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An Essay

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With
Textual Analysis in
St. Paul`s Epistle
To the Romans






DANIEL S. KRYNICKI































Special Thanks to Eleni Garbes.
Greek Linguist
And to Rev. George Giannios.
Saint Spyridon
Greek Orthodox Church


Special Thanks also to
LEONARD F. SIFF
For Valuable Coaching and
ProoIreading


And what iustice would there be iI we did
Not thank Jesus Christ. Who Ior
Thousands oI years has led us through
Every wilderness with his Word









COPYRIGHT 1995



SECOND PRINTING 2007
THIRD PRINTING 2009
All Rights Reserved








DANIEL S. KRYNICKI. PUBLISHER

ST. CLAIR SHORES. MICHIGAN 48081

Email at pipeIighter2(wowway.com










FOREWORD

In addition to keeping the Iootnote Iormat on and
near the pages oI text upon which they appear. and
providing a larger text size. the ringing endorsement oI Jay
P. Green`s Modern King James Version oI the Holy Bible
has been somewhat revised and the highest
recommendation in turn given to his 'Literal Translation oI
the Bible Irom Hendrickson Publishers. The arguments
and prooIs used to establish the whole story the Bible tells
have not changed in this Iinal version which will be Iiled at
the Library oI Congress under the already existing
copyright. Moreover. the discussions used to reIute Walter
Martin and Dr. David Baron all remain valid.


About the Cover Background

The background on the Iront and back oI this essay
is Irom the Chester Beatty papyrus codex oI the Pauline
Epistles. These papyri date back to the second century
AD. Thirty oI the leaves are on display at the University
oI Michigan Library.













This people have I formed for myself ;
they shall shew forth my praise.


ISAIAH 43:21 KJV










AGAINST
THE PARAPHRASE

Consider the multitude oI Scriptural passages the
Lord God has given us with regard to the position Israel
has in His schema
1 .
These passages. together with explicit
Scriptural declarations about what or who controls the
helm oI international politic
2
. lead us to believe that Jesus
Christ is in control oI the destiny oI Israel regardless oI
what may seem like disorder
3
. And so this multitude oI
Scriptural passages suIIices Ior those who accept the Bible
as God`s Word and as evidence that Joseph owns the
birthright. Moreover. by himselI. Joseph would eventually
constitute a nation and a company oI nations
4
. As the
result oI these declared promises. which the Lord had
given to Israel 3700 years ago. we shall see the Iinal
eIIects oI the zeal oI the Lord oI Hosts when


1. Isaiah 49:3; 46:13; 41:8-16; 43:21; 44:23; 43:1; 49:8; 60:12; 62:2;
Jeremiah 46:27.28; 31:7-11; 51:20; Deuteronomy 32:8.9; Micah
5:7-9; Genesis 17:5; 22:16-18; 26:4.5; 28:10-15; 35:10.11;
Hebrews 11:12. There are many. many more in addition to this.
2. Daniel 4:17. 25. 32. 35; John 19:11; Revelation 12:5; II Chronicles
20:6.
3. Jeremiah 30:7-11; Romans 11:26
4. Genesis 48:19; Jeremiah 31:9
2

Israel
5
is delivered Irom all those nations which believe
not in God the Father and his Christ.
When we Iirst observed and then believed Christ`s
declaration that the Bible is God`s Word. we set out to
learn all we could about where His plan will take us. But
oI necessity. the beginning and the middle are iust as
important as the end; the same Christ
6
has administered
every stage oI God`s redemption plan and we cannot
understand all the details without the entire picture. In
other words. without Bible history textual analysis is only
halI-baked. This we can prove with guidance Irom the
Holy Spirit.
Philology was originally deIined as the study oI
written records but was later expanded to include
linguistics within its purview. And as a result. one oI the
best Bible translations oI the modern world was produced
by academics. Their examinations and translations oI the
ancient sacred texts
7
have blessed the world with the most
printed book ever published. The beneIits accrued to
civilization as a result oI this cannot be measured. Yet


5. Jeremiah 30:1 through 11
6. Hebrews 13:8; John 8:58
7. Old Testament. the Masoretic Text. New Testament. Textus
Receptus.

3

modern scholars are not satisIied. They continue to
publish recensions at the turn oI a phrase. The Received
Text (Textus Receptus or TR) does not satisIy them even
though it mostly agrees with the Byzantine Text
8
which is
a text that has an unbroken line oI transmission back to the
2
nd
century AD.
Furthermore. these scholars also Ieel it is their
responsibility to provide intelligent exegesis
9
as an
integral part oI their translations. Consequently. they have
wandered Iarther away Irom actual translating and into the
realm oI interpretation and instruction with an abundance
oI paraphrasing.
This essay is dedicated to the exposition oI one
example oI paraphrasing which exempliIies the
inherent dangers present when translators stray too Iar
Irom literal interpretation
10
. Two paraphrases (parts oI
one example) we will look at prevent sound exegesis oI

8. 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE Volume II by Jay P. Green
Sr. page 3.

9. 'INTERMEDIATE NEW TESTAMENT GREEK by Richard
A. Young pages 1 through 7.

10. 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE Volume II by Jay P. Green
Sr. page 326. if the translator restructures the text in terms of the
receptor language, he becomes an (cont.)
4

many passages throughout the Bible and they occur in
almost all translations.
Ironically. the tool which God has used to expose
these paraphrases is what modern academics call the
blind alley of pious literalism
11
. But. as oI the date oI
this paper. most Christians are yet without understanding
about this and do not know which Bible translation will
best help them understand every thing the Lord God has
revealed to us.
At this stage in the development oI human
knowledge there should be no conIusion Irom any attempts
to critically analyze the Scriptures; linguistics should not
be an obstacle. Neither should transmission be an obstacle.
Over the past two centuries. many ancient manuscripts
have been uncovered only to conIirm what has already
been available in Textus Receptus (TR) and the Byzantine

10. (cont.)...exegete who is interpreting the Bible.The reader
is bound to the translators understanding and limitations. The
proper role of the translator is to give the church an accurate
translation upon which it may do exegesis. See also pages 282-
283. 295-297. 304-307. 313-314. 318-319. and 327.

11. 'A HISTORY OF THE BIBLE by Fred Gladstone Bratton
page xii.



5

or Maiority Text. The only problems Iound Irom antiquity
have been a Iew texts which were deliberately altered by
heretics
12
to suit their own doctrines. Since the early
Church Fathers have identiIied these heretical sects
(i.e. Gnostics. Docetists. Marcionites. Arians. et al) in
many epistles and apologies. the doctored scriptural texts
have not been diIIicult to spot. But we will not concentrate
on the ancient heretics or their altered texts
13
; there is
enough misunderstanding generated by the paraphrases
scholars have given us with their translation oI TR into the
1611 King James Version (KJV) oI the Holy Bible. So
that we can easily penetrate the conIusion generated by
two paraphrases in St. Paul`s Epistle to the Romans we
begin with a brieI look at some Biblical history.



12. 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE Volume II by Jay P. Green
Sr. pages 609-616. This is Appendix VI by Wilbur N. Pickering
'CAN ANYTHING GOOD COME OUT OF |EGYPT|?

13. A study oI this magnitude has already been accomplished with an
introduction to textual criticism in 'UNHOLY HANDS ON
THE BIBLE by Jay P. Green Sr. . Volumes I and II. It includes
the writings oI John Burgon with essays by Luther W. Martin.
Wilbur N. Pickering. et al.



6

There are many logical reasons why modern
Christians have Iaith that Jesus Christ is the Redeemer. the
Son oI God. and that He will return to rule the nations oI
Israel. SuIIicient cause to believe this is the result oI
evidence. as presented in the Bible that is corroborated
with documented world history. and which demonstrates
that the maiority oI prophecy has already become history.
The Gospel according to St. Matthew is a meticulously
detailed eyewitness account oI many Old Testament
prophecies which were IulIilled in Jesus Christ. The other
three Gospels conIirm his testimony with similar reports.
one oI which was also Irom an eye witness. Furthermore.
Christ was seen alive by a group oI over 500 people
aIter His death. burial. and resurrection
14
. So we
believe that Jesus Christ will return to IulIill the prophecy
spoken to Mary by Gabriel. "And He shall reign over the
house of Jacob forever;"
15
.
Another demonstration oI evidence which ediIies
Iaith in God and in His word has been given to us by the


14. I Corinthians 15:6

15. Luke 1:33


7

Anglo-Israelites. As a result oI their exegesis in the book
oI Genesis
16
we now have a much greater understanding oI
the Lord`s plans Ior Israel. the Church. and




16. The Biblical patriarchs Abraham. Isaac. and Jacob were
prophesied to become the progenitors oI a company oI nations.
Genesis 17:5; 22:16-18; 26:4.5; 35:10.11; Hebrews 6:13-20;
11:12. We will note here that in Genesis 17:5 the Abrahamic
Covenant was given by God to Abraham conditionally with
circumcision a requisite. In Genesis 22:16 God swore by HimselI
to Abraham the IulIillment oI the covenant. Because Abraham
believed God the condition was thereby removed. So his Iaith was
counted to him as righteousness. And in Genesis 28:10-15 we Iind
God making the same promises to Jacob without conditions. II
we studied all the Scriptures which make reIerence to the
Abrahamic Covenant we would see that it is irrevocable.
unconditional. everlasting and immutable. Also. it should never
be conIused with the covenants given to us through Moses (the
Law) and Jesus (the New and Everlasting Covenant oI God`s
Grace which is extended to all the peoples oI the earth) which are
both conditional. Now. iI we had looked to modern Jewry Ior the
IulIillment oI these Abrahamic covenant promises we would have
Iound God`s declared purposes are in deIault. Modern renderings
oI Romans lead most people down this path. However. the Anglo-
Israel exegesis about the Abrahamic covenant sheds great light on
this problem.


8

the nations
17
. His plans not only operate in the realm oI
personal salvation. but also in the arena oI international
politic. The Mosaic Law was a covenant oI national
salvation with the young nation Israel. It contained iI and
but clauses which the Israelites were subiect to aIter the
Lord God delivered them nationally Irom the Egyptians.
Most prominent in his plans is the position the nations oI
Israel will occupy in the kingdom oI God on earth when
He visibly returns as their King
18
.





17. The Anglo-Israelite exegesis took root in the 19th century as a
viable theory. Today it has long been proven by a Iew servants oI
the Most High many times over with complete agreement in all
areas oI learning (i.e.. the entire Bible. archaeology and the secular
historical records). The best Biblical analysis was Iirst printed in
1902. 'JUDAH`S SCEPTRE AND JOSEPH`S BIRTHRIGHT
by Reverend J. H. Allen. The best archaeological study thus Iar is
a 1985 production by E. Raymond Capt M.A.. A.I.A.. F.S.A. in
'MISSING LINKS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN TABLETS.
For the secular historical records any history book can be used to
veriIy the two above mentioned books and their Biblical
reIerences.

18. Luke 1:33; 1:67-73; Ezekiel 37:20-28; Deuteronomy 32:8.9;
Hebrews 6:13-20



9

Also. a brieI look at Israel`s past beginning with the
reign oI David around BC 1000 is in order. During his
reign the lands surrounding Israel were subdued
19
. Then.
David`s son Solomon ruled with great wisdom; peace and
prosperity alighted upon the land
20
. But aIter Solomon
died. northern Israel (ten oI the tribes) rebelled Irom the
yoke oI Solomon`s son Rehoboam and elevated their own
king Jeroboam
21
. Thus. the ten-tribed northern kingdom
oI Israel came into existence separate and independent
Irom the southern kingdom oI Judah circa BC 930.
Approximately two hundred years later the Assyrian
armies conquered and deported all surviving Israelites out
oI the northern Kingdom (BC 745-721)
22
. This northern


19. II Samuel chapters 5 and 8
20. I Kings chapters 3 through 10
21. I Kings chapter 12

22. II Kings 15:29; 17:5.6; 17:18-24; 'MISSING LINKS
DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN TABLETS by E. Raymond Capt
pages 67 and 71; 'THE PEOPLES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD
by Joseph Ward Swain and William H. Armstrong page 116; 'THE
ILLUSTRATED WORLD HISTORY by John Hammerton
and Dr. Harry Elmer Barnes page 61. The traditional Assyrian
Iinal method oI subiugation oI a conquered people was to deport
what remained oI the population to a distant territory.


10

kingdom with capital Samaria was repopulated with aliens
Irom the Assyrian Empire
23
. These alien inhabitants did
not know the God oI Israel. so the Lord sent lions among
them as a plague and some oI them were slain. Naturally.
they petitioned the king oI Assyria who sent one priest
24

Irom the deported Israelites back to Bethel and there he
taught them how they should Iear the Lord.
About any more oI the ten deported tribes returning
to Israel the Bible is silent. The only reIerence we Iind
showing that any oI them returned is Iound in the writings
oI Josephus
25
. His statement is that only a


23. II Kings 17:18. 24

24. II Kings 17:24-28

25. 'ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS by Flavius Josephus Book XI
Chapter V paragraph 2. So he read the epistle at Babylon to those Jews
that were there; but he kept the epistle itself, and sent a copy of it to all
those of his own nation that were at Media; and when these Jews had
understood what piety the king had towards God, and what kindness he
had for Esdras, they were all greatly pleased; nay, many of them took their
effects with them, and came to Babylon, as very desirous of going down to
Jerusalem; but then the entire body of the people of Israel remained in that
country; Used by permission Kregel Publications. Grand Rapids.
Michigan.


11

small delegation oI them elected to return to Jerusalem
with the Judahites. Beniamites and Levites that returned
Irom Babylonian captivity. The apocryphal book oI II
Esdras
26
also conIirms that northern Israel went into



26. 'THE APOCHRYPHA II Esdras 13:39-45 And whereas thou
sawest that he gathered another peaceable multitude unto him;
Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of
their own land in the time of Osea the king, whom Salmanasar the
king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the
waters, and so came they into another land. But they took this
counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of
the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never
mankind dwelt, That they might there keep their statutes, which
they never kept in their own land. And they entered into Euphrates
by the narrow passages of the river. For through that country
there was a great way to go, namely, of a year and a half: and the
same region is called Arsareth.
The question we should ask here is. Just how reliable is the
inIormation we read in the passage`? More important. Why was
this book excluded Irom the canon oI Scripture`? To be sure. this
is a book we have received Irom antiquity and. thereIore.
deserves the most serious consideration and diligent investigation.
Hence. we ask the reader at this iuncture to read Appendixes B
and C on pages ..(cont.)



12

a Iurther country rather than return to the Promised Land.
Finally. in the writings oI Josephus we Iind a noteworthy
statement giving the location oI the ten deported tribes oI
Israel during the Iirst century AD
27
and it was not
Palestine.
We will not neglect to note that aIter the Assyrians

26. (cont.) 91 through 98 where we discuss both the origin oI II
Esdras and its usage by Christians and Jews oI the 1
st
century AD
and beyond.

27. 'ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS by Flavius Josephus Book XI
Chapter V Paragraph 2.
Wherefore there are but two tribes in Asia and Europe subject to
the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond Euphrates till now,
and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by
numbers. (Used by permission Kregel Publications. Grand
Rapids. Michigan) Over the past century. many essays and books
have been written on this subiect. And. even though most
academics. Evangelical Christians and Fundamentalists either
ignore or argue against these observations. some oI us have
become acutely aware that the scriptural. archaeological. and
historical evidence overwhelmingly support that the diaspora oI
northern Israelites and southern Judahites Irom the 8
th
century BC
never did return to Palestine representatively as a nation to inhabit
the land. (See 'MISSING LINKS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN
TABLETS by E. Raymond Capt at www.artisanpublishers.com
and 'THE FOURTEENTH TRIBE by Daniel S. Krynicki).


13

conquered all the northern kingdom oI Israel 721 BC. they
also conquered all the Ienced cities oI Judah in at least two
incursions (II Kings 18:13). This inIormation can be
veriIied in any history book. in the Bible. and in Halley`s
commentary on the book oI Isaiah. Consequently. very
many oI the 8
th
century BC diaspora` were Irom the
southern kingdom oI Judah. Halley`s Bible Handbook
states that the number oI Judahites who were deported at
this time was approximately 200.000
28
.
II there was another way to enter into this study than
to agree with some oI the truly honest Biblical scholars oI
this and the last century such as C. A. L. Totten. Rev. J. H.
Allen. Howard B. Rand LLB. Rev. William Pascoe Goard.
E. Raymond Capt. and others. this dialectic would not
nearly be so meaningIul. But the eIIects oI this matter
29



28. 'HALLEY`S BIBLE HANDBOOK by Henry H. Halley page
262.

29. The Abrahamic Covenant; especially as stipulated in
Deuteronomy 32:8. 9. When the most High divided to the nations
their inheritance, when he separated the sons of Adam, he set the
bounds of the people according to the number of the children of
Israel. For the Lords portion is his people; Jacob is the lot of his
inheritance.
14

are worldwide in scope - as is the soon to become apparent
iudgment upon civilization so we can no longer avoid the
basis Ior this discussion. There is no need to make an
apology Ior the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic Israelites (who own
the birthright blessings given to Joseph); they certainly do
know the Scriptures. That is why this has turned into a
philological study. But. seeing that Ephraim alone was to
constitute a multitude oI nations. it seems consequent to
mention that eleven additional tribes would constitute
another company oI nations (predominantly Christian
nationally
30
. not necessarily English speaking. not always
allied. and not always at peace with each other).
We continue by taking a closer look at the word
diaspora` or dispersion` words well known by Biblical
historians. They are used whenever reIerence is made to
the Jews who remain in exile Irom the Promised Land to
this day. Now. however some in the academic
31




30. Isaiah 65:15 And ye shall leave your name for a curse unto my
chosen: for the Lord God shall slay thee, and call his servants by
another name:

31. 'WHAT YOU KNOW MIGHT NOT BE SO by David C.
Downing Ph.D. page 86.

15

community acknowledge that the name Jews only came
into common usage during Judah`s Babylonian captivity oI
the sixth century BC 130 years aIter Northern Israel went
into Assyrian captivity (these Northern Israelites never
returned to the Promised Land). The word Jews Iirst
appears in the Bible in II Kings 16:6 during the reign oI
Ahaz. king oI Judah approximately 740 BC 200 years
aIter Israel separated Irom Judah. It was used to identiIy
the inhabitants oI the southern kingdom oI Judah not
northern Israel.
The time Irom Abraham to the Babylonian captivity
spanned approximately 1.500 years. Modern Christian
scholarship`s neglect in acknowledging important details
about this period oI history has created a puzzle that has
leIt most Christians devoid oI understanding with regard to
an important aspect oI Christ`s mission which Christ
Himself emphasized at His Iirst advent. Christ said. For
the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was
lost
32
; also. But go rather to the lost sheep of the house
of Israel
33
; again. I am not sent but unto the lost sheep
of the house of Israel
34
; again. For the Son of man is


32. Luke 19:10
33. Matthew 10:6
34. Matthew 15:24


16

come to save that which was lost.
35 and 36
. The reason the
Lord made these statements is clearly shown by St. Paul in
Romans 15:8.9 'Now I say that Jesus Christ was a
minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to
confirm the promises made unto the fathers : And that the
|nations| might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written,
For this cause I will confess to thee among the |nations|,
and sing unto thy name.
What were these promises (notice that he said
promises not promise) and iust who were the Iathers they
were made to? There were three patriarchs Abraham.
Isaac. and Jacob or Israel. There were two promises made
to them (generally); Iirst. that in their seed all the Iamilies
oI the earth would be blessed (not could or may); and


35. Matthew 18:11
36. Later. in Matthew 28:19.20 Christ commanded His disciples. Go
ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name
of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching
them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you:
and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the |age|.
Thus. He expanded their commission to include all nations.
Apparently. the Lord God`s special interest in keeping His
unconditional. everlasting promises to Abraham. Isaac. and Israel
(all Israel) is being attended to by HimselI (Ezekiel chapter 34).

17

second. that their progeny would become a multitude oI
nations (again not could or may but would). Since it is
diIIicult to identiIy this multitude oI nations today unless
one studies the various prophecies given to each tribe
individually. we thereIore simply ask who was lost? The
answer is a matter oI history recorded both in the Bible
and the secular universities. The diaspora oI northern
Israelites and southern Judahites oI the 8
th
century BC were
beyond Euphrates and an immense multitude by Christ`s
time and many oI the Jews oI the 6
th
century BC never
returned Irom Babylonian captivity.
Let us take this line oI reasoning even Iurther. Were
the Jews oI the 6
th
century BC Israelites? Ancestrally they
were; but Ior the most part. they were called Jews Irom
thenceIorth. Were the northern Israelites oI the 8
th
century
BC Jews? No they were not
37
. The prophecy Irom


37. Let us hypothesize here that aIter several hundred years in exile
one community oI northern Israelites observed the religion oI their
IoreIathers while another community oI the same did not. It is quite
probable that the Iormer group would have eventually been called Jews
(i.e.. they observed what eventually came to be known as the Jewish
religion) especially iI they had lost knowledge oI their tribal origin. With
the latter group oI exiles it is very probable that they did lose
knowledge oI their tribal origin and. thereIore. would not have been called
Jews .....(cont.)

18

Genesis 48:19 mandated that Ephraim would become a
multitude oI nations even iI none oI the other tribes lived
among them. It would be impossible Ior this to be IulIilled
in the Jews once Jesus rendered a verdict upon them which
prohibited them Irom acting nationally as the kingdom oI
God on earth
38
even iI it was in any individual Jew`s




37. (cont.)... (i.e.. they did not observe the Jewish Religion). It is
Iurther probable that this latter group oI Northern Israelites would
have lost all knowledge oI their Israelitish ancestry aIter the
passage oI many centuries. Were the members oI this latter group
heir oI the blessings enumerated in the Abrahamic Covenant? II
anyone thinks. as many do. that the promises made by God to
Israel have been IorIeited by Israel and given to the Church oI
Jesus Christ then please read the passages reIerenced in Iootnote
29 page 13. Also. please read careIully Hosea chapter 1.

38. Matthew 21:43; Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God
shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the
fruits thereof.
Luke 19: 11-27; Should it be a surprise that Jesus chose the
number ten as the number oI his servants in this parable? Ten was
also the number oI tribes which were in the 8th century BC
deportations oI northern Israel. The parable ended with these
words Irom Jesus. But those mine enemies, which would not that
I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me.


19

destiny to become a citizen in a nation which received a
portion oI the Abrahamic Covenant promises. Further. this
does not change any individual`s right to accept Christ as
his Savior personally Jew. Gentile. or Israelite oI the
dispersions who does not observe the Jewish religion. The
considerations we are contemplating here occur at the
national level. So who can we look to Ior IulIillment oI the
Abrahamic Covenant company oI nations? 'Halley`s
Bible Handbook provides one paragraph (page 376) on
the study oI this subiect Ior which many volumes have
been written. In reading Halley`s paragraph we would Iind
that he understands the word dispersion is only to include
Jews. It is not this writer`s intention to minimize the value
or quality oI Mr. Halley`s work but even the secular
historical records have much more to say about this word.
Also. the secular scholars oI our own era recognize that the
Bible is silent about the history oI the northern kingdom
aIter the Assyrian invasions (i.e.. the historian Arnold
Toynbee reIers to these 8
th
century BC Israelites who were
deported and replaced as the The Lost Ten Tribes)
39
.




39. 'A STUDY OF HISTORY by Arnold J. Toynbee. Abridgement
oI Volumes I-VI by D. C. Somervell page 385.

20

Mr. Halley did not take into account the dispersion oI
Israelites Irom the 8
th
century BC
40
. the writings oI II
Esdras. and the writings oI Josephus. Since the
northern Israelites oI the 8
th
century BC dispersions were
not identiIied as Jews in the Scriptures. we can believe that
in them God`s promises to Israel in the very Iirst book oI
the Bible either stand or Iall (i.e.. as the stars in the sky. or
the sand on the seashore. multitude and company oI
nations).
Our analysis oI Israel`s history thus Iar has generally
agreed with the Anglo-Israelism scholars oI our own era
and. more important. has been an honest attempt to
understand the Scriptures thoroughly. Most Iundamentalist
Biblical scholars oI our era are highly critical oI the Anglo-
Israelites; but beIore we expose their weak and erroneous
arguments we will examine a little more history and two
paraphrases in St. Paul`s Epistle to the Romans.


40. Yet iI one should read Halley`s commentary Ior the book oI Isaiah.
he would Iind many dates and reIerences Irom archaeological
records. Isaiah. Jeremiah. and Ezekiel with regard to a clear
distinction as to the identities oI the northern kingdom (Israel)
and the southern kingdom (Judah). Now. iI the Biblical and the
archaeological records are very careIul not to conIuse their
identities. what gives modern Biblical translators the authority to
use them interchangeably as iI there is no distinction?

21

The history we are concerned with bridges two
epochs. The Iirst epoch began with Alexander the Great
(BC 356-323) who conquered the known world in the short
space oI eleven years with only 35.000 troops. This Ieat
was remarkable by itselI; but more notable were its eIIects
which inIluenced civilization Ior over six centuries and
even beyond.
At the time oI Christ`s Iirst appearance Alexander`s
tongue was the language oI the Roman Empire even
though Latin was the language oI the Romans
41
. Also.
Greek continued to be the language oI the catholic Church
42
at Rome Ior at least 200 years aIter Nero`s persecution
oI AD 64. The Iirst twelve bishops oI Rome were Greek
43
. The Apostles Peter and Paul. who were both at Rome






41. 'A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH TO A.D. 461 Volume I by B.
J. Kidd pages 9-12.

42. Idem page 51.

43. Idem pages 125. 126.


22

more than likely
44
wrote their epistles in Greek. The


44. Idem pages 51 and 52. St. Pauls arrival in Rome, probably in
59, is certain; nor is it open to doubt that by Babylon, from which
St. Peter wrote his Epistle, is meant Rome. At the latest, therefore,
St. Peter must have arrived in Rome not long after St. Paul. This
writer is aware. as was B. J. Kidd Irom his Iootnote that most today
assume Irom I Peter 5:13 that St. Peter wrote his epistle at
Babylon. It is entirely possible and even probable that the
Apostle spoke metaphorically in this verse. From historical
records we Iind that B.J. Kidd was probably correct. The Iinal
pages oI 'BABYLON by James G. Macqueen indicate that during
the Iirst century AD the city oI Babylon was in a state oI complete
decline and was ravaged many. many times during the three
hundred years prior to the Christian era. Consequently. most
residents oI this city either emigrated out or moved to more rural
locations and thereby leIt the city almost desolate. A Iew pagan
priests operating the temple oI Marduke is the only religious
activity mentioned by Macqueen. ThereIore. it would have been
unlikely to Iind a thriving Christian community there.
Furthermore. B. J. Kidd was certainly not nave in his treatise.
His commentary on this begins on page 51. It continues Ior at least
Iive pages and is rich in historical and archaeological
evidence. He skillIully separated legend Irom the Iacts. Further.
he related that St. Peter may have arrived at Rome AD 42 and
likely spent 25 years there. Else. why would St. Paul have been
concerned not to build upon another man`s Ioundation (Romans
15:20) at Rome had not someone already preached Jesus
Christ there? St. Paul`s purpose was to visit Rome on his (cont.)


23

'Letter oI the Romans to the Corinthians by Clement
(Bishop oI Rome) was written either AD 60`s or 90`s
45
in
Greek. In Iact. all the Christian apologists oI the 2
nd

century AD save two wrote in Greek
46
. It was the
dominant language
47
oI most

44. (cont.).way to Spain (Romans15:24. 28).
There is another reputable witness that St. Peter completed his
earthly ministry at Rome. It is the history oI the Church as given to
us Irom the opposite side oI the great schism in the catholic Church;
namely. the Greek speaking Orthodox Church oI the Eastern Rite.
Their history tells us that St. Peter remained at Antioch Ior many
years but eventually reached Rome. When he arrived there.
however. is not the issue. That he wrote metaphorically in his
epistle is what we have established.

45. 'THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS by J. B. LightIoot and J. R.
Harmer. edited and revised by Michael W. Holmes page 25.
Also. 'THE BEAST OF REVELATION by Kenneth L. Gentry.
Jr.. Th.D.

46. 'A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH TO A. D. 461 Volume I by B.
J. Kidd page 298.

47. Idem page 7; Travel was at its safest in the epoch of St. Pauls
missionary journeys, 47-64. Page 10; Roman roads would
bring travelers fromBononia (Boulogne) to Britain. Here
soldier or merchant or missionary would land at Rutupiae, under
the cliff on which....(cont.)


24

maior cities throughout the entire Roman Empire. It

47. (cont.).. the ruins of the Roman Castle of Richborough still stand;
and thence he might travel, through London, by the Watling Street
to Chester, or by the great north road through Lincoln and York to
Hadrians Wall. Here, as on other frontiers, travel to the Roman
came to an end. Comparatively free of bodily dangers, it was
anything but free of moral risks. The inns were not pleasant to
decent people : and hence the great value attached, when
Christians began to travel, to letters of commendation and to
hospitality. But travel was swift, as speed then went, and sure. A
man could have done his journey of 1,250 miles from Rome to
the Channel without misadventure or delay : and never again, till
our own age, would a feat like that have been open to him. But
then he could have also done what is still impossible to us, for one
language and one coinage would have carried him all the way. A
common language and culture penetrated everywhere by these
great routes. Juvenal, 55- c. 135, had a supreme contempt for
the Greek adventurer. But there was a nobler Hellenism which
had furnished models and inspiration to the great writers of the
Augustan age, and which was destined to refashion Italian culture
in the generation following his death. The Emperors from Julius
Caesar to M. Aurelius were, with few exceptions, trained in the
literature of Greece. Even the bluff soldier Vespasian had
an adequate command of the Greek language....From the close of
the first centuryclassical Latin literature....came to a mysterious
end. The only authors of any merit in the second century wrote in
both languages indifferently. The roads and coinage were
Roman but the language was Greek.



25

was spoken to the east oI the Adriatic Sea and as Iar east
as the Tigris river. It was spoken
48
in Sicily. Marseilles.
South Italy. Alexandria. Antioch. and Caesarea
Cappadocia.
The second epoch in this succession oI world politic
is the passing oI Greek as the dominant language oI the
Roman Empire and the catholic Church. With this passing
Latin became the oIIicial language oI the western church
(Roman). while Greek remained the oIIicial language oI
the eastern catholic Church. But the Greek culture that
penetrated everywhere was indelibly imprinted upon
civilization to such an extent that it could never be lost and
that it provides philologists with a myriad oI every possible
kind oI literature Ior their endeavors to understand the
dominant language oI that era.
Also. between these two epochs. Christ IulIilled one
phase oI His redemptive plan; St. Paul carried out three.
probably Iour great missionary iourneys; and St. Paul
wrote his Epistle to the Romans.
These historical Iacts are important to us as they
Iurnish insight into the early Christian Church. The


48. Idem pages 10 and 11.


26

language we are interpreting is called Koine Greek (Irom
the Greek word kctvc. pronounced koinos and meaning
common). It was spoken throughout the Roman Empire
during St. Paul`s missionary iourneys and there is no
question that a great volume oI literature was produced by
the early catholic Church written in this language.
ThereIore. the educated linguists oI our own era have no
logical reasons to provide the world with translations oI the
Bible which lead readers away Irom truth. The translator`s
iob is to translate; not to interpret (which is what
paraphrasing accomplishes).
In this case. the author we will attempt to understand
is St. Paul in his Epistle to the Romans where the Greek
words s 0vcc (ethnos) and Env (Hellene) are
paraphrased as Gentile. SuperIicial reading oI these
paraphrases causes most people to overlook Israel`s 8
th

and 6
th
century BC dispersions. Only two peoples are
inIerred in most modern translations Jews and Gentiles
(Gentiles
49
are deIined as not Jewish in Encyclopedia


49. The Hebrew word gowy (go`ee) in the Old Testament means
nation. It is mostly translated as Gentile throughout. even though it can be
used to denote an Israel or Jewish nation. From Genesis 25:22. 23 we Iind
this word was used to describe both the Iuture Edomites and the Iuture
Israelites. So this word should generally be translated as nation or people
unless the ......(cont.)
27


Britannica). But Christ`s pronouncement against the
Jewish nation in Matthew 21:43 was never directed at
those oI the 8
th
and 6
th
century BC dispersions. So now we
have at least three separate and distinct peoples which
Biblical deIinition necessitates us to consider in our




49. (cont.)..context oI a passage clearly implies a special case. The
same is true Ior the Greek word ethnos. But in order to accurately
determine these special cases. one must have adequate Biblical
historical knowledge beIore they can be identiIied. Even then. as
we shall see later. determining a special case requires the translator
to perIorm the role oI exegete and ultimately to paraphrase the
original language.
Another Iact that almost seems incomprehensible is that nearly
400 years oI OxIord and Cambridge scholarship in the KJV is
behind us and the modern academics are yet mired in the Jew
Gentile paraphrase syndrome. We are not living in times when
little has as yet been revealed by the Lord God. We have beIore us
an open Book. the Bible. Ior many centuries. And iI by reason oI
human Iailure the authority oI the Church (Apostolic Authority)
and/or Episcopal tradition (1/2 oI the witnesses delivered to the
saints oI the early Church) miss the mark. then we have been the
cause. The other (God`s Word |Scripture| and God`s Holy
Spirit) constitutes two more witnesses. So there is no excuse to
avoid or circumnavigate one iot or one tittle in either Testament.

28

exegesis Jews. Gentiles. and Israelites oI the dispersions
(which includes many Irom the southern kingdom oI
Judah).
But beIore we consider this exegesis let us call to
mind some oI the Apostle Peter`s words Iound in II Peter
3:15. 16. even as our beloved brother Paul also
according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto
you; As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these
things; in which are some things hard to be understood,
which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they
do also the other scriptures,. In Appendix B it is noted
that St. Paul was Iully aware that his mission Iield among
the nations included many Israelites in exile who had lost
knowledge oI their Israelitish ancestry. Further.
substituting the word Gentile (non-Jew) Ior nation
misleads the average reader into thinking that the scope oI
his mission included only Jews and non-Jews. Saints
Peter and Paul. however. had complete knowledge oI the
history oI Israel and. thereIore. their mission into the
nations included much more than simply Jews and non-
Jews; it also included the 8
th
and 6
th
century BC
dispersions which by this time may have been
predominantly pagan. Nevertheless. these Israelite exiles
were still heirs oI the Abrahamic Covenant
50
as a result oI

50. Questions could be raised as to how God administers (cont.)
29

the unconditional promises made by YAHWEY. Whereas.
even though non-Israelite nations were not eligible to
receive the promises oI the Abrahamic Covenant ahead oI
the Israel nations. they then became eligible to receive the
blessings oI the New and Everlasting Covenant by Iaith in
the blood atonement accomplished by Jesus Christ
(personal salvation). In the above quoted passage Irom II
Peter 3:15. 16 the Apostle noted that some things in St.
Paul`s epistles are hard to be understood. and iI so. then all
the more when we paraphrase a translation. and we ought
not to be negligent in conducting a thorough investigation
into Biblical history which bears directly on critical
explanations inIerred by St. Peter`s implication.




50. (cont.)..the blessings oI the Abrahamic Covenant promises. St.
Paul wrote in Galations 3:28. 29 that. There is neither Jew nor
Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor
female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christs,
then are ye Abrahams seed, and heirs according to the promise.
But the questions are not God`s problem. they are our problem. It
is only in the Iailure oI human understanding that we do not always
see the iots and tittles He uses in order to accomplish His
sovereign will. Nevertheless. it is explicitly stated that people oI
all races are now eligible Ior an inheritance.


30

There is another situational context which Christian
educators have completely missed as a result oI their
Iailure to regard the entire history oI Israel as an integral
part oI their exegesis. Consider the verse Romans 11:25
(KJV). For I would not, brethren, that ye should be
ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own
conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until
the fullness of the Gentiles |should read nations here| be
come in. Most modern Christians believe the Israel in
this verse reIers only to modern Jews. Well. the Iullness oI
the nations is here and Christ`s pronouncement oI Matthew
21:43 is still in eIIect. So how can the Jews nationally
represent the kingdom oI God on earth without accepting
Christ as their Savior? (Only predominantly Christian
nations are now eligible). Furthermore. the blindness
stated in this verse could very well reIer to a group oI
Israelites who did not observe the Jewish religion and who
had lost all knowledge oI their ancestry across 27
centuries.
Yet one more example oI modern Christian
scholarship`s woeIully inadequate attempts at accurate
exegesis is in order beIore we enter textual analysis in
Romans. We shall consider two Greek lexicons Ior a close
look at the word s0vc. (ethnos).


31

In 'The Analytical Greek Lexicon oI the New
Testament by George V. Wigram s0vc. is given several
diIIerent meanings depending on the context oI the passage
it is reIerenced Irom. In Acts 17:26 or I Peter 2:9 it means
multitude. company. nation or people. A Iurther note in
Wigram`s Lexicon shows that it also means Gentile.
heathen or not Israelitish Irom the contexts oI various
passages. It cannot be too strongly stated that by
paraphrasing thusly Ior the Greek word s0vc. modern
scholars have eIIectively closed the door to understanding
that the Israelite exiles may not have even known oI their
ancestry let alone observed the Jewish religion and yet they
were living among the Gentile nations. Does this make
them Gentiles? No Abraham. Isaac and Jacob were still
their Iathers.
VeriIication oI the Iact that Gentile is a paraphrase
oI s0vc. is simple. For this we reIerence 'A Greek-
English Lexicon compiled by Henry George Liddell and
Robert Scott Irom OxIord at the Clarendon Press. 1968.
From the writings oI Homer. Herodotus. et al. the word has
always meant nation or people. One needs only to look at
a modern Greek- English
51
dictionary to see that it still

51. 'DIVRY`S NEW ENGLISH-GREEK AND GREEK-ENGLISH
HANDY DICTIONARY edited by G. C. Divry and C. G. Divry.
page 314.
32

means nation or people. For 3.000 years oI recorded
history s 0vc. has always translated as nation. people or
company. It is only in their attempts to help readers
understand Scripture with their own word Gentile that
Christian scholars have given us so much conIusion.
On page 247 oI 'Intermediate New Testament
Greek Richard A. Young cautions that there is inherent
weakness in Iocusing on isolated sentences Ior exegetical
purposes. This is exactly what translators oI Romans have
done with liberal use oI the word Gentile. They have
Iocused their attention strictly in Romans and have
completely ignored the other Biblical situational contexts.
Even so. Richard A. Young`s statement did not go Iar
enough; but Jay P. Green got to the core with his statement
that exegesis is the Church`s area oI responsibility not
the translator`s.










33

On pages 35. 36 and 37 we have shown Table1
which displays the dangerous paraphrases. The
column headings give the source
52
Irom which the
translation was obtained. There are 32 entries on this table
Irom St. Paul`s Epistle to the Romans shown under column
A as chapter and verse. Column D gives the Greek
spelling oI these words as given in 'Textus Receptus (the
Received Text oI the KJV). We also have included in
column E the corresponding words Irom the Byzantine or
Maiority Text where Christianity without doubt took root
as the result oI Apostolic evangelism. We will note

52. KJV THE AUTHORIZED KING JAMES VERSION OF
THE HOLY BIBLE
NIV THE NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION OF THE
HOLY BIBLE
TEXTUS RECEPTUS The received text used by 16th and
17th century scholars Ior the AUTHORIZED KING JAMES
VERSION oI the New Testament (usually abbreviated as TR)
BYZANTINE or MAJORITY TEXT The ancient Greek
original text oI the New Testament as preserved and transmitted to
us by the clergy oI the Greek Orthodox catholic Church (also
known as the Traditional Text)
A LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE by Jay P.
Green Sr.
MKJV THE MODERN KING JAMES VERSION OF THE
HOLY BIBLE by Jay P. Green Sr.
BIBLIA SACRA IUXTA VULGATAM VERSIONEM The
Latin Vulgate...........(cont.)
34

again. Ior emphasis. that the Byzantine Text has an
unbroken line oI transmission all the way back to the
second century AD. The root Greek words Ior column D
are ethnos ( s 0vc.) and Hellene ( Env). The root words
are mentioned here so that the average reader who is
untrained in linguistics may easily reIerence a Greek
lexicon usually Iound in any public library. In this case the
English scholars who gave us the KJV have determined
that the English word Gentile is more suitable Ior their
translation oI the Greek word ethnos in 23 out oI 26 places.
When one reads these passages. however. only two peoples














52. (cont.)...NRSV THE NEW REVISED STANDARD
VERSION OF THE HOLY BIBLE.
TABLE 1
THE EPISTLE OF ST. PAUL TO THE ROMANS

A B C D E F G H I J
CHAPTER
AND
VERSE
KJV NIV
TEXTUS
RECEPTUS
BYZANTINE
OR
MAJORITY
TEXT
ENGLISH
PRONUN-
CIATION
T.R.
A LITERAL
ENGLISH
TRANSLATION
MODERN
KING
JAMES
VERSION
LATIN
VULGATE
NRSV
1:5 NATIONS GENTILES s 0vsotv s 0vsotv ETHNESEEN NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
1:13 GENTILES GENTILES s 0vsotv s 0vsotv ETHNESEEN NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
1:14 GREEKS GREEKS Enot Enot HELLESEE GREEKS GREEKS GRAECIS GREEKS
1:16 GREEK GENTILE Envt Envt HELLENEE GREEK GREEK GRAECO GREEK
2:9 GENTILE GENTILE Envc. Envcc
HELLENOS GREEK GREEK GRAECI GREEK
2:10 GENTILE GENTILE Envt Envt HELLENEE GREEK GREEK GRAECO GREEK
2:14 GENTILES GENTILES s 0vn s0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES



A B C D E F G H I J
2:24 GENTILES GENTILES s0vsot s0vsot ETHNESEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
3:9 GENTILES GENTILES Enva. Enva. HELLENAS GREEKS GREEKS GRAECOS GREEKS
3.29 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
3:29 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
9:24 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
9:30 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
10:12 GREEK GENTILE Envc. Envc. HELLENOS GREEK GREEK GRAECI GREEK
10:19 PEOPLE NATION s0vst s0vst ETHNAY NATION PEOPLE GENTEM NATION
10:19 NATION NATION s0vst s 0vst ETHNAY NATION NATION GENTEM NATION
11:11 GENTILES GENTILES s0vsotv s0vsotv ETHNESEEN NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
11:12 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
11:13 GENTILES GENTILES s0vsotv s0vsotv ETHNESEEN NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
11:13 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
11.25 GENTILES GENITLES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
A B C D E F G H I J
15:9 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
15:9 GENTILES GENTILES s0vsot s0vsot ETHNESEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
15:10 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
15:11 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
15:12 GENTILES NATIONS s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
15:12 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTES GENTILES
15:16 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTIBUS GENTILES
15:16 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
15:18 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES
15:27 GENTILES GENTILES s0vn s 0vn ETHNEE NATIONS NATIONS GENTILES GENTILES
16:4 GENTILES GENTILES s0vv s0vv ETHNON NATIONS NATIONS GENTIUM GENTILES




38

are identiIied as a result oI their paraphrase because
Gentile
53
in English




53. In Table 1 column I we see that all the various case Iorms oI the
Latin word gens greatly resemble the English word Gentile. Will it
ever become obvious that British oI old incorporated this word
into their own language with a hybridized meaning? The Latin
word gens (gentis. genti. gentem. genti. gentes. gentium.
gentibus..etc.) translates into English as nation iust as the
Greek word ethnos does. So we have Iound the origin oI this
paraphrase. The years oI contact between Britons and Romans
gave rise to a new English word that did not exist in the ancient
languages. It is highly possible that the Lord God was content in
keeping the Briton`s ancestry hidden during the dispensation in
which He would call out a people which would show Iorth the
praises oI His name (Christians). See Romans 11:25. So whom do
we criticize in this case? It is not the copyists oI the New
Testament text who have caused this misinterpretation oI Scripture
but the translators with their paraphrases. So now Bible students
must. oI necessity. be critical oI the translators to remove their
obIuscations unless a Iormal translation with no paraphrases or a
literal translation becomes available. At this late date one literal
translation is Iinally available by Jay P. Green Sr. and his MKJV is
reasonably close.
It is not iust this writer`s opinion that textual criticism is not the
sole property oI the philologists and linguists. We cite a passage
Irom Ernst Wrthwein`s 'THE TEXT OF THE OLD
TESTAMENT on page 47. ......(cont.)


39

means non-Jew. From pages 28 and 31 oI this paper. and
also Irom Iootnote 49 we have already seen that rational
Biblical exegesis now necessitates us to consider a third
people whom we identiIied as the 8
th
and 6
th
century BC
Israelites oI the dispersions. Without them there are no

53. (cont.).... But the matter is not that simple. Anyone who
translates also interprets: the translation is not simply a rendering
of the underlying text but also an expression of the translators
understanding of it. And every translator is a child of his own time
and of his own culture. Consequently every translation must be
understood and appreciated as an intellectual achievement in its
own right. This is especially true of the versions of the Bible which
were produced to meet the practical needs of a community. Most
versions of the Bible have been the work of anonymous
translators (usually of many translators) who have given concrete
expression in their work to the intellectual assumptions of
their age and their culture, the religious and other opinions which
they adhere to or respect, the prejudices and concerns which they
adopt consciously or unconsciously, their education, their ability
to express themselves, the conceptual range of the language they
are translating into, and many other factors. We must therefore
distinguish between what comes from the original text and what is
added by the translator a formidable task to accomplish before
we can use the versions for purposes of textual criticism. (Used
by permission William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company) We
ought. thereIore. to be very careIul in our selection oI translations
and even that may not be enough.


40.

legitimate scions oI the Abrahamic Covenant and. hence
the book oI Genesis is only valuable as literature not as
God`s word. Translating the word ethnos as people or
nation instead oI Gentile. however. widens the possibility
oI the context oI these passages to include the 8
th
and 6
th

century BC diasporas which did not come under Christ`s
pronouncement oI Matthew 21:43. So it has been the
translators who have narrowed the context oI these
passages. not the signature writers oI Scripture and it
bears repeating that at no time during recorded history
have the words s 0vc. or Env ever been paraphrased as
the equivalent oI Gentile other than by New Testament
translators. We will analyze each passage listed in column
A oI Table 1 beginning on page 58.












41

Hellene ( Env ). which translates as Greek. is
also shown in Table 1 and is paraphrased as Gentile in
some oI the KJV verses. When we look through column I
oI Table 1 we Iind the Latin Vulgate translation oI this
word Hellene in all cases is the Latin word Ior Greek.
Beyond question. the translators who gave us the Vulgate
New Testament did the only sensible thing. Why the
English scholars paraphrased this word is a mystery. The
KJV is considered a Iormal translation where paraphrases
are supposed to be avoided. Modern dynamic translations
are normally worse as it is the aim in those translations to
clariIy meaning and. hence. provide exegesis. But in this
case. even the KJV has placed us in a position which leads
us to preclude consideration oI the Israelite exiles among
the Greeks. What iI many oI these Israelites no longer
practiced the religion oI their ancestors (i.e.. they
practiced paganism)? Once enough oI them accepted
Christ as their Savior. they could then Iorm the nucleus oI
a nation ripe to inherit the blessings oI the Abrahamic
Covenant in all its Iullness. As we have already seen.
Judaism can no longer provide the basis Ior a nation to
represent the kingdom oI God on earth (Matthew 21:43).
So by leading people to believe that modern Jews are



42

collectively eligible to receive blessings which are
earmarked Ior Israel nations which are predominantly
Christian. modern translators perhaps have added to the
meaning oI Scripture. The Bible is very clear with its
admonitions against any who would add to or take away
Irom any oI the Words oI God
54
and looking Ior a Bible
translation which avoids these pitIalls is diIIicult. But we
are not at an impasse. It seems that there is one man oI our
own era who has given us both a literal and a Iormal Bible
translation
55
with little or no paraphrasing. Jay P. Green
Sr.`s 'A LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE
which is included with 'THE INTERLINEAR BIBLE
Hendrickson Publishers is the best available. Also. his
'Modern King James Version oI the Bible Sovereign
Grace Trust Fund is reasonably close.



54. Deuteronomy 4:2; 12:32; Revelation 22:18.

55. A Literal Translation oI the Bible may be Iound in 'THE INTERLINEAR
BIBLE by Jay P. Green Sr.. Hendrickson Publishers. The interlinear
text comes with Strong`s Concordance numbers above each word. The
same man has also provided us with his 'MODERN KING JAMES
VERSION OF THE BIBLE published in 1990 by Sovereign Grace Trust
Fund. No equal to his Literal Translation in 'THE INTERLINEAR
BIBLE can be Iound in any modern English translations. not even his
Modern King James Version.

Anglo Israelism


With some Bible history and some textual
inIormation behind us. we can now grapple with the most
prominent Christian scholar oI our era who has been
outspoken in his obiections against Anglo-Israelism.
Although he is now with the Lord and cannot answer our
criticism. it is hoped that his successors will take this
presentation under advisement and investigate deeper. In
'The Kingdom oI the Cults Walter Martin devoted an
entire Chapter (12) to Anglo-Israelism. Herbert W.
Armstrong and the World wide Church oI God represent
his primary targets. Additionally. other proponents oI
Anglo-Israelism are discussed who are not associated with
Armstrong. We will limit our discussion to two
Armstrong and Howard B. Rand oI Destiny Publishers.
BrieI comments about both are in order beIore we enter
textual analysis in Romans.
Armstrong`s Worldwide Church oI God has been
considered heretical as a result oI their teachings on the
divinity oI Jesus Christ and the third Person oI the Trinity.
A very young Christian Church convened the Council oI
Nicea AD 325 to deal with the same heresy. One needs
only to read the Iour gospels to understand that the
Apostles revered Christ as God and that the Holy Spirit
44


was identiIied as a person in the Godhead. Furthermore.
those who participated at the council oI Nicea gave us the
Nicene Creed which explicitly proclaims the identity oI the
three Persons oI the Godhead. The Creed. which has been
handed down to us by those with Apostolic authority.
Iormed the Iundamental tenets oI Iaith oI the catholic
Church (east and west) Irom thence Iorth and throughout
the succeeding centuries. II one cared to dig deeper into
the writings oI the early Church Iathers prior to AD 325.
he would Iind suIIicient evidence to support that a Creed
had existed in the east and west long beIore the Council oI
Nicea. A lively discussion with reIerences on this can be
Iound in B. J. Kidd`s 'A History oI the Church to A.D.
461 Volume I Chapter X called 'Creed. Canon and
Episcopate. And so Walter Martin`s opinion that
Armstrong`s Church has had heretical doctrines in the past
was correct. However. during the three years prior to
publication oI this paper. that sect has re-evaluated their
doctrines into better alignment with historic Christianity.






45


But this is where Walter Martin`s discussion departs
Irom reality. The man was obviously long on verbiage and
short on methodical. logical analysis. His criticism oI
Howard B. Rand was without any merit. Rand was
deIinitely not innocuous
56
. How many volumes Mr. Rand
wrote we do not know but this writer has read at least 12 oI
them. They are rich with careIul. methodical Scriptural
analysis. line upon line. and not Iorgetting to call to mind
situational contexts Irom every part oI the Bible which
relate to a passage Ior exegesis. Mr. Rand and Destiny
Publishers are worthy oI our highest recommendation and
Destiny happens to be the only organization known today
publishing 'Judah`s Sceptre and Joseph`s Birthright
57
. II









56. 'THE KINGDOM OF THE CULTS by Walter Martin page 306.
57. By Reverend J. H. Allen. Destiny Publishers. Merrimac.
Massachusetts.



46

Walter Martin had read halI oI what his Iootnotes lead one
to believe
58
as in 'Judah`s Sceptre`s and Joseph`s
Birthright and then contrasted and compared Scripture.
line upon line. with world history he may have not been so
innocuous himselI. In particular. we can select some oI his
proclamations and then ask ourselves how or why would
anyone argue against the Lord God`s method oI
accomplishing His predetermined purposes especially iI
it is clearly declared repeatedly in the Scriptures`? Walter
Martin would have done much better iI he had Iollowed
the Pharisee Gamaliel`s advice given in Acts 5:38. 39
(MKJV). 'And now I say to you, withdraw from these men
and let them alone. For if this counsel or this work is of
men, it will come to nothing. But if it is of God, you cannot
overthrow it, lest perhaps you be found even to fight
against God.
Walter Martin gives a rather lengthy quote Irom
someone he calls one oI the greatest Hebrew scholars oI
the Christian Church. Dr. David Baron. an Englishman.
beginning on page 310. We will now look into some oI
their assertions and expose their deIective reasoning Ior




58. 'THE KINGDOM OF THE CULTS by Walter Martin page 307.


47


it is not the Anglo-Israelites they are deIeating but rational
understanding oI God`s plans and purposes. On page 311
Dr. Baron`s words in print are. 'We are not to understand
that he [the king of Assyria] cleared the whole land [took
Samaria and carried Israel away into Assyria] of all the
people, but that he took the strength of the nation with
him. This man has outright contradicted the Scriptures
with this statement and Walter Martin published it Ior the
whole world to read. Let us read Irom II Kings (MKJV)
17:5. 6. 18-24. 'And the king of Assyria went up into all
the land. And he went up to Samaria and besieged it three
years. In the ninth yea of Hoshea the king of Assyria took
Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria. And he
placed them in Halah, and in Habor by the river Gozan,
and in the cities of the Medes. So the LORD was very
angry with Israel, and turned them away from His face;
not one was left, only the tribe of Judah by itself. Also
Judah did not keep the commandments of the LORD their
God, but walked in the statutes which Israel made. And
the LORD rejected all the seed of Israel, and afflicted
them, and delivered them into the hand of spoilers,



48


until He had cast them out of His sight. For He tore Israel
from the house of David. And they made Jeroboam the son
of Nebat king. And Jeroboam drove Israel away from
following the LORD, and made them sin a great sin. For
the sons of Israel walked in all the sins of Jeroboam which
he did. They did not depart from them until the LORD
turned away Israel from His face as He had said by all His
servants the prophets. So Israel was carried away out of
their own land to Assyria until this day. And the king of
Assyria brought men from Babylon, and from Cuthah, and
from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim, and
placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the sons of
Israel. And they possessed Samaria and lived in its cities.
And so we see that not only did they err. but they gave us
a Ialse witness that they are experts at something they did
not even study adequately. It is not that these two doctors
(?) oI Biblical exegesis have made minor errors here or
there in their analyses. but in instance aIter instance they
exhibit complete contempt at any attempt to be thorough.
That is why we examine several oI their assertions.
On page 312 Dr. Baron quotes Ezra 7:13.6.7 'I
made a decree, that all they of the people of Israel,



49

and of His priests and Levites, in my realm, which are
minded of their own freewill to go up to Jerusalem, go with
thee; and in response to it 'this Ezra went up from
Babylon and there went up some of the children of
Israel, and of the priests, and the Levites, and the singers
and the porters, and the Nethinims, unto Jerusalem in the
seventh year of Artaxerxes the King. While it is true that
all Judahites can correctly be called Israelites. the converse
oI this statement is Ialse. Furthermore. this decree Irom
Artaxerxes was aimed at all the people oI Israel which
included those oI the 8
th
century BC captivity who were at
Media and Assyria
59
. Baron`s assertion is that all twelve
tribes (oI the 1.800 Iamilies which returned) were
represented in this return. But the Iootnotes numbered 25.
26. and 27 oI this paper show us: Iirst. that entire body oI
the people oI Israel chose to remain in the country oI their
captivity when the decree was issued to allow them to
rebuild Jerusalem. and second. that the ten tribes (i.e.. the
northern kingdom) which were exiled took this council


59. 'MISSING LINKS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN TABLETS
by E. Raymond Capt page 67. Also. II Kings 15:29; 17:5. 6. 18 -
24 and I Chronicles 5:25. 26. Finally Josephus Antiquities Book
XI Chapter V Paragraph 2.


50

among themselves. that they would leave the multitude oI
the heathen. and go Iorth into a Iurther country. where
never mankind dwelt. and Iinally. that by Christ`s
appearance they were beyond Euphrates and an immense
multitude not to be estimated by numbers. So iI either had
researched their position suIIiciently they would have
reported much more data and would have had to
reconsider.
The Assyrians made at least Iour incursions into
divided Israel during the 8
th
century BC. With each
incursion captives were deported; it was their practice. II
Kings 15:29 notes the land oI Naphtali and several
northern cities were taken. The annals oI Tiglath-pileser
III tell us that three other Israel tribes (Asher. Issachar. and
Zebulun) were deported into the borders oI Assyria
60
.
These were the Iirst Assyrian invasions circa BC 745.
When Samaria was taken in BC 721 Sargon II reported
that 27.290 Israelites were deported
61
. Still in the 8
th

century BC all the IortiIied cities oI Judah were taken (II
Kings 18:13). Halley`s Bible Handbook reports these
deported Judahites numbered 200.000 (page 262).


60. 'MISSING LINKS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN TABLETS
by E. Raymond Capt page 67.
61. 'MISSING LINKS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN TABLETS
by E. Raymond Capt page 71. Also II Kings 17:6.
51

Finally. in BC 586. Nebuchadnezzar oI Babylon besieged
Jerusalem and carried oII captive almost all oI its survivors
to Babylon. Seventy years later the decree was issued
allowing all Israelites who desired that they could return to
Jerusalem to rebuild the city. Those who returned Irom
captivity with Zerubbabel numbered 49.697 (Ezra
2:64.65). Are we to believe the children oI Israel
decreased in numbers that much Irom the minimum oI
227.290 deportees we iust identiIied during 230 years oI
captivity?
Whatever happened to the Lord God`s plan to
increase the children oI Israel in captivity so that they
could not be measured nor numbered (Hosea 1:10)?
Consider Israel`s 400 year stay in the land oI
Goshen under oppressive Egyptian rule. Those oI the
exodus who crossed the Red Sea numbered approximately
2.000.000. Baron`s statement that all twelve tribes were
represented in this return could be correct. but only as a
Iragment oI their numbers. Otherwise. the prophets gave
us Ialse testimony about Israel`s population growth while
in exile.
Amos 9:8-10 (MKJV) reads as Iollows. 'Behold, the
eyes of the Lord Jehovah are on the sinful kingdom, and I
will destroy it from the face of the earth; except that I will


52

not completely destroy the house of Jacob, says the LORD.
For lo, I will command, and I will shake the house of Israel
among all the nations, as one shakes with a sieve,
yet not a grain shall fall to the earth. All the sinners of My
people shall die by the sword, who say, the evil shall not
draw near, or come in front about us. In reIerence to this
Walter Martin stated on page 315. 'We learn from this
prophecy that as a kingdom, the ten tribes were to suffer
destruction and their restoration would never be realized.
How then is it possible for them to be lost for almost
three millenniums, and then reappear as the British
Kingdom when the kingdom was never to be restored?
Why would a scholar relegate his understanding to such
cursory observation oI a subiect which will completely
change the panorama oI the Iuture? In the Iirst place.
Amos 9:8-10 does state that God will not utterly destroy
the house oI Jacob. Further. it states that God will siIt the
house oI Israel among all nations; and among all nations`
is in conIormity with what we Iound in II Esdras 13:39-45
(i.e.. that they Israel determined to go into a Iurther
country where never mankind dwelt). It is rather
unIortunate that a Christian scholar oI Walter Martin`s
widespread acceptance did not even reIerence the Biblical
record adequately.


53

Walter Martin concludes Dr. Baron`s discussion on
page 314 with the Iollowing statement. 'Dr. Barons
brilliant and thorough refutation cannot be improved
upon. And excerpts from this personal letter which he
addressed to a Christian, perplexed by Anglo-Israelite
perversions of history and Biblical interpretation, remain a
classic, and the letter has never been refuted by Anglo-
Israelites. The second barrier is that of the identification
of Israel and Judah as separate nations, . The previous
Iive paragraphs have provided ample reIutation that Walter
Martin and Dr. Baron have perverted Biblical history not
the Anglo-Israelites. As Ior identiIication oI Israel and
Judah as separate nations in Scripture the Iollowing is
oIIered.
Consider the prophet Jeremiah in chapters 18 and
19. In Chapter 18 Jeremiah was instructed to visit a
potter`s house. Verses 1 through 6 read as Iollows
(MKJV). 'The word which came to Jeremiah from the
LORD, saying, Arise and go down to the potters house,
and there I will cause you to hear My words. Then I went
down to the potters house, and behold, he was working a
work on the wheel. And the vessel that he made in clay
was ruined in the hand of the potter; so he made it again



54

another vessel, as seemed good to the potter to make it.
Then the word of the LORD came to me, saying, O house
of Israel, can I not do with you as this potter? says the
LORD. Behold, as the clay in the potters hands, so are
you in My hand, O house of Israel. In contrast to this
and in the very next chapter Jeremiah was instructed by
the Lord as Iollows in verses 1 through 3 and 10 through
13 (MKJV). 'So says the LORD, Go and get a potters
earthen jar, and assemble from the elders of the people
and of the elders of the priests. And go out to the valley of
the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of Potsherd Gate.
And there declare the words that I shall tell you. And say,
Hear the word of the LORD, O kings of Judah, and people
of Jerusalem. So says the LORD of Hosts, the God of
Israel, Behold, I will bring evil on this place, which shall
cause the ears of him who hears it to tingle........Then you
shall break the jar before the eyes of the men who go with
you, and shall say to them, so says the LORD of hosts,
Even so I will break this people of this city, as one breaks a
potters vessel that cannot be made whole again. And they
shall bury them in Tophet until there is no place left to
bury. I will do this to this place, says the LORD, and to its
people, and make this city as Tophet. And the houses of
Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, shall be


55

as defiled as the place of Tophet, because of all the houses
on whose roofs they have burned incense to all the host of
heaven, and have poured out drink offerings to other
gods. Jeremiah`s ministry began nearly 100 years aIter
northern Israel`s deportations. The message given to him
by the Lord in chapter 18 shows that God was not Iinished
with those oI the 8
th
century BC dispersions. But in Iront
oI the inhabitants oI Jerusalem the already baked potter`s
vessel would be shattered in pieces so that it could never
be repaired. The Iinal IulIillment oI this did not occur until
the 1
st
and 2
nd
centuries AD aIter the Jews reiected their
Messiah. So the prophecy oI Jeremiah 19 was directed at
the Jews and the one in Jeremiah 18 was directed at the
dispersions. When Jeremiah lived. there were no Israelites
leIt in the northern kingdom. The evidence here is
conclusive that the dispersions and the southern Kingdom
oI Judah were being treated independently in prophecy and
almost its entire IulIillment is already behind us.
The end oI these divergent histories will be
evidenced by the greatest exodus ever witnessed in
recorded history when Israel and Judah return to Zion as
one stick (Ezekiel 37:15-28) and in righteousness. This
event cannot occur apart Irom Jesus Christ. For Iurther
conIirmation that Israel and Judah have been dealt with by


56

God separately see Hosea chapter one and Jeremiah
chapter three. So once again Walter Martin did err not
knowing the Scriptures.
It bears mentioning again that men such as Walter
Martin and David Baron would have much better served
their Lord and Savior iI they had kept silent on this subiect
than to provide a vehicle Ior many to enter into unbelieI as
a result oI all the contradictions they eIIected. Much more
could be presented against Mr. Martin as in a Iormal
reIutation but the necessities have been given here.
We are now. thereIore. at a position where we can
begin verse by verse textual analysis oI crucial passages in
St. Paul`s Epistle to the Romans. We will see Ior ourselves
whether or not elimination oI the paraphrases will allow
context to enlarge enough to include the 8
th
century BC
Israelites and Judahites. Upon the recommendation oI
textual critic Luther W. Martin we will cite these passages
Irom the King James Version oI the Bible. Luther Martin
classiIies this translation as a modiIied literal translation -
the same as he classiIies the Modern King James Version.
He also notes that two scholars he reIerenced
62
assessed
the various categories oI translations into two classes;


62. 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE Volume II by Jay P. Green
Sr. editor. page 350.
57

acceptable or unacceptable. The modiIied literal
translations such as the KJV and MKJV are both
acceptable to them. But the verses we will look at contain
paraphrases in the KJV. In the MKJV there are some
paraphrases. So in our textual analysis we will quote Irom
the KJV. but with the paraphrases removed.
Adequate space is not available here to delve any
deeper into Luther Martin`s reasons Ior adducing that most
modern recensions and translations are unacceptable. but
as time passed the would be translators began to think that
more paraphrasing and rewording is necessary to clariIy
hard to understand passages. This. however. is the very
practice we have under scrutiny herein. Even the KJV has
enough Ilaws without adding more. II the reader is
inclined to purchase a good modiIied literal translation
with Iar Iewer paraphrases the only ones this writer
recommends is 'A LITERAL TRANSLATION OF THE
BIBLE in 'THE INTERLINEAR BIBLE by Jay P.
Green Sr.. Hendrickson Publishers or Green`s Modern
King James Version. Sovereign Grace Trust Fund. The
'LITERAL TRANSLATION is deIinitely





58

recommended
63
. So without Iurther delay we begin our
textual analysis in Romans.

ROMANS 1:4-6

And declared to be the Son of God with power,
according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from
the dead: By whom we have received grace and
apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all
nations, for his name: Among whom are ye also the called
of Jesus Christ:

In this verse the KJV translates cuvo. as nations.
ThereIore. because the word Gentiles (non-Jews) is not
used. the context oI this passage does not lead readers into
ignoring the Iact that non-Jewish Israelites oI the 8
th
or 6
th

century BC dispersions might be living among those
nations.


63. II one decided to study the Scriptures in depth the KJV is adequate
but not without a Strong`s Concordance and a quality interlinear
Bible such as 'THE INTERLINEAR BIBLE by Jay P. Green Sr..
Hendrickson Publishers. Even Green`s 'MODERN KING JAMES
VERSION may Iall short in some areas so it is recommended to
the reader that his Literal Translation is the best available.

59

ROMANS 1:13-16

Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that
oftentimes I purposed to come unto you, (but was let
hitherto), that I might have some fruit among you also,
even as among other |nations|. I am debtor both to the
Greeks, and to the |Ioreigners|; both to the wise, and to the
unwise. So, as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the
gospel to you that are at Rome also. For I am not
ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God
unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first,
and also to the Greek.

In verse 13 the KJV paraphrases cuvcoiv as among
other Gentiles`. It is obvious Irom the passage that nations
or peoples would be much more suitable here. Verse 14
contains two words which are oI interest. The KJV
translates Enot as Greeks iust as it should. We will
remember Irom history that the Church at Rome was
comprised oI predominantly Greek speaking people and
this epistle was addressed 'To all that be in Rome, beloved
of God, called to be saints: verse 7. We will also notice
in verse 14 the Greek word barbaros ( |op|opoi. ) is
translated as barbarian. The English word barbarian has

60

much more connotation attached to it than the Greek word
barbaros had. A suitable literal translation would be
Ioreigners. In verse 16 we again Iind the word Greek. The
KJV translators wisely chose not to paraphrase here.
Among the Greeks one could surely have Iound Israelites
and Judahites oI the dispersions who did not observe the
Jewish religion
64
.
In the NIV. however. translators chose the word
Gentile here. Although the word Gentile may not
technically preclude the Israelite exiles. (Gentile is
narrowly deIined as not-Jewish). it leads individuals with
little or no knowledge oI Israel`s history into thinking by
Biblical deIinition as given in St. Paul`s Epistle to the
Romans that only two groups oI people exist in the
world with regard to YAHWEY`S covenant blessings;
Jews and Gentiles. Furthermore. all Greeks spoken oI in
each instance are oI necessity assumed to be Gentile (non-
Jew) by implication when. in Iact. many could have been
non-Jewish Israelites. The details oI this discussion can
get rather tricky. but as we have pointed out. it is necessary
to clear the air so that truth seekers can make sense out



64. John 7: 35


61


oI prophecy. For this endeavor we have been given
Apostolic sanction Irom II Peter 3:15. 16.

ROMANS 2:9-11

'Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that
doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the |Greek| ; But
glory, honor, and peace, to every man that worketh good,
to the Jew first, and also to the |Greek| : For there is no
respect of persons with God.

ROMANS 2:14

For when the |nations|, which have not the law, do by
nature the things contained in the law, these, having not
the law, are a law unto themselves:

ROMANS 2:17

Behold, thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law, and
makest thy boast of God,




62

ROMANS 2:24

For the name of God is blasphemed among the |nations|
through you, as it is written.

We have listed here all the key verses Irom Romans
chapter two in succession so that we may keep our
thoughts Iocused on the context oI the chapter as a whole.
At the same time our Biblical historical knowledge is now
more than adequate to help us overcome any
misunderstandings that have arisen Irom paraphrased
translations such as the KJV. NIV. NRSV. RSV. ASV.
NASV. THE LIVING BIBLE. et al. In verses 9 and 10
translators paraphrased the words Envo. and Envi
as Gentile. In verses 14 and 24 the words cuvn and
cuvcoi are paraphrased as Gentiles. In verses 9 and 10 we
should read Greek (as shown above); in verses 14 and 24
we should read nations (as shown above). In two oI our
analyses on pages 65 through 71 it will be proven that
whenever St. Paul wrote nations ( cuvn. cuvcoi. cuve v )
in his epistles. he alluded to 8
th
century

BC Israelites
oI the Assyrian dispersions and 6
th
century BC exiles
oI the Babylonian captivity who chose not to return


63

to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel. Ezra and Nehemiah. This
will now be shown here Ior St. Paul`s quotation oI Ezekiel
36:22 in Romans 2:24 and it will be shown at the
conclusion oI this paper that a New Testament writer also
used the word Greek ( Env ) as a synonym Ior Israelite
oI the dispersions.
By Christ`s time the Israelites who remained in exile
65
comprised an immense multitude not to be estimated by
numbers`. Now let verse 17 enter into the discussion.
thou art called a Jew, and restest in the law. Then we
arrive at verse 24. For the name of God is blasphemed
among the |nations| through you. St. Paul certainly used
this quotation Irom Ezekiel 36:22
66
with regard to Jews
(visualize verses 17 and 24 as parts oI the same discourse).
But Ezekiel`s passage was explicitly directed at the house
oI Israel. As we have already seen there are stark
diIIerences between the two terms Jews and House oI



65. 'ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS by Flavius Josephus. Book XI
Chapter V Paragraph 2.

66. MKJV Therefore say to the house of Israel, So says the Lord
Jehovah: I do not do this for your sake, O house of Israel, but for
My holy names sake, which you have profaned among the nations
where you went.

64

Israel. But the word Jew does not appear anywhere in
Ezekiel`s book and Ezekiel does show a clear distinction
between the house oI Israel and the house oI Judah
(Ezekiel 2:3; 4:3-6; 8:17; 9:9). It has already been pointed
out that Judahites can be called Israelites but the converse
oI this is Ialse (i.e. we cannot call all Israelites Judahites).
ThereIore. to say that Israelites oI the ten-tribed 8
th
century
BC dispersions are Jews is error because the word Jew Iirst
came into existence as a name Ior the inhabitants oI the
southern kingdom oI Judah during the reign oI Ahaz (about
the time that northern ten-tribed Israel a separate nation
with their own king was deported by the Assyrians). So
why did St. Paul use Ezekiel 36:22 in reIerence to Jews in
dispersion when Ezekiel addressed the House oI Israel?
Well. the descendents oI Judah are deIinitely Israelites and
St. Paul took this opportunity to demonstrate that by
boasting in the Law they. also. were proIaning the
LORD`S holy name among the nations. St. Paul in no way
contradicted or nulliIied Ezekiel`s writings; he merely
showed that the Jews he addressed were also descendents
oI Israel and that many passages in Scripture evince
repeated occurrences.
As can be seen Irom reading St. Paul`s epistles.



65

the apostle had a Iull time iob reIuting the Judaizing
Christians who were trying to convince Christians that it
was necessary to keep the entire Law oI Moses. But aside
Irom what problems St. Paul encountered with his
mission in liIe among the nations. he knew Scripture and
cited many Old Testament passages. He was raised in
Jerusalem at the Ieet oI Gamaliel according to the
exactness oI the law oI the Iathers. Although St. Paul most
likely used a Septuagint when he traveled. he certainly was
taught Irom pure Hebrew Scriptures at Jerusalem. These
same Hebrew Scriptures St. Paul learned Irom gave rise to
the Latin Vulgate Old Testament and eventually the
Masoretic Text (see Appendix C).
But Ior now. let us look at a key passage Irom
translations oI three diIIerent sources all three that are
mentioned above. The MKJV translates Ezekiel 2:3 Irom
the Masoretic Text as Iollows. And He said to me, Son of
man, I am sending you to the sons of Israel, to the nations,
the rebelling ones who have rebelled against Me; they and
their fathers have sinned against Me, to this day. Next.
in the Septuagint
67
we Iind. 'I send thee forth to the



67. 'THE SEPTUAGINT WITH APOCRYPHA: GREEK AND
ENGLISH by Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton page 981.

66

house of Israel, them that provoke me; who have provoked
me, they and their fathers, to this day. Finally. the Latin
Vulgate conIirms the Masoretic Text to the letter. 'to the
sons of Israel, to the nations (ad Iilios Israhel ad gentes
see Appendix C). So Ezekiel was sent to the sons oI
Israel. to the nations` Irom the southern kingdom oI Judah
aIter northern Israel had already been deported. And as
Ezekiel was sent to the nations where Israel had been
banished. so also was St. Paul. This we proclaim by
authority Irom St. Paul Ior in Romans 11:13 the Apostle
announced that he was 'the apostle of the |nations|. It is
no stretch oI imagination to conclude that whenever St.
Paul wrote nations he deliberately implied the 'Lost Ten
Tribes oI Israel.
So whenever St. Paul wrote cuvo. or Env he
included in them the sons oI Israel and it is deIinitely
incorrect and misleading to translate either oI these words
as Gentile. It is Iar better to translate as close as possible
to the original language (i.e.. never paraphrase unless
words are not available in the receptor language) than to
worry about the receptor`s understanding oI what the
translator wants him to understand. II the receptor is
serious about learning what was meant he will dig deeper.
Nearly 400 years have gone since scholars gave us the

67


KJV and the most elite universities in the world are yet
mired in the Jew Gentile paraphrase syndrome. Well has
the Apostle Paul written (MKJV I Corinthians 1:25).
'because the foolish thing of God is wiser than men, and
the weak thing of God is stronger than men.

ROMANS 3:9

What then? Are we better than they? No, in no wise: for
we have before proved both Jews and |Greeks|. that they
are all under sin;.

St. Paul`s letter was addressed to a Greek speaking
Church at Rome. It is wrong Ior a translator to paraphrase
here and bring all non-Jewish nations into the purview oI
the passage when Greeks were explicitly stated in this
verse and Greeks were the people addressed in the letter.
II St. Paul wrote Greek he meant Greek. The KJV and
NIV both employ Gentiles here while the MKJV employs
Greeks.

ROMANS 3:29
Is he the God of the Jews only? is he not also of the
|nations|? Yes, of the |nations| also:

68

This verse concludes the passage that was in
progress at Romans 3:9. As his epistle was addressed to
Greek speaking Christians at Rome. St. Paul took this
opportunity in the discourse to expand the application to
include all nations (which included the sons oI Israel in
dispersion). Most versions paraphrase here except the
MKJV.

ROMANS 9:24-26

Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but
also of the |nations|? As he saith also in Osee, I will call
them my people, which were not my people; and her
beloved, which was not beloved. And it shall come to pass
that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not
my people; there shall they be called the children of the
living God.

Most versions paraphrase in verse 24 with the word
Gentiles. This paraphrase could not have been placed in a
better location to support the exegesis oI the Anglo-
Israelite proponents. For in the very next verse (25) St.
Paul explicitly stated the inIormation he reported came
Irom the Old Testament prophet`s book called Osee (or
Hosea). Hosea prophesied in the name oI the LORD


69

against Israel and against Judah during the 8
th
century BC
Assyrian invasions. As can be seen easily by reading
Hosea chapter one. the prophet`s message to the house oI
Judah was not the same as the one directed at the house oI
Israel Ior these two nations had been separated nearly two
hundred years. In this chapter Hosea presents God`s
accusation and iudgment against Israel and some measure
oI the same against Judah. In verse two (Hosea 1:2) Israel
was called a wiIe to God through an example. but a wiIe oI
whoredoms. God Iurther stated that He would break the
bow oI Israel (verse 5) because they are not my people
(verse 9) and that the Lord will not be their God. But
please take notice oI verse ten KJV. Yet the number of the
children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which
cannot be measured nor numbered; and it shall come to
pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are
not my people there it shall be said unto them, Ye are the
sons of the living God. So Israel got a writing oI
divorcement but only Ior the short term because we have
Israel still heir oI the Abrahamic Covenant even aIter the
Mosaic Covenant was broken; so many that they cannot be
measured nor numbered and becoming the sons oI God.



70

In contrast. Judah obtained mercy (Hosea 1:7) but
this was only Ior the short term because Jeremiah. who
lived 140 years later. prophesied against Jerusalem
with his broken pottery passage in Jeremiah chapter 19. In
Matthew 21:43 Jesus conIirmed Jeremiah`s prophecy when
He narrowed its IulIillment to the nation oI the Jews
(Judea) that reiected the holy One oI Israel.
The above quoted verse Irom Hosea 1:10 was the
same one used by St. Paul directly in Romans 9:25. The
situational context this arises Irom is the prelude to the
Assyrian invasions during the 8
th
century BC when Hosea
prophesied against Israel and Judah. But in Romans 9:24
St. Paul stated but also of the nations. So he quoted
Hosea`s passage directed against Israel speciIically with
regard to the nations. ThereIore. it Iollows that Israel was
among the nations where IulIillment oI this would occur.
Please read the entire Iirst chapter oI Hosea and take notice
oI the deliberate distinction between Israel and Judah. As
their divergent histories unIolded it should have become
eventually apparent to Bible historians that Christ`s verdict
rendered against the Jewish nation in Matthew 21:43
would debar the Jewish nation Irom inheriting a place
among the multitude oI nations` comprising Abraham`s



71

progeny. Thus. we are moved to acknowledge that Anglo-
Israelites have attained to a much better understanding oI
the Scriptures.

ROMANS 9:30. 31

What shall we say then? That the |nations| which
followed not after righteousness have attained to
righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.
But Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness,
hath not attained to the law of righteousness.

In verse 31 St. Paul noted that it was Israel which
Iollowed aIter a law oI righteousness but did not arrive.
This happened several times and the events were spaced
centuries apart; Iirst in the 8
th
century BC. then in the 6
th

century BC. Iinally in 70 AD and 132 AD. Wherefore?
Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the
works of the law. (verse 32). In verse 30 he said. the
|nations|. which followed not after righteousness, have
attained to righteousness. So most who read this passage
clearly think that the nations and the Israel oI these two
verses are two diIIerent groups. But Irom 9:24 we Iound
that St. Paul knew perIectly well that the prophet Hosea


72

identiIied scattered Israel oI the 8
th
century BC dispersion
as not my people. Ezekiel. in his book (chapter 2 verse
3). also identiIied the sons oI Israel as the nations.
ThereIore. St. Paul implicitly identiIied Israel as nations in
the passage Ior the beneIit oI people who were ready to act
as the Bereans. One must search the Scriptures and see
whether these things are so. So the nations oI verse 30 are
all the nations (which includes scattered Israel). And the
Israel oI verse 31 is all the Israel nations that were
reiected by God Ior not keeping the requirements oI the
law (because they reiected their opportunity to accept the
righteousness which is oI Iaith).
The Apostle Peter wrote that some things in St.
Paul`s Epistles were hard to be understood and this is one
oI them. It is certainly true that the nation Judea was the
agent oI the kingdom oI God on earth (or the custodian oI
the oracles oI God) when Christ appeared and. thereIore.
was included within the context oI the Israel cited in 9:31.
Moreover. the Judeans were not part oI the 8
th
century BC
exiles who were not my people. But the not my people
Israelites were surely still Israelites even though they never
returned and they were still heirs oI the Abrahamic
Covenant. The Iact that the Jews were allowed to return



73

to the Promised Land Ior the purpose oI bringing Iorth the
Messiah in no way contradicts the aIorementioned Iacts.
Furthermore. we have Iound that Judahites had two
opportunities to represent the kingdom oI God on earth; the
period under Mosaic Law which they IorIeited in the
Babylonian captivity and a second period under Mosaic
Law which they IorIeited when their Redeemer appeared
to save them Irom the curse oI the Law. No matter how
diIIicult it is Ior us to reasonably understand this exigency
God has placed beIore us (i.e.. reconciling Israel`s dual
history with what is written). once again. the problem is
with us not with God. What iI God had very sound
reasoning Ior keeping scattered Israel`s identity hidden Ior
2.520 years (7 times punishment Leviticus 26:18)?
Would not a passage previously cited now make sense
Romans 11:25? He has gloriIied and exalted His only
begotten Son much higher than His servant Israel and
rightIully so. Did not Israel Iail at the keeping oI God`s
righteousness initially? The Lord Jesus Christ did not Iail.
Now we are the servants oI Jesus Christ and have carried
His Gospel to the ends oI the earth and God`s sovereign
will is accomplished in spite oI the shortcomings oI His
people. Salvation is come to all the inhabitants oI the
earth.


74

The evidence that Israel was hidden among the
nations is implicit because St. Paul cited Irom the passage
oI Hosea chapter one where the separation oI Judah and
Israel is explicitly deIined. But a case cannot be developed
with only one witness. So we note that on pages 53. 54
and 55 the witness oI Jeremiah chapters 18 and 19 was
given. On pages 65 and 66 we pointed out that Ezekiel
explicitly placed the 8
th
century BC Israelite exiles among
the nations. Isaiah 11:12 also provides a lucid reIerence
showing the distinction between Israel and Judah.
Although there are many more passages which provide
similar contextual reIerences we will cite here one Irom
Micah 5:7-9 which also shows Israel in the latter days
among many peoples. and the remnant of Jacob shall be
in the midst of many people as a dew from the Lord, as the
showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor
waiteth for the sons of men. And the remnant of Jacob
shall be among the |nations| in the midst of many people as
a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion
among the flocks of sheep: who, if he go through, both
treadeth down, and teareth in pieces, and none can deliver.
Thine hand shall be lifted up upon thine adversaries, and
all thine enemies shall be cut off. II there is any doubt
leIt that the descendents oI Israel were scattered among the


75

nations we ask iust what did the Jews mean in John 7:35?
Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he
go, that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the
dispersed |oI| the |Greeks|. and teach the |Greeks|?

ROMANS 10:12

For there is no difference between the Jew and the
Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call
upon him.

As shown in Table 1 on page 36 only the NIV
paraphrases Envc. (Hellenos) as Gentile here.

ROMANS 10:19-21

But I say, Did not Israel know? First Moses saith, I will
provoke you to jealousy by them that are no |people|. and
by a foolish nation I will anger you. But Esaias is very
bold, and saith, I was found of them that sought me not; I
was made manifest unto them that asked not after me, But
to Israel he saith, All day long I have stretched forth my
hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people.


76

Here is another reIerence to those who are called no
people or not a nation but this time St. Paul cites Moses
Irom Deuteronomy 32:21 (in Romans 10:19). Then. in
Romans 10:20. St. Paul quotes Irom Isaiah 65:1 and shows
that those who did not seek God eventually Iound Him.
Yes. those who did not seek God are scattered Israel who
live among the nations as explicitly set Iorth in Isaiah 65:1
through 9. And. as shown in Romans 10:21. it was also
Israel who reiected God`s council. We are again
constrained to use the same discussion that was used Ior
Romans 9:30. 31. So the Israel oI 10:19 and 10:21
represents the three groups who Iailed to keep the Mosaic
Law (8
th
century BC northern Israelites and Judahites. also
the 6
th
BC century Judahites. and Iinally the Jews oI the 1
st

and 2
nd
century AD). In conclusion. those who sought Him
not in verse 10:19 were call nations but were also oI Israel
living among the nations.

ROMANS 11:11-17

I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God
forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto
the |nations|. for to provoke them to jealousy. Now



77

if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the
diminishing of them the riches of the |nations|; how much
more their fullness? For I speak to you |nations|.
inasmuch as I am the apostle of the |nations|. I magnify
mine office: If by any means I may provoke to emulation
them which are my flesh, and might save some of them.
For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the
world, what shall the receiving of them be, but life from the
dead? For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy:
and if the root be holy, so are the branches. And if some of
the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive
tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest
of the root and fatness of the olive tree;

ROMANS 11:25

See pages 30 Ior analysis.

ROMANS 15:8-19

Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the
circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises
made unto the fathers: And that the |nations| might glorify
God for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause I will


78

confess to thee among the |nations|. and sing unto thy
name. And again he saith, Rejoice, ye |nations|. with his
people. And again, Praise the Lord, all ye |nations|; and
laud him, all ye people. And again, Esaias saith, There
shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over
the |nations|; in him shall the |nations| trust. Now the God
of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye
may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.
And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that
ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able
also to admonish one another. Nevertheless, brethren, I
have written the more boldly unto you in some sort, as
putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to
me of God, That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to
the |nations|. ministering the gospel of God, that the
offering up of the |nations| might be acceptable, being
sanctified by the Holy Ghost. I have therefore whereof I
may glory through Jesus Christ in those things which
pertain to God. For I will not dare to speak of any of those
things which Christ hath not wrought by me, to make the
|nations| obedient, by word and deed, Through mighty





79

signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so
that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I
have fully preached the gospel of Christ.

ROMANS 15:27

It hath pleased them verily; and their debtors they are.
For if the |nations| have been made partakers of their
spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in
carnal things.

ROMANS 16:4

Who have for my life laid down their own necks: unto
whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of
the |nations|.

Five times in chapter eleven St. Paul employed the
word nations. In chapter IiIteen we Iind it employed ten
times and one Iinal time in chapter sixteen. The same
arguments apply here that apply throughout Romans. The
8
th
century BC Israelites and those who did not return Irom
the 6
th
century BC dispersions must be reckoned with as
living among the nations Ior exegesis or reasons oI



80

textual analysis. Many oI them did not observe the Jewish
religion and Sts. Peter and Paul both knew this. The
Apostle John also knew this as we can see Irom John 7:35.
Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he
go, that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the
dispersed |oI| the |Greeks|. and teach the |Greeks|?
II all this is true. that is. hard to be understood. but
nevertheless actually so. then the Lord God`s method Ior
IulIillment oI His promises to Israel has almost been
deceptive. Should it be a surprise that one oI the devices
He employed might have been subterIuge? Consider the
Iollowing passages Irom Scripture: Proverbs 25:2. It is
the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honour of
kings is to search out a matter. Psalm 2:1-4. Why do
the |nations| rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?
The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take
counsel together, against the LORD, and against his
anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and
cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the
heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in
derision. I Corinthians 1:25. Because the foolishness of
God is wiser than men; and the weakness of God is
stronger than men. But then we will ask. Why would
God deceive His own people`? Obviously. He used His

81

own people to accomplish His aims without their even
realizing it.
The Apostle Paul`s passage Irom Romans 11:25
through 11:36 succinctly presents iustiIication Ior the
Lord`s methods. All the greatest scholars oI the world
have not been able to compete with God`s intellect. He
has used a legal technicality to circumvent men`s intellects.
Moreover. men have been unable to see the details oI His
plan because their pride got in the way. They were
scholars! But Ior those who acted as the Bereans He
eventually revealed the entirety oI His plan as they
approached that great and terrible day oI the LORD`.
It is too bad that Drs. Walter Martin and David
Baron were so outspoken to thwart God`s plans. Be not
dismayed. however. Ior the Lord Jesus HimselI
admonished His disciples aIter the resurrection in Luke
24:25. O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the
prophets have spoken:. These same men. whom He
admonished. are also prophesied to sit on twelve thrones as
iudges over the 12 tribes oI Israel someday. And while
Walter Martin and David Baron were Iound opposing
God`s international plans. they most likely knew the way
to personal salvation through believing and conIessing



82

Jesus Christ as Savior. Their standing in God`s kingdom.
when it appears visibly. may not be contingent upon their
assessment oI world politic as it is explained in Scripture.
As Ior people who entered into unbelieI as the result
oI contradictions generated by their erroneous exegesis. we
would probably Iind that these unbelievers were looking
Ior contradictions to begin with and would never have
Iound Iaith in God anyway. So to blame Walter Martin or
David Baron Ior loss oI souls would not be wise on our
part. It is enough to admonish them. Moreover. God`s
plans and purposes may have been best served by keeping
all this inIormation hidden until the appointed time. So it
could be that Walter Martin and David Baron were actually
doing the will oI the Lord.
The late Reverend Dr. William Pascoe Goard in
1927 published his exegesis oI St. Paul`s Epistle to the
Romans and called it 'THE EPISTLE TO THE
ROMANS
68
. His work did not analyze the many
doctrinal subiects that St. Paul covered in Romans. But
then. neither did this work. Moreover the inIormation
presented in 'AGAINST THE PARAPHRASE was not


68. In the U.S.A. this book may be ordered Irom New Beginnings.
P.O. Box 228. Waynesville. NC 28786.

83

designed to supplant Rev. Goard`s work. It was designed
only to conIirm it. His work stood alone Ior many years
and it challenged readers to acquire a complete
understanding oI God`s plans as expounded in St. Paul`s
epistle. His work is mentioned beIore we close because
something oI great interest can be Iound by reading it. His
thorough textual analysis exhibited so many years ago can
only be the result oI revelation; and by today`s standards.
his rare insight can be compared to perhaps only ten
authors oI note. The reader is asked to recall a verse we
cited on pages 75 and 80 Irom John 7:35. Then said the
Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall
not find him? will he go unto the dispersed |oI| the
|Greeks| , and teach the |Greeks| ? Please notice two oI
the words in brackets. We inserted the word Greeks in
both places. The KJV paraphrases here and gives us
Gentiles instead. The NIV. NRSV. and MKJV all translate
literally here and give us Greeks in both places. Earlier.
we took note that St. Paul implied 8
th
century BC or 6
th








84

century BC Israelites who remained in dispersion
whenever he wrote s0vn. suvcoi. or s0vv (nations). This
was proven by reIerencing many Old Testament passages.
We now Iind two New Testament passages which
reIerence the diaspora oI Israelites among the nations and
the one Iound in John 7:35 identiIies them as Greeks.
Three source texts conIirm this: TR. the Byzantine Text.
and even the corrupt Nestle Text
69
.


69. 'THE INTERLINEAR KJV-NIV Parallel New Testament in
Greek and English by AlIred Marshall is based on the Nestle Text
Ior interlinear translation. For a complete overview oI why the
Nestle Text is now considered one oI the corrupt compilations
given to us by modern scholars see 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE
BIBLE Volumes I and II by Jay P. Green Sr. The Nestle Text
relies on Alexandrian texts Ior key doctrinal passages. Why
heretical sects inIluenced early writings can be seen through a
thorough historical search oI the Church Fathers` records. In lieu
oI this. a study combining 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE
and 'A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH TO A.D. 461 by B. J.
Kidd may be suIIicient. On page 97 in Volume 1 oI B. J. Kidd`s
'A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH TO AD 461 an account written
oI by Irenaeus is cited where St. John the Apostle had an
encounter with one oI the Ebionite heretics named Cerinthus. This
account can also be read in 'ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY by
Eusebius. From examples such as this it can be seen that the early
Christian Church had as many problems with heretics as our
modern Church.

85

All the ancient texts agree on this. And Rev. Goard knew
in AD 1927 that Greek was used as a synonym Ior an
Israelite oI the dispersions
70
in St. Paul`s epistles.
The second passage conIirming that the tribes oI
Israel were scattered is Iound in the General Epistle oI
James 1:1. James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus
Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad,
greeting. How many witnesses does one need to iog his
thinking into the reality that even though they were
custodians oI the Old Testament the 1
st
Century Jews
comprised only a small part oI Israel?
To the Jews the Iirst Iive books oI the Bible are
Ioundational. To Christians the New Testament is
Ioundational. Both are cornerstone; Ior there is but one
God and one Iaith. And iI Jesus Christ is the same
yesterday. today and Iorever (Hebrews 13:8). then modern
Iundamentalist. evangelical Christians ought to re-evaluate
their understanding oI Scripture. The Iirst Iive books oI
the Bible. the prophets. and the New Testament all
contain the same story; namely. that oI personal




70. 'THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS by the late Reverend Dr.
William Pascoe Goard page 9.

86

salvation
71
and that oI national salvation
72
. both by Iaith
in Jesus Christ. To those who reiect this concept oI
national salvation the Iollowing is oIIered : In the day oI
the LORD. that is in the time oI Jacob`s Trouble (Jeremiah
30:7) the Iollowing prophecy will take place. Ezekiel
36:37. Thus saith the Lord God; I will yet be enquired of
by the house of Israel to do it for them;. But iI in the day
oI the LORD` all nations will be gathered against
Jerusalem to battle and the city shall be taken (Zechariah
14:1.2) then where will the sons oI Israel be who will be
saved Irom it (Jeremiah 30:7)?



71. I Peter 2:6. Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture,
Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he
that believeth on him shall not be confounded.
Romans 4:3. For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed
God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.
John 14:6. Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the
life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.
Genesis 15:6. And he [Abram] believed in the LORD; and he
counted it to him for righteousness.

72. Jeremiah 30:7. 10. 11. Alas! for that day is great, so that none is
like it: it is even the time of Jacobs trouble; but he shall be saved
out of it.......! Therefore fear thou not, O my servant Jacob, saith
the LORD; neither be .....(cont.)

87








72. (cont.).. dismayed, O Israel : for, lo, I will save thee from afar,
and thy seed from the land of their captivity; and Jacob shall
return, and shall be in rest, and be quiet, and none shall make him
afraid. For I am with thee, saith the LORD, to save thee : though I
make a full end of all nations whither I have scattered thee, yet will
I not make a full end of thee : but I will correct thee in measure,
and will not leave thee altogether unpunished.
Matthew 25:32-34. And before him shall be gathered all nations :
and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd
divideth his sheep from the goats : And he shall set the sheep on
his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say
unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of My Father,
inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the
world.
Mark 13:28. 29. Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her
branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves |not Iruit|, ye know
that summer is near : So ye in like manner, when ye shall see these
things come to pass, know that it is nigh, even at the doors.

























APPENDIX A

A WORD ABOUT BIBLICAL
REFERENCES



Unless otherwise speciIied all quotations are Irom
the KJV (King James Version oI the Holy Bible). In some
places. where the KJV was not satisIactory. paraphrased
words were replaced. A word which is considered a literal
translation was substituted and shown |in brackets|.
The MKJV (Modern King James Version oI the
Holy Bible) was also used Ior some quotations. They are
identiIied with the abbreviation MKJV at the beginning or
end oI each use. It will be noted here again that. Ior the
most part. the MKJV is acceptable as is. I believe the
translator tried to keep it literal. He also gave us an
Interlinear Translation through Hendrickson Publishers
which includes a literal translation. This may even be
better than the MKJV and ready Ior textual analysis.



90

The other two English translations (NIV and NRSV)
used Ior textual comparison in Table 1 are based on
eclectic sources which include the Alexandrian
manuscripts. It is believed by many
73
today that these
Alexandrian texts oI the New Testament were doctored by
early heretics because questions arise Irom analysis oI the
texts concerning the divinity oI Jesus Christ. TR and the
Byzantine texts remain very clear in this area and a
multitude oI quotations by the early Church Fathers are in
agreement with them.












73. 'UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE Volumes I and II by Jay P.
Green Sr.





APPENDIX B


SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT
II ESDRAS. APOCRYPHA
(SAME AS IV EZRAE. VULGATE
APPENDIX)


The OxIord scholar B.J. Kidd. 1922. in his 'A
HISTORY OF THE CHURCH TO A.D. 461 Volume I
page 49. asserted that II Esdras was committed to writing
on or about AD 100. We can know several things Ior sure.
however. which will lead us to disagree with his assertion.
Flavius Josephus was the son oI a royal Jewish priestly
Iamily who at age 19 became a Pharisee
74
(AD 56 at that
time his name was Joseph ben Matthias) and 10 years later
he was the Jewish general who led the revolt in the autumn
oI AD 66 that routed Vespasian`s 12
th
Roman Legion. The
inIormation Josephus reported (see Iootnote number 27




74. 'THE COMPLETE WORKS OF FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS
translated by William Whiston. A. M. Forward by William
SanIord LaSor. Ph.D.. Th.D. page VII

92

on page 12) as to the whereabouts oI the main body oI the
Israelites oI the 8
th
century BC exile (i.e.. that they were
beyond Euphrates and an immense multitude not to be
estimated by numbers) only conIirms what II Esdras
13:39-45 states. Hence. it is believed by some
75
that
Josephus worked Irom the manuscripts oI Esdras.
Furthermore. in 'APOSTOLIC FATHERS the Epistle oI
Barnabas. we Iind two quotations Irom II Esdras
76
. It is
generally agreed that Barnabas was written between AD 70
and 132 at Alexandria. Egypt. This indicates that II Esdras
was available in writing prior to the era under discussion.
We say in writing because the works oI Josephus (Irom
Rome; AD 70-100) and the Epistle oI Barnabas (Irom
Alexandria) were generated Irom two diIIerent parts oI the
world. and this would most likely rule out oral tradition as
being their only source. Moreover. Josephus was not a




75. The source oI this inIormation is E. Raymond Capt who is a
Biblical archaeologist oI our own era and who has studied this
subiect Ior over 40 years. This writer obtained the inIormation
via telephone conversation personally on 10 October 1994
and conIirmed it on 24 April 1995.

76. 'APOSTOLIC FATHERS Second Edition by Holmes page 178
(II Esdras 4:33. 5:5)
93

Christian; the author oI Barnabas was. which ipso Iacto is
evidence Ior this assertion; and so. a Iortiori (all the more)
that II Esdras was committed to writing beIore the era in
discussion. Further inIerence may be adduced Irom this;
but it is suIIicient to say some have aIIirmed their belieI
that II Esdras was inspired and should have been included
as at least deuterocanonical (i.e.. St. Jerome`s THE LATIN
VULGATE APPENDIX - see Appendix C oI this essay
on page 95; also. Rev. J. H. Allen`s 'JUDAH`S SCEPTRE
AND JOSEPH`S BIRTHRIGHT PAGE 143).
It Iollows. thereIore. that iI Joseph ben Matthias
(Josephus) had access to II Esdras. so did St. Paul; they
were nearly contemporary and were both educated in the
Jewish Pharisee tradition. Consequently. it becomes clear
that St. Paul was Iully aware he was preaching the Gospel
oI Jesus Christ to the lost sheep oI the house oI Israel
(Matthew 15:24) among the nations where they lived side
by side. And since the ten-tribed northern Israelites and
the southern Judahites oI the Ienced cities oI Judah were in
exile Ior over 700 years by this time. it is likely that the
maiority oI this immense multitude had lost knowledge oI
their Israelitish ancestry.




94

What ends would have been accomplished iI St.
Paul had taught them oI their Israelitish ancestry? The
destruction oI Jerusalem was imminent and the Israelites in
exile had at least temporarily no hope oI national pre-
eminence in the kingdom oI God`s economy until salvation
through Iaith in Jesus Christ (the new and everlasting
covenant) had been preached to all oI them. Now. iI they
will hear His voice. they can be re-covenanted to God
through Jesus Christ. Have not England and the United
States already done this in many historic national
documents? It has only been in recent years that our
national agendas have become rampant with unbelieI and
lack wisdom to acknowledge the sovereignty oI the Most
High God. However. concurrent with and independent oI
all other covenants God has made with mankind. every
aspect oI the Abrahamic Covenant is being IulIilled beIore
our eyes; and the overwhelming maiority either deny it or
Iail to look Ior it.








APPENDIX C

THERE IS A CHAIN OF
CONTINUITY FROM
THE ANCIENT HEBREW TEXT
OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
TO THE LATIN VULGATE
AND FINALLY TO THE
MASORETIC TEXT

In the LATIN VULGATE (BIBLIA SACRA
IUXTA VULGATAM VERSIONEM) we Iind a
translation oI most oI the Old Testament by the 4
th
century
AD Catholic scholar St. Jerome. He translated many Old
Testament books with the aid oI Jewish Rabbis in and
around Bethlehem where our Savior was raised as a child
(see Encyclopedia Britannica. 1953. Volume 13. pages 2
and 3). From a modern Latin Vulgate preIace (which is in
English on pages XXI to XXIV) we Iind that most oI the
modern Vulgate Old Testament is yet the same translation
which St. Jerome gave us.
As noted in APPENDIX B. IV Ezrae is Iound in an
appendix at the end oI the Vulgate. Modern scholars tell


96

us that III and IV Ezrae were probably a collection oI
Iragments committed to writing earlier or transmitted by
oral tradition. Why is it. then. that St. Jerome included it
in an appendix with his translation oI the canonical
Scriptures even though he considered it apocryphal? The
answer is Iound in St. Jerome`s deIinition oI apocryphal.
To him it meant deuterocanonical. that is. oI secondary
importance. but nevertheless to be read along side oI the
Scriptures Ior ediIication. And what have we Iound in II
Esdras (IV Ezrae. Vulgate)? We have Iound explicit
details about the history and destiny oI ten-tribed northern
Israel something the canonical Old Testament is silent
about aIter the Assyrian invasions (except in prophecy).
Another Iact worthy oI note about this subiect is that
St. Jerome learned how to translate Hebrew Irom Jewish
Rabbis who were the descendents oI a truly Semitic
dispersion
77
.


77. These Jewish Rabbis may not. however. have been able to trace
their ancestry to Jacob (Israel). Their ancestry traces back to Esau.
Jacob`s twin brother. The Idumeans (Edomites) were Esau`s
descendents and were placed in power by the Edomite king oI
Judea (Herod) beIore Christ`s Iirst advent. The Idumeans were
conquered by the Jews oI the Hasmonean Dynasty around 129 BC
led by John Hyrcanus. Hence. even though they were not Israelites
by race. their origin was Semitic.

97

In contrast. the Masoretic codexes being used Ior
most modern Bible translations are kept in the Leningrad
Public Library (see 'THE TEXT OF THE OLD
TESTAMENT by Ernst Wrthwein translated by Erroll
F. Rhodes). This eastern European location suggests the
possibility that the Khazar Jews (a Turkish people with a
non-Semitic origin) were responsible Ior the Iinal
transmission oI the Masoretic text. The Khazars and the
Masoretic text both come to us Irom mediaeval times.
Furthermore. the Khazars. who adopted Judaism as their
religion oI state circa AD 740. are native to and still exist
in large numbers in Eastern Europe (see THE
FOURTEENTH TRIBE by Daniel S. Krynicki and THE
THIRTEENTH TRIBE by Arthur Koestler). What we
have here is a possible link uncovered in the transmission
oI the Masoretic Codexes. The rise oI Mohammedanism
and conquests by the Saracens in the 7
th
century AD in
Palestine assuredly caused many Semitic Jews to emigrate
through the Caucasus Pass into Khazaria. This serves to
explain why the non-Semitic Khazars oI the 8
th
century AD
accepted Judaism. Also. the Khazars certainly were able to
obtain the Jewish Scriptures and learn how to read them
Irom a direct line oI custodians. The Iact that a non-



98

Semitic Turkish people who held political. economic. and
military sway throughout the southern Russian Steppes
were scholarly enough to preserve the Old Testament in
the textual Iorm we Iind in the Masoretic Codexes displays
a very plausible explanation oI why it has textual Iorm
Ieatures which distinguish it Irom the Samaritan
Pentateuch. the Septuagint. and those discovered at
Qumran recently (see 'THE TEXT OF THE OLD
TESTAMENT by Ernst Wrthwein pages 13 through 17).


















APPENDIX D
THE GREEK ALPHABET


UPPER
CASE

LOWER
CASE

ENGLISH
EQUIVALENT
SOUND

GREEK
SPELLING

ENGLISH
PRONUN-
CIATION
OF GREEK
SPELLING


A


o

AH

o!oo

Ahl-fah

B


|.!


V

|n"to

Vee-tah


I




GH or Y

o#uuo

Ghah-mah


A


o

TH

oc#to

Thehl-tah

E


c

EH or EE

c!viov

Eh-psee-lohn


Z


.

ZEE

.nto

Zee-tah

H


n

EE

n$to

Ee-tah

100


O


u


TH


onto


Thee-tah

I


i

Y or EE

i% e&to

Yoh-tah

K

k


K

Kotto

Kah-pah

A




L

ouoo

Lahm-
thah

M


u

M

uu!

Mee

N


v

N

vu!

Nee




c

KS (X)

cu

Ksee

O


o

O

o'uikpov

Oh-mee-
krohn

H


t

P


ti

Pee

P


p

R

pe

Roh

E


o

S

oiuo

Seegh-
mah
101






T

t T
tou
Tahf

Y

u EE
u$viov
Ee-psee-
lohn

u

o F
oi
Fee

X

; KH
;i
Khee

+

v PS
vi
Psee

O

e O e$ uco
Oh-meh-
ghah



































THE NICENE CREED
AS EXPANDED IN THE YEAR
OF OUR LORD 381

From THE CREEDS OF CHRISTENDOM
Edited by Philip SchaII Revised by David S. SchaII
Reprinted by Baker Books
A division oI Baker Book House Company
P.O. Box 6287. Grand Rapids. MI 49516-6287
By arrangement with Harper and Row



The Received Text oI the
Greek Church Volume II
page 57

Hiotcuoucv cic c!vo OEON
HATEPA tovtokpotopo. tointnv
oupovou koi nc. opotev tc tov
tev koi!oopotev.
Koi cic c!vo kupiov IHEOYN
XPIETON. tov uiov tou 0cou tov
uovocvn. tov ck tou totpoc
cvvn0cvto tpo tovtev
tev oievev. oec ck oetoc.

The Nicene Creed as
enlarged A.D. 381 Volume
I page 27

We believe in one GOD the
FATHER Almighty.
Maker oI heaven and earth.
And oI all things visible and
invisible.
And in one Lord JESUS CHRIST.
The only-begotten Son oI God.
Begotten oI the Father beIore all
worlds ;
Light oI Light.








104

0cov on0ivov c k
0cou on0ivou. cvvn0cvto.
ou toin0cvto. ouoouoiov te
totpi " oi ou to tovto
ccvcto " tov oi nuoc touc
ov0petouc koi oio tnv
nuctcpov oetnpiov kotc
0ovto ck te v oupovev koi
oopke0cvto ck tvcuuotoc
oiou koi Mopioc tnc top
0cvou koi! cvov0petnoovto.
otoupe0cvto tc utcp nue v
cti Hovtiou Hiotou. koi
to0ovto koi toocvto . koi
ovootovto tn tpitn nucpo
koto toc poooc . koi ovc
0ovto cic touc oupovouc .
koi ko0c.oucvov ck occie v
tou totpoc . koi toiv c"p;o
ucvov ucto! oocnc kpivoi
.evtoc koi vckpouc "!!ou !
tnc |ooicioc ouk c#otoi tcoc.
Koi cic to HNEYMA TO $AII
ON. to kupiov. (koi) to .eotoiov.
to ck tou totpoc cktopcuoucvov.
to ouv totpi koi uie ouv
%

Very God oI very God.
Begotten. not made.
Being oI one substance with the
Father ;
By whom all things were made ;
Who. Ior us men. and Ior our
salvation. came down Irom heaven.
And was incarnate by the Holy
Ghost oI the Virgin Mary.
And was made man ;
He was cruciIied Ior us under
Pontius Pilate ;
And suIIered and was buried ;

And the third day he rose again ;
According to the Scriptures ;
And ascended into heaven.
And sitteth on the right hand oI
the Father ;
And he shall come again. with glory.
to iudge the quick and the dead ;
Whose kingdom shall have no end.
And in the Holy Ghost.
The Lord. and Giver oI liIe ;
Who proceedeth Irom the Father ;
Who with the Father and the Son
together is worshiped and gloriIied;







105

tpookuvouucvov koi ouvooco.o
ucvov. to onoov oio!! tev
tpoontev " cic uiov. oiov.
ko0oiknv koi!! otootoiknv
ckknoiov "!!ouooouucv c&v
|ottiouo cic o# ocoiv ouoptiev"
tpooooke ucv ovootooiv vck
pev. koi .env tou ucovtoc
oi evoc. `Aunv. !

Who spake by the Prophets.
And in one holy catholic and
apostolic Church ;

We acknowledge one baptism Ior
the remission oI sins ;
And we look Ior the resurrection
oI the dead ;
And the liIe oI the world to come.





BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, Reverend J. H.
JUDAHS SCEPTRE AND JOSEPHS
BIRTHRIGHT 1902, 1917. Destiny
Publishers, P. O. Box 177, Merrimac,
Massachusetts 01860.

APOCRYPHA Authorized Version 1946. Destiny
Publishers, P. O. Box 177, Merrimac,
Massachusetts 01860.

BIBLE
The Authorized KING JAMES VERSION
of the Holy Bible Cambridge at the
University Press.
BIBLIA SACRA IUXTA VULGATAM
VERSIONEM (The LATIN
VULGATE) 1983 Deutsche
Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart PRINTED
IN GERMANY
The INTERLINEAR BIBLE by Jay P.
Green Sr. 1985 Hendrickson Publishers,
Peabody, Massachusetts 01961.
MODERN KING JAMES VERSION OF
THE HOLY BIBLE by Jay P. Green Sr.
1990 Sovereign Grace Trust Fund,
108

Lafayette, Indiana 47903.
The INTERLINEAR KJV-NIV by Alfred
Marshall, Zondervan Publishing House,
Grand Rapids, Michigan 49506.
The NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION
of the Holy Bible 1973 Zondervan
Publishing House, Grand Rapids,
Michigan 49530.
The NEW REVISED STANDARD Version
of the Holy Bible 1989 Thomas Nelson
Publishers, Nashville, Tennessee 37214.
H KAINH AIAOHKH
META EYNTOMOY EPMHNEIAE
YHO HAN. N. TPEMHEAA
(Ekoooic tpiokootn tcuttn
AAEAuOTHE OEOAOION <<O EOTHP>>
AOHNAI MAOE 1993
Translation:
THE NEW TESTAMENT
WITH BRIEF INTERPRETATION
BY PANAGIOTIS N. TREMBELA
Thirty-fifth Edition
<<THE SAVIOR>> THEOLOGICAL
BROTHERHOOD
ATHENS MAY 1993

109

Bratton, Fred Gladstone
A HISTORY OF THE BIBLE 1959 Beacon
Press, Beacon Hill, Boston

Brenton, Sir Lancelot C. L.
THE SEPTUAGINT WITH APOCRYPHA:
GREEK AND ENGLISH Fifth Printing February
1995 Hendrickson Publishers. Originally published
by Samuel Bagster & Sons, Ltd., London, 1851

Capt, E. Raymond M.A., A.I.A., F.S.A. Scot.
MISSING LINKS DISCOVERED IN ASSYRIAN
TABLETS 1985, Artisan Publishers, P.O. Box
1529, Muskogee, Oklahoma 74402

Divry, G.C. and Divry, C.G.
DIVRYS NEW ENGLISH-GREEK AND
GREEK-ENGLISH HANDY DICTIONARY 1983,
D.C. Divry Inc. Publishers, 293 Seventh Avenue,
New York, NY

Downing, David C. Ph.D.
WHAT YOU KNOW MIGHT NOT BE SO
1987, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan
49516

110

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 1953, Volumes
10 and 13

Eusebius Pamphilus, Bishop of Cesarea, in Palestine
ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY Reprinted 1994
by Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids,
Michigan 49516

Feazell, J. Michael
THE LIBERATION OF THE WORLDWIDE
CHURCH OF GOD 2001, Zondervan, Grand
Rapids, Michigan 49516

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr., Th.D.
THE BEAST OF REVELATION 1989, Published
by the Institute for Christian Economics.
Distributed by Dominion Press, Fort Worth, Texas

Goard, Reverend William Pascoe
THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS 1929, 1992,
Covenant Publishing Company, 8 Blades Court,
Deodar Road, Putney, London SW15
2NU Available from New Beginnings, P.O. Box
228, Waynesville, NC 28786


111

Green Sr., J. P.
UNHOLY HANDS ON THE BIBLE Volumes I
and II 1990, 1992, Sovereign Grace Trust Fund,
Lafayette, Indiana 47903
THE INTERLINEAR BIBLE - HEBREW -
GREEK ENGLISH, 1985 Hendrickson Publishers,
Peabody, Massachusetts 01961
MODERN KING JAMES VERSION
of the Holy Bible 1990, Sovereign Grace
Trust Fund, Lafayette, Indiana 47903

Halley, Henry H.
HALLEYS BIBLE HANDBOOK 1927,
1959 Zondervan Publishing House, Grand
Rapids, Michigan

Hammerton, Sir John and Barnes, Dr. Harry Elmer
THE ILLUSTRATED WORLD HISTORY
1938, Wm. H. Wise & Co., New York, NY

Holmes, Michael W.
THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS 1989, 1994,
Translated by J. B. Lightfoot and J. R.



112

Harmer, Edited and revised by Michael W.
Holmes

Josephus, Flavius
THE COMPLETE WORKS OF JOSEPHUS
1981, Translated by William Whiston, A. M.
Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan

Koestler , Arthur
THE THIRTEENTH TRIBE 1976,
Random House, New York, NY

Kidd, Beresford James D. D.
A HISTORY OF THE CHURCH TO A.D.
461 Volume I 1922, Oxford, at the
Clarendon Press

Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert
A GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON 1968,
Revised and augmented throughout by Sir
Henry Stuart Jones with the assistance of
Roderick McKenzie and with the co-
operation of many scholars, Oxford at the
Clarendon Press


113

Krynicki, Daniel S.
THE FOURTEENTH TRIBE 1993,
Krynicki Publishing, St. Clair Shores,
Michigan

Lightfoot, J. B.
See Holmes, Michael W.

Macqueen, James G.
BABYLON 1965, Frederick A. Praeger
Publishers, New York & Washington

Martin, Walter
THE KINGDOM OF THE CULTS 1965, 1992,
Bethany House Publishers, Minneapolis, Minnesota
55438

Pappageotes, George C. Ph.D.
CORTINAS MODERN GREEK in 20 Lessons
[ILLUSTRATED] 2
nd
EDITION 1960 R. D. Cortina
Co., Inc., Publishers, New York, N. Y.

Rand, Howard B. LL. B.
STUDY IN HOSEA 1955
STUDY IN JEREMIAH 1947

114

Destiny Publishers, P.O. Box 177, Merrimac,
Massachusetts 01860

Schaff, Philip and Schaff, David S.
THE CREEDS OF CHRISTENDOM With a
History and Critical Notes Reprinted 1993
by Baker Books a division of Baker Book House
Company, P.O. Box 6287, Grand Rapids,
Michigan 49516 by arrangement with
Harper and Row, Volumes I and II

Strong, James S.T.D., LL.D.
THE EXHAUSTIVE CONCORDANCE OF THE
BIBLE 1890, 1974, Abingdon Press, Nashville &
New York

Swain, Joseph Ward (Professor of History, University of
Illinois) and Armstrong, William H. (Master of Ancient
History, Kent School)
PEOPLES OF THE ANCIENT WORLD 1959,
Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, N.Y.

Toynbee, Arnold J.
A STUDY OF HISTORY Abridgement of
Volumes I-VI by D. C. Somervelle, 1947,

115

1958, Oxford University Press, New York &
London

Wigram, George V.
THE ANALYTICAL GREEK LEXICON OF THE
NEW TESTAMENT 1983, Hendrickson
Publishers, Peabody, Massachusetts 01961
Originally published in 1852

W"rthwein, Ernst
THE TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT An
Introduction to Biblia Hebraica Copyright # 1979
by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 255
Jefferson Ave. S.E., Grand Rapids, Michigan 49503
Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes

Young, Richard A.
INTERMEDIATE NEW TESTAMENT GREEK
1994, Broadman & Holman Publishers, Nashville,
Tennessee