abis

A
120
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM protocol architecture for transparent data


TE MS BTS User data each one with bit rate adaptation e.g. X.21 X.25 V.24 L1 BSC MSC/IWF

FEC Cipher TDMA FDMA

FEC Cipher G.703 TDMA G.705 FDMA G.732

IWF G.703 G.703 G.705 G.705 G.732 G.732 G.703 G.705 G.732 L1

Um
V 31.1.2000-121

Abis

A
121
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM protocol architecture for nontransparent data


User MS BTS BSC MSC/IWF

Layer 2 Relay L2R IWF each one with bit rate adaptation

e.g. X.21 X.25 V.24

NTP

RLP TDMA G.703 FDMA G.705 G.732 G.703 G.703 G.705 G.705 G.732 G.732 A

RLP G.703 G.705 G.732

NTP IFP

IFP

TDMA FDMA

Um
V 31.1.2000-122

Abis

122
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Frame structure of the RLP protocol


Header 16 bit User data 200 bit Check sum FCS 24 bit

Bit number 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 6 1 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 P/F M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 1 P/F N(R)

Control1 C/R 1 frame 2 C/R S1 S2 0 Information frame C/R S1 S2


V 31.1.2000-123

N(S)

P/F

N(R)
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM protocol architecture for signaling


MS
CM MM BSSMAP DTAP Layer 3 RR RR Layer 2 LAPDm Layer 1 TDMA FDMA LAPDm TDMA FDMA BTSM LAPD MTP G.703
G.705 G.732

BTS

BSC
CM MM BSSMAP

MSC

MAP TCAP SCCP MTP ISDN UP

RR BTSM LAPD
G.703 G.705 G.732

SCCP MTP

DTAP

SCCP MTP

Um

Abis

B,C,E

CM Connection Management MM Mobility Management RR Radio Resource Management LAPDm Link Protocol (specially adaptet for air interface Um) BTSM Base Transceiving Station Management BSSMAP Base Station System Management Application Part
V 31.1.2000-124

DTAP Direct Transfer Application Part SCCP Signaling Connection Control Part TCAP Transaction Capabilities Application Pa MTP Message Transfer Part MAP Mobile Application Part User Part UP

124
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Layer 3 protocol architecture at the MS side


MNCC-SAP CC MMREG-SAP Layer 3 Signaling MNSS-SAP SS MNSMS-SAP SMS MMCC/SS SMS/SAP MM RR-SAP RR (De) Multiplexing

RACH SACCH FACCH SDCCH AGCH +RCH BCCH

SACCH SDCCH

SAPI 0

SAPI 3

V 31.1.2000-125

125
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Distribution of functions between BTS, BSC and MSC


BTS BSC MSC Terrestrial Channel Management MSC-BSC-Channels Channel allocation Blocking indication BSC-BTS-Channels Channel allocation Blocking indication Mobility Management Authentication Location Updating Call Control Radio Channel Management Channel Coding/Decoding Transcoding/Rate Adaptation Interworking Function
V 31.1.2000-126

X X X X X X X X X X
126
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

BTS BSC MSC Measurements Uplink measuring Processing of reports from MS/TRX Traffic measurements Handover BSC internal, intracell BSC internal, intercell BSC external Recognition, decision, execution HO access detection X X X X X X X X X X X

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

BTS BSC MSC Paging Initiation Execution Radio Channel Management Channel Configuration Management Frequency Hopping Management Execution TCH Management Channel allocation Link supervision Channel release Idle channel observation Power control determination X X X X X X X X X X X

V 31.1.2000-128

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

BTS BSC MSC SDCCH Management SDCCH allocation Link supervision Channel release Power control determination BCCH/CCCH Management Message scheduling management Message scheduling execution Random access detection Immediate assign Timing Advance Calculation Signalling to MS at random access
V 31.1.2000-129

X X X X

X X X X X X
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

BTS BSC MSC Timing Advance Signalling to MS at handover/during call Radio Resource Indication Report status of idle channels LAPDm Functions Encryption Management Execution X

X X X X

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Protocol interfaces in the mobile network


MSC MAP TCAP ISUP SCCP ISUP Signaling ISUP SCCP MTP SCCP SCCP MAP Signaling MSC MAP TCAP MAP Signaling HLR/VLR MAP TCAP HLR/VLR MAP TCAP

MTP

MTP

MTP

Interface E SCCP TCAP

Interface B, C

Interface D,G

MTP Signaling Connection Control Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part MAP ISUP
V 31.1.2000-131

Message Transfer Part Mobile Application Part ISDN User Part


131
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

International signaling relations via ISDN


Foreign Countries GMSC MAP TCAP SCCP MTP ISC ISC ISDN PLMN GMSC MAP TCAP SCCP MTP MTP MTP

Inter Transit Exchange Network Exchange MAP Signaling relations

ISUP SCCP

ISUP SCCP

ISUP

ISUP

ISUP

ISUP

MTP

MTP

SCCP TCAP

MTP Signaling Connection Control Part Transaction Capabilities Application Part MAP ISUP
V 31.1.2000-132

Message Transfer Part Mobile Application Part ISDN User Part


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Protocol architecture for SMS transfer


MS MSC SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC SMS-SC

SMTP SMSIWF SMRP SMRP MAP MAP

SMTP

SMCP SMCP (CM: SMS) (CM: SMS)

GSM MM Connection
V 31.1.2000-133

SS#7 Connection

e.g. X.25 Connection


133
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Layer 1 service interfaces


Signaling Plane Radio Resource Management (Layer 3) Data Link Layer (Layer 2) User Data Plane

Traffic Channel TCH

AGCH+PCH

SDCCH

SACCH

FACCH

RACH

BCCH

Physical Layer (Layer 1)


134
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V 31.1.2000-134

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

State diagram of a mobile stations physical layer

NULL

BCH

Idle Mode

Search. BCH

Tuning DCH

DCH Dedicated Mode

V 31.1.2000-135

135
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Format of a SACCH block


Bit number 8 7 free free 6 5 4 3 Power level Timing Advance Layer 2 data (21 octets) 2 1

Octet number

1 2

V 31.1.2000-136

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

... 23

136
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Logical channels, operational modes and Layer 2 SAPIs


Logical Channel BCCH CCCH SDCCH SACCH assoc. with SDCCH SACCH assoc. with TCH FACCH SAPI=0 Unacknowledged Unacknowledged Unacknowledged and Acknowledged Unacknowledged SAPI=3 Unacknowledged and Acknowledged Unacknowledged and Acknowledged

Unacknowledged Unacknowledged and Acknowledged

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Sample configuration of the MS data link layer


Layer 3 SAPI 0 DLP DLP DLP DLP DLP DLP RA (UI) (UI+I) (UI+I) (UI) (UI+I) DLP (UI+I) SAPI 3

Data Link Distribution Proc. SDCCH AGCH+PCH SACCH BCCH FACCH RACH

Layer 2 Layer 1

DLP RA UI/I

Data Link Procedure Random Access Procedure (Un)acknowledged Operation


V 31.1.2000-138

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

LAPDm frame formats


Type A Octet number
1 k k+1 k+2 n n+1 N201+n

Bit number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Address

Type B
Control
1 k k+1 k+2 n n+1 N N+1 N201+n

Bit number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Address

Length Indicator Fill Bits

Octet number

Length Indicator Information Fill Bits

Bit number Type Bbis 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Octet number

1 m m+1 N N+1 N201+m


V 31.1.2000-139

Octet number

Length Indicator Information Fill Bits

Bit number Type Abis 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


1 m m+1 N201+m

Length Indicator Fill Bits


139
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Logical channels and LAPDm information field max. length


Logical channel SACCH SDCCH, FACCH BCCH, AGCH, PCH N201 18 octets 20 octets 22 octets

V 31.1.2000-140

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Format of a Um signaling message (Layer 3)


Bit number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bit number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1 Call Control and callrelated suppl. services 1 0 1 Mobility Management 1 1 0 Radio Resource M. 0 0 1 SMS messages 0 1 1 Non-call-related suppl. services

Octet number

1 Transaction IDProtocol Discrim. x x x x 0 2 0 Message Type 0 0 1 Information Element ID k 1 IE Content k+1 n n+1 Information Element ID Length Indicator

V 31.1.2000-141

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

RR messages
Category Message Logical channel DCCH CCCH CCCH CCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH DCCH Direction MT-Code N -> MS N -> MS N -> MS N -> MS N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS MS -> N MS -> N MS -> N N -> MS MS -> N MS -> N N -> MS 00111011 00111111 00111001 00111010 00110101 00110010 00101110 00101001 00101111 00101011 00101100 00101000 00101101
142
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Channel Additional Assignment Establishment Immediate Assignment Immediate Assignment Extended Immediate Assignment Rejected Ciphering Ciphering Mode Command Ciphering Mode Complete Handover Assignment Command Assignment Complete Assignment Failure Handover Access Handover Command Handover Complete Handover Failure Physical Information
V 31.1.2000-142

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Category Channel Release

Message

Channel Release Partial Release Partial Release Complete Paging Paging Request, Type 1/2/3 Paging Response System System Information Type 1/2/3/4 Information System Information Type 5/6 Miscellaneous Channel Mode Modify Channel Mode Modify Acknowledge Channel Request Classmark Change Frequency Redefinition Measurement Report Synchronization Channel Information RR-Status
V 31.1.2000-143

Logical channel DCCH DCCH DCCH PCH DCCH BCCH SACCH DCCH DCCH RACH DCCH DCCH SACCH SCH DCCH

Direction MT-Code N -> MS N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS N -> MS N -> MS MS -> N MS -> N MS -> N N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS MS <-> N 00001101 00001010 00001111 00100xxx 00100111 00011xxx 00011xxx 00010000 00010111 00010110 00010100 00010101 00010010
143
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

RR connection setup and takedown


MS Channel Request Channel Request Channel Request Immediate Assignment RR connection setup (MS initiated) MS BSS MS Paging Request Channel Request Immediate Assignment BSS

LAPDm Connection Setup


Paging Response RR connection setup (Network initiated) Channel Release BSS

Return to idle state


RR connection takedown
V 31.1.2000-144

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Measurement result (information element)


n n+1 IEI: 01110001 RXLEV Serving Cell RXLEV Serving Cell RXQUAL Serving Cell Octet number RXLEV Neighb. Cell 1 BCCHFreq. NCELL 1 NCELL 1 2 BCCHFreq. NCELL 2 RX LEV NCELL 6 n+16
V 31.1.2000-145

BSIC RXLEV NCELL

BCCHFreq. BSIC NCELL 6


145
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NCELL6

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Channel change, encryption and handover


MS Assignment Command Assignment Complete Dedicated Channel Assignment Handover Command Handover Access Handover Access Handover Access Handover Access Handover Complete Handover (synchronous)
V 31.1.2000-146

BSS

MS Cipher Mode Command Cipher Mode Complete Ciphering Activation

BSS

MS

BSS

MS Handover Command Handover Access Handover Access Physical Information Handover Complete

BSS

Handover (nonsynchronous)
146
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MM messages
Category Registration Message IMSI Detach Indication Location Updating Accept Location Updating Reject Location Updating Request Authentication Reject Authentication Request Authentication Response Identity Request Identity Response TMSI Reallocation Command TMSI Reallocation Complete CM Service Accept CM Service Reject CM Service Request CM Reestablishment Request MM-Status Direction MS -> N N -> MS N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS MS -> N MS <-> N N -> MS MS -> N MS -> N MS <-> N MT 0x000001 0x000010 0x000100 0x001000 0x010001 0x010010 0x010100 0x001000 0x001001 0x001010 0x001011 0x100001 0x100010 0x100100 0x101000 0x110001
147
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Security

Connection M t Management

Miscellaneous
V 31.1.2000-147

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MM signaling procedure of category Common


MS MSC MS Authentication Request Authentication Response Authentication MSC Identity Request Identity Response Identification
V 31.1.2000-148

MSC

TMSI Reallocation Command TMSI Reallocation Complete TMSI Reallocation MS MS

MSC IMSI Detach Indication

IMSI Detach
148
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MM signaling procedure of category Specific


MS Location Updating Request Identification Authentication Cipher Mode Activation Location Updating Accept TMSI Reallocation Complete Location Update
V 31.1.2000-149

MSC

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MM sign. procedure of category MM connection management


MS CM-Service Request Identification Authentication Cipher Mode Activation CM-Service Accept MSC

MM Connection Establishment
V 31.1.2000-150

150
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

CC messages for circuit-switched connections


Category Message Call Alerting E t bli h t Establishment Call Confirmed Call Proceeding Connect Connect Acknowledge Emergency Setup Progress Setup Call Modify I f ti Information Modify Complete Phase Modify Reject User Information Call Disconnect Cl i Clearing Release
V 31.1.2000-151

Direction N -> MS MS -> N N -> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS MS -> N N -> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS

MT 0x000001 0x001000 0x000010 0x000111 0x001111 0x001110 0x000011 0x000101 0x010111 0x011111 0x010011 0x010000 0x100101 0x101101
151
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Category Message Call Release Complete Clearing Miscellaneous Congestion Control Notify Start DTMF Start DTMF Acknowledge Start DTMF Reject Status Status Enquiry Stop DTMF Stop DTMF Acknowledge

Direction N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS MS -> N N -> MS N -> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS MS -> N N -> MS

MT 0x101010 0x111001 0x111110 0x110101 0x110010 0x110111 0x111101 0x110100 0x110001 0x110010

V 31.1.2000-152

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Call setup (mobile station): mobile originating


Start U0 NULL Connection Request FROM MMI SETUP MMCC Est. Req. TO MM U0.1 MMConnect. Pending MMCC Est. Conf. FROM MM SETUP U1 Call Initiated
V 31.1.2000-153

U1 Call Initiated CALL PROCEEDING U3 Mobile orig. Call Proc. ALERTING U4 Call Delivered CONNECT 2 ALERTING

Mobile Originating CONNECT RELEASE COMPLETE U0 NULL

For Further For Further Study Study

CONNECT 2

2 CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE U10 Active

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Call setup (mobile station): mobile terminating


3 1 Mobile Terminating U9 Mobile Term. Call Conf. 4 U8 Connect Req. CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE U10 Active

Compatibility Check OK U6 Call Present CALL CONFIRMED 3

Not OK RELEASE COMPLETE U0 NULL

ALERTING U7 Call Received

CONNECT

CONNECT

4
V 31.1.2000-154

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Call termination at MS: mobile-initiated and network-initiated


U10 Active Network Initiated DISCONNECT Mobile Initiated DISCONNECT U11 Disconnect Request RELEASE RELEASE COMPLETE U0 NULL
V 31.1.2000-155

RELEASE U19 Release Request RELEASE COMPLETE U0 NULL


155
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DISCONNECT

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

DTMF signaling and service charge


MS Modify MSC MS Start DTMF Start DTMF Acknowledge TpressyTpress_min Stop DTMF Stop DTMF Acknowledge TreleaseyTrelease_min Start DTMF Start DTMF Acknowledge MSC

Channel assignment/mode change Modify Complete Modify Reject Incall Modification (mobile initiated) Modify Modify Complete Channel assignment/mode change Incall Modification (network initiated)
V 31.1.2000-156

DTMF Signaling

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mobile-initiated call setup with OACSU (late assignment)


MS Phase 1: RR-Connection setup Phase 2: Service request Phase 3: Authentication Phase 4: Start of ciphering Phase 5: Call initiation Phase 5: Call acknowledge Phase 5: Channel assignment Phase 5: Call acceptance, switch-through RACH Immediate Assignment Authentic. Req. Cipher Mode Com. AGCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH SDCCH FACCH FACCH FACCH TCH CM-Service Request Auth. Response Cipher Mode Compl. Setup BSS MSC Channel Request

Call Proceeding Alert assign command Connect Data

assign compl. Connect Ack. Data


157
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V 31.1.2000-157

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

In-call modification and call release


MS Phase 1: RRConnection setup Phase 5: Call acceptance switch-through Phase 5: Service change (Voice - Data) Phase 5: Mode change (e.g. bit rate) Phase 6: Connection release RACH Immediate Assignment Connect AGCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH FACCH Connect Ack. Modify Channel Mode Modify Ack. BSS MSC Channel Request

Channel Mode Modify Modify Complete Channel Mode Modify

Channel Mode Modify Ack.

Disconnect Release Complete Channel Release

Release

V 31.1.2000-158

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

CC messages for supplementary services


Category Call Information I f ti Phase Message Hold Hold Acknowledge Hold Reject Retrieve Retrieve Acknowledge Retrieve Reject Facility Register Direction N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS N <-> MS MT 0x011000 0x011001 0x011010 0x011100 0x011101 0x011110 0x111010 0x111011

Miscellaneous

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Call holding and associated procedures


MS calling Setup Hold MSC CR: 1 (Active, Idle) Hold CR: 1 (Active, Hold Req.) Hold Ack. Hold Ack. CR: 1 (Active, Call Held) Setup CR: 2 (Active, Idle) Hold Hold Ack. Retrieve Hold CR: 2 (Active, Hold Req.) Hold Ack. CR: 2(Active, Call Held) Retrieve Holding, Consulting and Brokering
160
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Setup

MS 1 called

MS 2 called

Setup

CR: 1 (Active, Retrieve Req.) Retrieve Ack. Retrieve Ack. CR: 1 (Active, Idle)
V 31.1.2000-160

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Barring and forwarding of calls


MS calling Setup Release Complete (Facility: BAOC) Barring of Outgoing Calls (BAOC) MS calling Setup Release Complete (Facility: BAIC) Barring of Incoming Calls (BAIC)
V 31.1.2000-161

MSC

MS calling Setup

MSC

MS called

MS Destination of forw.

Facility (Facility: CFU) Connect Connect Ack.

Setup (Facility: CFU) Connect Connect Ack.

MSC Connection with Call Forwarding destination Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Short message transfer between SMR entities


MS SMRL MSC SMRL SMSIWF

SMSSUBMIT RPDATA(SMSSUBMIT)

SMRL Data Indic. (RPDATA) SMRL Report Request

RPACK REPORT

Mobile initiated SMRL transfer SMRL Data Req. (RPDATA)

RPDATA(SMSDELIVER) SMSDELIVER RPACK

SMRL Report Indication

Mobile-terminated SMRL transfer


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Short message transfer on the CM plane between MS and MSC


MS SMRL MS SMCL MS MM MSC MM MSC SMCL MSC SMRL

MNSMSEst.Req. MMSMEst.Req. (RPDATA) MMSMEst.Conf. MMSMEst.Ind. CPDATA CPACK MMSMRel.Ind. MMSMRel.Req. MNSMSEst.Ind. (RPDATA) MNSMSSSPReq.

MMSMEst.Ind. MNSMSDataInd. (RPACK) MNSMSRel.Req. MMSMRel.Req.


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MNSMSEst.Req. MMSMEst.Req. (RPACK) MMSMEst.Conf. CPDATA CPACK MNSMSRel.Req. MMSMRel.Req.


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Protocols at the A interface between MSC and BSS


BSC BSSOMAP BSSMAP MSC BSSOMAP
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SCCP

SCCP

MTP

MTP

A
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BSSMAP

DTAP

DTAP

Examples of dedicated BSSMAP procedures


MS BSS Assignment Command Assignment Complete Request Assignment Complete MSC Assignment CIPH MOD CMD CIPH MOD COM MS BSS MSC Command

Cipher Mode

Cipher Mode

Channel Assignment MS BSS

Cyphering Control MSC

Clear Command Clear Complete Channel Release


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Dedicated BSSMAP procedures for internal handovers


MS BSS 1 Handover Required Handover request Handover Command MSC Handover Request Resource reservation Handover Request Ack. BSS 2

Handover

Command Handover execution

Handover Complete Handover Complete


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Examples of global BSSMAP procedures


MS BSS Block Block Ack. Unblock Unblock Ack. Channel barring/release MS BSS Paging Paging MSC MS BSS Overload Overload Overload Overload Flow control MSC MSC

Paging Request Paging Request Paging


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Logical connections at Layer 2 of the Abis interface


BTS RSL OML L2ML RSL OML L2ML TRX TEI 1

TRX

TEI 2

BSC

OML L2ML

BCF

TEI 3

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Protocol Layer 3 of the BTS at the Abis interface (BTSM)


To MS (Radio interface) Transp. messages Protocol instances inside the BTS

Nontransp. messages

Traffic Management Distribution Network Layer 2 Management Management

SAPI 0 RSL
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SAPI 62 OML

SAPI 63 L2ML

Layer 3 Layer 2
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Transfer of transparent signaling messages

MS

BTS

BSC

MS

BTS

BSC

Data Request LAPDm I/UI frame

LAPDm I/UI frame

Data Indication

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Examples of nontransparent signaling between BTS and BSC


MS BTS BSC Paging Request Paging Command MS BTS BSC SACCH header MS Power Control (Layer 1) MS BTS BSC MS Channel RequestChannel Required BTS BSC Encrypt. Command

CIPH MOD CMD Correct LAPDm frame

Start deciphering Start ciphering

MS BTS Handover Access Physical Info (Timing Adv.)


V 31.1.2000-171

BSC Handover Detection

CIPH MOD COM CIPH MOD COM MS BTS BSC IMM ASS CMD immediate assign message
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Format of BTSM-RSL protocol messages


Bit number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 Octet number Message Discrimantor Message Type Information Element ID IE Content Information Element ID Length Indicator Bit number 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0 x 0 0 0 0 1 x 0 0 1 1 0 x 0 0 0 1 0 x T transparent: yes/no reserved 0 Radio Link Layer 1 0 Dedicated Channel 0 Common Channel 0 TRX Management

k k+1 n n+1

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Input format of some MMI commands


Function Activate Deactivate Status enquiry Registration Delete MMI procedure * nn(n)*Si# #nn(n)*Si# *#nn(n)*Si# **nn(n)*Si# ##nn(n)*Si#

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Some basic MMI commands


Function Mobile phone IMEI enquiry Change password for call barring Change PIN in SIM Select SIM number storage MMI-Procedure *#06# **03*330*old_PWD*new_PWD*new_PWD# **04*old_PIN*new_PIN*new_PIN# n(n)(n)#

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MMI service codes for supplementary services


Abbr. Service All Call Forwarding, only for (de)activation All conditional Call Forwarding (not CFU), only for (de-)activation Call Forwarding Unconditional Call Forwarding on Mobile Subscriber Busy Call Forwarding on No Reply Call Forwarding on Mobile Subscriber Not Reachable All Call Barring (only for deactivation) Barring of All Outgoing Calls Barring of Outgoing International Calls Barring of Outgoing International Calls Except those to Home PLMN MMI Sia Sib code 002 004 21 67 61 62 330 33 331 332 DN BS DN BS DN BS DN BS PW PW PW PW BS BS BS BS
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CFU CFB CFNRy CFNRc

BAOC BOIC BOICexHC


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Abbr. BAIC BICRoam CLIP CLIR CW COLP COLR

Service Barring of All Incoming Calls Barring of Incoming Calls when Roaming Outside the Home PLMN Calling Line Identification Presentation Calling Line Identification Restriction Call Waiting Connected Line Identification Presentation Connected Line Identification Restriction

MMI Sia Sib code 35 PW BS 351 PW BS 30 31 43 76 77 BS BS BS BS BS

BS=Basic Service (see NO TAG) DN=Destination Number PW=Password

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

MMI codes for basic services


Category Telematic service Service All telematic services Telephone All data services Facsimile Videotex Teletext Short Message Service (SMS) All data services except SMS All telematic services except SMS All bearer services All asynchronous services All synchronous services MMI code BS 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22

Bearer service

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Category Bearer service

Service All connection-oriented synchronous data services All connection-oriented asynchronous data services All packet-oriented synchronous data services All PAD-access services

MMI code BS 24 25 26 27

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of the location registration procedure


MS BSS/MSC VLR HLR IMSI, Ki Loc. Upd. Req. Update Loc. Area Auth. Para. Req. (IMSI, LAI) (IMSI, LAI) (IMSI) Auth. Info Authenticate Authentic. Req. (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES) (RAND) Ki RAND (RAND) AUC

A3 & A8 SRES Auth. Info Kc SRES Authentic. Resp. Authentic. Resp. (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES) = (SRES) Update Location (SRES) Generate TMSI (IMSI,MSRN) Start Ciphering Insert Subscriber Data (Kc) (IMSI) Ciph. Mode. Com. Forward new TMSI Subscr. Data Insert. Ack. (TMSI) Kc Message M Loc. Upd. Accept A5 Loc. Upd. Accept (IMSI) Kc(M) Ciph. Mode Kc Kc(M) Kc(M) A5 TMSI Realloc. Cmd. M Loc. Upd. Accept TMSI Realloc Ack. TMSI Ack.
V 31.1.2000-179

Auth. Info. Req. (IMSI)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of the location updating procedure


MS BSS/MSC VLR IMSI, TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI Loc. Upd. Req. Update Loc. Area (TMSI,LAI) (TMSI,LAI) Authentication SRES SRES = HLR AUC

Update Location Generate TMSI (IMSI,MSRN)

Insert Subscriber Data (IMSI) Start Subscr. Data Insert. Ack. ciphering Forward new TMSI Loc. Upd. Accept (TMSI) (IMSI) Loc. Upd. Accept Auth. Para. Req. TMSI Realloc. Cmd. (IMSI) Auth. Info Loc. Upd. Accept Auth. Info. Req. (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES) (IMSI) TMSI Reallocation Auth. Info TMSI Ack. Complete (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES)
V 31.1.2000-180

Start Ciphering (Kc)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Location update after changing the VLR area


MS IMSI, TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI Loc. Upd. Req. (TMSI,LAI) Update Loc. Area (TMSI,LAI) Send Parameters from VLR1 (TMSI, LAI) IMSI Response (IMSI, RAND, SRES, Kc) BSS/MSC VLR new HLR VLR old

Authentication

SRES SRES =

Update Location Cancel Location (IMSI,MSRN) Generate (IMSI) TMSI Start Ciphering Insert Subscriber Data Cancel Location Ack. (IMSI) (Kc) (IMSI) Forward new TMSI Subscr. Data Insert. Ack. (TMSI) Loc. Upd. Accept (IMSI)
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of routing calls to mobile subscribers

MSISDN
MS

1 GMSC

LA 2
BTS

MSRN 4
BSC

TMSI
7 BTS LA 1 MS

TMSI 7

MSC

MSRN 3

MSISDN

BSC 8 TMSI BTS 7 TMSI 6 TMSI

EIR 5

AUC

HLR

VLR

MSRN

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Routing variants for national MSISDN

ISDN LE MSC a HLR PLMN

ISDN LE TE MSC PLMN HLR b LE ISDN MSC GMSC PLMN

LE Local Exchange TE Transit Exchange


V 31.1.2000-183

HLR
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Routing for international MSISDN (HLR interrogation from ISC)

ISDN LE ISC ISC ISDN

V-PLMN

H-PLMN ISDN ISC HLR

MSC

LE Local Exchange ISC International


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Routing through GMSC for international MSISDN

ISDN LE GMSC ISC V-PLMN ISDN MSC ISC ISC

ISDN

H-PLMN GMSC ISC HLR

LE Local Exchange ISC International Switching Center


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of connection setup (outgoing)


MS BSS/MSC VLR IMSI, TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI Setup Indication Process Acc. Req. (TMSI,LAI) (TMSI,LAI) SRES Authentication SRES = Start of ciphering procedure Access Req. CM-Service Accepted Accept Setup Send info for setup Call Proc. Info ack. for setup assign comnd. assign compl. Alert Connect Connect Ack.
V 31.1.2000-186

HLR

SS#7 Network

Auth. Para. Req. (IMSI) Auth. Info (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES) IAM ACM ANS
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Interrogation of routing information for incoming call


SS#7 Network IAM GMSC HLR VLR MSC

Routing information (MSRN) in the HLR Send Routing Information Routing Information IAM GMSC IAM HLR VLR MSC

Routing information (MSRN) from the VLR Send Routing Information Routing Information Provide Roaming Number Roaming Number IAM
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of incoming call setup


MS BSS/MSC VLR HLR IAM IMSI, TMSI Send info for setup Ki, Kc, LAI Page MS Paging Request (TMSI, LAI) (TMSI) Paging Response Process (TMSI) Access Request Authentication Start of ciphering procedure Optional TMSI Reallocation Access Req. Auth. Para. Req. Accepted (IMSI) Complete Call Auth. Info Setup Call Conf (IMSI,Kc,RAND,SRES) ACM assign comnd. assign compl. Alert Connect ANS Connect Ack.
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SS#7 Ne

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Mobile-initiated call termination and storing of charging inform.


MS BSS/MSC HLR SS#7 Network

Disconnect

REL

Release

RLC

Release Complete Register Charging Information Channel Release Charging Information Ack.

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Forwarding short messages in a PLMN


MS SMS-GMSC HL Send Routing Information (a) for Short Message Short Message Forward Short Message Routing Information VLR Send info for setup Page MS Paging Request (TMSI, LAI) (TMSI) Paging Response Process (TMSI) Access Request Authentication Start of ciphering procedure Optional TMSI reallocation Access Req. Accepted RP-Data RP-Data Forward Acknowledge/ Error Indication Forward Short Message Forward Acknowledge / Error Indication
V 31.1.2000-190

MSC

(b)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Intracell and intercell handover

BSC BTS MS MS MSC

Intracell Handover
MS BTS

Intercell Handover
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Internal and external handover


Connection route

BSC BTS 1 MS MSC-A

MSC-B

BSC MS BTS 2 MS BTS 3

Internal Handover External Handover


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principal signaling sequence for an intra-MSC handover


MS BSS 1 Measurement Info Measurement Info Measurement Info Measurement Info Handover Command Handover Command Handover Req. Ack. MSC BSS 2 MS

Handover Required Handover Request

Handover Access Handover Detection Physical Information Clear Command Clear Complete Handover Complete Handover Complete Measurement Info Measurement Info
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Decision steps in a GSM handover Downlink


MS measurement values (RXLEV, RXQUAL, RXLEV adjacent BCCH)

Uplink
BS measurement values (RXLEV, RXQUAL, distance, interference in unoccupied time slots)

BSS measurement preprocessing and threshold analysis

BSS handover decision algorithm

MSC destination selection algorithm


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Threshold values for the GSM handover


Threshold value L_RXLEV_UL_H L_RXLEV_DL_H L_RXLEV_UL_IH L_RXLEV_DL_IH RXLEV_MIN(n) L_RXQUAL_UL_H L_RXQUAL_DL_H MS_RANGE_MAX HO_MARGIN(n)
V 31.1.2000-195

Typ. value 103 to 73 dBm 103 to 73 dBm 85 to 40 dBm 85 to 40 dBm approx. 85 dBm 2 to 35 km 0 to 24 dB

Meaning Upper handover threshold of received signal level in uplink Upper handover threshold of received signal level in downlink Lower(!) received signal level threshold in uplink for internal handover Lower(!) received signal level threshold in downlink for internal handover Minimum required RXLEV of BCCH of cell n to perform a handover to this cell Lower handover threshold of bit error ratio in uplink Lower handover threshold of bit error ratio in downlink Maximum distance between mobile and base station Hysteresis to avoid multiple handovers between two cells
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Handover causes
Handover Cause UL_RXLEV DL_RXLEV UL_RXQUAL DL_RXQUAL PWR_CTRL_FAIL DISTANCE PBGT(n) Meaning Uplink received signal level too low Downlink received signal level too low Uplink bit error ratio too high Downlink bit error ratio too high Power control range exceeded MS to BTS distance too high Lower value of path loss to BTS n

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Detection of mandatory handover (abbreviated)


Init Info Waiting FROM BSS_Link_Control

RXLEV/RXQUAL UL/DL, RXLEV(n), Power OK Calculate Power Budget PBGT(n) for all n ...

RXLEV/RXQUAL UL/DL, RXLEV(n), Power FAIL HO_CAUSE := PWR_CTRL_FAIL Calculate Power Budget PBGT(n) for all n 1

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Detection of mandatory handover (2)


... RXLEV_DL/UL < L_RXLEV_xx_H Yes HO_CAUSE := UL/DL_RXLEV 1 No 1 No No No PGBT(n)> HO_MARGIN(n) Yes HO_CAUSE := PBGT(n) 3
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RXQUAL DL/UL < L_RXQUAL_xx_H Yes

Distance >MAX_MS_RANGE Yes HO_CAUSE := DISTANCE

HO_CAUSE := UL/DL_RXQUAL

No

RXLEV_DL/UL >L_RXLEV_xx_H 1 Yes 2

Info Waiting

V 31.1.2000-198

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Completion of handover decision in the BSS


1 Inter-cell Handover, mandatory 2 Intra-cell Handover, mandatory (Interference) 3

Generate Preferred Target Cell List with RXLEV_NCELL(n) > Threshold

Generate Preferred Target Cell List with RXLEV_NCELL(n) > Threshold

Generate Preferred Target Cell List with RXLEV_NCELL(n) > Threshold, AND PGBT(n) > MARGIN(n) Handover Required (HO_CAUSE, Preferred Target Cell List) TO MSC

Handover Required (HO_CAUSE, Preferred Target Cell List) TO MSC

Internal Handover (HO_CAUSE) TO BSC

Info Waiting
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Handover criteria for exhausted transmitter power control


RXLEV_DL Cell A RXLEV_NCELL(B) Cell B Handover RXLEV_MIN(B)

MS_TXPWR_MAXRXLEV_DL

MS_TXPWR_MAX(B)RXLEV_NCELL( MS_TXPWR_MAX

MS_TXPWR _MAX HO_MARGIN(B)

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principal operation of a basic handover


MS/BSS 1 MSC-A Perform Handover Radio Channel Ack. IAM ACM Send End Signal ANS End of Call REL RLC End Signal
V 31.1.2000-201

MSC-B

VLR-B

Handover Required

Allocate Handover Number Send Handover Report MS/BSS 2 HB Indication HB Confirm

HA Indication

Handover Report
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of subsequent handover from MSC-B to MSC-A


MS/BSS 1 MSC-A MSC-B HA Required Perform Subsequent Handover Subseq. Handover Acknowledge MS/BSS 2

HB Indication HB Confirm

HA Indication VLR-B

End Signal Handover Report REL RLC

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of subsequent handover from MSC-B to MSC-B


MSCA MSCB MS HA Request Perform Subsequent Handover Perform Handover MSC-B Allocate Handover VLR-B Number Send Handover Report Radio Channel Ack. IAM ACM HB Indication MSC-B Subseq. Handover HA Indication Acknowledge Send End Signal ANS

MSC-B

HB Confirm MSC-B VLR-B Handover Report


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End Signal REL RLC


V 31.1.2000-203

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM reference configuration


Mobile Station ( MS )

e.g. mobile data terminal or voice MS only e.g. mobile voice and data terminal e.g. DTE of ITU-T V. or X. series with mobile terminal adapter e.g. DTE of ITU-T V. or X. series 3 TE 2

MT 0

TE 1
1 TA

MT 1

MT 1 S MT 2

2 3 TE 2 R

Um

MT: Mobile Termination TA: Terminal Adapter Um: Reference Point Radio Interface
V 31.1.2000-204

R/S: Reference Points ISDN / non-ISDN TE1: Terminal Equipment, ISDN Interface TE2: Terminal Equipment, no ISDN Interface (V,X)
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Bearer services, interworking and teleservices


End-to-end data and telematic services

GMSC/MSC Support of telematic services RLP and L2R TE MT Bit rate adaption and FEC
V 31.1.2000-205

Bit rate adaptation

Digital fixed network (ISDN)

(nontransparent bearer services) BSS

IWF Modem Analog fixed network (PSTN)


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Interworking scenarion PLMN-PSTN for transp. data services Internetwork switching unit
PLMN MSC GMSC PSTN

Voice
TE MT

Voice
TE Modem

Data

Data
IWF Bit rate adaption Modem

In the PLMN: switching between voice and data co- In the PSTN: dec fully transparent analog connection for voice or data
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Data rates for GSM bit rate adaption


Interface User Intermediate Reference point R RA1 8 kbit/s 2.4 kbit/s RA1 4.8 kbit/s 8 kbit/s RA1 9.6 kbit/s 16 kbit/s RA2 8 kbit/s RA2 16 kbit/s 8 kbit/s RA1/RA1 8 kbit/s RA1/RA1 16 kbit/s RA1/RA1 Radio Um S-Interface S

64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 3.6 kbit/s 6 kbit/s 12 kbit/s

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

V.110 80-bit adaption frame for the RA1 stage


Bit number 2 3 0 0

1 0 1 Octet number 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
V 31.1.2000-208

4 0 Data Data Data Data

5 0

6 0

7 0

8 0

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Signaling Data Data Data Data

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Signaling
208

Modified V.110 adaption frame for the RA1 stage


Bit number 1 2 3 4 Data Data Data Data Signaling Signaling Data Data Data Data Data Data Data Data 36-bit adaptation frame (transparent data 2.4 kbit/s) Octet
V 31.1.2000-209

7 Signaling

Data Signaling Data Data

Signaling

Data Data Data

60-bit adaptation frame transparent data 9.6 kbit/s and 4.8 kbit/s)
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J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Signaling

Bit number 1 2 3 4 Data

6 7 Data

Transparent transmission of asynchronous data in GSM


data RA 0 transparent, asynchronous data

RA 1

RA 1 RA 1

RA 1 RA 1

RA 2

RA 2

FEC

FEC

RA 2

RA 2

S Interface TE 1 or TA MS MT 1 Radio Interface


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BSS

MSC BSS-MSC interface


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Transp. transmission of asynchr. data across the R interface


data transparent, asynchronous data D RA 0 S RA 1 I/Fcct I/Fcct FEC FEC RA 1 RA 1 RA 2 RA 2

R Interface TE 2 MS Radio Interface


V 31.1.2000-211

MT 2 BSS MSC BSS-MSC Interface


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of transparent asynchronous data transfer (modem) GMSC and inter network switching unit S
TE MT TE TA MT PLMN MSC PSTN Modem TE V.24 ISDN NT TA Modem TE Modem PAD

PSPDN

V.24 R
IWF RA2 RA1 RA0 Modem

V.2 4
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Transparent data transfer to an ISDN (unrestricted digital) GMSC and network transit switching unit S S
TE TE MT PLMN MSC ISDN NT TE NT TA Modem TE TA MT

V.24 R

IWF V.110

V.24 R

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Weighted distribution of a transparent GSM bearer service


P(m,1024)
1e+00 stationaer mobil 1e-01

1e-02

1e-03

1e-04

1e-05 1e+00
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1e+01

1e+02

1e+03

m
214

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Nontransparent data transmission in GSM


Layer 2 Relay AsynchroAsynchronous L2R L2R Character Oriented Protocol nous Data characters characters Radio Link Protocol RA 0 RA 0 Status Data RA 1 RA 1 RA 1 RA 1 RA 1 RA 1 Status RA 2 RA 2 FEC FEC RA 2 RA 2 S Interface TE 1 MT 1 MS BSS MSC

Asynchronous characters Data I/Fcct

Radio Interface
L2R

BSS-MSC Interface

I/Fcct R Interface MT 2 TE 2 MS
215
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V 31.1.2000-215

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Principle of nontransparent data transfer GMSC and internetwork switching unit S


TE MT TE TA MT PLMN MSC PSTN Modem TE

PSPDN

Modem PAD

R
IWF RLP RA2 RA1 Modem RA0 RA1 RA2 ISDN

NT TA Modem TE NT TE

R
216

S
V 31.1.2000-216

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Dedicated PAD access through asynchr. GSM data services

DEE TA MT

PLMN MSC

MSC PAD

PIWMSC RF X.25

PSPDN

X.3/X.28/X.29 V.24 X.21


IWF

DEE RLP RA2 RA1 RA0 RA1 RA2 V.110


V 31.1.2000-217

X.25 X.29

PAD Packet Assembler/Disassembler P-IWMSCPacket Interworking

217

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

X.25 access at the ISDN S interface


L3 LAPB L2 Status RA 1 RA 1 RA 1 L2R Radio Link Protocol RA 1 FEC RA 1 RA 2 RA 1 X.25 Packet Layer Protocol Layer 2 Relay Bit Oriented Protocol L2R LAPB

RA 2 TE 1 MS

RA 2

FEC MT 1

RA 2

S Interface BSS Radio Interface


V 31.1.2000-218

MSC/IWF BSS-MSC Interface


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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Dedicated packet mode with packet handler in GSM

PLMN DEE MT X.25 S IWF RLP RA2 RA1

MSC

PSPDN PIWMSC PHI PH X.75 X.25 X.29 DEE

RA0 RA1 RA2

P-IWMSC Packet Interworking MSC PHI Packet Handler Interface PH Packet Handler
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V 31.1.2000-219

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Fax adapter in GSM


Fax protocol Fax adapter protocol Fax protocol a/b G3 Fax

PLMN G3 Fax FA MT

MSC FA IWF

PSTN

Modem TE GSM MT Fax R GMSC and internetwork switching unit V.24

V 31.1.2000-220

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Overview of GSM procedure for fax service


G3 Fax Fax Adapter
Fax Adapter Protocol

a/b FA MT PSTN G3 Fax Modem TE V.21 V.27ter PLMN MSC V.24

V.29 Tone Handl.

IWF with Fax Adapter Fax Adapter Protocol RLP RA2 RA1
V 31.1.2000-221

GMSC and internetwork switching unit V.29 V.21 V.27ter


221
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Tone Handl.

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Transparent fax procedure in GSM


G3 Fax FA Fax adapter protocol FA T.30

RA 1

RA 1

RA 1

RA 1

I/Fcct

I/Fcct

FEC

FEC

RA 2

RA 2

R Interface

Radio Interface

BSS-MSC Interface
222
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V 31.1.2000-222

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Nontransparent fax procedure in GSM


LAPB G3 Fax FA L2R Fax adapter protocol L2RBOP Radio Link Protocol LAPB FA L2R

RA 1

RA 1

RA 1 RA 1

RA 1

I/Fcct

I/Fcct

FEC

FEC

RA 2

RA 2

R Interface

Radio Interface

BSS-MSC Interface
223
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V 31.1.2000-223

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Functional areas of TMN systems

Management

V 31.1.2000-224

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

TMN architecture (schematically, according to M. 3010) TMN System


Operation Systems OS F,Q3,X Operation System OS Q3 Q3 F Workstation WS F Workstation WS

Q3 Operation System OS F,Q3,X

Other TMN Systems


Interface

Data Communication network DCN Q3 Mediation Device MD Q3 F

Workstation WS Workstation WS

Q3

Q Adapter QA
V 31.1.2000-225

Qx Local Communication Network LCN Qx Network Q Adapter Element NE QA

F Qx

Workstation Network WS Element NE


225
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Logical layered architecture of a TMN system

Business Management Layer BML Service Management Layer SML Network Management Layer NML Element Management Layer EML Network Element Layer
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

A simple TMN architecture of a GSM system NE: BSC Q3 NEF OS OSF Q3 NE: MSC/VLR NEF
V 31.1.2000-227

Qx

MF

NE: BTS NEF

OSFOperating System Function NEF Network Element Function MF Mediation Function

227
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Potential signaling interfaces in a GSM TMN


SP MNAP AUC HLR MNAP SP OMC MNAP SP VLR MNAP SP MSC MNAP SP MNAP SP BSC BTS
SP MNAP
V 31.1.2000-228

MNAP

PSTN ISDN

MNAP SP GMSC

VLR

BTS

GSM SS#7 route Public X.25 route GSM PLMN internal X.25 route (through MSC GSM Abis interface SS#7 Signalling Point Management Network Access Point
228
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

GSM network management protocols at the Q3-interface


SS#7 dedicated SMAP OMAP ASEs CCITT Q.795 TCAP, CCITT Q.771/Q.775 GSM SMAP (System Management Application Process) CMISE, ISO 9596 ROSE, X.229/ISO 9072 FTAM, ISO 8571

ACSE, CCITT X.227/ISO 8650

Presentation Protocol, CCITT X.226/ISO 8650 Session Protocol, CCITT X.225/ISO 8327 (version 2) Transport Protocol, CCITT X.224/ISO 8073 (class 2) SCCP MTP3, Q.701Q.707 MTP2, Q.701Q.707 MTP1, Q.701Q.707 CCITT X.25 CCITT X.25 LAPB X.21/X.21bis CCITT G.703

CMISE Common Management Information Service Element ROSE Remote Operation Service Element OMAP Operation, Maintenance and Administration Part FTAM File Transfer Access and Managemen ACSE A i i C l S i El 229
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Operation and maintenance of the BSS BSC BSSOMAP BSSAP BSSAP MSC BSSOMAP SCCP MTP
230
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

SCCP MTP

A
V 31.1.2000-230

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Hierarchical organization of network management in Germany


OMC OMC OMC OMC

OMC

OMC

OMC OMC

NMC

OMC OMC

OMC

OMC OMC OMC


V 31.1.2000-231

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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Through-transport of GSM coded speech in phase 2+


MS GSM BTS Trans coding BSC MSC MS GSM BTS Trans coding ISDN A-Law BSC

ISDN A-Law

MS

GSM

BTS

Trans coding

GSM

BSC MSC

MS
V 31.1.2000-232

GSM

BTS

Trans coding

GSM

BSC
232
J. Eberspcher; H.-J. Vgel

Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Groupcall scenarios

1 2

1 2

1 2

11

11

11

... 6 5 4

... 6 5 4

... 6 5 4

V 31.1.2000-233

233
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher

Functional architecture for CAMEL


HLR MAP gsmSCF

MAP

CAP CAP MAP

gsmSSF GMSC

VLR

gsmSSF MSC

Interrogating Network
V 31.1.2000-234

Visited Network
234
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Lehrstuhl fr Kommunikationsnetze Technische Universitt Mnchen Prof. Dr.Ing. J. Eberspcher