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SOLVED EXAMPLES

1. In figure 7-34, the bisector of the angles of a parallelogram ABCD enclose


quadrilateral PQRS. Prove that PQRS is a rectangle.

Sol:

In parallelogram ABCD, ∠A + ∠B = 180o

(Since Consecutive interior angles are supplementary)

1
Multiplying both sides of the above equation by , we get
2

1 1
(∠A + ∠B) = ×180o
2 2

1 1
or ∠A + ∠B = 90o
2 2

or ∠PAB + ∠PBA = 90o … (1)

In Triangle PAB, we have


∠PAB + ∠PBA + ∠APB = 180o

or 90o + ∠APB = 180o [ Since ∠PAB + ∠PBA = 90o ]

or ∠APB = 180o − 90o = 90o

or ∠P = 90o [By using (1)] … (2)

Again, in parallelogram ABCD

∠B + ∠C = 180o (Consecutive interior angles are supplementary)

1
Multiplying both sides by , we get
2

1 1
(∠B + ∠C ) = ×180o
2 2

1 1
∠B + ∠C ) = 90o
2 2

or ∠QBC + ∠QCB = 90o … (3)

In Triangle QBC , ∠QBC + ∠QCB + ∠BQC = 180o (Angle sum property of triangle)

or 90o + ∠BQC = 180o [ Since ∠QBC + ∠QCB = 90o ]

or ∠BQC = 180o − 90o = 90o

or ∠PQR = 90o (Vertically opposite angles are equal)

or ∠Q = 90o … (4)

Similarly, by using triangles formed on side CD and DA, we can show that

∠R = 90o … (5)

and ∠S = 90o … (6)

Thus in quadrilateral PQRS, we have


∠P = ∠Q = ∠R = ∠S = 90o [By using (2), (4), (5) and (6)]

Hence PQRS is a rectangle

2. The diagonals of a rectangle ABCD meet at O. If ∠BOC = 40o . Find ∠OAD .

Sol:

In figure 7-35, we have

∠DOA = ∠BOC (Vertically opposite angles are equal)

or ∠DOA = 40o … (1)

We know that the diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect each other

Therefore AC=DB

1 1
or AC = DB
2 2

or OA=OD … (2)

Now, in Triangle OAD


OA=OD [From (2)]

Therefore Triangle OAD is an isosceles triangle

Thus, ∠OAD = ∠ODA (in an isosceles triangle angles


opposite equal sides are equal)

Now, in Triangle OAD ,

∠OAD + ∠ODA + ∠AOD = 180o (Angle sum property of triangles)

or ∠OAD + ∠OAD + 40o = 180o [ Since ∠OAD = ∠ODA and using (1)]

or 2∠OAD + 40o = 180o

or 2∠OAD = 180o − 40o = 140o

140o
or 2∠OAD = = 70o
2

3. If two parallel lines are intersected by a transversal, then prove that the
bisectors of the interior angles form a rectangle.

Sol:
Given: Two parallel lines AB and CD and a transversal EF intersecting them at G
and H respectively. GM, HM, GL and HN are the bisectors of the two pairs of
interior angles.

To prove: GMHN is a rectangle

Proof: We have ∠AGH = ∠DHG

1 1 1
or ∠AGH = ∠DHG (Multiplying both sides by )
2 2 2

or ∠1 = ∠2

Thus lines GM and HN are intersected by a transversal GH at G and H


respectively such that pair of alternate interior angles are equal.

or ∠1 = ∠2

Therefore GM parallel to HN
Similarly, it can be proved that GN parallel to HM

So GMHN is a parallelogram

Since AB paralell to CD and EF is a transversal.

Therefore ∠BGH + ∠DHG = 180o (Consecutive interior angles are


supplementary)

1
Multiplying both sides by , we have
2

1 1 1
∠BGH + ∠DHG = × 180o
2 2 2

or ∠3 + ∠2 = 90o …. (1)

But ∠3 + ∠2 + ∠GNH = 180o (Angle sum property of triangles)

or 90o + ∠GNH = 180o using (1)

or ∠GNH = 180o − 90o = 90o

Thus, in the parallelogram GMHN, we have ∠GNH = 90o

Hence, GMHN is a rectangle

(Since A parallelogram whose on angle is a right angle is a rectangle)

4. ABCD is a square, Find ∠DCA

Sol:

ABCD is a square.

Therefore AD = DC and ∠ADC = 90o

Now, in Triangle ADC , we have


AD=DC

∠1 = ∠2 (Angles opposite equal sides of an


isosceles triangle are equal and AD=DC)

But ∠1 + ∠2 + ∠ADC = 180o (Angle sum property of triangle)

Since ∠1 = ∠2 and ∠ADC = 90o

Therefore ∠1 + ∠1 + 90o = 180o

or 2∠1 + 90o = 180o

or 2∠1 = 180o − 90o = 90o

90o
or ∠1 = = 45o
2

or ∠2 = 45o ( Since ∠1 = ∠2 )

5. Show that the quadrilateral formed by joining the mid-points of the


consecutive sides of a quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
Sol:

In figure 7-38, let ABCD be a quadrilateral in which P, Q, R and S are the mid
points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA respectively.
We have to show that PQRS is a parallelogram. Join AC

In Triangle ABC , P and Q are the mid points of the sides AB and BC respectively

1
Therefore PQ parallel to AC and PQ = AC (mid point property)
2
… (1)

In Triangle ACD, S and R are the mid points of the sides AD and CD respectively

1
Therefore SR parallel to AC and SR = AC (mid point property)
2
… (2)

From (1) and (2), we get

PQ parallel to SR and PQ=SR

Therefore PQRS is a parallelogram


(If one pair of opposite sides of a quadrilateral are parallel and equal, then it is a
parallelogram)

6. ABCD is a rectangle with ∠BAC = 30o . Determine ∠DBC .

Sol:

Suppose the diagonals AC and BD intersect at O.

Then, in Triangle OAB (Since Diagonals of a rectangle are equal and bisect
each other)

and ∠OAB = ∠OBA (Angles opposite equal sides of an isosceles triangle)

or ∠BAC = ∠DBA

Thus ∠DBA = 30o ( Since ∠BAC = 30o , given)

Now in ∠ABC = 90o

or ∠DBA + ∠DBC = 90o

or 30o + ∠DBC = 90o


or ∠DBC = 90o − 30o = 60o

7. In figure 7-40, ABCD is a rhombus and P,Q, R and S are the mid points of
AB, AC, CD and DA respectively, prove that PQRS is a rectangle.

Sol:

In Triangle ABC , P is the mid point of AB and Q is the mid point of BC.

1
Therefore PQ paralell to AC and PQ = AC (mid point theorem) … (1)
2

In Triangle ACD , S is the mid point of AD and R is the mid point of CD.

1
Therefore SR parallel to AC and SR = AC (mid point theorem) … (2)
2

From (1) and (2), we get

PQ parallel to SR and PQ=SR

Thus PQRS is a parallelogram (If one pair of opposite sides of quadrilateral is


equal and parallel, quadrilateral is a parallelogram)
Similarly, by taking triangles ABD and Triangle BCD , we can show that

PS parallel to BD and QR parallel to BD

Since ABCD is a rhombus, its diagonals AC and BD must be perpendicular. As


PQ and SR are parallel to AC and PS and QR are parallel to BD, we get

∠P = ∠Q = ∠R = ∠S = 90o

Therefore PQRS is a rectangle.

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