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Doc reference capture: 15 November 2012

Agenda21 full online document, with addenda and Energy Policy

Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment. Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were adopted by more than 178 Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992. The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created in December 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED, to monitor and report on implementation of the agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels. It was agreed that a five year review of Earth Summit progress would be made in 1997 by the United Nations General Assembly meeting in special session. The full implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Commitments to the Rio principles, were strongly reaffirmed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg, South Africa from 26 August to 4 September 2002.

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Preamble Paragraphs 1.1 - 1.6


*see A/CONF.151/26/REV.1(VOL.I) | | English| A/CONF.151/26/REV.1(VOL.I)/CORR.1 | | English| Franais| | Espaol

Chapter 2. International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies 3. Combating poverty 4. Changing consumption patterns 5. Demographic dynamics and sustainability 6 Protecting and promoting human health conditions 7. Promoting sustainable human settlement development 8. Integrating environment and development in decision-making Paragraphs 2.1 - 2.43

3.1 - 3.12 4.1 - 4.27 5.1 - 5.66 6.1 - 6.46 7.1 - 7.80 8.1 - 8.54


*see A/CONF.151/26/REV.1(VOL.II) | English

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Chapter 9. Protection of the atmosphere 10. Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources 11. Combating deforestation 12. Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought 13. Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development 14. Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development 15. Conservation of biological diversity 16. Environmentally sound management of biotechnology 17. Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 18. Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated approaches to the development, management and use of water resources 19. Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products

Paragraphs 9.1 - 9.35 10.1 - 10.18 11.1 - 11.40 12.1 - 12.63 13.1 - 13.24 14.1 - 14.104 15.1 - 15.11 16.1 - 16.46 17.1 - 17.136

18.1 - 18.90

19.1 - 19.76

20. Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes, Including Prevention of 20.1 - 20.46 Illegal International Traffic in Hazardous Wastes 21. Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues 22. Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes 21.1 - 21.49 22.1 - 22.9


*see A/CONF.151/26 Vol. III

Chapter 23. Preamble 24. Global action for women towards sustainable and equitable development 25. Children and youth in sustainable development Paragraphs 23.1 - 23.4 24.1 - 24.12 25.1 - 25.17

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26. Recognizing and strengthening the role of indigenous people and their communities

26.1 - 26.9

27. Strengthening the role of non-governmental organizations: partners for sustainable 27.1 - 27.13 development 28. Local authorities' initiatives in support of Agenda 21 29. Strengthening the role of workers and their trade unions 30. Strengthening the role of business and industry 31. Scientific and technological community 32. Strengthening the role of farmers 28.1 - 28.7 29.1 - 29.14 30.1 - 30.30 31.1 - 31.12 32.1 - 32.14


*see A/CONF.151/26 Vol. III

Chapter 33. Financial resources and mechanisms 34. Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building 35. Science for sustainable development 36. Promoting education, public awareness and training 37. National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing countries 38. International institutional arrangements 39. International legal instruments and mechanisms 40. Information for decision-making Paragraphs 33.1 - 33.21 34.1 - 34.29 35.1 - 35.25 36.1 - 36.27 37.1 - 37.13

38.1 - 38.45 39.1 - 39.10 40.1 - 40.30

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1.1. Humanity stands at a defining moment in history. We are confronted with a perpetuation of disparities between and within nations, a worsening of poverty, hunger, ill health and illiteracy, and the continuing deterioration of the ecosystems on which we depend for our well-being. However, integration of environment and development concerns and greater attention to them will lead to the fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed ecosystems and a safer, more prosperous future. No nation can achieve this on its own; but together we can - in a global partnership for sustainable development. 1.2. This global partnership must build on the premises of General Assembly resolution 44/228 of 22 December 1989, which was adopted when the nations of the world called for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, and on the acceptance of the need to take a balanced and integrated approach to environment and development questions. 1.3. Agenda 21 addresses the pressing problems of today and also aims at preparing the world for the challenges of the next century. It reflects a global consensus and political commitment at the highest level on development and environment cooperation. Its successful implementation is first and foremost the responsibility of Governments. National strategies, plans, policies and processes are crucial in achieving this. International cooperation should support and supplement such national efforts. In this context, the United Nations system has a key role to play. Other international, regional and subregional organizations are also called upon to contribute to this effort. The broadest public participation and the active involvement of the non-governmental organizations and other groups should also be encouraged. 1.4. The developmental and environmental objectives of Agenda 21 will require a substantial flow of new and additional financial resources to developing countries, in order to cover the incremental costs for the actions they have to undertake to deal with global environmental problems and to accelerate sustainable development. Financial resources are also required for strengthening the capacity of international institutions for the implementation of Agenda 21. An indicative order-of-magnitude assessment of costs is included in each of the programme areas. This assessment will need to be examined and refined by the relevant implementing agencies and organizations. 1.5. In the implementation of the relevant programme areas identified in Agenda 21, special attention should be given to the particular circumstances facing the economies in transition. It must also be recognized that these countries are facing unprecedented challenges in transforming their economies, in some cases in the midst of considerable social and political tension. 1.6. The programme areas that constitute Agenda 21 are described in terms of the basis for action, objectives, activities and means of implementation. Agenda 21 is a dynamic programme. It will be carried out by the various actors according to the different situations, capacities and priorities of countries and regions in full respect of all the principles contained in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. It could evolve over time in the light of changing needs and circumstances. This process marks the beginning of a new global partnership for sustainable development.

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* When the term "Governments" is used, it will be deemed to include the European Economic Community within its areas of competence. Throughout Agenda 21 the term "environmentally sound" means "environmentally safe and sound", in particular when applied to the terms "energy sources", "energy supplies", "energy systems" and "technology" or "technologies".

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Section I Social & Economic Dimensions Chapter 2 International Cooperation To Accelerate Sustainable Development In Developing Countries & Related Domestic Policies Introduction
2.1. In order to meet the challenges of environment and development, States have decided to establish a new global partnership. This partnership commits all States to engage in a continuous and constructive dialogue, inspired by the need to achieve a more efficient and equitable world economy, keeping in view the increasing interdependence of the community of nations and that sustainable development should become a priority item on the agenda of the international community. It is recognized that, for the success of this new partnership, it is important to overcome confrontation and to foster a climate of genuine cooperation and solidarity. It is equally important to strengthen national and international policies and multinational cooperation to adapt to the new realities. 2.2. Economic policies of individual countries and international economic relations both have great relevance to sustainable development. The reactivation and acceleration of development requires both a dynamic and a supportive international economic environment and determined policies at the national level. It will be frustrated in the absence of either of these requirements. A supportive external economic environment is crucial. The development process will not gather momentum if the global economy lacks dynamism and stability and is beset with uncertainties. Neither will it gather momentum if the developing countries are weighted down by external indebtedness, if development finance is inadequate, if barriers restrict access to markets and if commodity prices and the terms of trade of developing countries remain depressed. The record of the 1980s was essentially negative on each of these counts and needs to be reversed. The policies and measures needed to create an international environment that is strongly supportive of national development efforts are thus vital. International cooperation in this area should be designed to complement and support - not to diminish or subsume - sound domestic economic policies, in both developed and developing countries, if global progress towards sustainable development is to be achieved. 2.3. The international economy should provide a supportive international climate for achieving environment and development goals by: (a) Promoting sustainable development through trade liberalization; (b) Making trade and environment mutually supportive; (c) Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries and dealing with international debt; (d) Encouraging macroeconomic policies conducive to environment and development.
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2.4. Governments recognize that there is a new global effort to relate the elements of the international economic system and mankind's need for a safe and stable natural environment. Therefore, it is the intent of Governments that consensus-building at the intersection of the environmental and trade and development areas will be ongoing in existing international forums, as well as in the domestic policy of each country.

Programme Areas A. Promoting sustainable development through trade

Basis for action

2.5. An open, equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable multilateral trading system that is consistent with the goals of sustainable development and leads to the optimal distribution of global production in accordance with comparative advantage is of benefit to all trading partners. Moreover, improved market access for developing countries' exports in conjunction with sound macroeconomic and environmental policies would have a positive environmental impact and therefore make an important contribution towards sustainable development. 2.6. Experience has shown that sustainable development requires a commitment to sound economic policies and management, an effective and predictable public administration, the integration of environmental concerns into decision-making and progress towards democratic government, in the light of country-specific conditions, which allows for full participation of all parties concerned. These attributes are essential for the fulfilment of the policy directions and objectives listed below. 2.7. The commodity sector dominates the economies of many developing countries in terms of production, employment and export earnings. An important feature of the world commodity economy in the 1980s was the prevalence of very low and declining real prices for most commodities in international markets and a resulting substantial contraction in commodity export earnings for many producing countries. The ability of those countries to mobilize, through international trade, the resources needed to finance investments required for sustainable development may be impaired by this development and by tariff and non-tariff impediments, including tariff escalation, limiting their access to export markets. The removal of existing distortions in international trade is essential. In particular, the achievement of this objective requires that there be substantial and progressive reduction in the support and protection of agriculture - covering internal regimes, market access and export subsidies - as well as of industry and other sectors, in order to avoid inflicting large losses on the more efficient producers, especially in developing countries. Thus, in agriculture, industry and other sectors, there is scope for initiatives aimed at trade liberalization and at policies to make production more responsive to environment and development needs. Trade liberalization should therefore be pursued on a global basis across economic sectors so as to contribute to sustainable development. 2.8. The international trading environment has been affected by a number of developments that have created new challenges and opportunities and have made multilateral economic cooperation of even greater importance. World trade has continued to grow faster than world output in recent years. However, the expansion of world trade has been unevenly spread, and
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only a limited number of developing countries have been capable of achieving appreciable growth in their exports. Protectionist pressures and unilateral policy actions continue to endanger the functioning of an open multilateral trading system, affecting particularly the export interests of developing countries. Economic integration processes have intensified in recent years and should impart dynamism to global trade and enhance the trade and development possibilities for developing countries. In recent years, a growing number of these countries have adopted courageous policy reforms involving ambitious autonomous trade liberalization, while far-reaching reforms and profound restructuring processes are taking place in Central and Eastern European countries, paving the way for their integration into the world economy and the international trading system. Increased attention is being devoted to enhancing the role of enterprises and promoting competitive markets through adoption of competitive policies. The GSP has proved to be a useful trade policy instrument, although its objectives will have to be fulfilled, and trade facilitation strategies relating to electronic data interchange (EDI) have been effective in improving the trading efficiency of the public and private sectors. The interactions between environment policies and trade issues are manifold and have not yet been fully assessed. An early, balanced, comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations would bring about further liberalization and expansion of world trade, enhance the trade and development possibilities of developing countries and provide greater security and predictability to the international trading system.

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2.9. In the years ahead, and taking into account the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, Governments should continue to strive to meet the following objectives: (a) To promote an open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system that will enable all countries - in particular, the developing countries - to improve their economic structures and improve the standard of living of their populations through sustained economic development; (b) To improve access to markets for exports of developing countries; (c) To improve the functioning of commodity markets and achieve sound, compatible and consistent commodity policies at national and international levels with a view to optimizing the contribution of the commodity sector to sustainable development, taking into account environmental considerations; (d)To promote and support policies, domestic and international, that make economic growth and environmental protection mutually supportive.
Activities A) International and regional cooperation and coordination

Promoting an international trading system that takes account of the needs of developing countries

2.10. Accordingly, the international community should: (a) Halt and reverse protectionism in order to bring about further liberalization and expansion of world trade, to the benefit of all countries, in particular the developing countries; (b) Provide for an equitable, secure, non-discriminatory and predictable international trading system; (c) Facilitate, in a timely way, the integration of all countries into the world economy and the international trading system; (d) Ensure that environment and trade policies are mutually supportive, with a view to achieving sustainable development; (e) Strengthen the international trade policies system through an early, balanced, comprehensive and successful outcome of the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. 2.11. The international community should aim at finding ways and means of achieving a better functioning and enhanced transparency of commodity markets, greater diversification of the commodity sector in developing economies within a macroeconomic framework that takes into consideration a country's economic structure, resource endowments and market
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opportunities, and better management of natural resources that takes into account the necessities of sustainable development. 2.12. Therefore, all countries should implement previous commitments to halt and reverse protectionism and further expand market access, particularly in areas of interest to developing countries. This improvement of market access will be facilitated by appropriate structural adjustment in developed countries.

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Developing countries should continue the trade-policy reforms and structural adjustment they have undertaken. It is thus urgent to achieve an improvement in market access conditions for commodities, notably through the progressive removal of barriers that restrict imports, particularly from developing countries, of commodity products in primary and processed forms, as well as the substantial and progressive reduction of types of support that induce uncompetitive production, such as production and export subsidies.
B) Management related activities

Developing domestic policies that maximize the benefits of trade liberalization for sustainable development

2.13. For developing countries to benefit from the liberalization of trading systems, they should implement the following policies, as appropriate: (a) Create a domestic environment supportive of an optimal balance between production for the domestic and export markets and remove biases against exports and discourage inefficient import-substitution; (b) Promote the policy framework and the infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of export and import trade as well as the functioning of domestic markets. 2.14. The following policies should be adopted by developing countries with respect to commodities consistent with market efficiency: (a) Expand processing, distribution and improve marketing practices and the competitiveness of the commodity sector; (b) Diversify in order to reduce dependence on commodity exports; (c) Reflect efficient and sustainable use of factors of production in the formation of commodity prices, including the reflection of environmental, social and resources costs.
C) Data and information

Encouraging data collection and research

2.15. GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant institutions should continue to collect appropriate trade data and information. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is requested to strengthen the Trade Control Measures Information System managed by UNCTAD.

Improving international cooperation in commodity trade and the diversification of the sector

2.16. With regard to commodity trade, Governments should, directly or through appropriate international organizations, where appropriate: (a) Seek optimal functioning of commodity markets, inter alia, through improved market transparency involving exchanges of views and information on investment plans, prospects and markets for individual commodities. Substantive negotiations between producers and consumers should be pursued with a view to achieving viable and more efficient international
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agreements that take into account market trends, or arrangements, as well as study groups. In this regard, particular attention should be paid to the agreements on cocoa, coffee, sugar and tropical timber. The importance of international commodity agreements and arrangements is underlined. Occupational health and safety matters, technology transfer and services associated with the production, marketing and promotion of commodities, as well as environmental considerations, should be taken into account; (b) Continue to apply compensation mechanisms for shortfalls in commodity export earnings of developing countries in order to encourage diversification efforts; (c) Provide assistance to developing countries upon request in the design and implementation of commodity policies and the gathering and utilization of information on commodity markets; (d) Support the efforts of developing countries to promote the policy framework and infrastructure required to improve the efficiency of export and import trade; (e) Support the diversification initiatives of the developing countries at the national, regional and international levels.
Means of implementation A) Financing and cost evaluation

2.17. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities in this programme area to be about $8.8 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.
B) Capacity-building

2.18. The above-mentioned technical cooperation activities aim at strengthening national capabilities for design and implementation of commodity policy, use and management of national resources and the gathering and utilization of information on commodity markets.

B. Making trade and environment mutually supportive

Basis for action

2.19. Environment and trade policies should be mutually supportive. An open, multilateral trading system makes possible a more efficient allocation and use of resources and thereby contributes to an increase in production and incomes and to lessening demands on the environment. It thus provides additional resources needed for economic growth and development and improved environmental protection. A sound environment, on the other hand, provides the ecological and other resources needed to sustain growth and underpin a continuing expansion of trade. An open, multilateral trading system, supported by the adoption of sound environmental policies, would have a positive impact on the environment and contribute to sustainable development.
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2.20. International cooperation in the environmental field is growing, and in a number of cases trade provisions in multilateral environment agreements have played a role in tackling global environmental challenges. Trade measures have thus been used in certain specific instances, where considered necessary, to enhance the effectiveness of environmental regulations for the protection of the environment. Such regulations should address the root causes of environmental degradation so as not to result in unjustified restrictions on trade. The challenge is to ensure that trade and environment policies are consistent and reinforce the process of sustainable development. However, account should be taken of the fact that environmental standards valid for developed countries may have unwarranted social and economic costs in developing countries.

2.21. Governments should strive to meet the following objectives, through relevant multilateral forums, including GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizations: (a) To make international trade and environment policies mutually supportive in favour of sustainable development; (b) To clarify the role of GATT, UNCTAD and other international organizations in dealing with trade and environment-related issues, including, where relevant, conciliation procedure and dispute settlement; (c) To encourage international productivity and competitiveness and encourage a constructive role on the part of industry in dealing with environment and development issues.

Developing an environment/trade and development agenda

2.22. Governments should encourage GATT, UNCTAD and other relevant international and regional economic institutions to examine, in accordance with their respective mandates and competences, the following propositions and principles: (a) Elaborate adequate studies for the better understanding of the relationship between trade and environment for the promotion of sustainable development; (b) Promote a dialogue between trade, development and environment communities; (c) In those cases when trade measures related to environment are used, ensure transparency and compatibility with international obligations; (d) Deal with the root causes of environment and development problems in a manner that avoids the adoption of environmental measures resulting in unjustified restrictions on trade; (e) Seek to avoid the use of trade restrictions or distortions as a means to offset differences in cost arising from differences in environmental standards and regulations, since their application could lead to trade distortions and increase protectionist tendencies;

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(f) Ensure that environment-related regulations or standards, including those related to health and safety standards, do not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade; (g) Ensure that special factors affecting environment and trade policies in the developing countries are borne in mind in the application of environmental standards, as well as in the use of any trade measures. It is worth noting that standards that are valid in the most advanced countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for the developing countries; (h) Encourage participation of developing countries in multilateral agreements through such mechanisms as special transitional rules; (i) Avoid unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country. Environmental measures addressing transborder or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus. Domestic measures targeted to achieve certain environmental objectives may need trade measures to render them effective. Should trade policy measures be found necessary for the enforcement of environmental policies, certain principles and rules should apply. These could include, inter alia, the principle of non-discrimination; the principle that the trade measure chosen should be the least trade-restrictive necessary to achieve the objectives; an obligation to ensure transparency in the use of trade measures related to the environment and to provide adequate notification of national regulations; and the need to give consideration to the special conditions and developmental requirements of developing countries as they move towards internationally agreed environmental objectives; (j) Develop more precision, where necessary, and clarify the relationship between GATT provisions and some of the multilateral measures adopted in the environment area; (k) Ensure public input in the formation, negotiation and implementation of trade policies as a means of fostering increased transparency in the light of country-specific conditions; (l) Ensure that environmental policies provide the appropriate legal and institutional framework to respond to new needs for the protection of the environment that may result from changes in production and trade specialization.

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C. Providing adequate financial resources to developing countries

Basis for action

2.23. Investment is critical to the ability of developing countries to achieve needed economic growth to improve the welfare of their populations and to meet their basic needs in a sustainable manner, all without deteriorating or depleting the resource base that underpins development. Sustainable development requires increased investment, for which domestic and external financial resources are needed. Foreign private investment and the return of flight capital, which depend on a healthy investment climate, are an important source of financial resources. Many developing countries have experienced a decade-long situation of negative net transfer of financial resources, during which their financial receipts were exceeded by payments they had to make, in particular for debt-servicing. As a result, domestically mobilized resources had to be transferred abroad instead of being invested locally in order to promote sustainable economic development. 2.24. For many developing countries, the reactivation of development will not take place without an early and durable solution to the problems of external indebtedness, taking into account the fact that, for many developing countries, external debt burdens are a significant problem. The burden of debt-service payments on those countries has imposed severe constraints on their ability to accelerate growth and eradicate poverty and has led to a contraction in imports, investment and consumption. External indebtedness has emerged as a main factor in the economic stalemate in the developing countries. Continued vigorous implementation of the evolving international debt strategy is aimed at restoring debtor countries' external financial viability, and the resumption of their growth and development would assist in achieving sustainable growth and development. In this context, additional financial resources in favour of developing countries and the efficient utilization of such resources are essential.

2.25. The specific requirements for the implementation of the sectoral and cross-sectoral programmes included in Agenda 21 are dealt with in the relevant programme areas and in chapter 33 (Financial resources and mechanisms).
Activities A) Meeting international targets of official development assistance funding

2.26. As discussed in chapter 33, new and additional resources should be provided to support Agenda 21 programmes.
B) Addressing the debt issue

2.27. In regard to the external debt incurred with commercial banks, the progress being made under the strengthened debt strategy is recognized and a more rapid implementation of this strategy is encouraged. Some countries have already benefited from the combination of sound adjustment policies and commercial bank debt reduction or equivalent measures. The international community encourages:
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(a) Other countries with heavy debts to banks to negotiate similar commercial bank debt reduction with their creditors; (b) The parties to such a negotiation to take due account of both the medium-term debt reduction and new money requirements of the debtor country; (c) Multilateral institutions actively engaged in the strengthened international debt strategy to continue to support debt-reduction packages related to commercial bank debt with a view to ensuring that the magnitude of such financing is consonant with the evolving debt strategy; (d) Creditor banks to participate in debt and debt-service reduction; (e) Strengthened policies to attract direct investment, avoid unsustainable levels of debt and foster the return of flight capital. 2.28. With regard to debt owed to official bilateral creditors, the recent measures taken by the Paris Club with regard to more generous terms of relief to the poorest most indebted countries are welcomed. Ongoing efforts to implement these "Trinidad terms" measures in a manner commensurate with the payments capacity of those countries and in a way that gives additional support to their economic reform efforts are welcomed. The substantial bilateral debt reduction undertaken by some creditor countries is also welcomed, and others which are in a position to do so are encouraged to take similar action. 2.29. The actions of low-income countries with substantial debt burdens which continue, at great cost, to service their debt and safeguard their creditworthiness are commended. Particular attention should be paid to their resource needs. Other debt-distressed developing countries which are making great efforts to continue to service their debt and meet their external financial obligations also deserve due attention. 2.30. In connection with multilateral debt, it is urged that serious attention be given to continuing to work towards growth-oriented solutions to the problem of developing countries with serious debt-servicing problems, including those whose debt is mainly to official creditors or to multilateral financial institutions. Particularly in the case of low-income countries in the process of economic reform, the support of the multilateral financial institutions in the form of new disbursements and the use of their concessional funds is welcomed. The use of support groups should be continued in providing resources to clear arrears of countries embarking upon vigorous economic reform programmes supported by IMF and the World Bank. Measures by the multilateral financial institutions such as the refinancing of interest on non-concessional loans with IDA reflows - "fifth dimension" - are noted with appreciation.
Means of implementation

Financing and cost evaluation* See chap. 33 (Financial resources and mechanisms).

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D. Encouraging economic policies conducive to sustainable development

Basis for action

2.31. The unfavourable external environment facing developing countries makes domestic resource mobilization and efficient allocation and utilization of domestically mobilized resources all the more important for the promotion of sustainable development. In a number of countries, policies are necessary to correct misdirected public spending, large budget deficits and other macroeconomic imbalances, restrictive policies and distortions in the areas of exchange rates, investment and finance, and obstacles to entrepreneurship. In developed countries, continuing policy reform and adjustment, including appropriate savings rates, would help generate resources to support the transition to sustainable development both domestically and in developing countries. 2.32. Good management that fosters the association of effective, efficient, honest, equitable and accountable public administration with individual rights and opportunities is an essential element for sustainable, broadly based development and sound economic performance at all development levels. All countries should increase their efforts to eradicate mismanagement of public and private affairs, including corruption, taking into account the factors responsible for, and agents involved in, this phenomenon. 2.33. Many indebted developing countries are undergoing structural adjustment programmes relating to debt rescheduling or new loans. While such programmes are necessary for improving the balance in fiscal budgets and balance-of-payments accounts, in some cases they have resulted in adverse social and environmental effects, such as cuts in allocations for health care, education and environmental protection. It is important to ensure that structural adjustment programmes do not have negative impacts on the environment and social development so that such programmes can be more in line with the objectives of sustainable development.

2.34. It is necessary to establish, in the light of the country-specific conditions, economic policy reforms that promote the efficient planning and utilization of resources for sustainable development through sound economic and social policies, foster entrepreneurship and the incorporation of social and environmental costs in resource pricing, and remove sources of distortion in the area of trade and investment.

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Activities A) Management-related activities

Promoting sound economic policies

2.35. The industrialized countries and other countries in a position to do so should strengthen their efforts: (a) To encourage a stable and predictable international economic environment, particularly with regard to monetary stability, real rates of interest and fluctuations in key exchange rates; (b) To stimulate savings and reduce fiscal deficits; (c) To ensure that the processes of policy coordination take into account the interests and concerns of the developing countries, including the need to promote positive action to support the efforts of the least developed countries to halt their marginalization in the world economy; (d) To undertake appropriate national macroeconomic and structural policies aimed at promoting non-inflationary growth, narrowing their major external imbalances and increasing the adjustment capacity of their economies. 2.36. Developing countries should consider strengthening their efforts to implement sound economic policies: (a) That maintain the monetary and fiscal discipline required to promote price stability and external balance; (b) That result in realistic exchange rates; (c) That raise domestic savings and investment, as well as improve returns to investment. 2.37. More specifically, all countries should develop policies that improve efficiency in the allocation of resources and take full advantage of the opportunities offered by the changing global economic environment. In particular, wherever appropriate, and taking into account national strategies and objectives, countries should: (a) Remove the barriers to progress caused by bureaucratic inefficiencies, administrative strains, unnecessary controls and the neglect of market conditions; (b) Promote transparency in administration and decision-making; (c) Encourage the private sector and foster entrepreneurship by improving institutional facilities for enterprise creation and market entry. The essential objective would be to simplify or remove the restrictions, regulations and formalities that make it more complicated, costly and time-consuming to set up and operate enterprises in many developing countries;

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(d) Promote and support the investment and infrastructure required for sustainable economic growth and diversification on an environmentally sound and sustainable basis; (e) Provide scope for appropriate economic instruments, including market mechanisms, in harmony with the objectives of sustainable development and fulfilment of basic needs; (f) Promote the operation of effective tax systems and financial sectors; (g) Provide opportunities for small-scale enterprises, both farm and non-farm, and for the indigenous population and local communities to contribute fully to the attainment of sustainable development; (h) Remove biases against exports and in favour of inefficient import substitution and establish policies that allow them to benefit fully from the flows of foreign investment, within the framework of national, social, economic and developmental goals; (i) Promote the creation of a domestic economic environment supportive of an optimal balance between production for the domestic and export markets.
B) International and regional cooperation and coordination

2.38. Governments of developed countries and those of other countries in a position to do so should, directly or through appropriate international and regional organizations and international lending institutions, enhance their efforts to provide developing countries with increased technical assistance for the following: (a) Capacity-building in the nation's design and implementation of economic policies, upon request; (b) Design and operation of efficient tax systems, accounting systems and financial sectors; (c) Promotion of entrepreneurship. 2.39. International financial and development institutions should further review their policies and programmes in the light of the objective of sustainable development. 2.40. Stronger economic cooperation among developing countries has long been accepted as an important component of efforts to promote economic growth and technological capabilities and to accelerate development in the developing world. Therefore, the efforts of the developing countries to promote economic cooperation among themselves should be enhanced and continue to be supported by the international community.
Means of implementation A) Financing and cost evaluation

2.41. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities in this programme area to be about $50 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and
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financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.
B) Capacity-building

2.42. The above-mentioned policy changes in developing countries involve substantial national efforts for capacity-building in the areas of public administration, central banking, tax administration, savings institutions and financial markets. 2.43. Particular efforts in the implementation of the four programme areas identified in this chapter are warranted in view of the especially acute environmental and developmental problems of the least developed countries.

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Section II Conservation & Management of Resources for Development Chapter 9 Protection of the Atmoshpere Introduction
9.1. Protection of the atmosphere is a broad and multidimensional endeavour involving various sectors of economic activity. The options and measures described in the present chapter are recommended for consideration and, as appropriate, implementation by Governments and other bodies in their efforts to protect the atmosphere. 9.2. It is recognized that many of the issues discussed in this chapter are also addressed in such international agreements as the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer as amended, the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and other international, including regional, instruments. In the case of activities covered by such agreements, it is understood that the recommendations contained in this chapter do not oblige any Government to take measures which exceed the provisions of these legal instruments. However, within the framework of this chapter, Governments are free to carry out additional measures which are consistent with those legal instruments. 9.3. It is also recognized that activities that may be undertaken in pursuit of the objectives of this chapter should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner with a view to avoiding adverse impacts on the latter, taking into full account the legitimate priority needs of developing countries for the achievement of sustained economic growth and the eradication of poverty. 9.4. In this context particular reference is also made to programme area A of chapter 2 of Agenda 21 (Promoting sustainable development through trade). 9.5. The present chapter includes the following four programme areas:
A) Addressing the uncertainties: improving the scientific basis for decision-making; B) Promoting sustainable development: 1. 2. 3. 4. Energy development, efficiency and consumption; Transportation; Industrial development; Terrestrial and marine resource development and land use;

C) Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion; D) Transboundary atmospheric pollution.

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PROGRAMME AREAS A. Addressing the uncertainties: improving the scientific basis for decisionmaking
Basis for action

9.6. Concern about climate change and climate variability, air pollution and ozone depletion has created new demands for scientific, economic and social information to reduce the remaining uncertainties in these fields. Better understanding and prediction of the various properties of the atmosphere and of the affected ecosystems, as well as health impacts and their interactions with socio-economic factors, are needed.

9.7. The basic objective of this programme area is to improve the understanding of processes that influence and are influenced by the Earth's atmosphere on a global, regional and local scale, including, inter alia, physical, chemical, geological, biological, oceanic, hydrological, economic and social processes; to build capacity and enhance international cooperation; and to improve understanding of the economic and social consequences of atmospheric changes and of mitigation and response measures addressing such changes.

9.8. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should: (a) Promote research related to the natural processes affecting and being affected by the atmosphere, as well as the critical linkages between sustainable development and atmospheric changes, including impacts on human health, ecosystems, economic sectors and society; (b) Ensure a more balanced geographical coverage of the Global Climate Observing System and its components, including the Global Atmosphere Watch, by facilitating, inter alia, the establishment and operation of additional systematic observation stations, and by contributing to the development, utilization and accessibility of these databases; (c) Promote cooperation in:
1. The development of early detection systems concerning changes and fluctuations in the atmosphere; 2. The establishment and improvement of capabilities to predict such changes and fluctuations and to assess the resulting environmental and socio-economic impacts;

(d) Cooperate in research to develop methodologies and identify threshold levels of atmospheric pollutants, as well as atmospheric levels of greenhouse gas concentrations, that would cause dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system and the environment as a whole, and the associated rates of change that would not allow ecosystems to adapt naturally;
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(e) Promote, and cooperate in the building of scientific capacities, the exchange of scientific data and information, and the facilitation of the participation and training of experts and technical staff, particularly of developing countries, in the fields of research, data assembly, collection and assessment, and systematic observation related to the atmosphere.

B. Promoting sustainable development 1. Energy development, efficiency and consumption

Basis for action

9.9. Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technology were to remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. The need to control atmospheric emissions of greenhouse and other gases and substances will increasingly need to be based on efficiency in energy production, transmission, distribution and consumption, and on growing reliance on environmentally sound energy systems, particularly new and renewable sources of energy. 1/ All energy sources will need to be used in ways that respect the atmosphere, human health and the environment as a whole. 9.10. The existing constraints to increasing the environmentally sound energy supplies required for pursuing the path towards sustainable development, particularly in developing countries, need to be removed.

9.11. The basic and ultimate objective of this programme area is to reduce adverse effects on the atmosphere from the energy sector by promoting policies or programmes, as appropriate, to increase the contribution of environmentally sound and cost-effective energy systems, particularly new and renewable ones, through less polluting and more efficient energy production, transmission, distribution and use. This objective should reflect the need for equity, adequate energy supplies and increasing energy consumption in developing countries, and should take into consideration the situations of countries that are highly dependent on income generated from the production, processing and export, and/or consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products and/or the use of fossil fuels for which countries have serious difficulties in switching to alternatives, and the situations of countries highly vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change.

9.12. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should: (a) Cooperate in identifying and developing economically viable, environmentally sound energy sources to promote the availability of increased energy supplies to support sustainable development efforts, in particular in developing countries;

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(b) Promote the development at the national level of appropriate methodologies for making integrated energy, environment and economic policy decisions for sustainable development, inter alia, through environmental impact assessments; (c) Promote the research, development, transfer and use of improved energy-efficient technologies and practices, including endogenous technologies in all relevant sectors, giving special attention to the rehabilitation and modernization of power systems, with particular attention to developing countries; (d) Promote the research, development, transfer and use of technologies and practices for environmentally sound energy systems, including new and renewable energy systems, with particular attention to developing countries; (e) Promote the development of institutional, scientific, planning and management capacities, particularly in developing countries, to develop, produce and use increasingly efficient and less polluting forms of energy; (f) Review current energy supply mixes to determine how the contribution of environmentally sound energy systems as a whole, particularly new and renewable energy systems, could be increased in an economically efficient manner, taking into account respective countries' unique social, physical, economic and political characteristics, and examining and implementing, where appropriate, measures to overcome any barriers to their development and use; (g) Coordinate energy plans regionally and subregionally, where applicable, and study the feasibility of efficient distribution of environmentally sound energy from new and renewable energy sources; (h) In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative, social and economic measures, in order to improve energy efficiency; (i) Build capacity for energy planning and programme management in energy efficiency, as well as for the development, introduction, and promotion of new and renewable sources of energy; (j) Promote appropriate energy efficiency and emission standards or recommendations at the national level, 2/ aimed at the development and use of technologies that minimize adverse impacts on the environment; (k) Encourage education and awareness-raising programmes at the local, national, subregional and regional levels concerning energy efficiency and environmentally sound energy systems; (l) Establish or enhance, as appropriate, in cooperation with the private sector, labelling programmes for products to provide decision makers and consumers with information on opportunities for energy efficiency.

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2. Transportation
Basis for action

9.13. The transport sector has an essential and positive role to play in economic and social development, and transportation needs will undoubtedly increase. However, since the transport sector is also a source of atmospheric emissions, there is need for a review of existing transport systems and for more effective design and management of traffic and transport systems.

9.14. The basic objective of this programme area is to develop and promote cost-effective policies or programmes, as appropriate, to limit, reduce or control, as appropriate, harmful emissions into the atmosphere and other adverse environmental effects of the transport sector, taking into account development priorities as well as the specific local and national circumstances and safety aspects.

9.15. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should: (a) Develop and promote, as appropriate, cost-effective, more efficient, less polluting and safer transport systems, particularly integrated rural and urban mass transit, as well as environmentally sound road networks, taking into account the needs for sustainable social, economic and development priorities, particularly in developing countries; (b) Facilitate at the international, regional, subregional and national levels access to and the transfer of safe, efficient, including resource-efficient, and less polluting transport technologies, particularly to the developing countries, including the implementation of appropriate training programmes; (c) Strengthen, as appropriate, their efforts at collecting, analysing and exchanging relevant information on the relation between environment and transport, with particular emphasis on the systematic observation of emissions and the development of a transport database; (d) In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative, social and economic measures, in order to encourage use of transportation modes that minimize adverse impacts on the atmosphere; (e) Develop or enhance, as appropriate, mechanisms to integrate transport planning strategies and urban and regional settlement planning strategies, with a view to reducing the environmental impacts of transport; (f) Study, within the framework of the United Nations and its regional commissions, the feasibility of convening regional conferences on transport and the environment.
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3. Industrial development
Basis for action

9.16. Industry is essential for the production of goods and services and is a major source of employment and income, and industrial development as such is essential for economic growth. At the same time, industry is a major resource and materials user and consequently industrial activities result in emissions into the atmosphere and the environment as a whole. Protection of the atmosphere can be enhanced, inter alia, by increasing resource and materials efficiency in industry, installing or improving pollution abatement technologies and replacing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances with appropriate substitutes, as well as by reducing wastes and by-products.

9.17. The basic objective of this programme area is to encourage industrial development in ways that minimize adverse impacts on the atmosphere by, inter alia, increasing efficiency in the production and consumption by industry of all resources and materials, by improving pollution-abatement technologies and by developing new environmentally sound technologies.

9.18. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should: (a) In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative, social and economic measures, in order to minimize industrial pollution and adverse impacts on the atmosphere; (b) Encourage industry to increase and strengthen its capacity to develop technologies, products and processes that are safe, less polluting and make more efficient use of all resources and materials, including energy; (c) Cooperate in the development and transfer of such industrial technologies and in the development of capacities to manage and use such technologies, particularly with respect to developing countries; (d) Develop, improve and apply environmental impact assessments to foster sustainable industrial development; (e) Promote efficient use of materials and resources, taking into account the life cycles of products, in order to realize the economic and environmental benefits of using resources more efficiently and producing fewer wastes; (f) Support the promotion of less polluting and more efficient technologies and processes in industries, taking into account area-specific accessible potentials for energy, particularly safe
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and renewable sources of energy, with a view to limiting industrial pollution, and adverse impacts on the atmosphere.

4. Terrestrial and marine resource development and land use

Basis for action

9.19. Land-use and resource policies will both affect and be affected by changes in the atmosphere. Certain practices related to terrestrial and marine resources and land use can decrease greenhouse gas sinks and increase atmospheric emissions. The loss of biological diversity may reduce the resilience of ecosystems to climatic variations and air pollution damage. Atmospheric changes can have important impacts on forests, biodiversity, and freshwater and marine ecosystems, as well as on economic activities, such as agriculture. Policy objectives in different sectors may often diverge and will need to be handled in an integrated manner.

9.20. The objectives of this programme area are: (a) To promote terrestrial and marine resource utilization and appropriate land-use practices that contribute to:
1. The reduction of atmospheric pollution and/or the limitation of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases; 2. The conservation, sustainable management and enhancement, where appropriate, of all sinks for greenhouse gases; 3. The conservation and sustainable use of natural and environmental resources;

(b) To ensure that actual and potential atmospheric changes and their socio-economic and ecological impacts are fully taken into account in planning and implementing policies and programmes concerning terrestrial and marine resources utilization and land-use practices.

9.21. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should: (a) In accordance with national socio-economic development and environment priorities, evaluate and, as appropriate, promote cost-effective policies or programmes, including administrative, social and economic measures, in order to encourage environmentally sound land-use practices; (b) Implement policies and programmes that will discourage inappropriate and polluting land-use practices and promote sustainable utilization of terrestrial and marine resources; (c) Consider promoting the development and use of terrestrial and marine resources and landuse practices that will be more resilient to atmospheric changes and fluctuations;
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(d) Promote sustainable management and cooperation in the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases, including biomass, forests and oceans, as well as other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems.

C. Preventing stratospheric ozone depletion

Basis for action

9.22. Analysis of recent scientific data has confirmed the growing concern about the continuing depletion of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer by reactive chlorine and bromine from man-made CFCs, halons and related substances. While the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (as amended in London in 1990) were important steps in international action, the total chlorine loading of the atmosphere of ozone-depleting substances has continued to rise. This can be changed through compliance with the control measures identified within the Protocol.

9.23. The objectives of this programme area are: (a) To realize the objectives defined in the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol and its 1990 amendments, including the consideration in those instruments of the special needs and conditions of the developing countries and the availability to them of alternatives to substances that deplete the ozone layer. Technologies and natural products that reduce demand for these substances should be encouraged; (b) To develop strategies aimed at mitigating the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a consequence of depletion and modification of the stratospheric ozone layer.

9.24. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should: (a) Ratify, accept or approve the Montreal Protocol and its 1990 amendments; pay their contributions towards the Vienna/Montreal trust funds and the interim multilateral ozone fund promptly; and contribute, as appropriate, towards ongoing efforts under the Montreal Protocol and its implementing mechanisms, including making available substitutes for CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances and facilitating the transfer of the corresponding technologies to developing countries in order to enable them to comply with the obligations of the Protocol; (b) Support further expansion of the Global Ozone Observing System by facilitating through bilateral and multilateral funding - the establishment and operation of additional systematic observation stations, especially in the tropical belt in the southern hemisphere;

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(c) Participate actively in the continuous assessment of scientific information and the health and environmental effects, as well as of the technological/economic implications of stratospheric ozone depletion; and consider further actions that prove warranted and feasible on the basis of these assessments; (d) Based on the results of research on the effects of the additional ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface, consider taking appropriate remedial measures in the fields of human health, agriculture and marine environment; (e) Replace CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances, consistent with the Montreal Protocol, recognizing that a replacement's suitability should be evaluated holistically and not simply based on its contribution to solving one atmospheric or environmental problem.

D. Transboundary atmospheric pollution

Basis for action

9.25. Transboundary air pollution has adverse health impacts on humans and other detrimental environmental impacts, such as tree and forest loss and the acidification of water bodies. The geographical distribution of atmospheric pollution monitoring networks is uneven, with the developing countries severely underrepresented. The lack of reliable emissions data outside Europe and North America is a major constraint to measuring transboundary air pollution. There is also insufficient information on the environmental and health effects of air pollution in other regions. 9.26. The 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, and its protocols, have established a regional regime in Europe and North America, based on a review process and cooperative programmes for systematic observation of air pollution, assessment and information exchange. These programmes need to be continued and enhanced, and their experience needs to be shared with other regions of the world.

9.27. The objectives of this programme area are: (a) To develop and apply pollution control and measurement technologies for stationary and mobile sources of air pollution and to develop alternative environmentally sound technologies; (b) To observe and assess systematically the sources and extent of transboundary air pollution resulting from natural processes and anthropogenic activities; (c) To strengthen the capabilities, particularly of developing countries, to measure, model and assess the fate and impacts of transboundary air pollution, through, inter alia, exchange of information and training of experts; (d) To develop capabilities to assess and mitigate transboundary air pollution resulting from industrial and nuclear accidents, natural disasters and the deliberate and/or accidental destruction of natural resources;
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(e) To encourage the establishment of new and the implementation of existing regional agreements for limiting transboundary air pollution; (f) To develop strategies aiming at the reduction of emissions causing transboundary air pollution and their effects.

9.28. Governments at the appropriate level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations bodies and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, the private sector and financial institutions, should: (a) Establish and/or strengthen regional agreements for transboundary air pollution control and cooperate, particularly with developing countries, in the areas of systematic observation and assessment, modelling and the development and exchange of emission control technologies for mobile and stationary sources of air pollution. In this context, greater emphasis should be put on addressing the extent, causes, health and socio-economic impacts of ultraviolet radiation, acidification of the environment and photo-oxidant damage to forests and other vegetation; (b) Establish or strengthen early warning systems and response mechanisms for transboundary air pollution resulting from industrial accidents and natural disasters and the deliberate and/or accidental destruction of natural resources; (c) Facilitate training opportunities and exchange of data, information and national and/or regional experiences; (d) Cooperate on regional, multilateral and bilateral bases to assess transboundary air pollution, and elaborate and implement programmes identifying specific actions to reduce atmospheric emissions and to address their environmental, economic, social and other effects.
Means of implementation

International and regional cooperation

9.29. Existing legal instruments have created institutional structures which relate to the purposes of these instruments, and relevant work should primarily continue in those contexts. Governments should continue to cooperate and enhance their cooperation at the regional and global levels, including cooperation within the United Nations system. In this context reference is made to the recommendations in chapter 38 of Agenda 21 (International institutional arrangements).


9.30. Countries, in cooperation with the relevant United Nations bodies, international donors and non-governmental organizations, should mobilize technical and financial resources and facilitate technical cooperation with developing countries to reinforce their technical, managerial, planning and administrative capacities to promote sustainable development and the protection of the atmosphere, in all relevant sectors.

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Human resource development

9.31. Education and awareness-raising programmes concerning the promotion of sustainable development and the protection of the atmosphere need to be introduced and strengthened at the local, national and international levels in all relevant sectors.
Financial and cost evaluation

9.32. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities under programme area A to be about $640 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-ofmagnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 9.33. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities of the four-part programme under programme area B to be about $20 billion from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 9.34. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities under programme area C to be in the range of $160-590 million on grant or concessional terms. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 9.35. The Conference secretariat has included costing for technical assistance and pilot programmes under paragraphs 9.32 and 9.33. Notes 1/ New and renewable energy sources are solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean, animal and human power, as referred to in the reports of the Committee on the Development and Utilization of New and Renewable Sources of Energy, prepared specifically for the Conference (see A/CONF.151/PC/119 and A/AC.218/1992/5). 2/ This includes standards or recommendations promoted by regional economic integration organizations.

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Section III Strengthening the Role of Major Groups Chapter 23 Preamble

23.1. Critical to the effective implementation of the objectives, policies and mechanisms agreed to by Governments in all programme areas of Agenda 21 will be the commitment and genuine involvement of all social groups. 23.2. One of the fundamental prerequisites for the achievement of sustainable development is broad public participation in decision-making. Furthermore, in the more specific context of environment and development, the need for new forms of participation has emerged. This includes the need of individuals, groups and organizations to participate in environmental impact assessment procedures and to know about and participate in decisions, particularly those which potentially affect the communities in which they live and work. Individuals, groups and organizations should have access to information relevant to environment and development held by national authorities, including information on products and activities that have or are likely to have a significant impact on the environment, and information on environmental protection measures. 23.3. Any policies, definitions or rules affecting access to and participation by nongovernmental organizations in the work of United Nations institutions or agencies associated with the implementation of Agenda 21 must apply equally to all major groups. 23.4. The programme areas set out below address the means for moving towards real social partnership in support of common efforts for sustainable development.

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Section IV Means of Implementation Chapter 33 Financial Resources & Mechanisms INTRODUCTION

33.1. The General Assembly, in resolution 44/228 of 22 December 1989, inter alia, decided that the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development should:

Identify ways and means of providing new and additional financial resources, particularly to developing countries, for environmentally sound development programmes and projects in accordance with national development objectives, priorities and plans and to consider ways of effectively monitoring the provision of such new and additional financial resources, particularly to developing countries, so as to enable the international community to take further appropriate action on the basis of accurate and reliable data; Identify ways and means of providing additional financial resources for measures directed towards solving major environmental problems of global concern and especially of supporting those countries, in particular developing countries, for which the implementation of such measures would entail a special or abnormal burden, owing, in particular, to their lack of financial resources, expertise or technical capacity; Consider various funding mechanisms, including voluntary ones, and examine the possibility of a special international fund and other innovative approaches, with a view to ensuring, on a favourable basis, the most effective and expeditious transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries; Quantify the financial requirements for the successful implementation of Conference decisions and recommendations and identify possible sources, including innovative ones, of additional resources.

33.2. This chapter deals with the financing of the implementation of Agenda 21, which reflects a global consensus integrating environmental considerations into an accelerated development process. For each of the other chapters, the secretariat of the Conference has provided indicative estimates of the total costs of implementation for developing countries and the requirements for grant or other concessional financing needed from the international community. These reflect the need for a substantially increased effort, both by countries themselves and by the international community.

33.3. Economic growth, social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities in developing countries and are themselves essential to meeting national and global sustainability objectives. In the light of the global benefits to be realized by the implementation of Agenda 21 as a whole, the provision to developing countries of effective means, inter alia, financial resources and technology, without which it will be difficult for them to fully implement their commitments, will serve the common interests of developed and developing countries and of humankind in general, including future generations. 33.4. The cost of inaction could outweigh the financial costs of implementing Agenda 21. Inaction will narrow the choices of future generations.
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33.5. For dealing with environmental issues, special efforts will be required. Global and local environmental issues are interrelated. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity address two of the most important global issues. 33.6. Economic conditions, both domestic and international, that encourage free trade and access to markets will help make economic growth and environmental protection mutually supportive for all countries, particularly for developing countries and countries undergoing the process of transition to a market economy (see chapter 2 for a fuller discussion of these issues). 33.7. International cooperation for sustainable development should also be strengthened in order to support and complement the efforts of developing countries, particularly the least developed countries. 33.8. All countries should assess how to translate Agenda 21 into national policies and programmes through a process that will integrate environment and development considerations. National and local priorities should be established by means that include public participation and community involvement, promoting equal opportunity for men and women. 33.9. For an evolving partnership among all countries of the world, including, in particular, between developed and developing countries, sustainable development strategies and enhanced and predictable levels of funding in support of longer term objectives are required. For that purpose, developing countries should articulate their own priority actions and needs for support and developed countries should commit themselves to addressing these priorities. In this respect, consultative groups and round tables and other nationally based mechanisms can play a facilitative role. 33.10. The implementation of the huge sustainable development programmes of Agenda 21 will require the provision to developing countries of substantial new and additional financial resources. Grant or concessional financing should be provided according to sound and equitable criteria and indicators. The progressive implementation of Agenda 21 should be matched by the provision of such necessary financial resources. The initial phase will be accelerated by substantial early commitments of concessional funding.

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33.11. The objectives are as follows: (a) To establish measures concerning financial resources and mechanisms for the implementation of Agenda 21; (b) To provide new and additional financial resources that are both adequate and predictable; (c) To seek full use and continuing qualitative improvement of funding mechanisms to be utilized for the implementation of Agenda 21.

33.12. Fundamentally, the activities of this chapter are related to the implementation of all the other chapters of Agenda 21.

33.13. In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda 21 will come from a country's own public and private sectors. For developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, ODA is a main source of external funding, and substantial new and additional funding for sustainable development and implementation of Agenda 21 will be required. Developed countries reaffirm their commitments to reach the accepted United Nations target of 0.7 per cent of GNP for ODA and, to the extent that they have not yet achieved that target, agree to augment their aid programmes in order to reach that target as soon as possible and to ensure prompt and effective implementation of Agenda 21. Some countries have agreed to reach the target by the year 2000. It was decided that the Commission on Sustainable Development would regularly review and monitor progress towards this target. This review process should systematically combine the monitoring of the implementation of Agenda 21 with a review of the financial resources available. Those countries that have already reached the target are to be commended and encouraged to continue to contribute to the common effort to make available the substantial additional resources that have to be mobilized. Other developed countries, in line with their support for reform efforts in developing countries, agree to make their best efforts to increase their level of ODA. In this context, the importance of equitable burden-sharing among developed countries is recognized. Other countries, including those undergoing the process of transition to a market economy, may voluntarily augment the contributions of the developed countries. 33.14. Funding for Agenda 21 and other outcomes of the Conference should be provided in a way that maximizes the availability of new and additional resources and uses all available funding sources and mechanisms. These include, among others: a) The multilateral development banks and funds:
1. The International Development Association (IDA). Among the various issues and options that IDA deputies will examine in connection with the forthcoming tenth replenishment of IDA, the statement made by the President of the World Bank at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development should be given special consideration in order to help the poorest countries meet their sustainable development objectives as contained in Agenda 21; Page 37 of 67

2. Regional and subregional development banks. The regional and subregional development banks and funds should play an increased and more effective role in providing resources on concessional or other favourable terms needed to implement Agenda 21; 3. The Global Environment Facility, managed jointly by the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP, whose additional grant and concessional funding is designed to achieve global environmental benefits, should cover the agreed incremental costs of relevant activities under Agenda 21, in particular for developing countries. Therefore, it should be restructured so as to, inter alia: o Encourage universal participation; o Have sufficient flexibility to expand its scope and coverage to relevant programme areas of Agenda 21, with global environmental benefits, as agreed; o Ensure a governance that is transparent and democratic in nature, including in terms of decision-making and operations, by guaranteeing a balanced and equitable representation of the interests of developing countries and giving due weight to the funding efforts of donor countries; o Ensure new and additional financial resources on grant and concessional terms, in particular to developing countries; o Ensure predictability in the flow of funds by contributions from developed countries, taking into account the importance of equitable burden-sharing; o Ensure access to and disbursement of the funds under mutually agreed criteria without introducing new forms of conditionality;

(b) The relevant specialized agencies, other United Nations bodies and other international organizations, which have designated roles to play in supporting national Governments in implementing Agenda 21; (c) Multilateral institutions for capacity-building and technical cooperation. Necessary financial resources should be provided to UNDP to use its network of field offices and its broad mandate and experience in the field of technical cooperation for facilitating capacitybuilding at the country level, making full use of the expertise of the specialized agencies and other United Nations bodies within their respective areas of competence, in particular UNEP and including the multilateral and regional development banks; (c) Bilateral assistance programmes. These programmes will need to be strengthened in order to promote sustainable development; (d) Debt relief. It is important to achieve durable solutions to the debt problems of low- and middle-income developing countries in order to provide them with the needed means for sustainable development. Measures to address the continuing debt problems of low- and middle-income countries should be kept under review. All creditors in the Paris Club should promptly implement the agreement of December 1991 to provide debt relief for the poorest heavily indebted countries pursuing structural adjustment; debt relief measures should be kept under review so as to address the continuing difficulties of those countries; (e) Private funding. Voluntary contributions through non-governmental channels, which have been running at about 10 per cent of ODA, might be increased. 33.15. Investment. Mobilization of higher levels of foreign direct investment and technology transfers should be encouraged through national policies that promote investment and through joint ventures and other modalities.
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33.16. Innovative financing. New ways of generating new public and private financial resources should be explored, in particular: (a) Various forms of debt relief, apart from official or Paris Club debt, including greater use of debt swaps; (b) The use of economic and fiscal incentives and mechanisms; (c) The feasibility of tradeable permits; (d) New schemes for fund-raising and voluntary contributions through private channels, including non-governmental organizations; (e) The reallocation of resources at present committed to military purposes. 33.17. A supportive international and domestic economic climate conducive to sustained economic growth and development is important, particularly for developing countries, in order to achieve sustainability. 33.18. The secretariat of the Conference has estimated the average annual costs (1993-2000) of implementing in developing countries the activities in Agenda 21 to be over $600 billion, including about $125 billion on grant or concessional terms from the international community. These are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only, and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and programmes Governments decide upon for implementation. 33.19. Developed countries and others in a position to do so should make initial financial commitments to give effect to the decisions of the Conference. They should report on such plans and commitments to the United Nations General Assembly at its forty-seventh session, in 1992. 33.20. Developing countries should also begin to draw up national plans for sustainable development to give effect to the decisions of the Conference. 33.21. Review and monitoring of the financing of Agenda 21 is essential. Questions related to the effective follow-up of the Conference are discussed in chapter 38 (International institutional arrangements). It will be important to review on a regular basis the adequacy of funding and mechanisms, including efforts to reach agreed objectives of the present chapter, including targets where applicable.

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United Nations

A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I)

General Assembly



The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, a/ and seeking to build upon it, With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people, Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental system,

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Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our home, Proclaims that: Principle 1 Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.

Principle 2 States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.

Principle 3 The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations. Principle 4 In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it.

Principle 5 All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.

Principle 6 The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special priority. International actions in the field of environment and development should also address the interests and needs of all countries.

Principle 7 States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve,

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protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.

Principle 8 To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.

Principle 9 States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including new and innovative technologies.

Principle 10 Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided.

Principle 11 States shall enact effective environmental legislation. Environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply. Standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries.

Principle 12

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States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation. Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.

Principle 13 States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage. States shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction.

Principle 14 States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances that cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to human health.

Principle 15 In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.

Principle 16 National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into

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account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment.

Principle 17 Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.

Principle 18 States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States. Every effort shall be made by the international community to help States so afflicted. Principle 19 States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult with those States at an early stage and in good faith.

Principle 20 Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development.

Principle 21 The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future for all.

Principle 22 Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development.

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Principle 23 The environment and natural resources of people under oppression, domination and occupation shall be protected.

Principle 24 Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further development, as necessary.

Principle 25 Peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible.

Principle 26 States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

Principle 27 States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable development.

* * * * * a/ Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.73.II.A.14 and corrigendum), chap. I.

This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available. Date last updated: 12 January, 2000 by DESA/DSD Copyright 1999 United Nations

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United Nations

A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. III)

General Assembly



PREAMBLE (a) The subject of forests is related to the entire range of environmental and development issues and opportunities, including the right to socio-economic development on a sustainable basis. (b) The guiding objective of these principles is to contribute to the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests and to provide for their multiple and complementary functions and uses. (c) Forestry issues and opportunities should be examined in a holistic and balanced manner within the overall context of environment and development, taking into consideration the multiple functions and uses of forests, including traditional uses, and the likely economic and social stress

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when these uses are constrained or restricted, as well as the potential for development that sustainable forest management can offer. (d) These principles reflect a first global consensus on forests. In committing themselves to the prompt implementation of these principles, countries also decide to keep them under assessment for their adequacy with regard to further international cooperation on forest issues. (e) These principles should apply to all types of forests, both natural and planted, in all geographical regions and climatic zones, including austral, boreal, subtemperate, temperate, subtropical and tropical. (f) All types of forests embody complex and unique ecological processes which are the basis for their present and potential capacity to provide resources to satisfy human needs as well as environmental values, and as such their sound management and conservation is of concern to the Governments of the countries to which they belong and are of value to local communities and to the environment as a whole. (g) Forests are essential to economic development and the maintenance of all forms of life. (h) Recognizing that the responsibility for forest management, conservation and sustainable development is in many States allocated among federal/national, state/provincial and local levels of government, each State, in accordance with its constitution and/or national legislation, should pursue these principles at the appropriate level of government. PRINCIPLES/ELEMENTS 1. (a) States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental policies and have the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. (b) The agreed full incremental cost of achieving benefits associated with forest conservation and sustainable development requires increased international cooperation and should be equitably shared by the international community. 2. (a) States have the sovereign and inalienable right to utilize, manage and develop their forests in accordance with their development needs and

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level of socio-economic development and on the basis of national policies consistent with sustainable development and legislation, including the conversion of such areas for other uses within the overall socio-economic development plan and based on rational land-use policies. (b) Forest resources and forest lands should be sustainably managed to meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of present and future generations. These needs are for forest products and services, such as wood and wood products, water, food, fodder, medicine, fuel, shelter, employment, recreation, habitats for wildlife, landscape diversity, carbon sinks and reservoirs, and for other forest products. Appropriate measures should be taken to protect forests against harmful effects of pollution, including air-borne pollution, fires, pests and diseases, in order to maintain their full multiple value. (c) The provision of timely, reliable and accurate information on forests and forest ecosystems is essential for public understanding and informed decision-making and should be ensured. (d) Governments should promote and provide opportunities for the participation of interested parties, including local communities and indigenous people, industries, labour, non-governmental organizations and individuals, forest dwellers and women, in the development, implementation and planning of national forest policies. 3. (a) National policies and strategies should provide a framework for increased efforts, including the development and strengthening of institutions and programmes for the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests and forest lands. (b) International institutional arrangements, building on those organizations and mechanisms already in existence, as appropriate, should facilitate international cooperation in the field of forests. (c) All aspects of environmental protection and social and economic development as they relate to forests and forest lands should be integrated and comprehensive. 4. The vital role of all types of forests in maintaining the ecological processes and balance at the local, national, regional and global levels through, inter alia, their role in protecting fragile ecosystems, watersheds and freshwater resources and as rich storehouses of biodiversity and biological resources and sources of genetic material for biotechnology products, as well as photosynthesis, should be recognized. 5. (a) National forest policies should recognize and duly support the

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identity, culture and the rights of indigenous people, their communities and other communities and forest dwellers. Appropriate conditions should be promoted for these groups to enable them to have an economic stake in forest use, perform economic activities, and achieve and maintain cultural identity and social organization, as well as adequate levels of livelihood and well-being, through, inter alia, those land tenure arrangements which serve as incentives for the sustainable management of forests. (b) The full participation of women in all aspects of the management, conservation and sustainable development of forests should be actively promoted. 6. (a) All types of forests play an important role in meeting energy requirements through the provision of a renewable source of bio-energy, particularly in developing countries, and the demands for fuelwood for household and industrial needs should be met through sustainable forest management, afforestation and reforestation. To this end, the potential contribution of plantations of both indigenous and introduced species for the provision of both fuel and industrial wood should be recognized. (b) National policies and programmes should take into account the relationship, where it exists, between the conservation, management and sustainable development of forests and all aspects related to the production, consumption, recycling and/or final disposal of forest products. (c) Decisions taken on the management, conservation and sustainable development of forest resources should benefit, to the extent practicable, from a comprehensive assessment of economic and non-economic values of forest goods and services and of the environmental costs and benefits. The development and improvement of methodologies for such evaluations should be promoted. (d) The role of planted forests and permanent agricultural crops as sustainable and environmentally sound sources of renewable energy and industrial raw material should be recognized, enhanced and promoted. Their contribution to the maintenance of ecological processes, to offsetting pressure on primary/old-growth forest and to providing regional employment and development with the adequate involvement of local inhabitants should be recognized and enhanced. (e) Natural forests also constitute a source of goods and services, and their conservation, sustainable management and use should be promoted. 7. (a) Efforts should be made to promote a supportive international economic climate conducive to sustained and environmentally sound

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development of forests in all countries, which include, inter alia, the promotion of sustainable patterns of production and consumption, the eradication of poverty and the promotion of food security. (b) Specific financial resources should be provided to developing countries with significant forest areas which establish programmes for the conservation of forests including protected natural forest areas. These resources should be directed notably to economic sectors which would stimulate economic and social substitution activities. 8. (a) Efforts should be undertaken towards the greening of the world. All countries, notably developed countries, should take positive and transparent action towards reforestation, afforestation and forest conservation, as appropriate. (b) Efforts to maintain and increase forest cover and forest productivity should be undertaken in ecologically, economically and socially sound ways through the rehabilitation, reforestation and re-establishment of trees and forests on unproductive, degraded and deforested lands, as well as through the management of existing forest resources. (c) The implementation of national policies and programmes aimed at forest management, conservation and sustainable development, particularly in developing countries, should be supported by international financial and technical cooperation, including through the private sector, where appropriate. (d) Sustainable forest management and use should be carried out in accordance with national development policies and priorities and on the basis of environmentally sound national guidelines. In the formulation of such guidelines, account should be taken, as appropriate and if applicable, of relevant internationally agreed methodologies and criteria. (e) Forest management should be integrated with management of adjacent areas so as to maintain ecological balance and sustainable productivity. (f) National policies and/or legislation aimed at management, conservation and sustainable development of forests should include the protection of ecologically viable representative or unique examples of forests, including primary/old-growth forests, cultural, spiritual, historical, religious and other unique and valued forests of national importance. (g) Access to biological resources, including genetic material, shall be with due regard to the sovereign rights of the countries where the forests are located and to the sharing on mutually agreed terms of technology and

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profits from biotechnology products that are derived from these resources. (h) National policies should ensure that environmental impact assessments should be carried out where actions are likely to have significant adverse impacts on important forest resources, and where such actions are subject to a decision of a competent national authority. 9. (a) The efforts of developing countries to strengthen the management, conservation and sustainable development of their forest resources should be supported by the international community, taking into account the importance of redressing external indebtedness, particularly where aggravated by the net transfer of resources to developed countries, as well as the problem of achieving at least the replacement value of forests through improved market access for forest products, especially processed products. In this respect, special attention should also be given to the countries undergoing the process of transition to market economies. (b) The problems that hinder efforts to attain the conservation and sustainable use of forest resources and that stem from the lack of alternative options available to local communities, in particular the urban poor and poor rural populations who are economically and socially dependent on forests and forest resources, should be addressed by Governments and the international community. (c) National policy formulation with respect to all types of forests should take account of the pressures and demands imposed on forest ecosystems and resources from influencing factors outside the forest sector, and intersectoral means of dealing with these pressures and demands should be sought. 10. New and additional financial resources should be provided to developing countries to enable them to sustainably manage, conserve and develop their forest resources, including through afforestation, reforestation and combating deforestation and forest and land degradation. 11. In order to enable, in particular, developing countries to enhance their endogenous capacity and to better manage, conserve and develop their forest resources, the access to and transfer of environmentally sound technologies and corresponding know-how on favourable terms, including on concessional

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and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, in accordance with the relevant provisions of Agenda 21, should be promoted, facilitated and financed, as appropriate. 12. (a) Scientific research, forest inventories and assessments carried out by national institutions which take into account, where relevant, biological, physical, social and economic variables, as well as technological development and its application in the field of sustainable forest management, conservation and development, should be strengthened through effective modalities, including international cooperation. In this context, attention should also be given to research and development of sustainably harvested non-wood products. (b) National and, where appropriate, regional and international institutional capabilities in education, training, science, technology, economics, anthropology and social aspects of forests and forest management are essential to the conservation and sustainable development of forests and should be strengthened. (c) International exchange of information on the results of forest and forest management research and development should be enhanced and broadened, as appropriate, making full use of education and training institutions, including those in the private sector. (d) Appropriate indigenous capacity and local knowledge regarding the conservation and sustainable development of forests should, through institutional and financial support and in collaboration with the people in the local communities concerned, be recognized, respected, recorded, developed and, as appropriate, introduced in the implementation of programmes. Benefits arising from the utilization of indigenous knowledge should therefore be equitably shared with such people. 13. (a) Trade in forest products should be based on non-discriminatory and multilaterally agreed rules and procedures consistent with international trade law and practices. In this context, open and free international trade in forest products should be facilitated. (b) Reduction or removal of tariff barriers and impediments to the provision of better market access and better prices for higher valueadded forest products and their local processing should be encouraged to enable producer countries to better conserve and manage their renewable forest resources. (c) Incorporation of environmental costs and benefits into market forces and mechanisms, in order to achieve forest conservation and

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sustainable development, should be encouraged both domestically and internationally. (d) Forest conservation and sustainable development policies should be integrated with economic, trade and other relevant policies. (e) Fiscal, trade, industrial, transportation and other policies and practices that may lead to forest degradation should be avoided. Adequate policies, aimed at management, conservation and sustainable development of forests, including, where appropriate, incentives, should be encouraged. 14. Unilateral measures, incompatible with international obligations or agreements, to restrict and/or ban international trade in timber or other forest products should be removed or avoided, in order to attain longterm sustainable forest management. 15. Pollutants, particularly air-borne pollutants, including those responsible for acidic deposition, that are harmful to the health of forest ecosystems at the local, national, regional and global levels should be controlled.


This document has been posted online by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). Reproduction and dissemination of the document - in electronic and/or printed format - is encouraged, provided acknowledgement is made of the role of the United Nations in making it available. Date last updated: 14 January, 2000 by DESA/DSD Copyright 1999 United Nations

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Energy for Sustainable Development Energy is central to achieving sustainable development goals. Some two billion people have no access to modern energy services. The challenge lies in finding ways to reconcile this necessity and demand for energy with its impact on the natural resource base in order to ensure that sustainable development goals are realized. CSD-14 & CSD-15 Focus The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) fourteenth session in 2006 and fifteenth session in 2007 focused on a cluster of thematic issues, which included Energy for Sustainable Development; Industrial Development; Air pollution/ Atmosphere; and Climate Change. Johannesburg Plan of Implementation Call for Action The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI), adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, addresses energy in the context of sustainable development. Among other things, the JPOI calls for action to:

Improve access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services Recognize that energy services have positive impacts on poverty eradication and the improvement of standards of living Develop and disseminate alternative energy technologies with the aim of giving a greater share of of the energy mix to renewable energy and, with a sense of urgency, substantially increase the global share of renewable energy sources Diversify energy supply by developing advanced, cleaner, more efficient and costeffective energy technologies Combine a range of energy technologies, including advanced and cleaner fossil fuel technologies, to meet the growing need for energy services Accelerate the development, dissemination and deployment of affordable and cleaner energy efficiency and energy conservation technologies

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Take action, where appropriate, to phase out subsidies in this area that inhibit sustainable development

CSD-9 Decisions Energy was one of the major themes of the ninth session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD-9), held in 2001. Countries agreed at CSD-9 that stronger emphasis should be placed on the development, implementation, and transfer of cleaner, more efficient technologies and that urgent action is required to further develop and expand the role of alternative energy sources. Current Levels of Energy Consumption & Production are not Sustainable This complex challenge of energy and sustainable development was highlighted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Energy is discussed throughout Agenda 21. Agenda 21 highlights the fact that current levels of energy consumption and production are not sustainable, especially if demand continues to increase and stresses the importance of using energy resources in a way that is consistent with the aims of protecting human health, the atmosphere, and the natural environment.

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About Activites Resources Blog Contact

What is UN-Energy? UN-Energy was initiated as a mechanism to promote coherence within the United Nations Energy family of organizations in the energy field and to develop increased collective engagement between the United Nations and other key external stakeholders. Its envisaged role was to increase the sharing of information, encourage and facilitate joint programming and develop action-oriented approaches to coordination. It was hoped that it would develop into a systemwide network open to all and a mechanism by which a range of organizational actors could work with the United Nations to ensure a more coherent approach to addressing energy issues. In August 2007, Kandeh Yumkella, Director General, United Nations Development Director-General, Organization (UNIDO) was elected Chair and Olav Kjorven, Assistant Administrator, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Vice Chair. Secretariat services are provided by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). ations

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About Activites Resources Blog Contact

Energy Efficiency

UN-Energy members have a long history with regard to energy efficiency programmes. From energy-efficiency efficient buildings to transport and energy efficiency in industry, there is a large range of interventions in which UN-Energy members have been active in capacity building, enab Energy enabling environments, financing, knowledge sharing and research & development. The section below provides an overview of current UN Energy programmes related to energy efficiency. UN-Energy

Capacity development and training activities are crucial to integrating energy efficiency into integrating the development frameworks of developing countries. Un energy members play a key role in Un-energy regard to capacity-building by developing various training programmes and tools. building tools.Less Info... UNIDO strongly emphasizes capacity building and information dissemination to foster the capacity-building uptake of energy-efficiency practices and technologies in industry. UNIDO builds capacity at efficiency the institutional and market level tailoring activities and methodologies to the different target stakeholders. Special focus is given to the creation of cadres of highly skilled national experts in energy management and system optimization as one of the fundamental engines for the development of start-ups and the transformation of national industrial energy ups energy-efficiency markets. As an integral part of its knowledge mobilization and dissemination efforts, UNIDO organizes a number of global forum activities to bring together planners, experts, entrepreneurs, institutions and decision makers on a common platform to raise awareness, decision-makers exchange current concepts and ideas, and promote partnerships. Training and technical assistance is an important part of the IAEAs activities. The IAEA focuses on capacitybuilding for energy systems analysis and planning to help its member acitybuilding country identify the role of different technologies in meeting their future energy needs. The organizations related activities include assistance to analyse opportunities and constr constraints for enhancing industrial energy efficiency, capacity building for energy and electricity expansion capacity-building planning, demand analysis for urban and rural areas, and financing of rural energy systems. In cities, the potential for energy energy-efficiency gains is specifically high. Through its Slum cifically Upgrading programme, UN-HABITAT works in the poorest urban areas to help build HABITAT
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capacity and transfer technologies that replace charcoal and fuel wood with more sustainable and efficient sources of energy (e.g., through the development of biogas facilities, which can complement existing efforts to introduce fuelefficient and smoke-free stoves). In addition to increasing security, slum electrification programmes can offer ample co-benefits, like the positive impact of electric lighting on enabling people to work and study after their daytime activities. Under the Strategic Programme on Promoting Sustainable Innovative Systems for Urban Transport, the Ghana urban transport project (US$ 90.35 million), a joint GEF/World Bank initiative, addresses capacity-building at institutional, management and regulatory levels to improve personal mobility in cities in Ghana. Project activities were initially designed to strengthen the capacity of ministries, local authorities, agencies and operators concerned with urban transport. As a result of improved traffic planning, a direct reduction of 240 kt CO2 is expected during the timeframe of the project. Building on its successful experience in Europe, UNECE jointly worked with ESCWA, ESCAP, ECLAC and ECA to investigate different financing opportunities for global climate change mitigation. This led to the creation of the Global Energy Efficiency 21 project (GEE21), which was launched in December 2008 at UNECE Conference of the Parties COP14 in Poznan, Poland. GEE21 is designed to develop a systematic exchange of capacitybuilding experience, policy reforms and investment project financing, with the goal of promoting self-financing energy-efficiency improvements that raise economic productivity, diminish fuel poverty and reduce environmental air pollution around the world. Considering that ownership of the programmes by beneficiary countries and communities is key to success, all programmes of the GEF include strong capacity-building and stakeholder awareness-raising components.Less Info...
Enabling environments

Enabling environments need to frame the widespread dissemination of energy-efficiency measures. Forward looking policies, relevant regulatory frameworks, supportive marketing contexts and technical adaptation to local specificities are necessary to decouple economic growth from energy requirements.Less Info... Under the GEF Promoting Energy Efficiency in Residential and Commercial Buildings programme, UNDP is engaged in the Energy-Efficiency Codes in Residential Buildings and Energy-Efficiency Improvement in Commercial and Hospital Buildings in Morocco project. The primary objective is to introduce mandatory minimum energy-efficiency performance requirements in the residential sector through an energy-efficient building code. A second objective is to institutionalize the adoption of efficiency standards and practices among Moroccos commercial and hospital sectors. The project is helping the government of Morocco launch its national energy-efficiency initiative and stimulate public/private partnerships for integrating energy efficiency into public and private building construction/renovation programmes. Recognizing the importance of energy in economic developmentas well as the negative effects of inefficient energy usethe GEF has set a strategic objective of supporting projects that not only promote the transfer of energy-efficient technologies but also enable work with regulatory institutions on reforming policies and regulations in this vital energy sector. The
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aim is to promote enabling environments for energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions. The GEF has invested a substantial share of its resources in projects that remove market and other barriers to energy efficiency. Through its support, developing countries have introduced a combination of policies and regulatory frameworks, standards and labels for appliances, lighting, buildings and industrial equipment, and it has also helped to establish market-based approaches and financial instruments. Integral to its efforts to promote low-carbon development, ESCAP supports national institutional and policy reforms related to energy efficiency though the development of longterm strategies and the implementation of integrated capacity-building, information exchange and regional cooperation initiatives. The Strengthening Institutional Capacity to Support Energy Efficiency project takes stock of institutional capacities and policies to improve legislative and standard-setting measures in Central, South and South-East Asia. In 2009, ESCAP conducted a gap analysis and developed case studies of existing institutional mechanisms (including barriers and challenges) for promoting energy efficiency in the three subregions. The project will ultimately develop policy guidelines to address the barriers for effective institutional mechanisms based on findings from the previous year. Within the scope of its Industrial Energy Efficiency programme UNIDO promotes and supports the establishment of favourable policy and regulatory environments for energy efficiency, providing policy advice and technical assistance to structure effective, comprehensive and country specific frameworks for industrial energy efficiency. These combine bestpractice policies, normative measures, fiscal and financial incentives, industrywide education, intensive technical training and provision of tailored tools. UNIDOs Industrial Energy Efficiency programme, worth US$ 200 million for the period 2010-2013, aims at establishing policy programmes and market conditions conducive to and supportive of the integration of energy management and energy efficiency technologies in industry daily business practices. With regard to energy efficiency, UNIDO works in close collaboration with the GEF, UNECE, UNECA, UNEP, and UNDP. Within the project Support to the Development of an International Energy Management Standard for Industry, UNIDO has been working to help developing countries and economies in transition participate in the development of the new ISO 50001Energy Management System Standard. Main elements of this support included raising awareness of policymakers, standard authorities and industry; supporting participation of emerging and developing economies; contributing to preliminary harmonization work; and channelling views of industry into the ISO process. Under its Transport programme, UNEP calls for environmental considerations to be integrated with commercial and individual transport-related decisions. Its overall objectives are to facilitate a shift in transport systems and to implement approaches to mobility that are less disruptive to the environment. These include urban planning that promotes intermodality, the diffusion of clean technologies, the adoption of policies that help reduce environmental impacts, and the introduction of price signals that capture the full costs of different modes of transport.

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UN DESA also provides advice and support in transportation planning and policymaking as they relate to goals of reducing emissions, increasing efficiency, and promoting sustainable modes of transport. Working in close partnership with UNEP, the GEF, the World Bank and the governments of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, UN-HABITATs Promoting Energy Efficiency in Buildings in East Africa programme (investment of US$ 9.25 million) helps reduce electricity consumption in buildings through demand management and the implementation of energyefficiency measures. To achieve this goal, UN-HABITAT is launching awareness campaigns, promoting sustainable urban energy policies, encouraging the development of green buildings through fiscal and financial incentives, giving regional awards to energy-efficient buildings, and developing regulations that incorporate energy efficiency into design codes and standards. Among other things, this programme will help reduce both the capital outlay required to increase generation capacity and the running costs of thermal generators, whether from national or individual power back-up systems.Less Info...

The financing requirements of energy-efficiency initiatives vary considerably from those of renewable energy. The implementation of energy-efficiency improvements leads to energy and thus cost savings instead of revenue streams. recognizing this crucial difference, Unenergy members provide tailored assistance with regard to financial support and innovative funding mechanisms so that developing countries and economies in transition can benefit from energy-efficiency measures.Less Info... The European Clean Energy Fund (ECEF) was officially launched in 2006 under the mandate of the Energy Efficiency 21 (EE21) programme. ECEF is a mezzanine and equity investment fund with investment capital of EUR 354 million. The targets for ECEF are clean energy projects in the European Union. Eligible projects are in the areas of renewable energy (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal), electricity (hydropower, cogeneration, combined cycle technology), fuel switching, clean coal, waste-to-energy and district heating. The UNECE Committee on Sustainable Energy has supported the creation of ECEF and views it as the prototype for future investment funds for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in other countries of the UNECE Region. To date, over 80 per cent of the ECEF capital has been invested in a number of projects in wind energy, solar energy, biofuels and natural gasrelated infrastructure. Investment projects were financed in France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Some estimates show that implementation of projects under this fund could save at least 1,000,000 Mt of CO2 emissions. The experience of ECEF is being used to design a new investment fund for the 12 countries of South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia participating in the Financing Energy Efficiency Investments for Climate Change Mitigation (FEEI) project. UNECE promotes the formation of an energy efficiency market in Eastern Europe so that costeffective investments can provide a self-financing method of reducing global GHG emissions. This includes the promotion of dedicated financial instruments such as the European Clean Energy Fund (ECEF), which was established by Swiss Re/Conning & Co.

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Supported by the GEF and the IFC, the Hungary Energy Efficiency Co-Financing Programme (HEECP) was designed in two phases. HEECP I, a US$ 5 million pilot project, generated considerable interest in the energy-efficiency market among Hungarian financial institutions by providing guarantees and technical assistance to support the financing of energy efficiency-related projects including, but not limited to, investments in efficient lighting, building and district heating, boiler and building control systems, motors, and industrial process improvements. HEECP II builds on these accomplishments, aiming to significantly expand co-financing. IFC, GEF, and remaining HEECP I funding was combined to provide a US$ 16 million guarantee facility to local financial institutions for building a farreaching pool of funds to finance energy-efficiency projects in the country. Expansion of the guarantee programme is expected to facilitate up to US$ 76 million in new energy-efficiency financing. In addition, technical assistance was provided to help financial institutions, energy service companies and end users who were planning investments to evaluate energyefficiency projects. This is expected to result in secondary benefits not directly related to capital financing by enhancing local capacity for energy-efficiency project financing and technical competence. At the World Bank, energy-efficiency lending has grown almost 20-fold since UN-Energys establishment, from US$ 0.1 billion in 2004 to US$ 1.7 billion in 2009. As mentioned in the previous renewable energy chapter, the Clean Technology Fund aims to finance transformational actions by providing positive incentives for the demonstration of lowcarbon development technologies and the mitigation of GHG emissions though public and privatesector investments. It combines three major components: the promotion of highly efficient technologies to reduce carbon intensity in the power sector (including renewable energy); efficiency and modal shifts in the transport sector; and energy efficiency in buildings, industry and agriculture. In Nigeria, the US$ 200 million Electricity and Gas Improvement projectfinanced by the World Bank and supported by a US$ 400 million partial risk guarantee issued by the World Bankensures the availability and reliability of gas supply to increase power generation in existing public-sector power plants. It also improves the power networks capacity and efficiency to reliably transmit and distribute electricity to consumers, thereby demonstrating the potential for emissions reductions in both production and distribution of electricity. The GEF is one of the public sectors largest contributors of energy-efficiency funding, with direct investments of US$ 850 million in more than 90 developing and transition countries and an additional US$ 5.9 billion in co-financing over the past 18 years. Catalysing financing through the creation of sustainable energy programmesparticularly renewable energy and energy-efficiency initiativesis a major aspect of UNDPs work. GEF programme grants represent 80 per cent of UNDPs total energyrelated portfolio in this area. Geographically, much of the activities are in the middle-income and emerging economies. UNDP is working with developing countries and economies in transition to explore carbon-financing opportunities that could help accelerate the transition to sustainable, low-carbon energy systems.Less Info...
Knowledge sharing

From the industrial sector to residential housing or the transport sector, approaches to energy efficiency are complex and manifold. Knowledge sharing is therefore essential to effectively
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deploy energy-efficiency measures that are tailored to both the sector and the local context. Un-energy and its members provide valuable platforms for disseminating information and exchanging knowledge.Less Info... At the UNFCCC, TT:CLEAR (a technology information clearing house) includes an inventory of environmentally friendly technologies and technology development and transfer projects, as well as information on financing technology development and transfer.9 TT:CLEAR also provides access to information on technology needs identified by developing countries, and supports a pilot network of national and regional technology information centres. The objective is to improve the flow of, access to and quality of information related to the development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies that help improve access to energy globally. The use of inefficient cooking equipment can lead to serious health problems in developing countries. WHO is assessing the relationship between disease and household energy use, in particular diseases resulting from household air pollution caused by open fires for cooking. In this regard, WHO gathers and disseminates information on the use of household energy and on effective approaches to improving worldwide access to clean, efficient household energy.Less Info...
Research, technolgy developmentand demonstration

The identification and adequate formulation of energy-efficiency measures for the industrial, housing and transport sectors requires significant research and technological development. Un-energy members activities in this regard, combined with those targeted at technology transfer and demonstration, play a critical role in fostering the dissemination of energyefficient technologies and instruments in support of low-carbon development pathways.Less Info... The GEF/UNEP Energy Management and Performance Related Energy Savings Scheme (EMPRESS) supports energyefficiency efforts in Eastern and Central Europe. By sharing information and expertise, the project helps establish specialized energy service companies (ESCOs) that perform energy monitoring and targeting (M&T) for industrial and commercial clients. Under the project, M&T is introduced through ESCOs that accept the majority of the capital risk for energy-efficiency investments in exchange for a share of the positive cash flow accruing from the subsequent energy savings. EMPRESS has three main objectives: creating a market for M&T energy management services; achieving end-user energyefficiency improvement and GHG reductions; and opening doors to M&T services worldwide. The GEF is the largest public-sector funding source supporting the transfer of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) to developing countries, with more than 50 ESTs being supported by the GEF over the years. Out of those, more than one-third are energyefficiency technologies covering lighting, appliances, heating systems, building design and construction materials, power and heat generation and distribution, and industrial applications. The Strategic Programme on Promoting Energy Efficiency in the Industrial Sector includes the deployment and diffusion of energy-efficient technologies and practices in industrial production and manufacturing processes, and has evolved into sector-specific technology transfer programmes focusing on GHGintensive industries.
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Energy efficiency in industry can contribute considerably to decoupling economic growth from environmental impact by reducing industrial energy intensity and related GHG emissions. As the organization dedicated to industrial development, UNIDO partners with the GEF on its Industrial Energy Efficiency programme, which aims to enable industry to develop and implement energy-efficiency projects and comply with energy-management standards. Taking stock of different countries key manufacturing sectors and development priorities, the UNIDO programme includes pilot and demonstration projects as well as technology transfer activities. UNEPs Energy Efficiency programme involves various facets of technology research, development, transfer and commercialization, as well as the promotion of new and innovative energy-efficiency methodologies and techniques. UNEP works with a broad spectrum of partners in these efforts including industry associations, NGOs, financial institutions and the private sector. Starting in the 1950s, Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) were established in China as rural, collective entities to provide jobs for of the great numbers of surplus rural labourers, and to make essential local products available at lower costs. TVEs have now been largely privatized to their former managers and still primarily sell their products in local markets. The Energy Conservation and GHG Emissions Reduction in Chinese TVEs project (US$ 18.5 million including co-financing) was financed by the GEF and executed by UNIDO in cooperation with the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. It focused on reducing GHG emissions in Chinas brick, cement, metal casting and coking TVE sectors. This project was designed to remove key market, policy, technology, management and financial barriers and induce a transformation that would support the development and uptake of energy-efficient technologies and products in these TVE sectors. The transfer of environmentally sound technologies is embodied in the very fabric of UNFCCC. Article 4, paragraph 5 of the Convention commits developed countries to take all practicable steps to promote, facilitate and finance, as appropriate, the transfer of, or access to, environmentally sound technologies and know-how to other Parties, particularly developing country Parties, to enable them to implement the provisions of the Convention.Less Info...

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Policies and Measures to Realise Industrial Energy Efficiency and Mitigate Climate Change
Capturing the full extent of these potential end-use energy efficiency improvements rapidly is essential if the world is to be on a path to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations to a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Over a quarter of all energy efficiency gains need to come from the industrial sector, largely by changing the pattern of industrial energy use. The reduction potential estimated for five energy-intensive industrial subsectors ranges from about 10 to 40 per cent. The Bali Action Plan provides the principal framework for a post-2012 climate agreement. It focuses on a shared vision for long-term cooperative action and for enhanced national and international action to mitigate climate change, on adaptation, on supporting technology development and transfer, and on the provision of financial resources and investment. The Copenhagen agreement could help provide the foundation for scaling up industrial energy efficiency to levels that reflect its share of the global mitigation potential. To that end, the following recommendations are made:

Energy sector policy reform - including the removal of broad-based subsidies - is needed to ensure that market signals fully reflect the true cost of producing and consuming energy and stimulate investment in energy efficiency markets. National Energy Efficiency Action Plans should be developed that set ambitious, achievable national energy efficiency goals or targets for the industrial sector based on studies which document the full costs and benefits of adopting energy-efficient technologies, practices, and measures. Better public datasets and indicators should be developed on industrial energy efficiency and cost of improvement options. A database of existing successful and potential industrial energy efficiency policies and measures should be compiled and documented. These should be assessed for their scalability, transferability (from one country/region to another, from one industry to another, or from one plant to another) and full costs (including local variations in fuel, technology and implementation costs). The use of technology cost-curves to assess industrial energy efficiency potentials should be extended to include the costs incurred to build the institutions needed to implement industrial energy efficiency policies and measures as well as the cost of the policies and measures themselves. Including these programme, institutional, and other transaction costs is particularly important for developing countries where markets and institutions may not be as mature as in their developed country counterparts. Proprietary energy efficiency technologies and processes that have significant energysavings potential should be identified systematically and options to facilitate the wider deployment of these technologies in developing countries and transition economies should be explored. More attention should be focused on systems approaches, especially in industries that require a range of energy services (wherein potential synergies can be taken advantage of to reduce costs.) Capacity needs to be built in the skills and knowledge needed to tackle industrial energy efficiency. This capacity building should be a strong focus of post-2012 climate change Page 64 of 67

agreements. It should aim to identify and transfer lessons learned from successful industrial energy efficiency policies and programmes, along with information on best practice technologies and measures that can be applied in the industrial sector. Countries should be required to provide an assessment of potential (in terms of GHGs mitigated) and a description of their existing industrial energy efficiency policies within their formal National Communications reporting to the UNFCCC. This will help promote the development of nationalenergy efficiency plans, where they do not already exist.

The industrial sector is responsible for one third of global primary energy use and two fifths of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. There is significant potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities.The technical reduction potential ranges from about 10% to 40% for five energy-intensive industrial sub-sectors. The economic potential is smaller, but also significant. Historically, energy efficiency has improved, and emission intensities have reduced, as countries have become more economically developed. End-use energy efficiency has the capability to reduce GHG emissions very significantly, and at low cost. Many industrial energy efficiency options reduce costs and allow for higher levels of production for the same amounts of energy use. They can therefore indirectly help to combat poverty. Since 1973, energy efficiency and structural change have met about 58% of the new demand for energy services in industrialised countries. Without those energy efficiency improvements, energy demand would have been considerably higher (IEA, 2008a). More conventional fuel would have had to have been supplied and used, thereby increasing GHG emissions. Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential In terms of the CO2 savings that might be achievable, IPCC analysis suggests that industry might be expected to make savings of 2.5 to 5.5 GtCO2 equivalent in 2030 compared to a baseline scenario. This would represent a saving of 15 to 30% of the total projected baseline emissions in 2030.This picture is reinforced by IEA analysis that suggests that energy efficiency would constitute more than half of all industrys contribution to a scenario which envisages global CO2 emissions halving by 2050. 90% of this potential, most of which would come from energy efficiency improvements, could be achieved at less than USD 50/tCO2 In the household sector, improved energy efficiency can directly reduce household expenditures on energy services, and therefore directly help to reduce poverty. The impact of industrial energy efficiency on poverty is less direct, but nonetheless potentially substantial. saved. The remaining 10% could be achieved at between USD 50 and USD 100/tCO2 saved (IPCC, 2007). 80% of the potential is in developing countries and transition economies. While important, cost generalisations can be difficult. Considering only one industry type, costs can vary from an old to a new plant. Retrofitting existing facilities is usually more expensive than introducing efficient technologies in a greenfield plant. The same energy efficiency measure may have a different cost in industrial facilities that differ only in size. Per unit costs tend to be lower for larger plants, due to economies of scale. Further, due to differing: commodity prices, fuel prices, GHG penalties; labour conditions; and amongst others market peculiarities, implementation costs can vary by a factor of two or more due to local
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conditions. Together with differing institutional capacities, these aspects make cost generalisations difficult and the need for careful documenting when compiling comparative databases important. Countries differ in terms of their level of industrial energy efficiency. In part this is due to structural reasons: older plants tend to be less efficient than newer ones, so countries that have developed later tend to be more efficient. For example, the most efficient aluminium smelters are in Africa. India has a very energy efficient cement sector. And China has very ambitious efficiency targets for the coming years a task helped by its growing and modernising economy. In spite of structural differences, policies demonstrably make a difference, as shown by reduced energy use per unit of output by industries in countries such as Japan and the Netherlands, for example. Action to help spread and apply the most effective approaches, policies and measures has the potential to rapidly help raise the efficiency of all industrial plant nearer to that of the best. It is on this that this study particularly focuses. Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies and Programmes Since the 1970s, numerous energy efficiency policies and programmes have been implemented in many countries around the world with demonstrable success. Lessons learned from these programmes can be used to identify successful elements that can be more widely disseminated. In general these policies deal directly with the informational, institutional, policy, regulatory, and market-related barriers to improving energy efficiency in industry. They also provide policy and fiscal environments which enable industrial enterprises more easily to implement energy efficient technologies, practices, and measures. Below is a summary of key lessons:

Distorting subsidies are removed and, as far as possible, mechanisms are put in place fully to carry the cost of environmental impacts into the market. Industrial subsidies can be provided in other forms that do not discourage the uptake of energy efficiency measures, but rather accelerate them and are more economically efficient than subsidising the energy price. Industrial corporate culture is changed to include high level management commitment to assign and realise the potential of energy efficiency in terms of improving competitiveness and furthering corporate social responsibilities. Ambitious energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction targets are set. Such targets can be established in legal mandates or voluntarily at national or sectoral levels or even at facility level. Within industries, measurable energy management systems are established. (Energy management standards can provide an organising framework for industrial facilities. ISO 50001, the international energy management standard, is expected to have far-reaching effects on the energy efficiency of industry when it is published early in 2011 ) Building human capacity, skills and training programs must be developed at various levels. These include within industrial facilities, external experts and service providers as well as within key institutions expected to take part in the implementation of PAMs. Information dissemination and sharing, as well as the promotion or provision of energy assessments and related services provide a useful enabling environment for promoting industrial energy efficiency.

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Benchmarking exercises are needed to calibrate industrial performance to national or international best practice energy use levels (these may need to be carefully adjusted to allow for differing local conditions). Mandatory industrial equipment and system performance and assessment standards are an effective way of increasing the market penetration of more efficient equipment. Energy efficiency investment funds and carbon trading initiatives can assist the deployment of energy efficiency practice. In this context, financial instruments such as taxes, subsidies, and programmes that improve access to capital are often employed. The implementation of energy efficiency PAMs needs to be monitored and evaluated (at both facility and national level) in terms of their key attributes, such as cost, GHG mitigated, intensity reductions etc.

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