Anda di halaman 1dari 11

History of Turkey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the history of the lands of Turkey after the Turkic migration. For history before the Turkic migration, see History of Anatolia. For other uses, see History of Turkey (disambiguation). This section duplicates, in whole or part, the scope of other article(s) or section(s).
Please discuss this issue on the talk page and conform with Wikipedia's Manual of Style by replacing the section with a link and a summary of the repeated material, or by spinning off the repeated text into an article in its own right.

It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled History of Anatolia and History of the Republic of Turkey, accessible from a disambiguation page. (Discuss) This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010) History of Turkey

Seljuq dynasty 10711325 Great Seljuq Empire 10711194 Sultanate of Rm 10751307 under the Seljuks after 1071 [show] Anatolian Beyliks

under the Ilkhanate 12431335 [show]Anatolian Beyliks

Ottoman Dynasty Occupation Republic of Turkey

13021922 19181923 from 1923

[show]Related topics

vde

The history of Turkey refers to the history of the country now called Turkey. Although the lands have an ancient history, Turkic migration to the country is relatively new. The Turks, a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family started moving from their original homelands to the modern Turkey in the 11th century. After the Turkic Seljuq Empire defeated forces of the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert, the process was accelerated and the country was referred to as 'Turchia' in the Europe as early as the 12th century.[1] The Seljuq dynasty controlled Turkey until the country was invaded by the Mongols following the Battle of Kosedag. During the years when the country was under Mongol rule, some small Turkish states were born. One of these states was the Ottoman beylik which quickly controlled Western Anatolia and conquered much of Rumelia. After finally conquering Istanbul, the Ottoman state would become a large empire, called the Turkish Empire in Europe. Next, the Empire expanded to Eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Central Europe and North Africa. Although the Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th century; it did not fully reach the technological advance in military capabilities of the Western powers in the 19th century. Nevertheless, Turkey managed to maintain independence though some of its territories were ceded to its neighbours and some small countries gained independence from it. Following World War I in which Turkey was defeated, most of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace was occupied by the Allied powers including the capital city Istanbul. In order to resist the occupation, a cadre of young military officers formed a government in Ankara. The elected leader of the Ankara Government, Mustafa Kemal organized a successful war of independence against the Allied powers. After the liberation of Anatolia and the Eastern Thrace, the Republic of Turkey was established in 1923 with capital city Ankara.

Contents
[hide]

1 Turkic migration 2 Seljuq Dynasty 3 Mongol Rule 4 Ottoman Dynasty 5 Republic era 6 References

[edit] Turkic migration


Further information: Turkic migration, History of Anatolia, and History of the Turkic peoples Before the Turkic settlement, the local population of Anatolia had reached an estimated level of 12 to 14 million people during the late Roman Period.[2][3][4] The migration of Turks to the country of modern Turkey occurred during the main Turkic migration across most of Central Asia and into Europe and the Middle East which was between the 6th and 11th centuries. Mainly Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire arrived Turkey in the eleventh century. The Seljuks proceeded to gradually conquer the Anatolian part of the Byzantine Empire. In the following centuries, the local population began to be assimilated into the Turkish people. More Turkic migrants began to intermingle with the local inhabitants over years, thus the Turkish-speaking population was bolstered.

[edit] Seljuq Dynasty


Main articles: Turkic migration, Seljuk Empire, and Sultanate of Rm The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Knk Ouz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Ouz confederacy[5] in the 10th century. In the 11th century, the Turkic people living in the Seljuk Empire started migrating from their ancestral homelands towards the eastern regions of Anatolia, which eventually became a new homeland of Ouz Turkic tribes following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The victory of the Seljuks gave rise to the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, a separate branch of the larger Seljuk Empire [6] and to some Turkish principalities (beyliks), mostly situated towards the Eastern Anatolia which were vassals of or at war with Seljuk Sultanate of Rum.

[edit] Mongol Rule

A Mongol horse archer in the 13th century Main articles: Mongol Empire and Ilkhanate In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols in the Battle of Kosedag, and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rm became a vassal of the Mongols. This caused the Seljuks to lose its power. Hulegu Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan founded the Ilkhanate in the southwestern part of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanate State ruled Anatolia by Mongol military governors. Last Seljuk sultan died in 1308. The Mongol invasion of Transoxiana, Iran, Azerbaijan and Anatolia caused Turkomens to move to Western Anatolia. [7] The Turkomens founded some Anatolian principalities (beyliks) under the Mongol dominion in Turkey.[8] The most powerful beyliks were the Karamanolu (or the Karamanid) and the Germiyan in the central area. Along the Aegean coast, from north to south, stretched Karesi, Saruhan, Aydnolu, Mentee and Teke principalities. The Candarolu (also called sfendiyarolu) controlled the Black Sea region round Kastamonu and Sinop.[9] The Beylik of Ottoman Dynasty was situated in the northwest of Anatolia, around St, and it was a small and insignificant state at that time. The Ottoman beylik would, however, evolve into the Ottoman Empire over the next 200 years, expanding throughout the Balkans, Anatolia.[10]

[edit] Ottoman Dynasty

Mehmed II enters Constantinople by Fausto Zonaro Main articles: Ottoman Empire and Ottoman territories in Europe

The Ottoman beylik's first capital was located in Bursa in 1326. Edirne which was conquered in 1361 [11] was the next capital city. After largely expanding to Europe and Anatolia, in 1453, the Ottomans nearly completed the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople during the reign of Mehmed II. This city has become the capital city of the Empire following Edirne. The Ottoman Empire would continue to expand into the Eastern Anatolia, Central Europe, the Caucasus, North and East Africa, the islands in the Mediterranean, Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, and the Arabian peninsula in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[12] In addition, the Ottomans were often at war with Persia over territorial disputes. At sea, the empire contended with the Holy Leagues, composed of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John, for control of the Mediterranean. In the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman navy frequently confronted Portuguese fleets in order to defend its traditional monopoly over the maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe; these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488. The Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 marked the beginning of the Ottoman decline; some territories were lost by the treaty: Austria received all of Hungary and Transylvania except the Banat; Venice obtained most of Dalmatia along with the Morea (the Peloponnesus peninsula in southern Greece); Poland recovered Podolia.[13] Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire continued losing its territories, including Greece, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the Balkans in the 19121913 Balkan Wars. Faced with territorial losses on all sides the Ottoman Empire forged an alliance with Germany who supported it with troops and equipment. The Ottoman Empire joined the World War I on the side of the Central Powers, after granting two German warships as refugees. On October 30, 1918, the Armistice of Mudros was signed, followed by the imposition of Treaty of Svres on August 10, 1920 by Allied Powers, which was never ratified. The Treaty of Svres would break up the Ottoman Empire and force large concessions on territories of the Empire in favour of Greece, Italy, Britain and France.

[edit] Republic era


Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and Atatrk's reforms The occupation of some parts of the country by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.[12] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Svres.[14] By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were expelled. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman

Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.[12] Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[12] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific surname "Atatrk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.[14]

Ankara, the capital of Turkey today Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II but entered on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945, as a ceremonial gesture and in 1945 became a charter member of the United Nations.[15] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale U.S. military and economic support.[16] After participating with the United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the Greek military coup of July 1974, overthrowing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as a dictator, Turkey invaded the Republic of Cyprus in 1974. Nine years later the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. Turkey is the only country that recognises the TRNC [17] The single-party period was followed by multiparty democracy after 1945. The Turkish democracy was interrupted by military coups d'tat in 1960, 1971, 1980 and 1997.[18] In 1984, the PKK began an insurgency against the Turkish government; the conflict, which has claimed over 40,000 lives, continues today.[19] Since the liberalization of the Turkish economy during the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability.[20] Ada banyak sejarah di sini. The easiest way to deal with it in a digestible format seems to be to give a chronology of the major events to begin with. Cara termudah untuk mengatasinya dalam format dicerna tampaknya untuk memberikan kronologi peristiwa besar untuk memulai. We're going to use that as a framework to hang bits and pieces on later. Kita akan menggunakannya sebagai kerangka untuk menggantung potongan-potongan di kemudian. 7500 BC 7500 SM First Stone age settlements at atalhyk Pertama usia permukiman Batu di atalhyk

1900-1300 BC 1900-1300 SM Hittite Empire with Hattusas as capital, contemporary with ancient Egypt and Babylon Het Kekaisaran dengan Hattusas sebagai modal, kontemporer dengan Mesir kuno dan Babel 1250 BC 1250 SM The Trojan war and the fall of Troy Perang Trojan dan jatuhnya Troy 1200-700 BC 1200-700 SM Migration of Greeks to Aegean coastal regions. Migrasi orang Yunani untuk Aegea daerah pesisir. Establishment of the Phrygian, Ionian, Lycian, Lydian, Carian and Pamphylian Kingdoms. Pembentukan, Frigia Ionia, Lisia, Kerajaan Lydian, Carian dan Pamphylian. The East of Turkey is the home of the Urartians Timur Turki adalah rumah dari Urartians 700 BC 700 SM Homer is born in Izmir (Smyrna). Homer lahir di Izmir (Smyrna). Aegean Hellenism begins Aegean Hellenisme dimulai 546 BC 546 SM Cyrus the Great leads the Persians into Anatolia Cyrus yang Agung memimpin Persia ke Anatolia 334 BC 334 SM Alexander the Great drives out the Persians Alexander Agung mengusir Persia 130 BC 130 SM The Romans incorporate Anatolia as the province of Asia, controlled from Ephesus (Efes) Bangsa Romawi menggabungkan Anatolia sebagai provinsi Asia, dikendalikan dari Efesus (Efes) 40 BC 40 SM Antioch sees the marriage of Antony and Cleopatra Antiokhia melihat perkawinan Antonius dan Cleopatra 47-57 AD 47-57 AD St. Paul spreads Christianity and a community at Antioch is established St Paul menyebar Kristen dan komunitas di Antiokhia didirikan 313 313 Roman Empire adopts Christianity Kekaisaran Romawi mengadopsi Kekristenan 330 330 Constantine lays out the boundaries of his new capital, Constantinople Konstantinus memaparkan batas modal baru, Konstantinopel 527-65 527-65 Glory of Byzantium under Justinian Glory Byzantium di bawah Justinian 638-718 638-718 Muslim Arabs besiege Constantinople Muslim Arab mengepung Konstantinopel 1054 1054 Greek and Roman Churches split over theology Gerejagereja Yunani dan Romawi dibagi atas teologi 1071-1243 1071-1243 Rise and rule of the Selcuk Turks in Anatolia, Konya is their capital Rise dan aturan dari Selcuk Turki di Anatolia, Konya adalah modal mereka 1096-1204 1096-1204 The Crusades, marking the beginning of the end for

Byzantium, a fascinating period in Byzantine history Perang Salib, menandai awal dari akhir untuk Byzantium, periode menarik dalam sejarah Bizantium 1288 1288 Ottoman Empire appears in Bursa Kekaisaran Ottoman muncul di Bursa 1453 1453 The fall of Constantinople - the birth of Istanbul Jatuhnya Konstantinopel - kelahiran Istanbul 1520-66 1520-1566 Suleyman the Magnificent sits on the Ottoman throne controlling a huge and powerful empire Suleyman the Magnificent duduk di atas takhta kerajaan Ottoman mengontrol besar dan kuat 1682-1725 1682-1725 Peter the Great initiates Russo-Turkish rivalry Peter Agung inisiat persaingan Rusia-Turki 1854 1854 Crimean war Perang Krimea 1909 1909 Abdul Hamid, the last of an unbroken line of Ottoman sultans is deposed Abdul Hamid, yang terakhir dari garis tak terputus dari sultan Ottoman adalah digulingkan 1914 1914 Turkey allies with Germany in the first world war Turki sekutu dengan Jerman dalam perang dunia pertama 1915 1915 Gallipoli Gallipoli 1919 1919 Ataturk leads resistance to the allied plan to carve up Turkey Ataturk memimpin perlawanan terhadap sekutu rencana untuk mengukir Turki 1923 1923 Foundation of the modern Republic of Turkey by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Yayasan Republik modern Turki oleh Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Many things happen all at once Banyak hal yang terjadi sekaligus 1938 1938 Ataturk dies in Istanbul's Dolmabahce palace Ataturk meninggal dalam istana Dolmabahce Istanbul 1939-45 1939-1945 Turkey manages to remain neutral during the second world war Turki berhasil tetap netral selama perang dunia kedua 1946 1946 Charter membership of the UN Piagam keanggotaan PBB 1952 1952 Turkey joins NATO Turki bergabung NATO 1960 1960 Military coup, successive governments ineffective Kudeta militer, pemerintah berturut-turut tidak efektif 1964 1964 Associate member status of EU status anggota Uni Eropa Associate 1974 1974 Cyprus crisis Siprus krisis 1980 1980 Kanan Evren leads military coup. Kanan Evren memimpin kudeta militer. 3 years of military government 3 tahun pemerintahan militer 1983 1983 Turgut Ozal elected prime Minister Turgut Ozal terpilih

Perdana Menteri 1985-90 1985-1990 Full EU membership for Turkey impeded by Cypriot issue and questions over human rights record Uni Eropa keanggotaan penuh untuk Turki Siprus terhambat oleh masalah dan pertanyaan atas catatan hak asasi manusia 1991-93 1991-1993 Suleyman Demirel elected Prime Minister, inflation at 70% Suleyman Demirel terpilih sebagai Perdana Menteri, inflasi sebesar 70% 1993-96 1993-1996 Demirel President, Tansu Ciller Prime Minister, Turkey joins EU Customs Union Presiden Demirel, Tansu Ciller Perdana Menteri, Turki bergabung dengan Uni Eropa Uni Bea Cukai 1997-98 1997-1998 5 attempts at forming coalition governments, Islamic Welfare party disbanded, reforms as Virtue and is the largest single party in parliament. 5 upaya membentuk pemerintah koalisi, partai Islam Kesejahteraan dibubarkan, reformasi sebagai Kebajikan dan merupakan partai terbesar di parlemen. Military intervenes to prevent Islamicists forming governments. Militer campur tangan untuk mencegah Islamicists membentuk pemerintah. 75th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic (and 15th of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) celebrated. HUT ke-75 dari Republik Turki (dan 15 dari Republik Turki Siprus Utara) dirayakan.

Ku Memang Tak Sempurna


Aug 6th, 2010 by admin. 19Share Ku memang tak seperti mentari Yang begitu terang dan menyinari Tapi ku punya lubuk hati Yang sanggup tuk mencintai Ku memang tak seperti rembulan Menerangi malam dengan sinarnya Tapi ku punya perasaan Tuk bisa ungkapkan cinta Ke memang tak seperti bintang Menghiasi gelapnya malam Ku memang tek sempurna Karena kesempurnaan hanyalah milik-Nya Tapi ku punya secercah harapan kan bisa berguna bagi semua insan Menerangi mereka dengan cinta Menghiasi alam dengan rasa