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Jocelyn Kibby 11/06/2012 Period # 6 Ionic vs.

Covalent Bonding Lab Investigation Introduction: Bonding is a method that atoms use to create a full octet. Most atoms are never found together because they are bonded to other atoms in an ionic or covalent bond. The octet rule is a rule where each element needs eight valence electrons to become complete. These atoms will either transfer or share electrons. If the atoms share then they are covalently bonding. Covalent bonding consists of non-metals. If the atoms transfer they are considered ionic bonding, they consists of metals and non-metals. The electronegativity has a lot to do with the tendency to attract electrons and this is also a way to determine which way an element will bond. Hypotheses: Table 1: The expected results of testing five different chemicals Compounds To Chemical Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: be Tested Formula Ionic or High or Low Covalent Melting Point? Distilled(pure) H2 O Covalent Low Melting water Sodium Chloride NaCl Ionic High Melting Sucrose ( sugar) C12H22O11 Covalent Low Melting Dextrose C6H12O6 Covalent Low Melting Sodium Sulfate NaSO4 Ionic High Melting

Hypothesis 3: Will it conduct electricity? NO YES in water NO YES YES

Procedures: Part I. Melting point and Strength of bonds 1. Fold aluminum foil into a neat square that will fit on the ring- stand. Place samples of the 4 different compounds, on the aluminum, all 4 compounds at the same time. Do not mix them up. 2. Place the tray on the ring stand carefully and heat the Bunsen Burner. No longer than 2 mins. 3. Begin recording observations, keep track of the order that the samples melt. Which have strong or weak bonds. 4. Let the square of foil cool, then wash off.

Jocelyn Kibby 11/06/2012 Period # 6 Part II. Electrical Conductivity 1. Weigh an estimated 0.1 gram sample of each compound in different wells of a well plate. Be sure to zero the well plate on the balance. 2. Test the dry compound for conductivity with tester. Record observations. 3. Add enough drops of distilled water to the well to dissolve the compound as best as you can. 4. Test the solution for conductivity with the tester. Record observations. Wash conductivity tester with distilled water. 5. Repeat for all samples. Results: Table 2: The results of testing five different chemicals Name/ Chemical Part I: Melting Point Part II: Conducted Formula (1-5;High,Med. or Electricity? Low?) (Yes?No) Dry Distilled (pure) Water/ H20 Sodium Chloride /NaCI Sucrose (Sugar) Dextrose/C6H12O11 Sodium Sulfate/NaSO4 1= lowest (already melted) 4= strongest 3= strongest 2= lowest 5= strongest N/A no no no no Dissolved no yes no no yes covalent ionic covalent covalent ionic

Final Conclusion Ionic or Covalent Bonds?

Conclusion : After this laboratory, it was concluded that sodium chloride and sodium sulfate were ionic compounds, while dextrose and sucrose were covalent compounds. All of the initial hypotheses were correct except dextrose. From the results the ionic compounds were those that conducted electricity in water and had high melting points(strong bonds). However, the covalent compounds had low melting points and weak bonds. The covalent compounds melted quickly and did not conduct electricity well or even at all. Ionic bonds are formed from metal cations

Jocelyn Kibby 11/06/2012 Period # 6 which are positive and non-metal anions which are negative. So when they dissolve in water, electricity can flow through the solution. Additionally, ionic bonds are very strong since they contain a full octet and have a high melting point. Ionic bonds are have very strong bonds since they are composed of metals and non-metals. Some compounds which were ionic were able to conduct electricity because they consisted of non- metals and metals.