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Business Communication Chapter 1

Value of Communication: People communicate for three basic purposes: o Inform o Persuade o Entertain Communication Process: An effective communicator anticipates possible breakdowns in the communication processthe unlimited ways the message can be misunderstood o Provides the concentration to design the initial message effectively and to be prepared to intervene at the appropriate time to ensure the message received is on target Interferences Hinder the Process o Factors that hinder the communication process referred to as interferences or barriers Education level, experience, culture, and other characteristics increase the complexity of encoding and decoding a message Physical interferences occurring in the channel include a noisy environment, interruptions, and uncomfortable surroundings Mental distractions, such as preoccupation with other matters and developing a response, rather than listening Communicating within Organizations To be successful, organizations must create an environment that energizes and encourages employees to accomplish tasks by promoting genuine openness and effective communication Organization communication is the movement of information within the company structure Communication Flow in Organizations o Formal Communication Channel: Define individual and group relationships and to specify lines of responsibility Dictated by the technical, political, and economic environment of the organization People are required to behave in certain ways to get work done o Informal Communication Channel: Continuously develops as people interact within the formal system to accommodate their social and psychological needs o Bureaucracy is when employees rely entirely on the formal communication system as a guide to behavior. Manuals, organizational charts, and other written materials dictate the required behavior o Formal organizations cannot function long before an informal communication system emerges.

The Grapevine as an Informal Communication System o Tends to develop and operate within all organizations o Employees in many organizations are demanding to be better informed o Managers who ignore the fact that informal communication will emerge from even the most carefully designed formal system are attempting to manage blindfolded Directions for Communication Flow o The direction in which communication flows in an organization can be downward, upward, or horizontal o Downward Communication Flows from supervisor to employee, from policy makers to operating personnel, or from top to bottom on organization chart o Upward Communication Feedback to downward communication When effectively used, upward communication keeps management informed about the feelings of lower-level employees Is key to keeping employees engaged and informed and is especially critical in tapping the power of younger employees who expect to collaborate rather than be supervised o Horizontal Communication Describes interactions between organizational units on the same hierarchical level Primary means of achieving coordination in a functional organizational structure Levels of Communication o Internal messages are intended for recipients within the organization o External messages are directed to recipients outside the organization o When considering the intended audience, communication can be described as taking place on five levels: intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, organizational, and public Strategic Forces Influencing Business Communication Strategic Force 1:Legal and Ethical Constraints o Set boundaries in which communication rightfully occurs o Foundation for Legal and Ethical Behavior Most people immediately associate ethics with standards and rules of conduct, morals, right and wrong, values, and honesty o Causes of Illegal and Unethical Behavior Excessive emphasis on profits Misplaces corporate loyalty Obsession with personal advancement Expectation of not getting caught Unethical tone set by top management Uncertainty about whether an action is wrong Unwillingness to take a stand for what is right o Framework for Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas

Dimension 1: Behavior that is illegal and unethical The black areathose alternatives that are clearly wrong Dimension 2: Behavior that is illegal yet ethical Occasionally, a businessperson will decide that even though a specific action is illegal, there is a justifiable reason to break the law (pharmaceutical company example) Dimension 3: Behavior that is legal yet unethical If the behavior does not violate the code of ethics, then put it to the test of your own personal integrity Dimension 4: Behavior that is both legal and ethical These decisions are easy to make because they comply with the law, company policies, and your professional and personal code of ethics Strategic Force 2: Diversity Challenges o Differences between the sender and the receiver such as culture, age, gender, and education require sensitivity on both parties to insure that the intended message is the one received o Communication Opportunities and Challenges in Diversity Culture and Communication The culture of people is the product of their living experiences within their own society Differing patterns can create barriers to communication Barriers to Intercultural Communication Ethnocentrism o People tend to assume that their own cultural norms are the right way to do things Stereotypes o Influence the way we interact with members of another group Interpretation of Time o Chronemicsthe study of how a culture perceives time and its use Personal Space Requirements o Proxemicsstudy of cultures space requirements Body Language o Kinesicsstudy of body language Translation Limitations Strategic Force 3: Changing Technology o Electronic tools, such as the Internet, intranets, document production software, multimedia presentations, email and Web publishing tools can help people in various ways Collecting and analyzing data Shaping messages to be clearer to more effective Communicating quickly and efficiently with others in geographically dispersed locations

o Databases enable decision makers to obtain information quickly and accurately offer advantages: Data organizationorganize large amounts of data Data integrityassurance the data will be accurate and complete Data securityassurances the data is secure because access to a database is controlled though several built-in data security features o Effective use of various communication technologies helps ensure timely, targeted messages and responses and helps to build interpersonal relationships Strategic Force 4: Team Environment o Work Team Defined A key element in team success in the concept of synergy, defined as a situation in which the whole is greater than the sum of its parts o Communication Differences in Work Teams Communication is perhaps the single most important aspect of successful teamwork All affected parties should be kept informed as project progress o Maximization of Work Team Effectiveness Teams must be encourages to establish the three Rsroles, rules, relationships