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Design of Wide-Area Damping Controllers for Interarea Oscillations


Yang Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, and Anjan Bose, Fellow, IEEE
AbstractThis paper develops a systematic procedure of designing a centralized damping control system for power grid interarea oscillations putting emphasis on the signal selection and control system structure assignment. Geometric measures of controllability/observability are used to select the most effective stabilizing signals and control locations. Line power ows and currents are found to be the most effective input signals. The synthesis of the controller is dened as a problem of mixed 2 output-feedback control with regional pole placement and is resolved by the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. A tuning process and nonlinear simulations are then used to modify the controller parameters to ensure the performance and robustness of the controller designed with linear techniques. The design process is tested on the New England 39-bus ten-machine system. Index TermsDamping controller, interarea oscillations, robust control, wide-area control, wide-area measurements.

I. INTRODUCTION ARGE power systems typically exhibit multiple dominant interarea swing modes on the order of 0.11.0 Hz. This type of oscillations limits the amount of power transfer on the tie-lines between the regions containing coherent generator groups. Today, oscillatory stability control has become more important because these low-frequency interarea oscillations are often poorly damped with the increase of energy interchanges across the power grids. The traditional approach to damp out interarea oscillations is to install power system stabilizers (PSS) that provide supplementary control action through the generator excitation systems. In recent years, supplementary modulation controllers (SMC) are added to FACTS devices to damp the interarea oscillations. These controllers usually use local inputs and cannot always be effective in easing the problem due to two main shortcomings. First, based on a linearization of the system model in a nominal operating point, conventional local controllers designed by the classical control techniques have their validity restricted to a neighborhood of this point. But power systems constantly experience changes in operating conditions due to variations in generation and load patterns and changes in transmission networks. In addition, some uncertainty is introduced into the power system model due to inaccurate approximation of the

Manuscript received March 14, 2007; revised July 14, 2007. This work was supported in part through the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS), funded by the Assistant Secretary of Energy Efciency and Renewable Energy, Ofce of Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability, Transmission Reliability Program of the U.S. Department of Energy under Interagency Agreement No. DE-AI-99EE35075 with the NSF and in part through PSerc, an NSF I/UCRC. Paper no. TPWRS-00171-2007. The authors are with the Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163 USA (e-mail: yzhang1@eecs.wsu.edu; bose@wsu.edu). Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRS.2008.926718

power system parameters, neglected high frequency dynamics and invalid assumptions made in the modeling process. Second, local controllers lack global observation of interarea modes. It has been proved that under certain operating conditions an interarea mode may be controllable from one area and be observable from another [1]. In such cases, local controllers are not effective for the damping of that mode. The recently developed robust control theory and wide-area control system technologies offer a great potential to overcome the shortcomings of conventional local controllers. Robust control techniques have been applied to design controllers that formally guarantee the system stability with an acceptable performance for a wide range of operating conditions [2][4]. With the technology of phasor measurement units (PMU), synchronized dynamic data of power systems can be transferred across the whole power system [5], [6]. The availability of wide-area measurements enables the real time detection and control of small signal instability in large scale power systems [7]. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed a wide-area control system (WACS) for the transient stability and voltage support of their power system [30]. For some specic grid structures and operating conditions, wide-area control is more efcient than local control in preventing loss of synchronism. References [8] and [9] show that for a study system resembling the Hydro-Qubec grid, local controls need from four to 20 times larger gain than wide-area control to achieve a similar damping effect. Many researchers achieved good results by applying wide-area measurements and robust control techniques to the design of wide-area control system for power system oscillations damping. One promising approach is to design wide-area measurements based controllers that provide control actions through generator excitation systems supplemental to the action of local PSSs. In [10], a remote feedback controller (RFC) design methodology using PMU measurements is described. Reference [11] proposes a design of supervisor PSS (SPSS) that exchanges information with local PSSs to improve power systems oscillatory stability. Reference [12] proposes a decentralized/hierarchical structure for a wide-area control system. Wide-area signals based PSSs are used to provide damping additional to the local ones. In this paper we develop a systematic design procedure of wide-area damping control systems by combining stabilizing signal selection and LMI based robust control design together, with particular attention to several issues. One such issue is the selection of input stabilizing signals. The number of input signals and the effect of different types of signals on control performance are important design considerations. For example, generator speed deviations have often been used as controller in-

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puts but these are not easily obtained and need to be synchronized, which often increases time delays. Our results show that a comparison of different inputs can lead to a smaller number of simpler inputs that provide the same control performance. The method of geometric measures of controllability and observability introduced by Hamdan [13] is used to select the most effective stabilizing signals and control locations. In the literature, while single objective synthesis techniques optimization are often used for robust controller delike sign [2][4], [11], [15], multiobjective synthesis is seldom applied in the design of wide-area damping controllers for power system oscillations. Multiobjective synthesis has several advantages over single objective synthesis as discussed in part IV. The design method proposed in this paper for a wide-area damping controller (WADC) to provide damping signals simultaneously to automatic voltage regulators (AVRs) of several selected generators in addition to their local PSS control signals, is a multiobjective synthesis, a mix of time- and frequency- domain specand performance to regional ications ranging from pole placement constraints. The resulting WADC controller is a robust multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) controller. Because linear techniques are used in designing this controller, it should be further tuned and its performance and robustness should be tested on a test-bed that represents the realistic power system with all its nonlinearities, preferably the same type of simulation programs that are used to study the dynamics of power systems. In our design process, nonlinear simulations are conducted using the Transient Security Assessment Tool (TSAT) [26] to test the efcacy of the designed WADC, which is modeled as a TSAT User-Dened Model (UDM). This paper is structured as follows: Section II presents the architecture of the proposed wide-area damping control system; Section III presents techniques used in the selection of stabilizing signals and location of control devices; Section IV briey output feedback control with discusses the mixed regional pole placements in the LMI framework; Section V describes the general procedure of the design of wide-area damping controller; Section VI gives one numerical example and Section VII presents the conclusions. II. WIDE-AREA DAMPING CONTROLLER STRUCTURE The decentralized structure and the centralized structure are the most often used approaches for the design of damping controller. Based on local measurements, the rst approach does not need additional telecommunication equipment. But, decentralized/local control alone may not be enough to meet the damping needs of the future electrical networks, which are highly interconnected and stressed [9]. In contrast, centralized wide-area damping control provides more efcient solutions due to the availability of large amount of system wide dynamic data and better observation of interarea modes. Wide-area controls include any control that requires some communication link to either gather the input or to send out the control signal [14]. It is found that if remote signals are applied to the controller, the system dynamic performance can be enhanced with respect to interarea oscillations [1], [10]. Even though additional telecommunication equipment is needed for the realization of such a

Fig. 1. General structure of wide-area damping control system.

centralized wide-area damping control system, it still turns out to be more cost-effective than installing new control devices. In most power systems, local oscillation modes are often well damped due to the installation of local PSSs, while interarea modes are often lightly damped because the control inputs used by those PSSs are local signals and often lack good observation of some signicant interarea modes. This suggests that a wide-area controller using wide-area measurements as its inputs to create control signals supplement to local PSSs may help to damp interarea oscillations out. A centralized controller structure is thus proposed and shown in Fig. 1. In the proposed wide-area damping control system, selected stabilizing signals are measured by PMUs and sent to the controller through dedicated communication links. The wide-area damping controller calculates modulation signals and sends them to the selected generator exciters. Normally, all the local PSSs are still conventional controllers designed by classical methods. In this design, they are modeled in the open loop state-space representation, on which the design of the WADC is based. The whole damping system includes two levels. The rst level is fully decentralized and consists of conventional PSSs. The second level is centralized and provides supplemental damping actions in addition to the rst level for the lightly damped interarea oscillations. III. SELECTION OF MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL LOCATIONS Wide-area control is desirable for interarea oscillation damping mainly because it provides better observability and controllability and thus better damping effects of those modes. This benet partly comes from the availability of system-wide dynamic information contained in remote stabilizing signals. In the selection of stabilizing signals and control locations, it is desirable to use as few measurements and control devices as possible to achieve satisfactory damping effects. This effort is worthwhile from an economic viewpoint because less measurement and control points mean less cost for communication links and/or controllers. Furthermore, less control loops are involved,

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so that the interaction between loops can be reduced. According to the ndings of this research, only a few measurements and control points are needed to achieve acceptable damping for troublesome interarea modes under the proposed centralized network congurations. The most often used method to select locations and stabilizing signals for PSSs and FACTS devices is controllability/observability analysis [16], [17]. This method is derived from modal control theory of linear time-invariant system and calculates residue-based measures of modal controllability/observability. The limit of residue-based measures is that they are only valid for the signals of the same type. This approach suffers a scaling problem when comparing the strength of signals of a widely differing physical signicance, such as power ow in a tie-line (MW), bus frequency (Hz), shaft speed (rad/s), and angle shift (deg.) [12]. To overcome this shortcoming, the method used in [27], geometric measures of modal controllability/observability, is also used in this research to evaluate the comparative strength of a signal or the performance of a controller with respect to a given mode. After linearization around a given operating condition and elimination of algebraic variables, the state-space model of the studied system can be written as (1) (2) state vector and the measured output where is the input vector whose entries are control vector; is the , and signals sent out by WADC; are state, input and output matrices, respectively. Suppose matrix has distinct eigenvalues and the corresponding matrices of right and left eigenvectors, respectively, and . The geometric measures of and observability associated controllability with the mode are (3) (4) the th column of input matrix (corresponding to with the th row of output matrix (correthe th input) and sponding to the th output). and are the modulus and is the geometrical Euclidean norm of , respectively; angle between the input vector and the th left eigenvector, is the geometrical angle between the output while vector and the th right eigenvector. The joint controllability/observability measure is dened by (5) In the proposed design procedure, only a few measurements with the highest observability of interarea modes are selected as stabilizing signals and only a few generators with the highest controllability of those modes are chosen as control locations.

Fig. 2. Multiobjective damping controller synthesis conguration.

IV. MIXED OUTPUT-FEEDBACK CONTROL WITH REGIONAL POLE PLACEMENTS VIA LMI OPTIMIZATION Robust control techniques were introduced into power system damping controller design in the last decade to handle modeling errors and uncertainties. The most often used approach is the single objective synthesis, in which all control requirements are weighted and formulated in a single objective. It is well known that each robust method is mainly useful to capture control maintains good a set of special specications [20]. robust performance in presence of model uncertainties. But it is mainly concerned with frequency-domain performance and does not guarantee good transient behaviors for the closed-loop control gives more suitable performance on system system. transient behavior and is often applied to meet performance specications and impulsive disturbance rejection while guaranteeing closed-loop stability. In many practical applications, the trade-off between conicting requirements has to be made so that a single norm can represent all design requirements. In this case, minimizing this performance index is not very effective because the resulting controller is often conservative and the achievable closed-loop performance is limited. What is more, the selection of weighting functions to meet the trade-off between conicting requirements is hard and time consuming [25]. To overcome these limitations of a single objective synthesis technique, the multiobjective synthesis technique, which can incorporate various design specications easily, is naturally conoutput-feedsidered. In our design process, the mixed back control with regional pole placement is applied to design a wide-area damping controller. A. Multiobjective Damping Controller Synthesis Formulation The conguration of the multiobjective damping controller is associsynthesis is shown in Fig. 2. The output channel performance and the channel is associated with the ated with performance. is a low-pass lter in the performance channel for output disturbance rejection. is performance a high-pass lter or some small constant in is a channel that is used to reduce the control effort. high-pass lter in the performance channel to ensure robustness against model uncertainties. Good design specications ensure high-performance and easy implementation of designed controllers. In the single objective synthesis approach, the performance is used to evaluate all design specications like disturbance rejection, robustness and control effort. In contrast, in this multiobjective synthesis performance is only used to measure robustapproach, the ness against dynamic uncertainty. The performance is used to

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2)

Fig. 3. LMI region for pole placement.

measure control effort and output disturbance rejection because control gives more suitable performance on system transient behavior and control cost can be more realistically captured by norm [18]. Since our aim is to damp out interarea oscillathe tions, the center-of-inertia (COI) differences between areas are performance. selected as controlled output associated with Pole-placement constraint is added to the multiobjective control problem shown in Fig. 2 to ensure good transient response of the closed-loop system. This problem can be formulated in the LMI framework. B. LMI-Based Mixed Regional Pole Placements Output-Feedback Control With

3)

optimization problem discussed The multiobjective above is solved by LMI techniques. It has been shown in [22] that LMI provides a natural framework to formulate the multiobjective control problems without additional conservatism. LMI offers more exibility for combining several constraints on the closed-loop system or objectives in a numerically tractable manner. The resulting controllers do not in general suffer from the problem of pole-zero cancellation [21]. Reference [20] gives a detailed description of an LMI approach to such a output-feedback control complex problem of mixed with regional pole placement. Good transient response can be achieved by placing all closed-loop poles in a prescribed region in the left half plane. Pole constraints are also useful to avoid fast dynamics and high-frequency gain in the controller, which in turn facilitate its digital implementation. Excessively large controller gains should be avoided because they could lead to controller output saturation and a poor large disturbance response of the system. To avoid large feedback gains, the system poles should not be shifted too far into the left half plane. Restricting the real parts of the closed loop poles to be greater than a suitable negative number inhibits such excessive shifting [23]. One LMI region for all pole placement objectives discussed above is shown in Fig. 3. When the closed-loop poles are in this region, it ensures , minimum rate of decay minimum damping ratio and acceptable controller gains. V. WIDE-AREA DAMPING CONTROLLER DESIGN PROCEDURE In this research, the design of wide-area damping controllers for interarea oscillations includes the following steps: 1) System model and small signal analysis: The full-order nonlinear model of the studied system is calculated using

4)

5)

Matlab [19]. All generators are represented by detailed models, i.e., the two-axis model with exciter, governor and conventional PSS with two lead-lag compensation blocks. The nonlinear model is linearized around a chosen operating point. Then, small signal analysis is conducted with this linear model to get the frequencies, shapes and damping ratios of critical interarea modes. Selection of measurements and control device locations: Measurements that can be easily obtained and synchronized and have the highest observability of critical interarea modes are good candidates for input signals. Geometric measures of modal controllability/observability introduced in Section III are used to evaluate the comparative strength of candidate signals and the performance of controllers at different locations with respect to a given interarea mode. The most often used input signals are voltage magnitudes, voltage phase angle, line power or current, frequency and generator rotor speeds. Linear model reduction: The controller obtained by the LMI approach is of full order, that is, the same size as the design model including weighting functions. A middle size system usually has several hundreds of states. To design a controller with such a high order model is neither practical nor necessary. Therefore, model reduction is often applied to obtain a lower order model for controller design. The reduced order model should be assured to have the same global characteristics as the original system [24]. In this research, the balanced model reduction via the Schur method provided by the robust control toolbox in Matlab [19] is used for the model reduction task. Controller synthesis: An LMI approach to the mixed output-feedback control with regional pole placement is applied to design a wide-area damping controller for interarea oscillations. The designed controller should meet the requirements of robust stability, robust performance and acceptable transient response. Sometimes the order of the obtained controller still needs to be reduced for easy implementation. In this case, the balanced model reduction is applied again. Closed-loop verication and nonlinear time domain simulation: The performance of the controller is evaluated in the closed-loop system with the full-order linear model by using Matlab. The controller is then tuned and its performance in the actual nonlinear power system is evaluated by time domain simulation using TSAT. The robustness of the designed controller is veried for different operating conditions and fault scenarios. VI. RESULTS OF CASE STUDIES

A wide-area damping controller is designed for the New England 39-bus ten-machine system, which is shown in Fig. 4. Detailed model descriptions and all parameters including network data and dynamic data for the generators, excitation systems, PSSs can be found in [28]. Some modications have been made to create a simple system modal structure so that the controller design procedure can be illustrated more clearly. The system is stressed by increasing the load and generation level. In this design, the conventional PSSs are tuned for local modes rst

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TABLE II MAXIMUM CONTROLLABILITY AND OBSERVABILITY MEASURE FOR 39-BUS TEN-MACHINE SYSTEM

Fig. 4. The 39-bus ten-machine test system.

TABLE I CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTROMECHANICAL OSCILLATION MODES

by the method used in [1]. The wide-area controller is then designed for the interarea modes. Full-order model and small signal analysis: All generators are represented by the detailed model except generator 1, which is an equivalent unit. The model is linearized around a nominal operating point. Small signal analysis shows that this system has several local and interarea modes with damping ratios less than 10%. The classication of these lightly damped modes is shown in Table I. Modes 4 to 8 are local ones. Even though their damping ratios are low, they will not last beyond 10 s because of their relatively large frequencies. It is not necessary to provide supplemental damping to these modes. Selection of measurements and control device locations: The system has three coherent generator groups except the equivalent generator G1. (G2, G3), (G8, G9, G10) and (G4, G5, G6, G7) are nuclei of these groups correspondingly. Several kinds of input signals, such as line active

powers and currents, generator rotor speeds and voltage phase angle difference, are compared. Table II shows the control locations with maximum controllability and signals with maximum observability with respect to different interis the current magnitude of the area modes. in Table II, is the active power of the line connecting bus and ; is the voltage angle difline connecting bus and ; ference between bus and . Reference [29] shows that for high stress conditions, current magnitude is a better input signal for the modulation of the parallel Pacic HVDC Intertie to damp Pacic AC Intertie oscillations. It is found in this research that the active power and current of the same line have nearly the same observability with respect to a specic interarea mode. Line active power is selected as the input signal of the designed controller in this research. According to Table II, G3, G7 and G8 are selected as control locations. The selection of input signals is not very obvious. A large number of measurements is undesirable because this will increase possible interaction between control loops and the cost for communication links. is selected as an input signal for the damping of mode 2. has good observability for both mode 1 and Since mode 3, it is also selected as an input signal. As shown in simulations, these two signals are enough. Each tie-line power contains information of all interarea modes in difitself contains enough inforferent levels. In fact, mation for all three interarea modes and could be the only input signal for the controller at the cost of a higher gain and a little bit worse but still acceptable damping effects. Model reduction: The original linear model order is 88. It is reduced to a 12th-order model by the method of balanced model reduction. Controller synthesis: The hinfmix function available in the LMI Control Toolbox of Matlab [19] was used to perform the necessary computations. Two controllers are designed. The rst controller C1 has two input signals, and . The second controller C2 has only . Both controllers provide control signals one input to generator G3, G7 and G8, as shown in Fig. 4. The orders of two resulting controllers are reduced to 10. The frequency response of controller C1 is shown in Fig. 5. In each subplot, the upper curves show the amplitude change and the lower curves show the phase shift, both as functions of frequency. Weighting functions are given by

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Fig. 6. Rotor speed response of generator 5 to impulse disturbance.

Fig. 7. Performance improvement of controller C1 after tuning. Fig. 5. Frequency response of controller C1. (a) Frequency response of control loops from inputs to generator G3. (b) Frequency response of control loops from inputs to generator G7. (c) Frequency response of control loops from inputs to generator G8. TABLE IV DAMPING RATIOS AND FREQUENCIES OF INTERAREA MODES FOR DIFFERENT LINE OUTAGES

TABLE III IMPROVED DAMPING OF INTERAREA MODES

Closed-loop verication and nonlinear time domain simulation: The resulting reduced-order controllers are rst veried by small signal analysis. Table III shows the improved damping of interarea modes with wide-area damping controllers. Fig. 6 shows the impulse response of the rotor speed deviation of generator 5 without and with the controllers. The impulse signal is added to the input mechanical torque of generator 5. When implemented in the actual nonlinear system, the controller designed with linear techniques may not have as good performance and robustness as in linear simulation because of the loss of some system properties in model linearization and model reduction. It is necessary to tune the controller parameters and verify its effectiveness with

nonlinear simulations. In our design process, controller parameters like gains, zeros and poles are manually modied (tuned) from observation of the controller performance in nonlinear simulations. Fig. 7 shows the performance improvement of the controller C1 after such tuning. The fault is a three-phase fault on bus 27 for four cycles and the curves are the transient response of active power in line 1718. The eigen-analysis of the system was carried out for different operating points to verify the robustness of the designed controller. Table IV displays the robustness of the controller C1 in case of the outage of different heavily loaded lines. Table V shows the performance of the controller C1 for different tie-line ows between the area containing generator G4, G5, G6, G7 and the rest of the system. The same analysis conducted for the system with controller C2 showed that controller C2 also improved the damping of the interarea modes satisfactorily but not as well as C1.

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TABLE V DAMPING RATIOS AND FREQUENCIES OF INTERAREA MODES FOR DIFFERENT POWER FLOWS

Fig. 9. Active power of line 1516 response to a three-phase fault on line 1624.

Fig. 8. Active power of line 1617 response to a three-phase fault on bus 16.

To evaluate the performance and robustness of the designed controllers in different fault scenarios, nonlinear time domain simulations are conducted using TSAT. Controller output limits are 10% of the synchronous machine terminal voltage. Two types of faults are simulated. The rst type is a threephase short circuit fault applied to buses for four cycles. Several critical buses connected with heavily loaded transmission lines were tested. The second type is a three-phase short circuit fault applied to transmission lines for four cycles. The fault was cleared by taking out the faulted line. Several critical heavily loaded transmission lines were tested. The two controllers achieved satisfactory damping effects for all of these scenarios. Fig. 8 shows the transient response of the active power in line 1617 to a three-phase fault applied to bus 16. Fig. 9 shows the transient response of the active power in line 1516 to a three-phase fault applied to line 1624. It can be seen that the damping effect of controller C1 is a little better than controller C2. This shows the benet brought by using more measurements, which provide more system dynamic information. VII. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, a systematic design procedure for wide-area damping control systems is described. A centralized structure is proposed for such systems. The comparative strength of candidate input signals and the performance of output control signals at different locations with respect to interarea modes are evaluated by geometric measures of controllability/observability. The synthesis of the robust MIMO controller is dened as a problem output-feedback control with regional pole of mixed

placement and is resolved by the LMI approach. The nal step of the design method is the tuning and testing of this linearly synthesized controller on full nonlinear simulations to obtain the desired robustness and control performance. This design method was tested on the 39-bus New England system. From the simulation results, the following conclusions can be drawn: Geometric measures of controllability/observability are effective in evaluating the comparative strength of candidate stabilizing signals of widely differing types. Active powers and current magnitudes on tie-lines are good choices for stabilizing signals with respect to critical interarea oscillation modes. For the small size system considered, one stabilizing signal is enough for the input of a WADC. Multiple inputs improve the control performance only slightly for such small systems but are expected to be necessary for acceptable control performance in large systems. output-feedback control with regional Mixed pole placement can be applied to the wide-area damping controller synthesis with good results which cannot be obtained by using only one of them. For a controller designed with linear techniques, a tuning process is necessary to ensure its performance in the actual nonlinear systems. Nonlinear simulation using a typical transient stability program like TSAT is required to show that such a design of a wide-area damping controller is effective in a practical implementation. The above results are promising but the results also show that the use of linear, continuous methods to design a controller, although very powerful, requires considerable tuning, testing and further development in the nonlinear, discontinuous real world. As shown in this paper, the testing by nonlinear simulation using a production grade transient stability program can establish the robustness of the controller design, i.e., the effectiveness of the controller over a range of operating conditions. As wide-area controllers have to be discontinuous by necessity, the digital sampling rate and possible communication latency are variables that affect performance. Both the design process and the testing should take these into account. Research is still needed to do so as the present day production grade simulations like TSAT are not capable of representing such communication variables. In

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our future work we intend to do such development of the design capabilities as well as move the testing to a simulation of larger systems such as the WECC system. These types of design and testing tools need to be developed before such controllers become robust enough for implementation in real systems. REFERENCES [1] Aboul-Ela, A. Sallam, J. McCalley, and A. Fouad, Damping controller design for power system oscillations using global signals, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 767773, May 1996. [2] R. A. Ramos, L. F. C. Alberto, and N. G. Bretas, A new methodology for the coordinated design of robust decentralized power system damping controllers, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 444454, Feb. 2004. [3] Z. Chuanjiang, M. Khammash, V. Vittal, and Q. Wenzheng, Robust loop shaping approach, power system stabilizer design using IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 810818, May 2003. [4] G. E. Boukarim, S. Wang, J. H. Chow, G. N. Taranto, and N. Martins, A comparison of classical, robust, and decentralized control designs for multiple power system stabilizers, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 12871292, Nov. 2000. [5] W. A. Mittelstadt et al., The DOE wide area measurement system (WAMS) projectDemonstration of dynamic information technology for future power system, in Proc. Fault and Disturbance Analysis & Precise Measurements in Power Systems, Arlington, VA, Nov. 1995. [6] A. G. Phadke, Synchronized phasor measurementsA historical overview, in Proc. IEEE/Power Eng. Soc. Transmission and Distribution Conf. Exhib., 2002, pp. 416479. [7] J. Quintero and V. Venkatasubramanian, A real-time wide-area control framework for mitigating small-signal instability in large electric power systems, in Proc. 38th Annu. Hawaii Int. Conf. System Sciences, Jan. 36, 2005. [8] I. Kamwa, J. Bland, G. Trudel, R. Grondin, C. Lafond, and D. McNabb, Wide-area monitoring and control at Hydro-Qubec: Past, present and future, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Summer Meeting, Jun. 1822, 2006, pp. 112. [9] I. Kamwa, A. Heniche, G. Trudel, M. Dobrescu, R. Grondin, and D. Lefebvre, Assessing the technical value of FACTS-based wide-area damping control loops, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, Jun. 1216, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 17341743. [10] A. F. Snyder et al., Delay-input wide-area stability control with synchronized phasor measurements, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Summer Meeting, Jul. 1620, 2000, vol. 2, pp. 10091014. [11] H. Ni, G. T. Heydt, and L. Mili, Power system stability agents using robust wide area control, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 11231131, Nov. 2002. [12] I. Kamwa, R. Grondin, and Y. Hebert, Wide-area measurement based stabilizing control of large power systemsA decentralized/hierarchical approach, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 136153, Feb. 2001. [13] A. M. A. Hamdan and A. M. Elabdalla, Geometric measures of modal controllability and observability of power systems models, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 15, pp. 147155, 1988. [14] K. Tomsovic, D. E. Bakken, V. Venkatasubramanian, and A. Bose, Designing the next generation of real-time control, communication, and computations for large power systems, Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 965979, May 2005. [15] B. Chaudhuri and B. C. Pal, Robust damping of inter-area oscillations through controllable phase shifters using global signals, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, Jul. 1317, 2003, vol. 3, pp. 16731679.

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Yang Zhang (S05) received the B.Eng. degree from North China Electric Power University, Baoging, China, in 1997 and the M.Eng. degree from China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI), Beijing, China, in 2001. He is now pursuing the Ph.D. degree at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. He worked for CEPRI from 2001 to 2004. His special elds of interest included power system stability and real time control.

Anjan Bose (F89) received the B.Tech. (Honors) degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, the M.S. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and the Ph.D. from Iowa State University, Ames. He has worked for industry, academe, and government for 40 years in power system planning, operation, and control. He is currently Regents Professor and holds the endowed Distinguished Professor in Power Engineering at Washington State University, Pullman, WA. Dr. Bose is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the recipient of the Herman Halperin Award and the Millenium Medal from the IEEE.