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# Unit 2- Stresses in Beams

Topics Covered
Lecture -1 Review of shear force and bending

moment diagram
Lecture -2 Bending stresses in beams Lecture -3 Shear stresses in beams Lecture -4- Deflection in beams Lecture -5 Torsion in solid and hollow shafts.

## Theory of simple bending (assumptions)

Material of beam is homogenous and isotropic => constant E in all direction Youngs modulus is constant in compression and tension => to simplify analysis Transverse section which are plane before bending before bending remain plain after bending. => Eliminate effects of strains in other direction (next slide) Beam is initially straight and all longitudinal filaments bend in circular arcs => simplify calculations Radius of curvature is large compared with dimension of cross sections => simplify calculations Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract => Otherwise they will generate additional internal stresses.

Bending in beams

Key Points: 1. Internal bending moment causes beam to deform. 2. For this case, top fibers in compression, bottom in tension.

Bending in beams

Key Points: 1. Neutral surface no change in length. 2. Neutral Axis Line of intersection of neutral surface with the transverse section. 3. All cross-sections remain plane and perpendicular to longitudinal axis.

Bending in beams
Key Points: 1. Bending moment causes beam to deform. 2. X = longitudinal axis 3. Y = axis of symmetry 4. Neutral surface does not undergo a change in length

## Bending Stress in beams

P
A Neutral Surface B

Deflected Shape

RA
M M

RB

M=Bending Moment
x (Compression)

M
Neutral Surface

M
Beam

x=0 x (Tension)

## x is NOT UNIFORM through

the section depth

x DEPENDS ON:
(i) Bending Moment, M (ii) Geometry of Cross-section

## Stresses due to bending

R N E B A C N F D Strain in layer EF

y = R

E = y R

E = y R

Neutral axis
dA dy y N A

= E y dA R

= =

Stress diagram

E R

E y dA R

y dA

x M M

## For equilibrium forces should be 0

y dA = 0
Neutral axis coincides with the geometrical axis

Moment of resistance
dA dy y N A

= E y dA R

## Moment of this force about NA x

E y dA y R E = y 2 dA R E E y 2 dA = y 2 dA R R =
2

## Stress diagram Total moment M=

x M M

dA = I

M=

E M E I = R I R

Flexure Formula
M E = = I R y

Beam subjected to 2 BM
In this case beam is subjected to moments in two directions y and z. The total moment will be a resultant of these 2 moments. You can apply principle of superposition to calculate stresses. (topic covered in unit 1).

## Resultant moments and stresses

Section Modulus
Section modulus is defined as ratio of moment of inertia about the neutral axis to the distance of the outermost layer from the neutral axis

Z=

I y max

## Section Modulus of symmetrical sections

Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Section_modulus

## Section Modulus of unsymmetrical sections

In case of symmetrical section neutral axis passes through geometrical center of the section. But in case of unsymmetrical section such as L and T neutral axis does not pass through geometrical center. The value of y for the outermost layer of the section from neutral axis will not be same.

Composite beams consisting of layers with fibers, or rods strategically placed to increase stiffness and strength can be designed to resist bending.

Composite beams

Composite beams
t y d t

1 2 = E1 E 2 E1 1 = E2 2 = m 2
I y M = M1 + M 2 = 1 I1 + 2 I2 y y = 2 [ mI1 + I2 ] y
M=

m=modular ratio

mI1 + I2