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# University of Dundee

## OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS

Fluid Mechanics CE31003
Prof: P A Davies

## OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS Fluid Mechanics

1. Introduction Open channel flow is the flow of a liquid in conduit with a free surface. There are examples such, both artificial (flumes, spillways, canals, weirs, drainage) and natural (streams, rivers, flood plains). The purpose of this experiment is to determine the flow characteristics and estimate discharge coefficient by method of sharp crested weir and broad crested weir. Sharp crested weir and Broad crested weir are an obstruction in an open channel flow that water must flow over the weir. They are used to find flow rate and head on weir. Sharp crested weir is used to measure the discharge in small open channels which is accuracy is needed. Broad crested weirs are strong solid structures. It is usually made of reinforced concrete. It is used to measure to discharge of rivers. It has advantage that it operates more effectively with higher downstream water levels than sharp crested weir. In an open-channel flow, a supercritical flow can change into a sub-critical flow by passing through a hydraulic jump. The upstream flow has high velocity and is low height. The downstream flow has low velocity and is deep. 2. Test Results (I) Sharp crested weir: Depth (Y.crest) at weir crest is obtained from experiments with increasing of discharge of flow and Upstream depths (H). The values are tabulated in below. Table1 : Sharp crested weir Flow rate(Q) Q 0.1(l/s) Q 0.1 (m^3/s) 2.5 0.0025 2.0 0.0020 1.5 0.0015 1.0 0.0010 0.5 0.0005 Y.crest, Depth at weir crest 0.1mm m 44.50 0.04450 38.40 0.03840 32.00 0.03200 24.70 0.02470 14.90 0.01490 H+0.1(m) log (H+0.1) 0.0676 -1.1700533 0.0584 -1.2335872 0.0478 -1.3205721 0.0367 -1.4353339 0.0229 -1.6401645

Upstream Depth H log (Q) H 0.1(mm) H(m) -2.6020600 67.50 0.0675 -2.6989700 58.30 0.0583 -2.8239087 47.70 0.0477 -3.0000000 36.60 0.0366 -3.3010300 22.80 0.0228 Errors of Flow rate (Q) Q + 0.1 (m^3/s) log (Q+0.1) Q - 0.1 (m^3/s) 0.0026 -2.5850267 0.0024 0.0021 -2.6777807 0.0019 0.0016 -2.7958800 0.0014 0.0011 -2.9586073 0.0009 0.0006 -3.2218487 0.0004 H-0.1(m) log (H-0.1) 0.0674 -1.1713401 0.0582 -1.2350770 0.0476 -1.3223930 0.0365 -1.4377071 0.0227 -1.6439741

log (H) -1.1706962 -1.2343314 -1.3214816 -1.4365189 -1.6420652 log (Q-0.1) -2.6197888 -2.7212464 -2.8538720 -3.0457575 -3.3979400

## Log(H) vs Log(Q) -2.50

Log(H+0.1) vs Log(Q+.01) y = 1.4831x - 0.8667 -3.00 y = 1.2807x - 1.1213 Linear (Log(H) vs Log(Q)) y = 1.72x - 0.5704

Log(H-0.1) vs Log(Q0.1)

-3.50

Figure1. Upstream depth Log (H) Versus Flow rate Log (Q) According to the table1, the values are plotted graphically as Log (H) in x- axis and Log (Q) in y-axis as shown in Figure1. In the same way, the errors of flow discharge (Q 0.1) and depth (H 0.1) are plotted in order to determine precision value of n and k here. From this graph, we obtained three linear equation as in form of y = nx + logK, where n is gradient of line and logK is intercept of line. Three straight lines such as best fit line, Upper extreme line, lower extreme line have been obtained from this graph. The value of K and n have been determined from these three equations. The value of n is 1.4831 0.21 and the value of K is 0.135925 0.0966 from experiments. The co-efficient of discharge (Cw) can be calculated from below equations (1) and (2) using of n and K values. Q = Cw (2/3) (2g)1/2 B H 3/2 Q = K Hn (1) .. (2)

The sample calculation of finding co-efficient of discharge (Cw) can be done in below for sharp crested weir. The average value of Cw for sharp crested is 0.607 from experiments. The sample calculation for finding Cw has been done in below by choosing best line equation.

## OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS Fluid Mechanics

The values Y.crest obtained from experiments is plotted with theoretical value (2H/3) in below.

## 2H/3 (m) 0.0450 0.0389 0.0318 0.0244 0.0152

Y.crest Vs 2H/3
0.060 0.040 0.020 0.000 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 Y.crest Vs 2H/3

## Figure2. Y.crest versus 2H/3

(II) Broad crested weir: The depth above weir crest(Ym) are obtained from experiments in order to increasing of discharge of flow and Upstream depths (H). The values are tabulated in below. Table 3: Broad crested weir Flow rate(Q) Q 0.1(l/s) Q 0.1 (m^3/s) 2.5 0.0025 2.0 0.0020 1.5 0.0015 1.0 0.0010 0.5 0.0005 Ym, Depth above weir 0.1mm m 47.3 0.0473 40.5 0.0405 33.9 0.0339 25.8 0.0258 15.8 0.0158 H+0.1(m) log (H+0.1) 0.0721 -1.1421 0.0615 -1.2111 0.0520 -1.2840 0.0392 -1.4067 0.0241 -1.6180

log (Q) -2.602060 -2.698970 -2.823909 -3.000000 -3.301030 Q + 0.1 (m^3/s) 0.0026 0.0021 0.0016 0.0011 0.0006 H-0.1(m) 0.0719 0.0613 0.0518 0.0390 0.0239

Upstream Depth H H 0.1(mm) H(m) 72.0 0.0720 61.4 0.0614 51.9 0.0519 39.1 0.0391 24.0 0.0240 Error of Flow rate (Q) log (Q+0.1) Q - 0.1 (m^3/s) -2.5850 0.0024 -2.6778 0.0019 -2.7959 0.0014 -2.9586 0.0009 -3.2218 0.0004 log (H-0.1) -1.1433 -1.2125 -1.2857 -1.4089 -1.6216

log (H) -1.142668 -1.211832 -1.284833 -1.407823 -1.619789 log (Q-0.1) -2.6198 -2.7212 -2.8539 -3.0458 -3.3979

OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS Fluid Mechanics -2.00 -1.80 -1.55 -1.30 -1.05

-2.50

Log(H) vs Log(Q)

y = 1.4691x - 0.9263

## Log(H+0.1) vs Log(Q+.01) -3.00 Log(H-0.1) vs Log(Q-0.1)

y = 1.265x - 1.175

## Linear (Log(H) vs Log(Q))

-4.00

Figure3. Upstream depth Log (H) Versus Flow rate Log (Q) According to the table3, the values are plotted graphically as Log (H) in x- axis and Log (Q) in y-axis as shown in Figure1. In the same way, the errors of flow discharge (Q 0.1) and depth (H 0.1) are plotted in order to determine precision value of n and k here. From this graph, we obtained three linear equation as in form of y = nx + logK, where n is gradient of line and logK is intercept of line. Three straight lines such as best fit line, Upper extreme line, lower extreme line have been obtained from this graph. The value of K and n has been determined from these three equations. The value of n is 1.4691 0.21 and the value of K is 0.1185 0.08 from experiments. The co-efficient of discharge (Cw) can be calculated from below equations (1) and (2) using of n and K values. Q = Cw (2/3) (2g)1/2 B H 3/2 Q = K Hn (1) .. (2)

The sample calculation of finding co-efficient of discharge (Cw) can be done in below for broad crested weir. The average value of Cw for sharp crested is 0.55 from experiments. The sample calculation for finding Cw has been done in below by choosing best line equation.

## OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS Fluid Mechanics

The values depth above weir (Ym) obtained from experiments are plotted with theoretical value Critical depth (Yc) in below.

Table4: Depth above weir Ym(m) 0.0473 0.0405 0.0339 0.0258 0.0158 Critical depth Yc(m) 0.0477 0.0401 0.0331 0.0252 0.0159
0.0600 0.0400 0.0200 0.0000 0 0.02

Ym Vs Yc

Ym Vs Yc

0.04

0.06

Figure4. Crest versus 2H/3 (III) Hydraulic jump: The upstream depth and downstream depth are obtained from experiments by increasing of discharge of flow. The values are tabulated in below. Table5 Hydraulic jump experiment Flow rate(Q) Upstream Depth y1 Q 0.1 (l/s) Q 0.1 (m^3/s) H 0.1(mm) H(m) 2.5 0.0025 15.3 0.0153 2.0 0.0020 15.3 0.0153 1.5 0.0015 15.3 0.0153 1.0 0.0010 15.3 0.0153 Error of Flow rate (Q) Error of Upstream Depth (y1) Q + 0.1 (m^3/s) Q - 0.1 (m^3/s) y1+0.1(m) y1-0.1(m) 0.0026 0.0024 0.0154 0.0152 0.0021 0.0019 0.0154 0.0152 0.0016 0.0014 0.0154 0.0152 0.0011 0.0009 0.0154 0.0152 V1=Q/By1 Fr1=V1/(gy1)^0.5 (1+8Fr1^2)^0.5 2y2/y1 2.055329 5.30519 15.0386 14.0392 1.644264 4.24415 12.0459 11.0196 1.233198 3.18312 9.0586 7.9869 0.822132 2.12208 6.0849 5.1765 V1=Q/By1 2.123663 1.715266 1.306869 0.898473 V1=Q/By1 1.986097 1.572327 1.158557 0.744786 Fr1=V1/(gy1)^0.5 (1+8Fr1^2)^0.5 5.463748 15.4861 4.413027 12.5219 3.362306 9.5625 2.311586 6.6142 Fr1=V1/(gy1)^0.5 (1+8Fr1^2)^0.5 5.143328 14.5819 4.071801 11.5601 3.000275 8.5448 1.928748 5.5462 2y2/y1 13.9610 10.9610 7.9481 5.1558 2y2/y1 14.1184 11.0789 8.0263 5.1974

Downstream Depth y2 0.1mm m 107.4 0.1074 84.3 0.0843 61.1 0.0611 39.6 0.0396 Error of Downstream Depth y2 y2+0.1(m) y2-0.1(m) 0.1075 0.1073 0.0844 0.0842 0.0612 0.0610 0.0397 0.0395

## OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS Fluid Mechanics

18.00 16.00 y = 1.0074x + 0.9308 14.00 12.00 10.00 y = 0.8931x + 1.9722 8.00 y = 1.1289x - 0.2741 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 Linear (2y2/y1 Vs (1+8Fr^2)^0.5) Lower extreme line 2y2/y1 Vs (1+8Fr^2)^0.5

## Upper extreme line

Figure5. 2y2/y1 versus (1+8Fr^2) ^0.5 According to the table5, the values are plotted graphically as 2y2/y1 in x- axis and (1+8Fr^2) ^0.5 in yaxis as shown in Figure5. From this graph, we obtained three linear equation as in form of y= nx + C, where n is slope of line and C is intercept of line. The value of C and n have been determined from this graph. The theoretical value of n is 1 and intercept is -1.The average value of n is 1.0074 0.11 and Intercept C is 0.9308 0.85 from experiments. 3. Discussion The average theoretical value of n is 1.5 for sharp crested weir and broad crested weir. The value of n has been found out significant difference between experimental result and theoretical value of 1.5. The value of n with limits of error satisfies the theoretical value. The errors can be obtained by measuring of discharge Q on flow meter scale or measuring of flow depth H on point gauge scale. The reason could be also that the gap between channel and crest plate is not properly sealed. The value for coefficient of discharge (Cw) for sharp crested weir can be calculated as 0.607 for best line. The coefficient of discharge (Cw) for broad crested weir is 0.55. Typical values of Cw are 0.600.81 for sharp crested weir and 0.45-0.58. The mean values of coefficient of discharge (Cw) with limits of errors of both broad crested and sharp crested agree with the theoretical values of Cw. In sharp crested weir, the value of Y.crest from experimental has been compared with calculated (2H/3) theoretical value. There is a very tiny difference between values of Y-crest values from experimental to theoretical value. Error may be occurred due to parallax in reading the gauge scale. In broad crested weir, the value of Depth above weir (ym) from experimental has been compared with calculated Critical depth (Yc) theoretical value. There is a very small difference between values of Depth above weir (Ym) values from experimental to theoretical value. 9

## OPEN CHENNEL FLOWS Fluid Mechanics

The flow may not have been stabilized when the readings were taken and reaction time error when using the stop watch. Within limits of error, discharge coefficient (Cw) is directly influenced by the flow rate. When increasing flow rate; discharge of coefficient is also increased. According to values of depth ratio and Froude number, the flow is super critical. The value of gradient n and intercept with limits of error satisfies the theoretical value of 1 and -1 respectively. There may be human error and instrument error also. The human error may be, errors occurred by taking erroneous reading of depths and in operation of slice gates. Error may be leakage from flume and frictional forces also had some effect on the experiment.

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