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Change implementation models (Name of student) (Name of institution)

CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION MODELS Prosci ADKAR model This is a goal-oriented model which provides guidelines to the management to embrace change where management teams focus is directed towards activities on specific results of the

business. It advocates for identification of goals before setting out to achieve them (Hiatt, 2006). Purpose Its purpose is to develop a sequence with which an individual will follow in order for implementing a change in the organization. The model indicates that it is not the organization that requires change but individuals in the organization. Approach used Its approach considers that an organization requires identifying the opportunity or need for change before the project is defined in terms of its objectives and scope. The organization then designs business solutions including new processes, organization structure and systems. The new systems, structures and processes are developed before the solution is implemented into the organization (Hiatt, 2006). The approach considers that for change to be successful, individuals should have the desire to change, knowledge about what requires to be changed, ability to drive the change including skills and behaviors, and capacity to reinforce the change once it has been made. Hypothesis Prosci ADKAR model provides a clear guideline which ensures that management evaluates success at every step as per the goals that have been set. Strengths and limitations

CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION MODELS The model allows evaluating individuals performance at every stage by evaluating their success with the set objectives. Since goals and objectives are defined, it provides a useful framework for the teams to plan and execute their work. However, the model focuses on management and not leadership. It also does not distinguish between step change and incremental change. Diagnostic instrument Prosci ADKAR is a tool of identifying problems or opportunities for change in an organization. It considers the use of goals identification as a tool of change implementation and individuals professional competencies. Purpose It ensures that every individual from the bottom upwards in an organization is equipped with knowledge and skills for change. It seeks to measure the effectiveness of change as

contributed by each individual in the organization. As a tool of change, it ensures focus is placed on the outcome of the change hence being more tactical in nature. Approach used The model ensures that knowledge about the problem or issue requiring change is passed out to every individual and group. Equipping the organization with information is vital since it creates a team that is well conversant with what its objectives are. Considerations are placed on the effects of the change to individuals and shareholders of the organization. A desire to initiate the change and be part of it is created within teams and sharing of information is done. Diagnosis, planning and implementation of the change require active participants capable of

CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION MODELS driving the change through avoiding and eliminating challenges. Focus is hence placed on goals that will be achieved. Hypothesis

Diagnosis of the opportunity, threats and future position of the organization is essential in developing goals that can ensure instilling the required change. Strengths and limitations Diagnosis of the problems using Prosci ADKAR change model provides enough information that can be relied on to create change in an organization. However, diagnosis requires close analysis to be able to align the goals and the tasks at every stage. Interventions Intervention is required because internal influence and emotions may prove to be barriers for oversight and individual counseling would be appropriate for boosting the change process and implementation. Purpose The purpose of intervention in this model is to ensure that focus and determination is not lost through the hardships experienced in initiating and implementing change. Both physical and emotional support would be appropriate for success of the change process. Approach used Individuals and active teams may be contacted from time to time to provide counseling by an external body which is not affected by the change. Creation of an oversight committee to

CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION MODELS check and streamline the change process may ensure effectiveness of the process and its outcomes. Hypothesis External intervention at every stage of the change process is essential in ensuring that individuals remain focused and find ways to overcome existing barriers through appropriate support. Strengths and limitations Interventions strengthen the change process by providing confidence to address issues

affecting the process. However, external interventions by individuals who are not affected by the change process might not be effective because they are likely not to provide the required seriousness that is required. External interventions are also an added expense to an organization if the intended goal is not achieved. Kotters 8-Step Change Model This was a model developed by Kotter which offers the straightforward guidance for change planning and implementation within an organization. The purpose for this model is to enable managers plan carefully and establish a proper foundation under which implementation of the planned changes can occur. Going through the process step by step will ensure that change becomes part of an organization culture. Kotter developed this model with an objective of restructuring how decisions are made in an organization to enable improvement of success and performance. Approach used


The change model considers 8 steps: 1) creation of urgency which stimulates the need for change by reflecting on opportunities, threats or future expectations, 2) forming of a powerful coalition which can help dive the change initiative through focus on specific objectives, 3) create a vision for change which will help others understand why change is required and how achieving it can be done through identification of values and strategies, 4) communication of the vision is required to instill its importance in minds of others and drive them to respond, 5) identification and removal of obstacles that can limit attainment of the vision, 6) creation of short-term wins that can indicate steps of success for a particular period, 7) build on the change regarding every success achieved and areas requiring improvement, 8) anchoring the change in the corporate culture where it becomes the core of an organization (Sabri, Gupta, & Beitler, 2007, p. 176). Hypothesis Kotters 8 step change model when followed appropriately will ensure that planning, organizing directing and implementing areas that require change will be achieved successfully. Strengths and limitations According to Stephen Warrilow (2012), he indicates that the model sets out a clear roadmap for leadership and that it outlines key steps in building and sustaining momentum. However, it does not spell out the specifics of how to achieve clarity of vision since its actions based and tactical. The model inability to recognize personal transitions that accompany the change has been identified to be part of its weakness (Warrilow, 2012, p. 151). Diagnosis

CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION MODELS Diagnosis of the problem requiring change using Kotters 8 step change model demand creating of the urgency of the problem before establishing any action to be undertaken. The diagnosis considers the problem at hand and desired future state. Purpose The purpose of diagnosis is to establish the problem, threat or opportunity upon which systematic steps can be taken to make the change required. Approach used Analysis of the organization is done by individuals and teams that need changing of certain systems and processes. Creation of urgency is made before making a step of informing

others in the organization who will be affected by the change. This will help also in creation of a vision and its communication in the organization. In diagnosing, leaders involved focus specifically on the issue requiring change (Warrilow, 2012). Hypothesis Careful planning of the problems or addressing the issues will help determine the root cause of the problem and the best way to go about with the change. Strengths and limitations It is easy to address the problem or opportunity since the model provides a straight forward guideline on how to go about with the process. The problem arises when in diagnosing the problems individuals differ in their opinions regarding the prevailing condition and need for change.


Guiding and counseling could ensure that the effort placed in to create awareness through proper communication is supported. Intervention for this model requires also that third party be delegated with authority to correct and stream line the activities. Purpose The purpose for intervention is to create an external system which is not prone to biasness or affected by internal limitations in establishing the direction and success of the change initiative and process. Approach used An outside body that is well versed with the issue affecting the organization is placed in control to intervene and whenever there is a change in the way the change process is being conducted. Evaluation is done on the basis of stages completed. Hypothesis Intervention is essential in informing the organization on areas that need to be corrected at an early stage for effective change process (Warrilow, 2012). Strengths and limitations Interventions give precise information on what has been left out or what is considered irrelevant hence enriching the change process. However, external internal interventions give out information of the organization which could be confidential. This could be used against the organization in the market for competition.

CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION MODELS Reference Hiatt, J. M. (2006). Adkar: A Model for Change in Business, Government and Our Community. U.S.A: Prosci. Sabri, E. H., Gupta, A. P., & Beitler, M. A. (2007). Purchase Order Management Best Practices: Process, Technology, and Change. U.S.A: J. Ross Publishing. Warrilow, S. (2012). Practitioners' Masterclass. U.S.A: Practioners Masterclass.