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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background Education is a human conscious attempt to humanize people towards better living standards in order to develop into a better rate/feasible. for educational purposes can be achieved and the maximum course teachers as educators are continuously in demand to always develop the learning method to all the difficulties in learning can be solved with a fixed reference to the original goal of improving student achievement. Student achievement is influenced by various factors, both factors of the (internal) and external factors (external). According Ryan and Deci (2004: 27) which includes internal factors are physiological and psychological factors (eg, achievement motivation, intelligence and cognitive ability), while including external factors are environmental and instrumental factors (such as teachers, curriculum and learning model). Improve student achievement educators many obstacles. one of the many problems faced in education in line with the modern education system and the demands of a growing, which is not rare schools that still use conventional learning strategies quite far behind in implementing the learning process. in the process of learning with these conventional strategies, the learning process conducted in solitary, which means that the learning process that starts from the planning, implementation, to the evaluation of student

learning conducted by one teacher. Picture like this can be analogous to learning like a satay seller, in which all the affairs of a job from start to finish was done by only one person. When in fact, the present curriculum in Indonesia is growing. for too many demands of society are addressed to teachers and education providers. Currently, teachers are required to be more innovative and creative in determining / selecting learning methods are used, which must be adapted to the subject matter that will be delivered to students. Teachers in the present era are also required to get to know each individual of the student. And see the ratio between the number of teachers and students are out of balance, of a teacher cannot possibly handle the number of students that a lot of it. One thing that is also important, that the teacher whose name does not mean someone who knows all things. in this case, every human being must have some advantages and disadvantages of knowledge, because science is relative to which every person. this suggests that teachers also need another figure with whom to work together in the face of all difficulties that existed at the time of executing the learning process both in the classroom or in the open (outside class). if you see some of the problems that occur in education, then in this case the school and teachers are required creativity in choosing the right strategy so that all claims are directed toward teachers in particular can be met optimally. tutor and peer learning strategy seems an appropriate way to facilitate the awakening of

creativity and innovative teachers and students in the successful execution of learning activities. Learning strategies peer teaching has been conducted and succeeded in improving student achievement in school up exactly on the first level class in the field of study of mathematics at SMP Palu district. Based on the consideration of these researchers are interested to do so in the field of English language studies on reading material. How students improve speaking skills through peer teaching learning strategies. Why peer teaching to be a great choice in addressing the problems of low student achievement, because peer tutoring is a learning activity in the classroom is a process of mentoring to the students or learners by taking into account the level of child development, given the speed of their development are very heterogeneous (not all the same). The learning process should place students as subjects have the potential to develop an individual basis rather than as an object that can only be formed arbitrarily educators. They need encouragement to develop the potential of internal externals students. Each educator must have an understanding that all students have varying strengths or potential to succeed. So success is a jewel that can be owned by everyone. diversity potential or capabilities of the students in understanding a concept often cause problems, among others, sometimes there are students who are very quick to understand and there are feeling the pinch but the recording event reluctant afraid to ask the teacher, what more if the teacher is

less fun. Difficulties experienced by a group of students can be overcome by involving their peers or teachers in learning to apply the learning with peer tutoring methods. The definition of a peer tutor is a person or persons designated and assigned students to help certain who students have difficulty understanding the material in the study. Assistance provided by peers in general can give better results. This occurs, because the relationship the between students feels much closer than the relationship the between students and teachers (Khadijah, 2009: 23). Based on the experience of researchers at SMP 1 Sungguminasa when conducting PPL ago, researchers discovered several facts: (1) most students are not interested to learn English especially in speaking of matter, (2) when asked to answer or ask the students the most evasive with reason does not know, (3) some children are already bored with the lessons classes speaking chose not to follow the lessons, and (4) there are sleepy and do play in the classroom. Attract the attention of students is certainly not an easy thing to do. Requires a process and creativity of teachers to cope with such conditions. With a condition like this will certainly affect student achievement in the field of English studies. to overcome such researchers are interested in trying to conduct research using peer teaching method in speaking of matter in order to improve student achievement, through increasing the ability to speak English.

Research to be done is improve the students' speaking ability through peer teaching method in SMP Negeri 1 Sungguminasa, hoping to make English language learning activities using peer teaching methods will improve student achievement by increasing students' speaking ability and

understanding of students' speaking on the matter in appeal before.

B. Problem statement Based on the previous description, the researcher formulated a research is is peer teaching methods can improve student achievement in the field of English language studies?.

C. Objective of the study In accordance with research question, the purpose of this study was to measure students' level of understanding and ability in doing after learning using peer teaching methods.

D. Significance of the study Significance of the study are as follows: 1. For educationists, the result of this research expected to give contribution theoretically and practically in the development in English teaching.

2. For the teacher, this research expected to add information of teaching approach in the class and to encourage their teaching, especially for teaching speaking. 3. For the students, this research is expected to increase the students achievement in learning English and make them interest to speak English. 4. For the researcher, this research is expected information or contribution to other researcher who want to conduct more complex research especially in classroom action research. E. Scope of the study This study will be restricted only to find increased activity of the students speak (they speak very good use of grammar, limited vocabulary and sentences more) using the method of peer teaching on student SMP Negeri 1 Sungguminasa.


A. The Concept of peer teaching Peer Teaching or in the Indonesian language, better known as peer tutors, there are some experts there is a review of this issue among others, are Edward L. Dejnozken and David E. Coupling in the American Education Encyclopedia mentions understanding peer tutors are as follows: Peer Tutor is a procedure to teach students to other students. The first type is the teachers and learners of the same age. The second type is teaching the older age of the learner. The other type of exchange is sometimes raised the age of teachers. Muntasir (2001: 18) in his book suggests that programmed instruction tutor serves as a handyman or executor of teaching, way of teaching has been prepared specifically and detailed. Tutorial program is basically the same as the guidance program, which aims to provide assistance to students or learners in order to achieve optimum learning outcomes. Hamalik in Aridah (2011:73) stated that the tutorial is a learning guidance in the form of guidance, assistance, guidance, direction, and motivation that the students learn efficiently and effectively. Subject or personnel that provide guidance in tutorial activities are known as tutors. Tutors can be derived from the teacher or teachers, coaches, officials structural or even students who are selected and assigned a teacher to help his friends in the classroom. The selected students were

classmates and teachers have the ability to more quickly understand the material being taught, but it has the ability to explain again what is taught at his friends. Because students are selected to be a tutor for the rest of (peer) with his friends who will be given assistance, then the tutor is often known as peer tutors. Understanding in line with that put forward by Arikunto (2003: 77) that the peer tutor is a person or persons designated by the student teacher as a teacher aide in the guidance of fellow classmates. To determine a tutor there are several criteria that must be owned by a student that is selected student learn math achievement scores greater than or equal began eight, can provide guidance and explanations to students who have difficulty in learning and have the patience and the ability to motivate students in learning. In line with the above description, Arikunto (2003:62) argues that in choosing a tutor to note the following: 1. Tutors can be accepted (approved) by the students who received repair program so that students do not have a fear or reluctance to ask him. 2. Tutors can explain the improvement of materials needed by students who received remedial courses. 3. Tutors are not haughty, cruel or hard-hearted towards fellow comrades. 4. Tutors have enough creativity to give guidance, which may explain the lesson to his friend.

Students Who Are designated as the tutor will be assigned to help students receive Who Will repair program, so That each tutor must be given very clear instructions about what to do. These instructions are absolutely Necessary because for every tutor was the only teacher who knows Weaknesses of students, while tutors only help implement improvements, not diagnosis. The tutors are trained to teach according to syllabus that has been determined. The relationship between the tutors with students is the relationship between brother and sister or between friends, stiffness that existed at the teacher to be eliminated. In this activity the tutor and the teacher becomes a kind of expert staff that is able to overcome the difficulties faced by students, either by way of one-on-one or small group (Muntansir, 2001: 58). From other angles can be presented that the effectiveness of the tutors that can fairly be expected. About the tutor's effectiveness, Good in Muntasir (2001:78) explains that the tutor elementary school just as effective as tutor of the college. On another occasion Good also stated that the tutor can also be a tool to create quality learning motivation. Tutors also have the advantage of the improved value of lessons, the same as those in teaching, especially if the focus on cognitive abilities. Another function is the presence of peer tutors students who are less active as Active as no longer embarrassed to ask questions and issue


opinions freely, as disclosed by Muntasir (2001: 67) that the association between the tutors with their students can realize what is buried deep in his heart, and imagination. Peer tutor method is a method of learning where the learning activities are the students themselves. Students who have more ability to quickly absorb the course material will help students who are less quick to absorb the subject matter. Because it has almost the same age, there are times when a student is more receptive to information given by another friend in the absence of a sense of reluctant or embarrassed to ask. Thus, the system of teaching by peer tutors will help students who are less able or less quick to accept the lesson from his teacher. Peer tutor activities for students are an activity that is rich in experience which is actually a need for students themselves. Tutor as well as those in the teaching equally benefited, for the tutors will have the experience, is that the teaching will be more creative in their lessons. Some opinions on the above, and the author's experience in the field, convinced me to apply the peer tutors in learning English. It seems easier for students to issue opinions or thoughts and to his owns difficulties rather than to teachers, students are more shy and embarrassed. This is possible because some students have formed their own language, behavior, feelings, and also questions that can be accepted by all students.


B. METHOD PEER TEACHING In learning English actually has a lot of efforts made by classroom teachers to improve student achievement. But the effort has not showed optimal results. Value range of students who are good with students who are less intelligent too flashy. For that we need also to be pursued a range of values between the student is not too far of a brilliant student to take advantage of its ability to infect other students whose ability is lower. Of course teachers to design learning model must change to another form of learning. Learning is a peer tutor learning. Kuswaya Wihardit in Aria Djalil (2001: 38) writes that "understanding peer tutor is a good student who helped other students learns in the same grade level" The other side that makes English the student is considered a difficult subject is the language used by teachers. In certain cases, students are more familiar with the language of their peers rather than language teachers. That's why peer tutors learning is applied in the process of learning English Zaini in Samsmedi (2006:24) states that "the best learning method is to teach it to others. Therefore, the selection of peer tutoring as a learning model of learning strategies will greatly assist students in the teaching material to his friends. " According to Miller (1989) in Aria Djalil (2001:34) argues that "Every time the students need help from other students, and students can learn from


other students." Jan Collingwood (1991:19) in Aria Djalil (2001:34) also argues that "the Son of acquiring knowledge and skills because he's hanging out with other friends." in speaking of learning e.g. VII grade students will be taken on the model of peer learning tutors in study groups. Learning to use peer tutoring method comprises four stages include: (1) apply some rules of the game complete with the consequences. These rules I adjust with the class at the time, give an explanation to ach a student that they will learn together and will be given the exam. (2) Gives a tutorial at the head of the group about the matter "If-clause". Of course with teaching and learning conditions in Indonesia are super tight and super dense I had to find extra time for it. At the time I use the time when their friends have to take the test remediation. Because the group is a group that quickly mastered English is not too difficult to make them understand the material. What I emphasize is that they must make their friends are able to understand the basic material of the Ifclause. Convey the understanding that his friends that they will be assessed. (3) The chairman of the group's entry into the group and started to become a teacher for team friends (so called peer-teaching). Researchers around to watch (while documenting student activities), and (4) conduct the evaluation. Evaluation rather than a written test, but the form of inter-groups Quiz. Makers about is me. Problem I adjust the basic material that I set at the head of the group to teach it to his friends. The chairman of the group must now get


out of the group. They become judge and determine value. Mean while, his friends in groups one to answer. From the description that has been learned can be further developed in the form of another question to be used as learning material in small groups. Thus by this learning model will be embedded in students the habit of mutual help among peers. This method is suitable for classes that have students in large quantities. This activity provides a simulation on each group to train each sub-section is better. Activities that will be described here is a 'cooperative learning activity' which is a strategy in which students work in small groups with the aim to maximize the learning of group members in it (Cooper, KcKinney and Robinson 1991). The method is intended to enhance the learning process. Learning model of peer tutors in order to achieve the expected level of success, Miller (in Aria Djalil 2001:48) write down suggestions the use of peer tutors as follows. 1. Start with clear objectives and within easy reach. 2. Explain the purpose was to all students (class). For example: so that lessons can be easily understood English. 3. Prepare materials and adequate learning resources. 4. Use a practical way. 5. Avoid repetition of activities that have been carried out teachers. 6. Focus on skills tutorial activities to be conducted tutor.


7. Give a brief exercise to be conducted tutor. 8. Do the monitoring of learning processes that occur through peer tutors. 9. Keep your tutor students who are not arrogant. This approach is suitable peer tutors to teach English, especially in speaking of matter. If this method is used by teachers well in advance by providing guidance to students who will be a tutor, then the approach of this peer tutors can assist students in improving students 'abilities and understanding, so that the students' ability can be improved.

C. The concept of Speaking skill 1. What is speaking? Speaking means the ability to express our idea, opinion and communication about ourselves, interesting, world and all thing around us through our sound system fluently with good pronunciations, grammar, suitable of vocabularies and good understanding of the speaker and the listener. Hadijah (2006) declares that speaking is it speech organ to communication ideas that are compared and developed with listener requirement. Speaking skill is sharing information on by giving ideas, asking question, and giving response. It has correlation with opinion or argument that can stimulate student to support their opinion (Roach in Nishrinah, 2004:7). According to Brown in Malayanti (2004:13), Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves


producing and receiving and processing information. Speaking requires that speaker not only know how to produce specific point of language such as grammar, pronunciation, but also that they understand when, why, and what ways to produce language. English speaking attend to three things namely pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar (Malayanti, 2004: 14). 2. Some Difficulties in Speaking English John and John in Jamil (2006:11) revealed the following difficulties (as reported by students) in speaking English: a. Comprehension of spoken English (they speak too fast; they mumble: vocabulary is idiomatic). b. The pressing need to formulate a contribution quickly (I cannot think what to say). c. Shyness about the value of a contribution (I might say something wrong). d. Inability to formulate an idea in English (I do not know how to say it in English). e. Awareness that a given function may be realized in various ways (I do not know the best way to say it). f. Frustration being unable to enter the discussion (some students speak a lot).


3. Factors Influencing Students Achievement in Speaking English Samad (1989:36) states that most of students assume the factors influence the achievement of speaking in English as follows: a. Vocabulary Vocabulary is the most important thing to master for those who want to be skilful in speaking English. In this case, most Indonesian students have problem in sound system of English. Some elements and patterns will have function well and do not have to be taught but many others pronunciations are difficult. The main cause of the problem is that English spelling and sound system. In connection to the problem above, students always lose their interest and motivation to speak English because of the poor mastery in vocabulary, they really want to speak much, however they cannot develop their ideas. b. Frequency of Ideas Language is a habits, it means that all language need exercise or practice. The difficulty is that students do not know how to express their idea in English. They prefer to speak English when attending the English classes, or they have speaking examination. These indicate that students are lack of practicing because they only speak English in limited occasion.


c. Function of Grammar One factor influencing students English speaking achievement is the function of grammar. The frequency of students activity in reading function of grammar book should add in order to get a lot of information. Because it is not possible, that they want to speak with other but they are lack of information. d. Appropriate topics In learning and teaching process, teacher should give students same opportunity to speak in front of the class or there should be interesting aid that could invite students interest to speak enthusiastically, but the main factor influencing the students English speaking

achievement is appropriate topics, which are suitable with students level. e. Motivation Not all activities in the world need motivation like studying English, but sometimes students are motivated to speak. When teacher make efforts in motivating them to practice their English speaking skill, they just take it easily (they just do what they want to do), It means, teacher should pay special attention much to the improvement of their English speaking skill.


f. Self-Confidence Speaking an oral communication, in our speaking with other people, self confide is need. Many students have no confidence so they cannot communicate to others. The effect of this may cause the speaker to feel shy to speak English. It may caused by physiological aspect. g. Atmosphere In informal atmosphere, students can speak freely but in formal atmosphere such as meeting, group discussion, seminar and symposium is difficult to express ideas, this is one factor influencing students English speaking achievements. h. Pronunciation what is what is a pronunciation is Actions speak with articulation, the act of giving proper voice and accent, speech, such as syllable pronunciation of words; different pronunciation or unclear. English is full of words that are difficult to learn, difficult to remember and hard to pronounce. Saying different things to give a different meaning is difficult to master the skill. We suppose people from foreign countries who are not familiar with many ways to convey the meaning in English can be easily confused. However, even people who were born and raised here can have trouble sorting out. It is important to learn to describe the true meaning behind your words using the


correct pronunciation. The next how to Improve pronunciation and speak better using pronunciation. Here are some explanations: a) Implied meaning behind pronunciation. For example, the sentence "Nobody went there with her." Now, look at the different ways to say it: "NOBODY went there with her"; "Nobody went THERE with her"; "Nobody went there with HER." See are different. In the first, it implies that she went alone. In the second, it implies that she and who ever with her went to that destination. In the third, they may have gone there, but not with her. There is a huge difference in each sentence and meaning. In writing, it is equally important to learn to stress the right word without using all capital letters constantly. b) In addition to sentence pronunciation, simple word pronunciation can make a big difference. For example, Milan, Italy as opposed to Milan, Michigan. The first is pronoun me-LAHN. The second is pronoun MEYE- lan. For the word "preferable", many people say "Preferable" while others say "preferable". The actual, correct way is the former. c) Other circumstances include Heteronyms or a word that is spelling the same but have different meanings. For example, "produce." "Produce" refers to grocery items, while "produce" means to make or be in charge of something. Learning and using proper










communication skills.

D. Conceptual framework Speaking materials is very difficult for the most Indonesian students, it cannot be denied. Therefore the teacher should be used teaching techniques that can make the students motivated and interested in comprehend a reading text. The writer believes that when the students can comprehend the reading text by using peer teaching method, it will influence their ability in speaking ability. At this point, the research drew the theoretical framework as follows:

Learning With Peer Teaching Method

A Classroom Action Research

Student the ability speaking

Ability Speaking



E. Hypothesis Null Hypothesis (H0); there is no significant difference of the students speaking ability and speaking comprehension before and after learning speaking through the use of peer teaching method. Alternative Hypothesis (H1); there is a significant difference of the students speaking ability and speaking comprehension before and after learning speaking through the use of peer teaching method.



This chapter described about research design, research variables, population and sample, research instrument data collection and technique of data analysis.

A. Research Design This study will use a classroom action research. It aims to investigate the students' achievement in SMP Negeri 1 Sungguminasa. It means that when doing the research. It will focus on a particular classroom or group of students. In other words, this classroom action research, the researcher will act as teacher. Conducting the study, researcher will do the action in the form of cycle that consists of four steps: they are planning, implementation of the action, observation and reflection. It means that if the first cycle fails, the design should continue to the next cycle. The following research design is as follows:





Observe and assess


Action n


Observe and assess



B. Research variable There were two variables in this study namely dependent variable and independent variable. Improvement of speaking ability was dependent variable and the application of peer teaching method was independent variable.

C. Population and sample a. Population The population of the study was the second students of class SMP 1 Negeri Sungguminasa in 2010/2011 academic years, which consist of 35 students from five class.


b. Sample The authors use a purposive sampling technique, the sample is determined based on the class of second grade. This means that the sample size is 35 students. The main reason for choosing them as the object of the experiment is the average value of lower grade than the other classes, so using a peer teaching method will be very helpful for them in improving speaking ability.

D. Research instrument The author gives reading tests for students. The test gives students within two times, the test consisted of twenty questions, ten questions refer to a vocabulary and 10 questions refer to the application of peer teaching method was carried out in 30 minutes, namely:

Cycle I Cycle I consist of planning, action, observation and reflection that conduct four times meeting, as follows: a. Planning - After obtaining student data from previous field observation results, the researchers plan consistent with problems found in field. - The next researcher to make a pre test in accordance with students' skill levels as the initial value of learning achievement.


- The next researcher to make a post test after being given treatment. This test post of course is adjusted return on student ability.

b. Action At this stage of the learning process or the provision of treatment carried out as follows: - Determine the instructional goals - Analyze the existing classroom environment learning will begin. - Determine the subject matter (subject, topic and so on), Break subject matter into parts of small (sub-subject, sub-topics, etc.) Present the subject matter, which in the presentation students were give information and allow time for students to identify it. - Provide a stimulus that may be questions (oral or written), tests, exercises, tasks, and give prizes to students who are able to respond or answer the questions correctly and quickly. - Then observe and assess the responses. Giving back the opportunity for students to identify the response is, what they can find. - Provide reinforcement / reinforcement (maybe positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement). - Provide a new stimulus, in the form of the questions that have been taught to raise their motivation.


- Observe and review the responses given (to evaluate learning outcomes). - Provide opportunities for students to interact or talk to his friend, then asks the students to identify back what they have discussed. - Provide reinforcement with quiz or games, for a learning atmosphere in classroom seem not tense. c. Observation Data obtained from the cycle I analyzed and reviewed if there are many errors and shortcomings in the first cycle subsequent repairs were held on the second cycle and give treatment peer teaching method. Things that are considering less than the maximum or not according to revised.

d. Reflection The result of data that have been done it will be continue in the analysis until can be reflection after action research. The reflection it will be discuss as well as a guidance lecturer while teacher and should make research planning for the next cycle. The research plan is the plan for the next cycle which repair from I cycle.

Cycle II In cycle II is the same with cycle I that conduct four times meeting include once time for test in cycle II. The main activities are:


1. Planning - Continue the activities that have been done in first cycle. - Repair the weakness in the first cycle. - Make planning again in the scenario learning process from the result of cycle I reflection. - Action research repair 2. Action In cycle II will be the application of peer teaching method learning model that the steps consist of four phases as follows: - Introduction We are going to the flow of the peer teaching method that we have made for the material development in this class; we are going to introduce a speaking material as starting point. - Deliver the objectives The students are expected to be able to: Identify the words and phrases Identify the main topic of study Understand the teacher's explanations - carry out the stages of learning by using peer teaching method as follows:


Stage I - Form a small group of 4 to 5 people - Choose students who have more ability as chairman of the group - Provide guidance to the chairman of the group that later would become a tutor for friends Stages II Apply some rules of the game complete with the consequences. These rules I adjust with the class at the time, give an explanation to each a student that they will learn together and will be given the exam Stages III Gives a tutorial at the head of the group about the matter speaking materials

Chairman of the group of students choosing each

Students follow the rules that have been set by the teacher based on mutual agreement.

Students listen and pay attention to teachers' explanations of what will be taught to the next group of friends complement the dialogue, understand the contents of the dialogue, and create a dialogue with a different theme each group

Stages IV The chairman of the group's entry into the group and started to become a teacher for team friends (so called peer-teaching). Researchers around to watch (while documenting student activities) Stages V Conduct the evaluation. Evaluation rather than a written test, but the form of inter-groups Quiz.

Chairman of the group then began to explain to members of the group about the material that has been taught by teachers

Chairman of the group split from the group when the evaluation is done


3. Observation The observations made on the second cycle are similar to those observed in cycle II. 4. Reflection According to the achieved result of the observation is collected and analyzed. From the result of the researcher, the researcher can draw conclusion that reciprocal teaching can improving speaking ability the students.

E. Procedure of Data Collection The procedure of collecting data was done as follows as: 1. The students gave reading text to know their reading comprehension achievement before learning process. 2. During the treatment the students commanded to stop reading and the writer asked some questions that have relation with the text. Afterwards the writer ordered to finish reading the text to find out the answer that they had been answered before.

F. Technique of Data Analysis The writer used data analysis through the following procedures: 1. Scoring the students answer of test cycle I and test cycle II using formula:


Students' correct answer Score = -----------------------------x x10 The total number of score (Depdikbud, 1985: 5) 2. Calculating the mean score of each group using formula:

Where: N

: Mean Score : The Total Raw Student : Number of sample (Gay, 1981: 298)

3. Measuring the significant different between pre-test and post-test value both in literal reading and critical reading. They significant or not significant, the writer applied formula as follows:

Where: t

: Test of significance : The Mean of Difference Score : The square of the sum of total score of difference : The sum of total score difference : The number of subject (Gay, 1981: 331)

4. Calculating the percentage of the students English improvement in reading comprehension identified by using the formula as follows:
% X 2 X1 x100 Xi



% X1 X2

: The percentage of the students improvement : The mean score of test cycle I : The mean score of test cycle II


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