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ECET422a Digital Communications Course

Course information
Scope of the course
Digital Communication Systems

Lectures posted in Yahoo Group <> Course Syllabus Reading Materials (for voluntary recitation)

Introduction to digital communication systems

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Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior Communication systems are reliable, economical and efficient means of communications
Public switched telephone network (PSTN), mobile telephone communication (GSM, 3G, WiFi ...), broadcast radio or television, navigation systems, ...

The course is aiming at introducing fundamental issues in digital communication systems

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Scope of the course ...

Example of a (digital) communication systems:
Cellular wireless communication systems (e.g. 3GPP Terms)

Base Station (BS)



UE User Equipment (UE)

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Scope of the course ...

General structure of a communication systems
Noise Info.


Received Transmitted Received info. signal signal Transmitter Receiver Channel User

Formatter Source encoder Channel encoder Modulator

Formatter Source decoder Channel decoder
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Scope of the course

Learning fundamental issues in designing a digital communication system (DCS):
Utilized techniques
Formatting and source coding (Prelims) Modulation (Baseband and bandpass signalling) (MidTerms) Channel coding (MidTerms and Finals Supplement) Equalization Synchronization .... Multiplexing (Finals)

Trade-offs between various parameters

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Course material
Course text books:
Electronic Communications System: Fundamentals Through Advanced by W. Tomasi, 5th Edition Boston: McGraw-Hill

Additional recommended books

Digital communications: Fundamentals and Applications by Bernard Sklar,Prentice Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-13-084788-7 Communication systems engineering, by John G. Proakis and Masoud Salehi, Prentice Hall, 2002, 2nd edition, ISBN: 0-13-095007-6 (Personal Advice Do not hesitate to use/borrow older versions the lecturer will provide examples of newer applications not covered by such books)

Material accessible from course yahoo group:

Message Posts Lecture slides (.ppt, pdf) Assignments, Exercises and formulae

Lecture 1

Course responsible and lecturer and giving tutorials:
Joel C. Delos Angeles Office: CEAT Consultation Hours: Tuesday/Thursday (1 PM to 2 PM) Email:

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Lecture 1
ECET422a Digital Communications Course Lecture 1 Signals and Spectra Primary Reference Book: Sklar chapter 1

Thanks to:

Today, we are going to talk about:

What are the features of a digital communication system?
Why digital instead of analog?

What do we need to know beforehand?

Classification of signals Random process Autocorrelation Power and energy spectral densities Noise in communication systems Signal transmission through linear systems Bandwidth of signal

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Digital communication system

Important features of a DCS:
Transmitter sends a waveform from a finite set of possible waveforms during a limited time Channel distorts, attenuates the transmitted signal and adds noise to it. Receiver decides which waveform was transmitted from the noisy received signal Probability of erroneous decision is an important measure for the system performance

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Digital versus analog

Advantages of digital communications:
Regenerator receiver
Original pulse Regenerated pulse Propagation distance

Different kinds of digital signal are treated identically. Voice A bit is a bit! Data Media
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Classification of signals
Deterministic and random signals
Deterministic signal: No uncertainty with respect to the signal value at any time.
Modeled by explicit mathematical expressions

Random signal: Some degree of uncertainty in signal values before it actually occurs.
Non-explicit mathematical expressions instead over a long period, may exhibit certain regularities described by probabilities and statistical averages Thermal noise in electronic circuits due to the random movement of electrons Reflection of radio waves from different layers of ionosphere

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Classification of signals
Periodic and non-periodic signals

A periodic signal

A non-periodic signal

Analog and discrete signals

A discrete signal Analog signals

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Classification of signals ..
Energy and power signals
A signal is an energy signal if, and only if, it has nonzero but finite energy for all time (Joules):

A signal is a power signal if, and only if, it has finite but nonzero power for all time (Joules/seconds watts; T in the denominator below):

General rule: Periodic and random signals are power signals. Signals that are both deterministic and non-periodic are energy signals.

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Sample Problems ..

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