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Cloud Computing: Deployment Issues for the Enterprise Systems

Ammar Khalid 1 , Yasir Fayyaz 2 , Dost Muhammad Khan 3

1 MS Student, Department of Computer Science & IT, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN

2 MS Student, Department of Computer Science & IT, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science & IT, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, PAKISTAN

Abstract Cloud computing has developed from being a gifted commerce idea to one of the top geared sector of the Information Technology. Now, declined organizations are progressively introducing themselves in this technology in order to achieve reliable services at minimal cost. But as small and medium size business are looking forward to adopt least economical computing resources for their business applications, there is a need to identify all the issues while deploying it. The paper highlights some of most critical issues along with some mitigating steps in order to achieve rewarding deployment. This also describes some future development work of under laying concept. Keywords: IaaS, PaaS, SaaS

1. Introduction

The History of Cloud computing notion in on track from 1960, [1] When John McCarthy proposed the model of computation as a public utility. First public usage of the term “Cloud” as a allegory for the internet, appeared in MIT Published paper, in 1996. [2] In 1999, the first step toward this modern term was taken by, which led the way of delivering business applications through a web. In 2002, Amazon introduced a collection of cloud-based services comprising storage and computation via the Amazon Mechanical Trunk [3]. Mean while, IBM adopted this model in their applications and showed the new computing (Grid, pervasive computing, automated computing and utility computing) methods. The first widely accessible web application was Elastic Compute cloud (EC2) by Amazon, as a commercial web service that let small businesses and individuals to lease computers on which they can enjoy their own computer applications. [4] In 2007, Google, IBM, and a large number of universities get on a huge scale cloud computing research project, [5] around the time the term

started, By mid-2008, cloud computing achieved status in media, and many interconnected proceedings happened. To elucidate, Cloud Computing is same in concept of buying a land, constructing a building and then rent it out as whole or by portion. In cloud computing, supplier keeps the software on internet which is then used, paying only for the used services, by end users. There is no comprehensive definition of cloud computing. So far, the simplest operational description of cloud is “Computing paradigm where services and data reside in shared resources in scalable data centers, and those services and data are accessible by any authenticated device over the internet” [7][14].

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows:

Section 2 presents the overview of Cloud Computing. Section 3 is a comparison of Grid and Cloud computing. Section 4 is about the level of Cloud. In section 5 we discuss the advantages of cloud computing. Section 6 is about the adaption issues. Section 7 is about the migration steps and section 8 presents the conclusion.



The goal of distributed computing is to solve large computational problems. These are popular due to two main reasons: First, the nature of the problem requires using communication network that connects several computers and second the use of distributed system is





beneficial for practical reasons [14]. The following are the foundations for the distributed computing:


Remote Communication.


Fault tolerance.


High availability.

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617




Remote information access.


Security and privacy.

Figure 1below shows different types of distributed


1below shows different types of distributed computing: Figure 1 Types of Distributed Computing 2.1. Cloud Computing

Figure 1 Types of Distributed Computing

2.1. Cloud Computing

It is a new type of distributed computing still an emerging field in computer science. The remote machines owned by other company which will run everything for the user is called cloud computing. It will change entire computer industry. The only thing the user has to run interface software of cloud computing system. There is a significant workload shift i.e. the user’s computer will not run the applications. It will decrease the demand of hardware and software. There is no limit of its applications. Everything can be done through cloud computing. The major advantage of this is the client can access his data any where at any time. It will reduce the need for advanced hardware which will bring the cost of hardware down. The client can take the advantage of network processing power if the cloud computing is using a grid at its back end. This is a step backward to early computers having only keyboard and terminal. The major issues in cloud computing are: Data governance: Enterprises have sensitive data that requires proper monitoring and protection, moving data into cloud enterprise will lose their governance on own data. Manageability, Monitoring, Compliance, Cross-country Data migration, Reliability, availability and recovery and Security and privacy: are major concerns and issues in cloud computing [15].

2.2. Grid Computing

It is a type of distributed computing where every computer can access the resources such as processing power, memory and data storage of other computer on the network, turning it into a powerful supercomputer. It is a high performance computing. The grid computing can provide an effective computational support from

applications for knowledge discovery. The basic services of grid computing are communication, authentication, information and resource management. This is not a new concept but not yet perfect. People are still working on creating, establishing and implementing standards and protocols. The applications of grid computing are limitless. The main challenges are: Resource sharing & coordinated problem, Coordinated problem solving in dynamic, Multi-institutional virtual organizations, Data protection, No clear standard, Better understanding as simple as possible, Difficult to develop, Lack of grid- enabled software, Centralized management, and the limited number of users are allowed the full access of network otherwise the control node will be flooded with processing requests which can create deadlock situation


2.3. Utility Computing

It is a business model in which a company outsources its computer support to other company. This support can be in the form of processing power, storage, hardware and

software applications. The major advantage of utility computing is convenience because client has not to buy all hardware and licensed software for his business. He has to rely on another party to provide these services. The main issues are: This type of computing model is suitable for medium or large scale enterprise, not suitable for small business. Another main disadvantage of utility computing

is reliability i.e. clients may hesitate to hand over duties to

a smaller company where they feel the lost of data. It is an

easy target of hackers. The major challenge in utility computing is that the consumers are not educated about its service. Its awareness is not very widespread [13][15].

3. Comparison of Grid and Cloud Computing

As Cloud computing is being adapted at huge level, these two terms (Grid and Cloud) are used as substitution to each other. Let’s discuss difference between these two terms to understand the Cloud Computing more closely and clearly, regardless to their size of allocation factor and common utility service providing feature. Grid systems are intended for sharing of resources belonging to diverse managed groups, sustaining large number of users structured in virtual organizations (identifications are improved with VO-related information) and offer domain-specific services. On the other hand, Clouds currently deliver the services of one domain to the outside world; generally support individuals for the distant service applications

4. Levels of Cloud Computing

The appearances of cloud computing can be categorized into IaaS (Infrastructure as a service) SaaS (Software as a

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



Service) and PaaS (Platform as a Service) [9], where users can strike into these services from Web browsers through Internet formulates them “cloud” services.

4.1. Infrastructure as a Service(IaaS)

IaaS is a alternate important data center resources such as storage space, physical servers, switches, firewalls and routers with vastly vacant resources in the cloud. It is about having a data warehouse cloud [8]. Number of IaaS providers is in market: Amazon, IBM tenders a 42U data center furnished with pre-installed and configured hardware GoGrid and FlexiScale. Joyent hosts many social network sites (Facebook).

4.2. Platform as a Service (PaaS)

PaaS is occasionally called “cloudware”, as it shifts resources from user machine into the cloud. PaaS is a model for carrying operating systems and related services into Internet without installation. Its vendors comprised on Coghead, Google (Google App Engine) (, and Google’s application development platform, Google App Engine, Yahoo (Pipes), support developers to develop Python-based applications with up to 500 MB of storage [9].

4.3. Software as a Service (SaaS)

cloud saves cost on important business applications and managed by SLA.

2. On one hand where the cloud makes better security and observation within a central data access, besides, it provides usage of automated system interfaces. User does not need to care about backend engineering, maintenance and troubleshooting of ongoing operations.

3. The idea is flourishing every coming day with great success in the upcoming time, as now offshore services are well-liked more than ever and industrialists are putting their money in the low capable countries in term of technology advancement and then sending off their cloud computing environment world wide.

4. In cloud computing, customers using web applications, access the environment and services retained by a 3rd party. As a result, the idea of offshore software development in least economic IT countries is running at enormous pace as developers can access the utility worldwide, at any time from a handheld device, PC, or a laptop, history making.

5. Cloud computing is a thought that is based on transforming the stack of IT away from firms

into the hands of cloud providers. It buttresses

a culture of modernization by eradicating a

major fraction of the economic risks linked

SaaS is a software representation in which applications are


with bearing out archetype of new ideas.

hosted by a vendor or service provider and these applications are available for use through Internet [10]. SaaS vendors comprise on, CRM applications, ERP applications, Citrix (meeting


applications), Google Apps comprise on Gmail, Google Docs, Google Talk, , and various others. SaaS desktop applications for users include Zoho Office,. Google Apps,


The following are the adaptation issues of cloud computing:

Google etc.



the customers are given privilege to control

5. Advantages of Cloud Computing

over data in cloud, any wrong transaction may cause performance loss, while transferring the operational data in order to sustain the link between the clients in an organization.

The three service levels (SaaS, IaaS, PaaS) working in cooperate to each other in cloud, cutback costs and


Most companies are worried about security of their business data in the publicly accessed

resources remarkably. Grouping of resources also results in higher performance, stack harmonizing (Controlling the load competency from central position) and absolute utilization of server capability. In this fashion, cloud computing consequences in enhanced resource usage, which is incomparable from maintenance point of view.

cloud environment. A key barrier is the security of the data during transportation to other public cloud and within the cloud. The threat of shoulder surfing and other social attack are same as it was in old environment. Another vital issue is data persistency.


It provides small and medium businesses a break to access web based advance tools as a resource. By grace of cloud, technology access

Companies need to contractually make it certain that the data has really been deleted by provider when it is asked to be deleted.

is no more a prime expenditure, as it is same as your other utility services (Electricity, Telephone) you are going to pay just for what you have utilized, nothing more. That’s how


Performance of the web-based application is totally dependent on internet speed and server performance of providers, as the cloud server may be inundated, and a variety of users along the network could be struck, too. If internet

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



connection is slow or you are in the areas where you don’t have a reliable or high speed connection, even some times with faster connection it’s very hard to get processing performance from these services. On the top there is no comparison between internet speed and system processing speed, as system always has far more better processing for application reside in it. You have to use what a provider is willing to provide.

4. Basic network security is faulty at its finest form. Even with current practices, cyber- terrorist can hit a system and generate chaos within no time. According to several experts, high-tech and cyber crime is becoming more sophisticated and target oriented, as Peter Yapp, head of forensics at consultancy Control Risks, says the credit critical situation is already opening for more spotted frauds, and evidently at higher levels, as now more educated and skilled people are unemployed who may cause further cyber crime, and there is more opportunity to attack than last ten years [11].

5. The virtual machines have a seldom discussed flaw. Virtual machines, which execute same as physical machines but are replicated with software, have lesser resources of entropy (e.g. Linux virtual machines take millisecond time on their internal clocks to get random number) and that source isn't sufficient to produce well- built keys for encryption. In other words, all the time, virtual machines don't have sufficient contact to the indiscriminate numbers required to correctly encrypt data [10].

6. Legal compliance requirements are not relaxed. In order to restrict the risk of loss, it is more essential for the parties to ensure the proper and secure contract. The cloud environment may create matchless risks of superior coverage. The technology used (e.g. a distributed computing environment), may create it hard to trace the data. Secondly, the parties are situated in unlike jurisdictions and legal regime.


2. Do a careful research for possible solutions and calculate their timely effect not just the initial cost.

3. Be alert about updates and assure that users have limited access privileges.

4. Figure out all interlinked providers connected to particular Cloud service provider to inquire, exactly which have access to your data.

5. Request for exclusion monitoring systems

6. Ask provider for maintaining your security polices along with provider’s owned policies, during the period of services.

7. Plan out, the arrangement for an independent security audit of service provider.

8. Make it sure, that the data being transferred is protected and secured by standard security techniques and managed by appropriate professionals.

9. Find out service availability assurances and consequences.

8. Conclusion

Cloud Computing guarantees momentous paybacks, but currently there are some privacy, security and other hurdles that put a stop to extensive organizational adjustment of a public cloud. In addition the cost advantages for huge enterprises have not yet been noticeably confirmed. The center of attention in Cloud development is the emergent of the cloud from the indoors (Private Cloud) to outdoors (Public Cloud). This paper keenly observed, to describe that the major advantages and disadvantages seen by cloud- based applications deploying in small and medium organizations. At each evolutionary stage for enterprise systems and the continuing deployment of ever more cloud-based applications will reach a critical mass, before it becomes effectively main stream. But that day is coming.

Future Work

There are different research areas surrounded by Cloud Security from official characteristics to novel methods. Cloud Privacy and Trust are further connected regions of prospective research (e.g. measures of necessary and sufficient, centralized or decentralized security, Single handed security management,). Some of proposed areas may be brought under consideration.

The following are the migration steps:


Development is to develop and assessing methods to let mapped into proper low-level

1. Develop an iterative policy for migration form conventional environment to Cloud environment.

2. trials, specified high-level attributes and their consequences to be considered and accounted, much required.


Explore realistic issues related to data relocation in the cloud and propose method to state policies for a data management system foundation.

© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617



4. Many web2.0 and cloud applications have a social aspect to them (e.g., groupware, e-mail). The aim of this development is to examine the utilization of social network study to progress these applications, as currently it might not be achievable to decide where to cache the huge data?

5. Constraint-Based Cloud Management must be mechanical - but generating quality management assessments for a cloud of momentous extent is a tricky job. Future work needed to apply constraint programming techniques to answer this dilemma professionally.

6. The development is to engage reworking the systematic model to hold Cloud Computing and find out trials and dimensions, to compare the awareness with earlier work done on Web and cloud computing, as technology improved education settings always put up with capricious and erratic max out demands that are much more than their customary load.


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© 2012 Journal of Computing Press, NY, USA, ISSN 2151-9617