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Submitted to:

Ms. Nisha Gupta Dept. of comp. application R.G. (P.G) college Meerut

Submitted by:
Gulafshan Parveen B.A 1st year 708

I have created this project of operating system. While making it I received many suggestions from my family, friends, authors and my departmental head. I value their suggestions and their help in computing this project. I would like to thanks Mrs. Vandana Agarwal for helping me in each and very step of this project. The clicking keyboard and the noisy printers. I would like to thank each and every person who have supported me in completing this project.

Q.1:What is a operating system? What are the different kinds of operating system? Ans:DEFINATION OF OPERATING SYSTEM
Operating system is an integrated set of set of the resources (CPU, memory, input/output devices) of a computer system and provides its users with an interface for virtual machine that is easier to use than the bare machine.


These are different kinds of operating system:

(1)Batch Processing System:Data or programs are collected group and processed at a later date. Example of use:- Payroll, stock control and billing systems.

(2) Real-time Systems:Inputs immediately affect the outputs. Timing is critical:-i.e. they are capable of influencing the source of the data e.g. control where data from

sensors is processed immediately and affect the outputs-controlling some device. Timing is critical and the term real-time control system. Example of use:-e.g. control of nuclear power plants, oil refining, chemical processing and air traffic control systems.

(3) Real-time transaction:Inputs immediately affect the outputs but timing is not critical. Each transaction is completed online as it arises e.g. booking systems each booking is online and a database of bookings can be amended interactively and very quickly whilst another user is locked out so cannot double book or alter that record at the same time. Example of use:Holiday and airline booking system. Difference between realtime and real- Time transactions. In real time time is critical and delays can be catastrophic but in real-time transactions systems there is no time criticality. E.g. poor speeds in airline control would be dangerous but poor booking speeds would not be so crucial.

(4)Online processing:Processing performed under the direct control the CPU whilst the user remains in communication with the computer.

(5)Offline processing:Processing which is done away from CPU.

Example of use:e.g. batching together of clock cards, filling in OMR forms. (6) Provides for interaction between the job and The user, which may influence the course of processing. Example of use:Word processing. (7) Such systems may be single-user (e.g. a personal computer).

(8) Multi-access on-line:Any users linked by workstations to a central computer such as in a network. Example of use:-Holiday or airline booking system. One person must be locked out when another is updating the file. This helps to prevent Double booking.

(9) Interactive processing:The user has to be present and program cannot proceed until there is some input from the user. Example of use:Select from a menu at ATM.

10) Distributed system:Processing is carried out independently in more than one location, but with shared and controlled access to some common facilities. Example of use:Databases e.g. libraries.

(11)Multiprogramming:Ability to run many programs apparently at the same time. Example of use:-Mainframe systems. Each job is allocated a smallamount of processing time (time slice) in turn.

(12)Multi tasking:The ability to hold several programms in RAM at one time but the user switches between them. Example of use:Usually uses GUIs. Facility import and export of data.

Q.2:Explain all the functions of Operating System? Ans:FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM

Process management. Memory management. Secondary storage management. Input/output management. File management. Protection. Networking management. Command interpretation.

(1)Process management:The CPU execute are large number of programs while its main cunsert is the execution of user program. The CPU is also needed for other system activities are called process is the program in execution. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection process management: The creation and deletion of both user and system process.

The suspecial and resumetion of process. The provision of mechanisms for synchronization and deadlock handling. (2)Memory management:There are various algorithm that depend of the particular situation to manage the memory collection of a memory management skeem for specific system depended many factors. The operating system is expensive for the following activities: Allocate and dallocate space are needed. Keep track of which part of memory are currently being used by home. Deside which process are to be loaded into memory van memory space becomes available.

(3)Secodry storage management:Since the memory is too small to permanently accommodate all data and program the computer system must provide secondary storage to backup main memory most modem computer systems use disks as the primary online storage all information, of both programs and data. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with disk management: Free space management. Storage allocation. Disk scheduling.

(4)Input/output management:One of the purpose of an operating system is to hide peculiar ties of specific hardware devices from the user. For example, In UNIX, the peculiar ties of input/output devices are hidden from the disk bulk of the operating system easily by the input/output system. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection to input/output management: A buffer caching system. To activate a general device driver code. To run the driver software for specific hardware devices and open required.

(5)File management:The operating system is implements the abstracts concept of the file by managing mass storage device, such as types and disks. Also files are normally organized into directories to case there use. Finally, when multiple users have access to files, it may be. The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection of the file management: The creation and Deletion of files. The mapping of files on to disk storage. Backup of files on stable (non volatile) storage. Protection and security of the files.

(6)Protection:The various process, is an operating system must be protection from each others activities. For that purpose, various mechanisms .Which can be used to ensure that

the files, memory segment, CPU and other resources can b operated on only by those process that have gained proper authorized from the operating system. For example, memory addressing hardware ensures that a process can only execute within its own address space. The timer enuresis that to process can gain control of the CPU without rilinguishing it. (7)Networking management:The processer in the system are connected throw a communication network. Which can be configured in the number of different ways .The network may be fully or partially connected. The communication network desine must consider routing and connection strategies and the problems of connection and security. A distributed system provides the user with access to the various resources the system maintains. Access to a shair resources allows computation speed up, data avelibity, and reliability. (8)Commend interpretation:The command interpreter is the primary interface between the user and rest of the system. Many commands are given to the operating system by control. When the new jo staties in a new batch system or when a user logs in to a time shair system. A program which reads an automatically executed. This program is variously called. i. The control card interpreter. ii. The command line interpreter. iii. The shell (in Unix) These functions is quite simple : Get the next command statement and execute it.


Protection & Security Input/output management File management

Process management


Secondary storage management

Communication management

Memory management Networking management

User Interface


What are the board categories of software? Ans:Software is collection of program.

Although, the range of software available today is vast and varied, we classify most software into two categories: System software Application software

System software

Application software

Figure:-The board categories of software

(1)System software:System software is a

st of one or more programs, which controls the operation and/or extends the processing capability of a computer system. Programs include in a system software package are called system programs, and programmers who prepare system software and reffered to as



Some commonly known types of system software are: Operating systems. Programming language translators. Communications software. Utility programs.

(2)Application software:Application software is a set of one or more programs,

which solves a specific problem, or dose a specific task. For example, payroll processing software, examination results processing software railway/airline reservation software, and computer games software are application software. Programs include in an application software package are called application programs, and programmers who prepare application software are referred to as

application programmers.
Some commonly known application software: Word processing software. Spreadsheet software. Database software. Graphics software. Personal assistance software. Education software. Entertainment software.

Q.4:What do you understand by file management system? Explain. Ans:FILE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
File-oriented approach of organizing data provides a set of programs to facilitate users to organize , create, delete, update, and manipulate their files.All these programs together form a file management system (FMS). Features found commonly in file management are describe below.

We categorize data files according to the way an application uses them. A file management system tipically supports following types of file: Transaction file. Master file. Output file. Report file. Bacckup file.

Q.5:Write the short note on: (A)Device controller. (B)BIOS (C)Memory management. (D)Batch file.

Ans:(A.)Device controlle
A computer uses device controllers to connect I/O devices to it. Each device controller is in charge of and controls a set of devices of a specific type. For, example a disk controllers control disk drives, a tape controller controls tape drives, and a printer controller controls printers. A device controller maintains some local buffer storage and is responsible for moving data between an I/O devices that it controls and its local buffer storage.

The operating system uses, one of the following:

twomethods to transfer the data from the controllers local buffer to the appropriate memory area of the computer: (i)Non DMA transfer. (ii)DMA transfer.

B.BIOS:Bios means basic input/output system. Bios is ectuly firmware the software that is the software that is program into the ROM (Read only memory) chip bit on to the motherboard of a system. Bios is what makes the system run and tyer power-on-self text of the computer, antalize circuit. Load the boot program the boot disk and than handle lowlevel I/O peripheral controllers such as keyboard and display. In IBM PC computer computers, the basic input/output system (BIOS) also non as the SYSTEM BIOS (pronounced / BAT OUS/), is a difect standard define firmware interfare. C. Memory management system:-Memory is the more expensive part in the computer. There are various algorithm the dipand of the perticuler situation to manage the memory collection of a memory management skeem for a specific system depanded many factors. But specialy upon the hardware desine of the system. He is algorithm riqure its on hardware support. The operating system is expensive for the following activities: Keep track of which part of memory currently being used by home.

Deside which process are to be loaded into memory van memory space becomes avalible. Allocate and dallocate space are needed.

D.Batch file:A batch file basically a text file that contained one for more to commands, each commands an a different line, this file is give the BAT file name extraintion when this file is exedeted add the dos pront the commands in the file are taken by the dos one at a time and executed example copy can user BAT. Time ver. data MP class save the file to execute the same, type the primary name only the file on the pront and process enter key.

N C:/> user BAT enter similarly serially are by one command will be executed as per their sequence.

Q.6:Describe the concept of UNIX. Ans:-


UNIX is a multi-user, time-sharing operating system. Ken Thompson and Denis Ritchie developed UNIX in early 1970s at Bell Laboratories for a PDP-11 computer. It was the first operating system written in a high-level language, C. Earlier operating systems were written in assembly language, due to which they were system dependent (were usable only a system for which they were developed). However, since UNIX was written in C language, it to a new system, known as porting it, was much easier. This was an important reason for its popularity and availability on a wide variety of systems.

Unix operating system has the following three layers:

Kernel:-This layer has all the the

modules for process, memory, file, device, and security management. Shell:-This layer has the command interpreter. Unix basically provides a command-line interface 9some vendors have added GUI to their new versions of unix). The shell provides a large number of very useful commands. Utilities:- This layer has all the OS capability enhancement software including language compilers, text editors, text-processing programs, and a variety of utilities and tools.

Q.7:Explain the data processing. Write down the steps of creating Chart in excel. Ans:WHAT IS DATA PROCESSIG?
"Data processing redirects here. For Unit record data processing, see Unit record equipment. Computer data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter data and summaries, analyses or otherwise into usable information. The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analyzing, sorting, summarizing, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems. Nevertheless, the terms are roughly synonymous, performing similar conversions; data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information, and likewise information systems typically take raw data as input to produce information as output. Data processing may or may not be distinguished from data conversion, when the process is merely to convert data to another format, and does not involve any data manipulation.

Ms-Excel:Excel is a very powerful and easy to use spreadsheet package; perhaps the most commonly used these days. It is a member application included in Ms Office suite. It works very well with numbers and their complex calculation. Starting Excel:1. Click on the Start button in the Windows environment. Select Microsoft Excel from the Program submenu. Opening a Workbook:1. Click on the open option in the file menu. 2. Click on the look in drop down list box. 3. Select the drive and folder in which the workbook is stored. 4. Select the workbook. 5. Click on the open button Entering Data in an Excel!Worksheet:1. Move the mouse pointer to the cell in which you want to enter the data. 2. Double click on the cell or press the F2 key. 3. Start typing in the cell. 4. Press the enter key.

Saving a Workbook:Select the save option from the File menu. Specify a suitable name for the workbook. Click on the Save button.

Defination of formula:At times there may be a need to perform some calculations on some numeric data that is represented in an Excel worksheet. To perform calculations, a formula can be used.

Steps to add some mathematical calculations:1. Place the mouse pointer on the cell in which you want the total value to be entered. 2. Type the equal sign (=) and the plus sign(+) in the cell. 3. Type the address of the range of cells that have to be added. 4. Press enter.

Some excel function:1. SUM ( )-The sum function adds all the numbers in the range of cells. Eg. =Sum (C1:C10). 2. AVERAGE ( )-Returns the airthmetic maen of the values specified in the range.Eg. =Average (C1:C10). 3. MAX ( )-Returns the largest value in the selected range of cell.Eg. =Max (C1:C10). 4. PRODUCT ( )-Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments in the range of cell.Eg. =Product (C1:C10)

Creating Text Series:Enter the first value in the cell that would beat the beginning of the series, and select the cell . Drag the AutoFill handle across the cells that you want to fill. Release the mouse button

Creating series of numbers:Enter the number 2 in a cell and the number 4 in the consecutive cell . Select both the cell Drag the AutoFill handle over the range of cells you want to fill.

Release the mouse button.

Changing column width:Place the mouse pointer on the right border of the column heading Click and Drag the mouse pointer to the right to increase the column width. Drag mouse pointer to words the left to decrease the column width Release the mouse button once the column is of the required width

Changing Row height:Place the mouse pointer on the row heading Click and drag the arrow up or down to decrease or increase the row height respectively. Release the mouse button once the row is of the required height .

Creating a Chart:Place the mouse in one of the cells in the data range based on which you one to create a chart . Select the chart option form the insert menue . Select the recued type of cart from the chart type list and chart sub-type section. Click on the next button . Select the required option from the chart source data dialogue box . Click on the series to tab to change particular values of the series. Click on the series one in the series list box . Sepcify the name of the series in the name text box . Sepcify the data series that has to been portrayed in the chart from the values box. Repeat the seteps 7 to 9 till you specify all the serious in the chart .

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