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Teknik Etsa kimia untuk logam dan kaca

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DAFTAR ISI

Pasal Etsa Kaca


BAB I PENDAHULUAN
BAB II CONTOH KREASI-KREASI ETSA GELAS
BAB III APLIKASI GLASS ETCHING

1. METODE CELUP
2. METODE SANDBLASTING
3. METODE OLES
BAB IV FORMULASI ETCHANT KONVENSIONAL
1. (Formula I) Etching konvensional
2. Formula II
BAB V FORMULASI ETCHANT MODERN
BAB VI FORMULASI ETCHANT MODERN LAINNYA
Pasal etsa Logam
1.Pengantar
2. Seputar etsa logam
3.Komponen etsa logam
3.1. Substrat ( logam )
3.2. Etchant
3.3. Resist
3.4. Container
3.5. Safety equipment
4. Prosedur pengetsaan
4.1 . Pembuatan desain grafis.
4.2 . Persiapan larutan etsa
4.3 . Formula etsa
4.3.1 Etsa Kuningan dan Tembaga
4.3.2 Besi dan Stainless Steel
4.3.3 Alumunium
5.How to make a printed circuit board.
5.1. EXPOSING THE BOARD
5.2. DEVELOPMENT AND ETCHING
5.3. DRILLING

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Pasal Etsa Kaca
BAB I PENDAHULUAN

Glass etching adalah suatu teknik untuk melukai permukaan gelas dengan bahan
kimia atau dengan teknik sanblasting sehingga permukaan kaca atau gelas tersebut
menjadi kabur atau seperti bersalju (frosted). Aplikasi teknik ini adalah untuk layar
televisi, bola lampu dan untuk karya seni diatas permukaan kaca. Bahan kimia yang
digunakan untuk etching dinamakan etchant.

Bahan etchant yang digunakan dalam glass etching secara garis besar ada 2 yaitu
Hidrofluoric Acid (dalam bentuk cairan) dan garam fluoride (dalam bentuk
serbuk/powder). Kedua bahan inilah yang menjadi bahan aktif yang dapat melukai
permukaan kaca/gelas.Dalam hal ini tentu saja diperlukan zat aditif-aditif lain untuk
menunjang proses etching. Saat ini etching kaca dengan menggunakan hydrofluoric acid
telah banyak ditinggalkan karena masalah keselamatan kerja.

ETCHING ETCHING MODERN


KONVENSIONAL
Bahan aktif hidrofluoric acid Bahan aktif garam fluoride
Memerlukan peralatan keselamatan Selama tidak mendapat kontak
kerja seperti sarung tangan, penutup dengan alkali sehingga tidak
muka dan exhaust fan. membentuk gas hidrogenfluoride dan
gas amoniak, walaupun terjadi kontak
dengan kulit tak akan ada masalah.
Aplikasi spesial/khusus Dapat diaplikasikan sehari-hari
Memerlukan bahan masking yang Metode maskingnya bisa memakai
tahan etchant seperti asphaltum, pena minyak, cat resin, cat akrilik,
paraffin yang sulit handlingnya. selotip, silk screen printing, dll.

Sama seperti metode etching konvensional, metode sandblasting juga


memerlukan peralatan keselamatan kerja yang banyak karena dapat menyebabkan
masalah paru-paru karena debu yang ditimbulkannya.
Cara meng-etching juga bervariasi, bisa dengan pencelupan (jika etchant dalam
bentuk cair), bisa juga dengan cara dioleskan atau dikuaskan pada permukaan (jika
etchant dalam bentuk pasta).
Dalam buku ini akan dibahas bagaimana membuat bahan etchant dalam bentuk
cair dan pasta dan juga cara-cara aplikasinya baik cara konvensional dan cara modern.

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BAB II
CONTOH KREASI-KREASI ETSA GELAS

1. Contoh I (Frosted etched glass)

2. Contoh II (Etched Color Filled)

3. Contoh III (Frosted etched, black filled, frosted background)

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BAB III
APLIKASI GLASS ETCHING

2. METODE CELUP

3. METODE SANDBLASTING

4. METODE OLES

Letakkan gelas yang akan di-etching ke dalam


holder/tatakan

Rekatkan stensil di atas gelas dengan menggunakan


selotip atau double tape

Oleskan etchant ke permukaan gelas dan biarkan


selama beberapa waktu

Pindahkan stensilnya dan …….. jadi.

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BAB IV
FORMULASI ETCHANT KONVENSIONAL

2. (Formula I) Etching konvensional


Cara etching dengan me-masking/menutupi permukaan gelas dengan bahan
yang tahan asam seperti asphaltum, paraffin lalu mengaplikasikan acid /etchant dan
kemudian menghapus wax tersebut adalah lama dan kurang akurat.
Cara baru yang dibahas disini adalah dengan cara membentuk
karakter/leter/huruf/gambar sesuai dengan betuk dan ukuran yang diindinkan dengan
lembaran tembaga. Kemudian disusun keatas permukaan kaca sehingga membentuk
suatu kata atau kalimat. Huruf ini direkatkan ke permukaan dengan menggunakan
beban atau klip atau kayu panjang. Kemudian sisa permukaan yang tidak terkover
ditutupi dengan lelehan paraffin, segera setelah paraffin mengeras, karakter/huruf tadi
diangkat. Hal ini akan meninggalkan lubang di kaca. Kemudian lubang tersebut diisi
dengan hidrofluoric acid dan dibiarkan selama beberapa menit. Setelah selesai, asam
dipindahkan dan permukaan dibersihkan dengan air.
3. Formula II
MASKING PRE-ETCHING
Kaca dimasking dengan material Kaca dietching dengan
tahan etchant, dalam hal ini : hidrofluoric acid yang telah
Bitumen judea + turpentine dilarutkan, selama beberapa
detik, kemudian dibersihkan
dengan air.

ETCHING
Kaca dietching dengan
JADI campuran hidrofluoric acid dan
sodium carbonate selama 30
menit, kemudian dibersihkan
dengan air.

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3. Formula III
a. Formulasi : - HF (70%) 3 gallon
- H2SO4 (96%) 2 gallon
- Ammonium Sulfat 12 pound
- Glycerin 3 gallon
- Air 2 gallon
Note:
* HF : 0.78 part/w
* H2SO4 : 1.10 part/w
* Ammonium Sulfat : 0.42 part/w
* Glycerin : 1.17 part/w
* Air : 1 part/w
* temperatur formula diatas akan naik pada saat
mixing, sehingga harus didinginkan dahulu
sebelum dipakai.
b. Objek : - panel kaca flat
c. Caranya : - objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking
- formula diatas didinginkan dulu sampai suhunya
65o F, lalu objek dicelupkan ke dalamnya
selama 30 detik.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci
dengan air.
d. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah nonrflektif, tetapi
masih ada sisa transparansinya.

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BAB V
FORMULASI ETCHANT MODERN MENURUT
FRANK LUTFIE

PENDAHULUAN
Resep berbasis Ammonium Bifluoride tanpa HF ini, metode maskingnya bisa
memakai : pena minyak, cat resin, cat akrilik, selotip, silk screen printing, dll.
Pada metode frosting/etching menggunakan etchant konvensional yang
mengandung fluorine, peralatan keselamatan kerja seperti sarung tangan, penutup muka
dan exhaust fan sangatlah mutlak diperlukan. Dengan komposisi yang baru, selama
ammonium bifluoride tidak mendapat kontak dengan alkali sehingga tidak membentuk
gas hidrogenfluoride dan gas amoniak, walaupun terjadi kontak dengan kulit tak akan ada
masalah.
KANDUNGAN DALAM FORMULASI ETCHANT
1. Bahan Aktif
Berfungsi meng-etch permukaan kaca/gelas
Contoh : sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, ammonium fluoride,
sodium bifluoride, potassium bifluoride, dan ammonium
bifluoride.
2. Gelling agent
Berfungsi membentuk gel pada komposisi etchant
Contoh : hydroxypropyl celullose, hydroxyethyl celullose, methyl
celullose, carboxymethyl celullose, sodium carboxymethyl
celullose, sodium alginate, arabic gum, gum tragacanth,
xanthan gum, bentonite, veegum, gelatin, dll.
3. Surfactant
Berfungsi sebagai wetting agent, sehingga komposisi etchant dpt tersebar merata
pada permukaan gelas.
Contoh : - anionic : dodecylbenzene sodium sulfonate, alkylbenzene
sodium sulfonate, dll.
- nonionic : polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether, sorbitan
monolaurate, sorbitan monopalmitate, dll.
- amfoteric : dimethyl alkylbetain, imidazoline, dll.
- cationic : quartenary ammonium salt, dll.
4. Pengatur pH
Contoh : acetic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid, dll.
5. Sucrose
Berfungsi sebagai stabilizer dan flow modifier
6. Dye/pewarna
7. Solvent organik larut air
Juga berfungsi seperti surfactant
Contoh : - glikol grup : propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, diethylene
glycol, dll.
- alkohol grup : methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, dll.
- gliserin.

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1. RESEP I
e. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 200 ml
Note: * komposisi total : 300ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 4 w/v%
* Air : 33.3 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 66.7 v/v%
f. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
- sebuah gelas mempunyai diameter luar 50mm,
tinggi 95mm, dan tebal 1mm.
- sebuah cermin dengan diameter luar 900mm
g. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula
diatas selama 5-15 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci
dengan air.
h. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
i. Catatan
1. Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan bertambah jika konsentrasi
ammonium bifluoride dinaikkan, begitu pula dengan waktu pencelupan, waktu
pencelupan semakin cepat jika konsentrasi ammonium bifluoride dinaikkan.
2. Telah ditemukan bahwa tingkat kerapatan dan keseragaman kekeruhan
(frosted image) yang paling baik adalah jika konsentrasi ammonium bifluoride
adalah 3-5w/v% dan waktu pencelupan 10 menit.
3. Jika konsentrasi ammonium bifluoride lebih dari 5w/v% kerapatan kekeruhan
yang baik tidak dapat dicapai karena permukaan kaca dimakan oleh asam secara
parsial.
4. Dibandingkan dengan glycols, glycerin dapat menyebabkan turunnya tingkat
(kerapatan) kekeruhan.
2. RESEP II
j. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Glycerin 300 ml
Note:
* komposisi total : 400ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 3 w/v%
* Air : 25 v/v %
* Glycerin : 75 v/v%

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k. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
- sebuah gelas mempunyai diameter luar 50mm,
tinggi 95mm, dan tebal 1mm.
- sebuah cermin dengan diameter luar 900mm
l. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula
diatas selama 10 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci
dengan air.
m. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
n. Catatan
1. Telah ditemukan bahwa tingkat kerapatan dan keseragaman kekeruhan
(frosted image) yang paling baik adalah volume rasio antara aq. solution
(ammonium bifluoride, dye, dan air) dan glycols atau glycerin adalah 1:2
sampai 1:3.
2. Dibandingkan dengan glycols, glycerin dapat menyebabkan turunnya tingkat
(kerapatan) kekeruhan.
3. RESEP III
o. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 16 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 200 ml
- PEG 200 100 ml
Note:
* komposisi total : 400ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 4 w/v%
* Air : 25 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 50 v/v%
* PEG 200 : 25 v/v%
p. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
q. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula
diatas selama 5-10 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci
dengan air.
r. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED

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s. Catatan
1. Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan berkurang jika konsentrasi PEG
dan berat molekul rata-rata PEG (keduanya) dinaikkan.
2. Pada teknik glass etching, dipilih PEG yang mempunyai berat molekul antara
200 sampai 400, selama bentuknya masih likuid/cair.
3. Sebagaimana jika konsentrasi glycerin dinaikkan, tingkat (kerapatan)
kekeruhan akan menurun, seperti pada kasus PEG. Hasil yang sama dapat
terjadi jika propylene glycol diganti dengan diethylene glycol.
4. RESEP IV
t. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 15 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 300 ml
- Isopropyl Alcohol 100 ml
Note: * komposisi total : 500ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 3 w/v%
* Air : 20 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 60 v/v%
* Isopropyl alcohol : 20 v/v%
u. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
v. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula
diatas selama 5-10 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci
dengan air.
w. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
x. Catatan : Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan berkurang jika
konsentrasi alkohol dinaikkan, hasil yang serupa didapat dengan menggunkan
alkohol jenis lainnya, tetapi sulit untuk mencapai densitas kekeruhan yang
uniform.
5. RESEP V
y. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- Sorbitol 20 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 300 ml
Note: * komposisi total : 400ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 3 w/v%
* Sorbitol : 5 w/v%
* Air : 25 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 75 v/v%

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z. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
aa. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula
diatas selama 5-10 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci dengan air.
bb. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
cc. Catatan
1. Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan bertambah jika konsentrasi
sorbitol dinaikkan.
2. Tetapi jika setengah atau sepertiga bagian propylene glycol diganti dengan
solven organik lain yang larut air, tingkat (kerapatan) kekeruhan bisa berkurang.
Jadi tingkat (kerapatan) kekeruhan tidakk selalu tergantung pada konsentrasi
sorbitol.
6. RESEP VI
dd. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- polyoxyethylene
octylphenyl ether** 1.5 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 200 ml
Note: * komposisi total : 300ml
* Am. Bifluoride :4 w/v%
* polyoxyethylene
octylphenyl ether : 0.5 w/v%
* Air : 33.3 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 66.7 v/v%
** or polyoxyetthylene nonylphenyl ether,
polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate,
lignin calcium sulfonate, and dodecyl benzene sodium
sulfonate.
ee. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
ff. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- formula etchant diatas disemprotkan ke objek,
kemudian dibiarkan selama 5 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi dicuci dengan air.
gg. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED

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hh. Catatan
1. Surfactant tidak terlalu berpengaruh pada tingkat kerapatan kekeruhan, tetapi
menaikkan daya rekat etchant ke kaca. Masing-masing surfaktan dapat
menghasilkan efek tersebut tentu saja dengan kekuatan yang berbeda-beda.
7. RESEP VII
ii. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- Sucrose 15 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 300 ml
Note: * komposisi total : 400ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 4 w/v%
* Sucrose : 5 w/v%
* Air : 33.3 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 66.7 v/v%
jj. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
kk. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula diatas selama 5-10
menit
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci dengan air.
ll. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
mm. Catatan
1. Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan bertambah jika konsentrasi
sucrose dinaikkan.
2. Tetapi jika setengah atau sepertiga bagian propylene glycol diganti dengan
solven organik lain yang larut air, tingkat (kerapatan) kekeruhan bisa berkurang.
Jadi tingkat (kerapatan) kekeruhan tidak selalu tergantung pada konsentrasi
sucrose.
8. RESEP VIII
nn. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 20 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 100 ml
Note: * komposisi total : 200ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 10 w/v%
* Air : 50 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 50 v/v%
oo. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
- sebuah gelas mempunyai diameter luar 50mm,
tinggi 95mm, dan tebal 1mm.
- sebuah cermin dengan diameter luar 900mm

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pp. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula
diatas selama 5-10 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci dengan air.
qq. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
rr. Catatan
1. Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan bertambah jika konsentrasi
ammonium bifluoride dinaikkan, begitu pula dengan waktu pencelupan,
waktu pencelupan semakin cepat jika konsentrasi ammonium bifluoride
dinaikkan.
2. Walaupun begitu, densitas kekeruhan yang istimewa kadang tidak dapat
dicapai karena permukaan kaca dimakan oleh asam secara parsial.
9. RESEP IX
ss. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- dodecylbenzene
sodium sulfonate 1.2 gram
- Air 200 ml
- Brilliant Blue FCF 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 100 ml
Note:
* komposisi total : 300ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 8 w/v%
* dodecylbenzene
sodium sulfonate : 0.8 w/v%
* Air : 66.7 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 33.3 v/v%
tt. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm, tebal 2mm.
uu. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna biru.
- objek tersebut dicelupkan kedalam formula diatas selama 5-10
menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi dicuci dengan air.
vv. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
ww. Catatan
1. Kerapatan kekeruhan (frosted density) akan bertambah jika konsentrasi
ammonium bifluoride dinaikkan, begitu pula dengan waktu pencelupan, waktu
pencelupan semakin cepat jika konsentrasi ammonium bifluoride dinaikkan.
Walaupun begitu permukaan kaca bisa dimakan oleh asam secara parsial, dan
pada permukaan yang keruh terdapat bagian yang kasar. Dengan adanya
surfaktan, problem tersebut dapat diatasi.

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10. RESEP X
xx. Formulasi : - Am. Bifluoride 12 gram
- Air 100 ml
- Light Green SFY 0.5 mg
- Propylene Glycol 200 ml
- Hydroxypropyl
celullose 10.5 gram
Note:
* komposisi total : 300ml
* Am. Bifluoride : 4 w/v%
* Air : 33.3 v/v %
* propylene glycol : 66.7 v/v%
* Hydroxypropyl
celullose : 3.5 w/v%
yy. Objek : - panel kaca flat panjang 100mm, lebar 100mm,
tebal 2mm.
- sebuah gelas mempunyai diameter luar 50mm,
tinggi 95mm, dan tebal 1mm.
- sebuah cermin dengan diameter luar 900mm
zz. Caranya : - semua objek tersebut diatas dicuci dengan air
mengalir kemudian sisa air dikeringkan.
- objek tersebut dimasking dengan cara melukis
area yang diinginkan dengan pena minyak warna
biru.
- formula diatas dioleskan atau dikuaskan ke
permukaan kaca dan didiamkan sampai 5-10 menit.
- kemudian objek-objek tadi diangkat dan dicuci dengan air.
aaa. Hasil : area yang tidak dimasking telah ter-FROSTED
bbb. Catatan
1. Untuk aplikasi etchant gel dengan kuas, konsentrasi hydroxypropylcelullose
yang paling baik adalah 1 sampai 3.5w/v%. Untuk aplikasi dengan pengolesan
konsentrasi hydroxypropylcelullose yang paling baik adalah 4 w/v% atau
lebih. Tingkat kekentalan rata-rata hydroxypropyl celullose dipilih antara 150-
400 mps (2% sol. pada 20o C) untuk mendapatkan tingkat kekeruhan yang pas
dan untuk kemudahan dalam aplikasinya.
2. Jika gelling agent digunakan selain hydroxypropylcelullose, dibutuhkan
jumlah yang lebih banyak untuk membuat komposisi gel homogen seperti
yang dilakukan oleh hydroxypropylcelullose. Dan juga dengan gelling agent
selain hydroxypropylcelullose, sulit didapat tingkat kekeruhan dan
keseragaman kekeruhan yang pas.

15
BAB VI
FORMULASI ETCHANT MODERN LAINNYA

1. Menurut Armour Product Corporation


Nama Produk : “Armour Etch”

RESEP :
1. Campuran Fluoride : 30-60%
2. Titanium Dioxide : 1-5%
3. Citric Acid : 10-30%

2. Menurut McKay Chemical Company


Nama Produk : “Velvet etch corossive liquid un. No. 1760”
RESEP :
1. Ammonium Bifluoride : 6%
2. Sodium Bifluoride : 28%
3. Filler Solids : 22%
4. Air : 41%
5. Filler lainnya : 3%

3. Menurut Rafael Benitez

RESEPNYA
A. Formulasi cairan pembersih
- sodium carbonate (dehydrated) 46 gram
- air 1 liter
- amoniak 17 gram
- dishwashing deterjen 2 gram
- etanol 50 gram
- polyethylene oxide sorbitan
monooleate (polysorbate 80) 5 gram
caranya : larutkan sodium carbonate dalam air, masukkan amoniak. setelah
larut masukkan deterjen, etanol dan polysorbate 80.
B. Formulasi cairan penetralisir
- potassium carbonate 1000 gram
- air 1 liter
caranya : larutkan potassium carbonate dalam air yang sudah dipanaskan
pada suhu 80oC, biarkan sampai campuran mencapai suhu kamar,
dan disaring.
C. ormulasi pasta etchant
- ammonium bifluoride …
- air (deionized) …

16
- barium sulfat (99%, 200mesh) …
caranya : larutkan ammonium bifluoride pada air yang sudah dipanaskan
sampai 95oC, sampai mencapai saturasi. Larutan ini kemudian
dibiarkan mencapai suhu kamar hingga membentuk larutan
bening dan terdapat residu kristal. Pisahkan kristal tersebut dan
campurkan serbuk barium sulfat ke dalam larutan bening itu
sampai bentuk pasta yang dapat dikuaskan ke permukaan verti-
kal tanpa ndlewer.

Percobaan III
Glass Etching Pasta tanpa Filler
ccc. Formulasi : - ammonium bifluoride 22 %(sebagai bahan aktif )
- propylene glycol 24 % (sebagai dispersing dan
wetting agent)
- xanthan gum 4 % (sebagai thickener)
- air 50% (sebagai carrier)
ddd. Caranya : - panaskan air sampai mencapai suhu 50o C
- larutkan ammonium bifluoride dengan air
- panaskan propylene glycol sampai suhu 50o C
masukkan xanthan gum dan aduk sampai rata
- campur kedua larutan tersebut, aduk sampai rata
Percobaan IV Glass Etching Pasta tanpa Filler dengan Pewarna Titanium Dioxide
a. Formulasi: - ammonium bifluoride 22 %(sebagai bahan aktif )
- propylene glycol 24 %(sebagai dispersing dan wetting agent)
- xanthan gum 4 %(sebagai thickener)
- air 45% (sebagai carrier)
- pasta titanium dioxide 5%(sebagai pewarna)
b. Caranya : - panaskan air sampai mencapai suhu 50o C
- larutkan ammonium bifluoride dengan air
- panaskan propylene glycol sampai suhu 50o masukkan xanthan
gum dan aduk sampai rata lalu masukkan pigmen pasta, aduk
sampai rata
- campur kedua larutan tersebut, aduk sampai rata
Percobaan V Glass Etching Pasta dengan Filler Barium Sulfate
c. Formulasi : - ammonium bifluoride 22 %(sebagai bahan aktif )
- propylene glycol 24.5 % (sebagai dispersing dan
wetting agent)
- xanthan gum 0.5 % (sebagai thickener)
- air 45 % (sebagai carrier)
- barium sulfate 8% (sebagai pewarna)
a. Caranya : - panaskan air sampai mencapai suhu 50o
- larutkan ammonium bifluoride dengan air
- panaskan propylene glycol sampai suhu 50o C
masukkan xanthan gum dan aduk sampai rata
lalu masukkan barium sulfate, aduk sampai rata
- campur kedua larutan tersebut, aduk smpai rata

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Pasal etsa Logam
1.Pengantar
Metal etching, also known as "milling" or "machining," is the production of a depressed
design on a metal plate by cutting lines through a protective coating and then applying
corrosive acid that removes the metal under the lines. Sometimes, the plates are smoked
so that the lines will be more visible. Etching is used to create metal industrial parts,
which may have many small grooves or holes. It is also used as a decorative finish on
many metals. It allows a metal to meet weight demands, as well, by dissolving an
appropriate layer of the surface. While metal etching using acid remains the most
common method, there are now many others that do not employ the use of acid.

The acid used in the metal etching process is controlled in several ways. Most often, a
hard, waxy, acid-resistant ground is applied to the plate. A design is scratched into the
surface with a sharp point, exposing lines that are attacked by the acid. A soft ground is
sensitive to pressure. Paper is placed on the part. A pencil is then used to make the lines
of varying densities, which allows more or less acid through, depending on the pressure
applied. Faux-bite results from small amounts of acid leaking through the ground,
creating minor pitting and burning on the surface. It can be removed by burnishing,
polishing or smoothing the surface.

A broad range of metals can be used during the acid-based processes, such as stainless
steel, copper, brass, nickel and silver alloy. Other metals can be etched using gas or
electric-based processes. If a metal piece is in need of fine grooves, laser etching is often
used. Abrasive etching with high-compression air is another option. In this process,
abrasives, such as aluminum oxide or sand, are sometimes blasted in place of laser
technology, when isolated areas are being worked on. Photo chemical etching, which is
the most common etching method, is a low-cost process that provides high quality, fast
turnaround and precision accuracy unavailable in other etching processes. This process
also allows flexibility in the design of parts, as changes can be made quickly, simply and
cost-effectively.

Examples of etched metal products in the medical field are stents, cathodes and implants.
Brake rotors and fuel cell plates are made for the automotive industry. The sign and
plaque industry heavily relies on the use of etched metals. Jewelry production and other
artistic portions of industry use metal etching to create fine lines for intricate details.
Photochemical etching produces business cards, logo name plates, panel covers and

18
promotional items for the commercial sector. Metal etching is also used to create longer
lasting stencils for the woodworking and art fields.
2. Seputar etsa logam
Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the
surface of a metal plate using an acid. The acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened
areas, or if the surface exposed to the acid is very narrow, burning a line into the plate.
The process is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer (circa 1470-1536) of
Augsburg, Germany, who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to
printmaking. Etching is also used in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards and
semiconductor devices. There are many ways for the printmaker to control the acid's
effects. Most typically, the surface of the plate is covered in a hard, waxy ground that
resists acid. The printmaker then scratches through the ground with a sharp point,
exposing lines of metal that are attacked by the acid. Once the drawing in the ground is
finished, the plate is submerged in acid for a period of time; longer submersion means
that deeper lines are etched. The ground may be removed, or the artist may continue
drawing in it, etching it again in acid to deepen existing lines while adding new lines. The
ground may also be reapplied to protect existing lines while adding new ones. The
ground may be removed and the plate printed to see its current printing state, to be
followed by more work (or other techniques, such as aquatint, drypoint, or engraving);
thus, many of Rembrandt's etchings exist in several distinct forms, with the fin ,
"accepted" version apparently preceded by many artist's proofs. A "soft" ground may also
be used--a ground that is sensitive to pressure. The soft ground is applied to the plate, and
the artist removes it by putting paper on top and drawing on the paper. The varying
pressure of the pencil on the paper lifts the soft ground in a likewise varying amount, in a
particulate way--rather than removing the ground, its density is decreased, allowing more
or less acid through. The effect is much like that of particulate media like chalk, charcoal,
or pencil: the image burned into the plate is composed of greater and lesser densities of
minuscule pitting, rather than sharp, continuous lines. Minor variations involve putting a
soft ground on a plate along with some textured surface (such as fabric or crumpled
plastic wrap or paper), and then running the combination through a press, transferring the
texture to the plate. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the copper-engraving lost of
importance due to the invention of the lithography. Nevertheless, even today it is a
famous art form, which is still appreciated by it´s collectors. But also the of actinic
etching is still applied today, when printing magazines and newspapers.
Aquatint is a variation of the etching in which particulate resin is evenly distributed on
the plate, then heated to form a screen ground of uniform but less than perfect density.
After etching, the result is a uniformly roughened (i.e., darkened) plate that may then be
drawn on by smoothing it, creating the image from dark-to-light rather than the reverse.
The printing-procedure the plate is done by covering the surface with ink, then rubbing
the ink off the surface with tarlatan cloth or newsprint, leaving ink in the roughened areas
and lines. Damp paper is placed on the plate, and both are run through a printing press;
the pressure forces the paper into contact with the ink, transferring the image (c.f., chine-
collé). Unfortunately, the pressure also subtly degrades the image in the plate, smoothing
the roughened areas and closing the lines; a copper plate is good for, at most, a few
hundred printings of a strongly etched imaged before the degradation is considered too
great by the artist. At that point, the artist can manually restore the plate by re-etching it,

19
essentially putting ground back on and retracing her lines; alternately, plates can be
electro-plated before printing with a harder metal to preserve the surface. Zinc is also
used, because as a softer metal, etching times are shorter; however, that softness also
leads to faster degradation of the image in the press. Faux-bite is common in etching, and
is the effect of minuscule amounts of acid leaking through the ground to create minor
pitting and burning on the surface. This incidental roughening may be removed by
smoothing and polishing the surface, but artists often leave faux-bite, or deliberately
court it by handling the plate roughly, because it's viewed as a desirable mark of the
process.
Drypoint is a printmaking technique of the intaglio family, in which an image is incised
into a plate (typically copper, zinc, or plexiglas) by scratching the surface with a hard,
sharp metal point. This technique is different from engraving, in which the incisions are
made by gouging. While engraved lines are very smooth and hard-edged, drypoint
scratching leaves a rough burr at the edges of each line. This burr gives drypoint prints a
characteristically soft, and sometimes blurry, line quality. Because the pressure of
printing quickly destroys the burr, drypoint is useful only for very small editions. To
counter this, and allow for longer print runs, electro-plating can harden the surface of a
plate
The engraving process Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin to cut the design
into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. Gravers come in a variety of shapes
and sizes that yield different line types. The burin produces a unique and recognizable
quality of line that is characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges.
The angle tint tool has a slightly curved tip that is commonly used in printmaking.
Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do
fill work on larger areas. Flat gravers are used for doing fill work on letters, as well as
most musical instrument engraving work. Round gravers are commonly used on silver to
create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Burins are
either square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. Other tools
such as mezzotint rockers, roulets and burnishers are used for texturing effects coloured
etching Etchings, being initially printed in one basic colour can be each individually
hand-coloured after the printing process is finished.
Colouring is done by using water colours and crayons coloured etching from the
beginning Before printing the image, the plate is being prepared with different colours, so
that the resulting print needs not to be coloured with water-colours or crayons. This
process is very complex and takes much time. Therefore, it does not allow a unique
production print.
Printing on coloured paper When applying white ink on blue or black-coloured paper, the
effect of a chalk-drawing can be achieved. Artists used this printing-technique to
duplicate and imitate such. Montage-printing When separating their printing plates into
several pieces, artists are able to colour them each individually and so to obtain a multi-
coloured print, when they are printed together and next to each other.

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3.Komponen etsa logam
Etching is where the excess copper is removed to leave the individual tracks or traces as
they are sometimes called. Buckets, bubble tanks, and spray machines lots of different
ways to etch, but most firms currently use high pressure conveyerised spray equipment.
Spray etching is fast, ammoniacal etching solutions when sprayed can etch 55 microns of
copper a minute. Less than 40 seconds to etch a standard 1 oz, 35 micron circuit board.
3.1. Substrat ( logam )
Merupakan bahan logam yang menjadi target teknik etsa, tergantung untuk keperluan apa
dan fungsi apa, seandainya untuk keperluan teknis maka substrat menggunakan logam
yang mempunyai sifat keras misalnya besi dan baja. Apabila hanya sebagai transfer
gambar ke bahan yang tidak keras seperti kertas, kulit, imitasi dan lain lain, maka
digunakan aluminium. Apabila diinginkan substrat yang mempunyai sifat daya hantar
listrik maka menggunakan tembaga adalah pilihan terbaik.,
Semua logam dapat dietsa sesuai dengan kondisi dan sifatnya, karena mahalnya bahan
tembaga saat ini etsa logam untuk kepentingan emboss, hot print menggunakan logam
aluminium sebagai pengganti logam subtratnya.
Untuk keperluan elektronik masih menggunakan tembaga sebagai bahan substraynya,
disamping mempunyai daya hantar listrik dan daya hantar panas yang baik tembaga
mempunyai sifat mudah untuk disolder.
3.2. Etchant
Merupakan larutan kimia yang bersifat asam atau basa yang mana berfungsi untuk
melarutkan logam yang mana efeknya untuk tiap logam berbeda. Etchant tersusun atas
beberapa komponen seperti berikut ini
agen oksidasi ( FeCl, CuCl, KClO3 )
agen korosi ( HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, H2O2, H2CrO2)
agen levelling ( H3PO4 )
agen modifikasi ( ethylen glikol, DEG )
Many different chemical solutions can be used to etch circuit boards. Ranging from slow
controlled speed etches used for surface preparation to the faster etches used for etching
the tracks. Some are best used in horizontal spray process equipment while others are
best used in tanks. Etchents for PTH work have to be selective and be non aggressive to
tin / tin lead plating, which is used as the etch resist. Copper etching is normally
exothermic, where high speed etching is carried out solution cooling is normally required.
This is normally done by placing titanium water cooling coils into the etchent. Almost all
etching solutions liberate toxic corrosive fumes, extraction is highly recommended. All
etchents are corrosive and toxic, mainly due to the high metal content. P.P.E. Personal
Protection Equipment must always be used, spent solutions should always be disposed of
properly and not down local drains, where they pollute local sewage works and rivers.
For a more detailed chemical look at the etchents please follow the section menu links to
the different types of etchent.
Ammoniacal Etchent:-
Probably the main etchent used within the circuit board industry. Due to it's very smelly
nature it is only used in spray etching applications. Normal copper etching reaction is:-
Initial reaction, which results in a build up of cuprous ions,
Cu2+ + CuO >> 2Cu+

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Secondary reaction, oxygen is absorbed from the air which re-oxidizes the cuprous ions
back to cupric ions,
2Cu+ + 1/2O2 + H2O >> 2Cu2+ + 2OH
The basic etching reaction is the same as cupric chloride etching but to work the copper
(II) ions require complexing with ammonium chloride and ammonia.
Cu2+ + 2(NH4)Cl + 4NH3 >> 2NH4+ + Cu(NH3)4Cl2
To work free ammonia is present, which always finds it's way past any extraction
equipment resulting in strong odors. Ammonia loss results in sludging, as do excess
water or excess copper. Its an almost trouble free process when correctly run but can
result in hours of machine cleaning if not.
Chromic-Sulphuric Acid:-
Used to be the preferred etchent for tin tin-lead plated boards but has been replaced by
Ammoniacal and Sulfuric Peroxide etchents. Chromic-Sulphuric etchent has only a slow
etch rate and low copper holding capacity. The solution is also a serious pollution
concern and very expensive to dispose off. Normal copper etching reaction is:-
3Cu + 2HCrO4- + 14H+ >> 3Cu2+ 2Cr3+ + 8H2O
The hydrogen ions are normally provided by Sulphuric acid, beware Hydrochloric acid
must not be used as toxic chlorine gas would be liberated.
Standard makeup with the addition of sodium sulfate which increases the etch rate is,
240g/l Chromic Acid, 40g/l Sodium Sulfate, 180g/l 96% Sulphuric Acid. Oddly enough
air agitation reduces etch rate.
Cupric Chloride:-
Cheap fast and easy to re-generate, either chemically or by electrolytic recovery. Not
suitable for PTH work as it readily attacks tin lead. Normal copper etching reaction is:-
Cu + CuCl2 >> Cu2Cl2
Simple chemical re-generation is possible by adding HCL and enough H2O2 to re oxidize
the cuprous chloride to cupric chloride. Excess free peroxide in solution, especially when
combined with elevated temperature can result in liberation of toxic fumes. Given time or
less time and air agitation the re oxidization will take place without the addition of the
peroxide.
Ferric Chloride.
An old favorite, also very good at staining fingers, clothing, etc brown. Etch rate can be
very high but is dependant on solution movement over the surface of the board and
temperature. At 70C using Spray etching 1oz copper is removed in a little under a
minute, normal etching temperature is more likely to be 45C. When etching circuits if up
to 5% of HCL is added it, increases etch rate, helps to stop staining, and reduces the risk
of the solution sludging. Ferric especially with extra HCL makes a very good stainless
steel etchent.
When Ferric crystals are mixed with water some free HCL produced through hydrolysis.
FeCl3 + 3H2O > Fe(OH)3 + 3HCL

22
The basic etching reaction takes place in 3 stages. First the ferric ion oxidizes copper to
cuprous chloride, which is then further oxidized to cupric chloride.
FeCl3 + Cu > FeCl2 + CuCl
FeCl3 + CuCl > FeCl2 + CuCl2
As the cupric chloride builds up at further reaction takes place,
CuCl2 + Cu > 2CuCl
The etch rate quickly falls off after about 17oz/gallon (100g/l of copper has been etched.
For a typical solution containing 5.3lb/gallon (530g/l) of ferric chloride.
Nitric Acid:-
Not the safest of chemicals but a simple fast etchent. Often used as a quick fix for
removing any remaining copper from a electroless copper tank prior to use.
Adding by weight 2% of Potassium chlorate to a 10% Nitric Acid solution allows it to
etch brass. Normal reaction as a copper etchent is:-
3Cu + 2NO3- + 4H+ >> 3Cu2+ + 2NO2 + 2H2O
Persulfate Etches:-
Sodium, Ammonium, Potassium Persulfates all make good copper etches. They can even
have catalysts added which then allow them to be used with tin tin-lead resists. When the
salts are dissolved in water the Persulfate ion is formed, which then goes on to oxidize
copper to the cupric ion. Std Reaction is :-
Cu +(NH4)2S2O8 >> CuSO4 + (NH4)2S2O4
Std makeup is 100-200g/l of Persulfate salt, 20ml/l 96% Sulphuric Acid. A mixed
solution becomes exhausted in 3-5 days independent of usage.
Hydrochloric acid must not be used as toxic chlorine gas would be liberated. Once done
the use of the wrong acid is never repeated. This etch is commonly used as a micro etch
(chemical sandpaper) before plating processes.
Sulphuric-Peroxide Etches:-
Cheap, easily recoverable etch used for etching PTH circuit boards, also used as a micro
etch (chemical sandpaper) before plating processes. A straight mixture of Sulphuric and
Peroxide makes a very fast etchent, but sadly is unstable and not safe to use. Additives
are added such as Aryl Sulfonic acids to stabilize the peroxide in solution, and even
Phosphoric acid which helps to retain a cleaner tin lead over the copper. Std Reaction is :-
Cu + H2O2 + H2SO4 >> Cu2SO4 + 2H2O
Copper can be recovered as copper sulphate by cooling and crystallization, or as metallic
copper by electroplating. This is often done by plating onto stainless steel plates using
lead or graphite anodes. After which the copper can be easily peeled off the stainless steel
plates
3.3. Resist
Merupakan bahan penutup substrat ( logam ) yang akan diproses dengan larutan etsa.
Resist merupakan bahan kimia polimer tahan asam, dapat berasal dari polimer sintetis

23
atau alam.
Polimer alam atau resin antara lain kopal, sirlak, gum, dammar, aspalt powder,
Sedangkan polimer sintetis yang dapat digunakan untuk bahan resis adalah; PVC,
Acrylik, epoxy, nitroselulose dan lainnya.
Solder resist is the usually green lacquer like coating which covers the major part of
most modern circuit boards.
It is specifically designed to both protect the surface tracks and prevent solder bridges
during soldering. The surface often has traces of silicones or similar to promote these
properties, which can occasionally lead to strange effects and deformations in the Comp
Ref. layer when it is screened on top.
All the types of Solder Resists used as best regarded as permanent and non removable.
Although our tests have shown that quite a few of the normal production Resists are
lacking strength to resist the new low clean fluxes. we are told that is due to the higher
level of solids in the older fluxes, which used to provide some form of protection for
Resist.
Although the standard colours are green, red, blue, and black should you be after a unique
colour we are always happy to oblige by mixing the resists. Results are a little
unpredictable, but be guaranteed the outcome will be a unique colour!
Two Pack Epoxy Solder Resist:-
This is the standard type of solder resist we use. Being a thermally cured ink it is possible
to have a very high level of pigmentation resulting in its easily distinguishable richer
colour. Nick named Two Pack from the two components namely, Resin and Catalyst
from which a working mix is made. To enable the best protection ink is used very thick
and screened with a course silk screen mesh. This has the combined effect of increasing
the thickness of the Resist layer. The main drawback with this type of Solder Resist is
that it takes over a hour at 120C to fully cure. Can be used down to 6 thou clearance but
to avoid problems more in the order of 12 to 15 thou is advised. With a tight clearance
you risk bleeding of solder resist onto the pads.
U.V. Solder Masks Traditionally used in high volume production especially on the
cheaper punch and crunch phenolic paper laminates.
The ink is very similar to Two Pack and is screened in much the same way. The big
difference is that this ink can be quickly cured using ultra violet light [On a std UV curer
the conveyer runs between 3-6m/min ]. Its for this reason that the pigmentation level
tends to be lower. For the simple reason that the darker the ink the harder it is for the light
to penetrate and cure the ink.
Dry Film:-
Not as common as it used to be. This type of resist is applied using a special high
pressure laminator. After which it then requires the resist pattern exposing, followed by
development and then hardening by either thermal baking or a quick passage through an
infra red conveyer.
Greatly replaced by the improvements made in the photo imageable ink systems.

24
Photo Imageable Solder Mask:- With the ever increasing drive towards
miniaturisation the traditional wet screened resists couldn't provide the definition
required. Photo imageable inks are fast becoming the most widely used type of solder
mask.
This range of inks can be coated in a few different ways, curtain coating, screening, and
electrostatic spraying. Curtain coating is done on a machine in which the boards are fed
on a conveyor through a Niagara Falls of the ink. Electrostatic spraying is like normal
pain spraying, but a high voltage charge exists between the spray gun and panel.
In all cases the solder resist pattern is then transferred by aligning a photographic master
and exposing using U.V. The panels then require developing in a mild alkali solution
followed by high temperature baking. More expensive than the two pack epoxy inks but
very high definition. Photo-Imageable S/R masks can have zero clearance, and are
available in a large range of colours. Oddly enough these colours include black, which to
date has always worked without incident. Quite how the UV successfully polymerizes
through the black ink is a mystery, obviously it's time to re write rules and laws of
science.
Peelable Resist Best described as a thick normally blue plastic covering which is
resistant to soldering processes. It's designed to tent over component or mounting holes
and prevent them from filling with solder during wave soldering. Another use is as an
alternative to masking tape in order to protect edge connectors. The ink in the tin before
use closely resembles window putty, and also requires a special silk screen covered with
a very course mesh. Once applied it only takes an odd minute of baking to turn it into its
solid dry form.
Please note that on conventional non PTH circuits by either taking a small section out of
a pad or creating a solder relief area using ink, it is possible to reduce the number of holes
that fill with solder. The removed or covered section optimum shape is best described as
a Packman mouth which is almost closed.
3.4. Container
Merupakan tempat atau wadah yang digunakan untuk proses pengetsaan logam. Biasanya
terbuat dari bahan yang tahan terhadap larutan asam atau basa. Plastik polipropliten,
polivinyl clorida, gelas kaca adalah bahan yang tahan terhadap larutan etsa.
3.5. Safety equipment
Peralatan untuk keamanan pada saat melakukan proses pengetsaan, sarung tangan tangan
asam, kaca mata, kamar asam.

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4. Prosedur pengetsaan
Etsa merupakan seni grafis kimia yang sudah sejak lama ada, zaman dulu digunakan
untuk menandai peralatan kerajaan, peralatan militer, barang hak milik. Sekarang teknik
etsa sudah sangat berkembang, peralatan IT sangat mendukung untuk kemudahan dalam
pembuatan desain hingga prosedur etsa kimia itu sendiri.

a. Pembuatan desain grafis.


¾ Membuat gambar pola menggunakan komputer

¾ Mencetak gambar pola menggunakan printer laser

¾ Membuat film gambar pola diatas screen

¾ Menyablon gambar pola diatas logam (substrat)

b. Persiapan larutan etsa


¾ Penimbangan bahan kimia
¾ Pencampuran bahan kimia dengan air dalam wadah (kontainer) tahan asam
¾ Larutan sudah siap digunakan
¾ Penggunaan larutan dalam jumlah pengerjaan tertentu mengharuskan
penggantian larutan yang baru.

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1. Etsa Kuningan dan Tembaga
Formula :
Air 6-7 bagian
HCL 1 bagian
H2O2 1 bagian

Resist:
- Tinta sablon
- Stiker
- Cat
- Lakban / isolasi (paling kuat tapi sulit dalam pembuatan motif)

Proses Kerja Etsa


1. masukkan seluruh bahan etsa pada sebuah wadah plastik tahan kimia secara
berurutan dari air lalu HCL kemudian H2O2 secara hati-hati, lalu aduk hingga
rata.
2. masukkan tembaga atau kuningan yang sudah di resist ke dalam larutan,
amatilah sampai terlihat reaksi kimianya dan goyang-goyangkanlah agar
tidak terjadi endapan kotoran pada daerah etsa. Lakukanlah hingga mencapai
kedalaman yang diinginkan.
3. jika sudah memperoleh kedalaman yang sesuai, ambillah kuningan atau
tembaga tersebut dengan penjepit plastik tahan kimia.
4. basuh dan bersihkan kuningan atau tembaga tersebut dengan air
5. lepaskan resist yang masih menempel hingga bersih.
Perhatian:
• Jauhkan bahan kimia dan tempat proses kerja dari jangkauan anak-anak
• Jika kena kulit segara bilas dengan air, jika kena mata bilas dengan air dan
segera bawa ke dokter.
• Selalu gunakan masker,kaca mata, sepatu dan kaus tangan plastik tahan kimia

2. Besi dan Stainless Steel


Formula 1 :
Air 1 lt
FeCl3 196 gr / lt
H3PO4 71 %
HCL 6 %
EG 23 %

Resist:
- Tinta sablon
- Stiker
- Cat
- Lakban / isolasi (paling kuat tapi sulit dalam pembuatan motif)

27
Proses Kerja Etsa
1. masukkan seluruh bahan etsa pada sebuah wadah plastik tahan kimia secara
berurutan dari Air, FeCl3, H3PO4, HCL, EG secara hati-hati, lalu aduk hingga
rata.
2. masukkan besi atau stainless steel yang sudah di resist ke dalam larutan,
amatilah sampai terlihat reaksi kimianya dan goyang-goyangkanlah agar
tidak terjadi endapan kotoran pada daerah etsa. Lakukanlah hingga mencapai
kedalaman yang diinginkan.
3. jika sudah memperoleh kedalaman yang sesuai, ambillah besi atau stainless
steel tersebut dengan penjepit plastik tahan kimia.
4. basuh dan bersihkan besi atau stainless steel tersebut dengan air
5. lepaskan resist yang masih menempel hingga bersih.

* resist bertahan agak lama, tapi proses etsa agak lambat

Formula 2 :
Air 4-5 bagian
HCL 1 bagian
H2O2 1 bagian

Resist:
- Tinta sablon
- Stiker
- Cat
- Lakban / isolasi (paling kuat tapi sulit dalam pembuatan motif)

Proses Kerja Etsa


1. masukkan seluruh bahan etsa pada sebuah wadah plastik tahan kimia secara
berurutan dari Air, HCL, H2O2
2. secara hati-hati, lalu aduk hingga rata.
3. masukkan besi atau stainless steel yang sudah di resist ke dalam larutan,
amatilah sampai terlihat reaksi kimianya dan goyang-goyangkanlah agar
tidak terjadi endapan kotoran pada daerah etsa. Lakukanlah hingga mencapai
kedalaman yang diinginkan.
4. jika sudah memperoleh kedalaman yang sesuai, ambillah besi atau stainless
steel tersebut dengan penjepit plastik tahan kimia.
5. basuh dan bersihkan besi atau stainless steel tersebut dengan air
6. lepaskan resist yang masih menempel hingga bersih.

* resist cepat terkelupas, tapi proses etsa cukup cepat.

Perhatian:
• Jauhkan bahan kimia dan tempat proses kerja dari jangkauan anak-anak
• Jika kena kulit segara bilas dengan air, jika kena mata bilas dengan air dan
segera bawa ke dokter.
• Selalu gunakan masker,kaca mata, sepatu dan kaus tangan plastik tahan kimia

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3. Alumunium
Formula 1 :
Air 5 bagian
HNO3 2 bagian
HF 2 bagian

Resist:
- Tinta sablon
- Stiker
- Cat
- Lakban / isolasi (paling kuat tapi sulit dalam pembuatan motif)

Proses Kerja Etsa


1. masukkan seluruh bahan etsa pada sebuah wadah plastik tahan kimia secara
berurutan dari Air, HNO3, HF secara hati-hati, lalu aduk hingga rata.
2. masukkan alumunium yang sudah di resist ke dalam larutan, amatilah sampai
terlihat reaksi kimianya dan goyang-goyangkanlah agar tidak terjadi endapan
kotoran pada daerah etsa. Lakukanlah hingga mencapai kedalaman yang
diinginkan.
3. jika sudah memperoleh kedalaman yang sesuai, ambillah alumunium tersebut
dengan penjepit plastik tahan kimia.
4. basuh dan bersihkan alumunium tersebut dengan air
5. lepaskan resist yang masih menempel hingga bersih.

* resist bertahan lama hanya lakban dan aspal, dan proses etsa agak lama.

Perhatian:
• Jauhkan bahan kimia dan tempat proses kerja dari jangkauan anak-anak
• Jika kena kulit segara bilas dengan air, jika kena mata bilas dengan air dan
segera bawa ke dokter.
• Selalu gunakan masker,kaca mata,sepatu dan kaus tangan plastik tahan kimia

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5.How to make a printed circuit board.

I occasionally make small simple single sided printed circuit boards and thought it might
be helpful if I put down some of the things I have learnt.Firstly the manual method.
Gather your components so you have their dimensions then on some 1/10 inch graph
paper draw their positions and the tracks that are needed pretending you are looking
down on the component side of the board. You can print out your own graph paper using
free software (see my software page). You will find that most component leads fall on a
1/10 inch grid. If the pins on your components are closer than 1/10 inch you may find that
the process of drawing the tracks later on the actual PCB is difficult. Now fix the paper to
the component side of the board and mark each component lead hole by using a sharp
point. To drill the holes you will need .8mm or 1mm drill bits for most components.
Now you need to draw the tracks and you have the holes to guide you but your paper
layout is the reverse of what you will see when you are looking at the copper side of the
board. My solution is to sit near a window and stick the paper on it so that I can see
through it. Clean the board with a plastic scourer and detergent, a slightly rough surface
helps the resist to flow neatly. To make the tracks you can use a resist pen from an
electronics hobby store or you can try a mapping pen with some tar dissolved in
turpentine. I actually had a lump of tar that I used for 20 years but when it took a hike I
substituted it with some tar type roofing paint.Some other things to try:-
Buy some pre-punched board (1/10 inch perf board) and stick the components in it to to
help with judging the spacing and layout. This is what I usually do and it is why I do
most layouts looking from the component side.Print out the graph grid on some stout
tracing paper that you can usually buy in pads. You will be able to see through it when
you mark the copper side of the board and have a proper picture to follow when making
the tracks.The small surface mount device above required tracks thinner than I could
make manually but I got around the problem by hand making a board and using fine wire
for the final connections.The software and photo-resist method.The information below is
a report of what I have found works with the products I have available. If you deviate
from the suppliers recommendations that apply to any product it is your responsibility.

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The problem I had with the size of the above surface mount device prompted me to look
for a better way and I found it.I located some PCB pre-coated with positive photo-resist
from Dick Smith Electronics. The only clue that I have to the manufacturer is an "L" on
the board. I also purchased some KINSTEN branded board from
www.computronics.com.au it looks the same and it came with comprehensive
instructions. I also found a software programme that was free for non commercial use up
to a 200 pin number limit.Layo1 PCB from www.baas.nl is easy to use and can print
directly to your windows printer or to commercial board making equipment. I used it for
all the boards and layout pictures on this site. If you intend to draw the tracks by hand it
is still a good option to use software as it bypasses the graph paper stage. Layo 1 PCB
can handle many layers but you can turn off the layers you do not need and only print the
bottom copper layer. One hint is to make the minimum hole size to about .8mm. You do
not need the correct hole size on the print out because you will be drilling the holes your
self but if you adjust the size correctly then you will find the etched hole makes starting
the drill so much easier, too big and the drill drifts off centre and too small and they may
not etch. The software will also make any text you add mirrored as you view it from the
parts side so it will etch correctly.
Making the transparency
Watch out for options that change the size and quality of the printout as there are heaps of
them in PDF and laser printers, then do some experiments. If you have a laser printer you
can print on the special laser printer film for over head projectors. There is a common but
minor problem with pin holes as can be seen below.As you will be using a full page of
the film each time you should fit as many copies of your circuit as you can on the one
page while you are in the PCB software. Check the print out with a magnifying glass and
select the best result.With an ink-jet you can print on special ink-jet transparency film.
You may get a shock when you see the price so it pays to read the internet regarding the
best brand to use and to cut the sheets up. I print out on scrap paper first then attach the
film over the printout using the sticky part that I cut from post-it type notes. The only
media setting that I find satisfactory on my old Canon BJC-2000SP is "Fabric printing".
the best mode is "Graphics" . The "Fabric" setting really loads the film with ink, note
how it builds up.

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Any other setting on my printer results in the above result. Note that ink-jet transparency
film I used had some problems. It was dirty when I got it and it picked up lint etc. as it
was a little sticky. It tends to bleed ink away from the tracks over a period of some days
and this causes the holes to fill up. This bleeding problem does not occur with photo
gloss paper and I can not see why the same technology could not be used with a clear
backing for transparency film --perhaps it is on better brands.
You can also use an ink-jet with tracing paper. This is thick and translucent and it can be
bought in sheets or pads. The advantage is price and the ink will not bleed over time but
the tracks are not quite as clean and the fibres can be seen sometimes as clear in the
tracks.
The photo resist PCB is very forgiving and just as an experiment I made a board for the
above surface mount chip using a 90 g/m2 ( as thin as I could find at
www.inkme.com.au---) high resolution single sided coated paper printed using "standard
paper" printer settings
The above shows the difference between a good coated and a standard paper. With the
coated paper the result is limited by my old Canon BJC-2000SP and its 720V X 360H
resolution. With standard paper the result is limited mostly by the fibres in the paper.
I smeared the printout with cooking oil to make it transparent and blotted it dry. A board
exposed for 20 minutes, then given a spray with detergent and a rinse to completely
remove residual oil before developing gave excellent results and faithfully reproduced the
faults made by my old printer including the occasional almost invisible gap in a track.
Without the oil the board required 80 minutes of exposure.
Perhaps if I substituted artists linseed oil or some thinned varnish for the cooking oil it
would eventually set and give a permanent transparent result. A problem might be the
paper buckling when the oil sets and thus not remaining flat on the board during
exposure. This buckling problem would mainly affect larger boards and can also show up
with laser printer film if the heat used to fuse the toner in the printer buckles the film.
Basically I think you could use any paper that gives a good pattern and can be made
transparent with oil including light weight photo papers with no plastic backing. I tested a
sample described as "Mirror finished coated paper for 1440 dpi. 140gms Best seller, gloss
photo like finish" and it worked with a 25 minute exposure after oiling.

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With coated or photo paper you may find it easier to get good artwork but the residual oil
is a problem. Why not give it a try if you already have some on hand.
EXPOSING THE BOARD
It was a revelation when I found out that modern resist coatings could be exposed with a
normal fluorescent or low cost compact fluorescent tubes. This means almost anybody
can lash up some method of exposing a board. My fish tank light a sheet of glass from a
photo frame and the kitchen timer is all I need. With the board 55mm from the tube
exposure takes about 11 minutes with film and 13 minutes with tracing paper. I let the
light warm up for a couple of minutes then slide in the assembled stack on a sheet of
paper. You should have the printed side against the resist and you should be able to read
any lettering correctly through the film.A compact fluorescent and an old desk lamp will
also do the job.
DEVELOPMENT AND ETCHING
Development takes about 70-100 seconds in an agitated solution of 1 level teaspoon
(5ml) of caustic soda beads dissolved in 750ml water. Do not try to skimp by making up
some smaller quantity as measuring less than 5 ml is too inaccurate. It is fortunate that
caustic soda works with the board I use as it is available at supermarkets at low cost but
be aware that caustic soda is dangerous stuff so read and follow the precautions on the
package. I drill a hole in the board and loop some string through and etch in a ferric
chloride solution giggling the string occasionally.I then wash and dry the board then re-
expose it and re-develop it. This exposes and washes away the coating on the tracks.
DRILLING
I used to drill boards with a hand drill and have done some small ones with a pin chuck
and fingers. I now use a small rechargeable drill chucked onto the pin chuck. The only
special drills that I have needed are .8mm and 1mm that I get from a hobby electronics
shop.Above I am getting the last out of a broken drill. I hope the above encourages you to
have a go at making a simple PCB.

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www.duraposita.co
duraposita@yahoo.co.id
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