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IMS 016

INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM & BUSINESS ETHICS

UNIT I Historical and scientific perspective on the status of our world today; Crises at the level of individual, family, society and nature; basic requirements for fulfilment of aspirations of every human being, right understanding, relationships and physical facilities in that order. Managing relationships between I and body, family, society, nature and existence. UNIT II Cultural history of India; Essentials of Indian Ethos; Values in the cultural tradition on India; Human values in management. UNIT III India as a matrix society; Indian constitution as one of the sources of Universal Human Values; U.N. declaration on Human Rights and Responsibilities. Astaang yoga and holistic view of life. UNIT IV Ethics in the world of business. Theories of Ethics Natural Law, Utilitarianism, Kantian Virtue and Kautilyan Model of Management. Indian Humanistic and Spiritual approach to management. Education system in Ancient India and modern management. UNIT I 1.1 Historical and scientific perspective on the status of our world today; 1.2 Crises at the level of individual, family, society and nature; 1.3 Basic requirements for fulfilment of aspirations of every human being, right understanding, relationships and physical facilities in that order. 1.4 Managing relationships between I and body, family, society, nature and existence. 1.1 HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE ON THE STATUS OF OUR WORLD TODAY;

Historical Perspective on the Status of our World today Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth may defined as an intellectual, liberal and cultural movement in which new Europe took shape on the basis of ancient European inspiration. The period roughly lasts from the 14th to the 16th century and particularly from 1350AD to 1550AD. Causes of Renaissance 1. Crusades: The Crusades were a series of military campaigns during the time of Medieval England against the Muslims of the Middle East. In 1076, the Muslims had captured Jerusalem - the most holy of holy places for Christians. Jesus had been born in nearby Bethlehem and Jesus had spent most of his life in Jerusalem. He was crucified on Calvary Hill, also in Jerusalem. There was no more important place on Earth than Jerusalem for a true Christian which is why Christians called Jerusalem the "City of God". However, Jerusalem was also extremely important for the Muslims as Muhammad, the founder of the Muslim faith, had been there and there was great joy in the Muslim world when Jerusalem was captured. Therefore the Christian fought to get Jerusalem back while the Muslims fought to keep Jerusalem. These wars were to last nearly 200 years and there were a total of eight crusades lasting from 1096AD to 1270AD. Although the Crusades rarely achieved their military objectives the impact that they had on medieval society was profound. For 350 years they

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stimulated trade, brought new ideas to your comment and had a lasting influence on food, architecture, furniture and dress. 2. 1.2 Rise of Mongolian Empire: CRISES AT THE LEVEL OF INDIVIDUAL, FAMILY, SOCIETY AND NATURE;

Changing Family Structure Families play an important role in making an individual what s/he is. It is an acknowledged fact that families are the first and maybe the most crucial socializing unit in any person's life. Till recent times the joint family has been a cornerstone of Indian culture, but as time passes its face is changing, bringing new challenges for the young and the old. It is gradually but certainly being replaced by the nuclear family structures. Both have their own advantages and limitations. The transition from joint family system to nuclear family system is in no way easy and is one of the factors contributing to the crises faced by individuals, family and society. Definitions Joint family: The social unit consisting of several generations of kindred living together under the same roof or in a joining compound. Traditionally, joint families live in a large single home, but in modern times accommodations are often in individual, nuclear homes within a shared compound. The joint family includes the father and mother, sons, grandsons and great-grandsons with their spouses, as well as the daughters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters until they are married thus often comprising several married couples and their children. The head of the joint family, called kutumba mukhya (also mukhya or kartri), is the father, supported by the mother, and in his absence, the elder son, guided by his mother and supported by his spouse. From an early age, the eldest son is given special training by his father to assume this future responsibility as head of the family. In the event of the father's death, sacred law does allow for the splitting of the family wealth between the sons. Nuclear family: A nuclear family consists of a mother, father, and their biological or adoptive descendants, often called the traditional family. The nuclear family was most popular in the 1950s and 60s. The nuclear family can be a nurturing environment in which to raise children as long as there is love, time spent with children, emotional support, low stress, and a stable economic environment. In nuclear families, both adults are the biological or adoptive parents of their children. Extended family: An extended family is two or more adults from different generations of a family, who share a household. It consists of more than parents and children; it may be a family that includes parents, children, cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents, foster children etc. The extended family may live together for many reasons, help raise children, support for an ill relative, or help with financial problems. Sometimes children are raised by their grandparents when their biological parents have died or no longer can take care of them. Many grandparents take some primary responsibility for child care, particularly when both parents work. Their respective advantages and their limitations. The ways in which joint families support in raising children and how that same support sometimes creates conflict, how nuclear families burden parents with more responsibilities but also provides

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them with the freedom to chart their own and their children's lives without interference from others, are factors that need to be analysed. Joint Family System There was a time when joint families were not even a norm. They were just the way things were. Parents, their children, their children's spouses, their grandchildren, dog, cat, (cow too, in the rural Indian context), all lived together in harmony. The men worked and the women of the family handled the home front. The financial travails were shared by all (if there was no discord or animosity amongst the family members) and though the women did not feel the need to (or were not encouraged to) go out for work, they were comforted by the knowledge that their children were safe in the cocoon of grandparental affection. The children also grew up taking the support system provided to them for granted, that people in their present urban lifestyles crave for so much and try and seek from their friends, their counselors, their medicines, and their alcohol. With increasing industrialisation, people started to move out of their family structures and find their own place under the sun. They moved to cities. But gradually they realized, as they do even now, that while cities provide some kind of fulfillment of economic aspirations, they take a lot more away. To fulfill their aspirations, people had to work long hours, with spouses finding very little time to even be with each other, let alone other relatives, in their drive to make ends meet. Alone and over worked, they began to find themselves with no support systems to lean on. Large family structures gradually broke and nuclear families began to be formed. Family and community networks profoundly influence values and attitudes in ways that people are not even conscious of. Following are some of the ways in which joint and nuclear families impact individual lives:

Advantages

Joint families are like microcosms of an entire world. They are the first training grounds, where people learn interpersonal skills. People in joint families learn lessons of patience, tolerance, cooperation and adjustment. They also learn what it means to take collective responsibility. One for all and all for one. When young people live with senior members of the family from the time they are born, they grow up appreciating, admiring and loving them. They also learn to adjust because they realize that as younger people, they have the flexibility of adjusting and changing whereas older people often get stuck in patterns of functioning. In a joint family a child learns and is reared by a number of people, thus dividing work, saving time and creating a spectrum of exposure and awareness. Comprising the father, the mother and their children, the nuclear family threw the children and the parents together, for better or for worse, with no other family members in their space. Now the entire responsibility of what kind of an individual the child grew up to be, lies on the parents. And the differences between the two family set-ups started showing up starkly, in the personality of the child, as well as on the health, mental and otherwise, of the parents. The other features to get affected were the finances of a family, the quality of time spent together, their closeness, individuality, power equations etc. Page 3

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While in joint families, financial problems were shared by all the members of the family, as were financial gains, in nuclear families, financial problems often had to be shared independently. The joint family functioned on the basis of "one for all and all for one". The family, provided support for the aged and infirm, and was an insurance against unemployment for some members. In a joint family authority and respect for elders are paramount, and the family unit controls members in all areas of their lives. Traditionally, all familial, emotional, professional, financial, or health-related difficulties are handled within the family. The joint family set up encourages the setting aside of individual desires for the good of the family. An extended family makes a better home environment for its impressionable young members, by providing them with a basic, yet very important, learning ground for their future successes. Living with, or frequent exposure to an extended family creates a naturally better home environment than a nuclear family alone. Children in nuclear families rely on peers or indifferent baby sitters to fill the void between school time and home time while their one or two parents are at work. However, when growing up with an extended family, children are looked after by people they love and trust thereby finding it easier to replace the absent parent. In today's nuclear-family-centric society, where individualism is worshipped almost to the extent of obsession, it would be difficult for people to find the time to be social with one another, leave alone looking after each others' needs. But when one lives in an extended family environment the practice of sharing and collaborating becomes a part of life.

Limitations

There may be too many authority figures in a joint family set up. This could lead to chaos and conflict for adults and children. Joint families also mean hierarchies and power equations and these hierarchies are very strong. This can put younger members of the family in a vulnerable position. Many a times one finds that there is a lot of resentment in the younger family members towards the older members. This resentment usually occurs when the younger generation feels that the older generation is not allowing it to acquire its own identity and status, separate from that of the older members. The power dynamics also creates spaces for abuse and exploitation. The 'family' is perceived as larger than the individual, so cases of child sexual abuse, domestic violence, or other forms of harassment within the family are not divulged or raised for fear of dishonoring the family name. If one were to look at the joint family set up from a child's point of view, one will see that it could be a mixed bag. The child would be exposed to the love and affection of all the members of the family, would be taken care of in the absence of its parents and a single Page 4

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child would not miss a sibling because there would be cousins present. But conversely, if there are several children in the joint family, there is a tendency for parents to make comparisons and to club all the children together rather than provide individual attention. Some people may feel that in a joint family structure "interdependence is fostered, selfidentity is inhibited and a conservative orientation, resistive to change, is rewarded". Parenting Aspects: A very important aspect of any family is parenting. Here too, one finds significant differences in the forms it takes on in a joint family set-up and in a nuclear family set up.

In a nuclear family set up if both parents are working they may have to leave their children alone with caretakers for given lengths of time. This can mean children being brought up by care centres or domestic help. It can also mean that children are left vulnerable to abuse and violence. In a nuclear family, the responsibility of the culture, traditions and values that a child grows up with, lies on the parents. Many a times, due to lack of time, parents are unable to devote enough time to this aspect of child rearing. This problem is not faced in a joint family set-up, where culture, tradition and values get transmitted from a whole range of people to children. Parents may also have to deal with attention-related problems which are usually byproducts of nuclear family systems, where the child, finding both his parents absent, and no one else from the family, usually resorts to attention seeking behavior. Being sad, insolent, reclusive and so on. In a joint family system families take responsibility for each others children. Most parents want to bring up their children with their own set of values and principles, without any "interference". This is something that parents may find to hard to do in a joint family set up.

In a nuclear family, if parents are conscious of the fact that they are not being able to spend adequate amounts of time with their children, they either end up trying to discipline them in the little time that they have with them, thereby distancing themselves from their children, or they try to compensate for their absence, monetarily and materially. In a nuclear family, there is always a fear that the parents will either be indifferent or be too smothering. Either of these two extremes is not right. In a joint family, the presence of a large number of siblings and other elders means that the child is not left wanting for attention and is being disciplined regularly by other members of the family. Solution

Parents of nuclear families should try and make efforts so that their children are close to the rest of the relatives. These efforts could include taking them on weekly visits, encouraging them to go for sleep-overs at their cousins' houses and so on. Festivals and cultural occasions could be celebrated with extended family, as these are also times when cultural values could be passed on to the children.

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Differences in discipline styles, norms of work, leisure, personal attitudes etc. are common in any family system, but in joint families diversity may not always be encouraged. There is more space for individuality and individual self-expression in a nuclear family set-up. In a joint family conflicting styles may confuse and contradict each other, leading to a child who may not always know what to trust and who to believe, especially when parenting is taken on by more than two people. In a joint family a child has something that is extremely crucial in its growing up years company. One thing to be worried about is that in today's day and age, given the restrictions of space, finances and resources, more and more parents are deciding on having just one child. This one child norm, coupled with the nuclear family phenomenon, means that the child is more often than not, lonely and thus susceptible to go looking for company elsewhere....and they could find the wrong company. Kids who are strongly connected to the family and home are less likely to go astray due to peer pressure or end up doing things that they know deep down to be wrong.

Women and family support It would be wonderful if it could be said that one family structure works better for women than another. But, the reality is that in both joint and nuclear families women can feel helpless, claustrophobic, and isolated, because of the family dynamics. Similarly, either structure could create a sense of well-being. Yet, in order to address the issue, certain generalizations would have to be made.

First and foremost, in today's fast moving times, women have, in a joint family system, a support system that they can turn to. Of course, they also have to contend with hierarchies and power equations, which are as strong as time and tradition. In a joint family she has the support structure that she needs, she is surrounded by other women and she can turn to them whenever she needs help. But at the same time, when the hierarchies and the power equations are so firmly entrenched, she may find herself disadvantaged, because there are not only male members who can dominate over her, there are also older women. Women (especially new entrants) may feel more disadvantaged in a joint family system because there are many people who control her environment because they are further up in the hierarchy of decision-making. In a nuclear family, there is relatively more autonomy. She has the freedom to enjoy an intimacy, a closeness with her spouse and her children without having to include others. In a joint family set up, interaction, even with one's own spouse may be governed by protocol. When a child is born, the woman has to commit a tremendous amount of time to looking after the child. In a nuclear family the mother may not have the help of other members of the family for looking after the child. In a nuclear family unit, there is less pressure on the value of an 'obedient' daughter-in-law than is often observed in most joint families. Since value is placed on the individual's own abilities and attributes, women in nuclear families may be more likely to take the initiative in Page 6

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carving out their own identities. On the other hand, in nuclear households, women's mobility is limited since they have to take responsibility for the full burden of housework, while there is much more sharing of tasks between women in extended households. Elderly and changing family systems While talking about the young and the adventurous and the rebellious, thought should also be spared for the aged. A rapidly-growing concern in Indian societies is of care of the elderly. In a society that was known for the ways in which it cared for its elderly, one is seeing a fast rising number of old age homes. The fragmentation of the joint family system is one of the key reasons that traditional forms of care for older people are eroding. Since in a joint family system, there are lots of people to take care of and give attention to elderly people, it has been discovered that old people living in joint family systems are generally healthier that those living in unitary families. The elderly people of a unitary family are 21.6% less likely to have good health than the elderly person living in joint families. The breaking down of the Indian Joint family has in many ways left the elders isolated, who, without the love of their grandchildren and care of other family members may feel helpless and desolate. In the nuclear family time constraints and increased responsibilities often lead to older people being ignored more. This obviously effects the quality of care and attention that elders receive. Solution

If there are problems between the members of the family, they could try and sort it out by speaking about it. This is also important learning for children in the family, because they will learn the importance of communication and conflict resolution. The various heads of authority should try and put up a united front before children, even if they disagree amongst themselves. Any disunity or contradictions, especially in discipline, will give the child a scope to manipulate situations and individuals. The position and authority of the parents of a child should not be undermined by other family members. Decisions should be taken following dialogue amongst family, rather than unilateral decisions that are then imposed on others. While the benefits of joint family set-ups should be recognized and appreciated, it should be seen that the benefits accrue only when the members of the joint family get along with each other, respect each other and each others' space, are affectionate towards each other and so on. If the above mentioned features are missing, the joint family system could turn out to be a curse instead of a boon. In such a scenario a nuclear unit could be much more healthy to be in.

Marriage in crisis Thirty odd years ago, marriage was still considered an institution, though the fraying at the ends had already begun. The young trusted their parents and watched, with peripheral interest, the matching of horoscopes, the meeting of the families, and lastly the meeting of the two important players in INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 7

the future union. A large percentage of these marriages seemed to work, and if they didn't, very few knew about them. In conventional families, the wife's subservient attitude curbed her individuality and she was prepared to take the backseat while the husband devoted his time to his career. Whatever may have been the path which led to a marriage, arranged or otherwise, there were societal pressures and onus on the couple to keep the marriage stable. Marriage has always been such a highly gendered institution, the differences apparent in the division of labour, parenting styles, different responsibilities, expressions of physical intimacies and psychological orientation. Automatically, irrespective of whether the woman works outside the home or not, they are largely responsible for housework, child care. They play pivotal roles in family and marriage while the men are involved in their provider roles, and generally the "outside-ofhomework" though more and more women are taking on this extra baggage, in lieu of the fact that there is increasing pressure on the man in his work. There has been a significant change in the views and attitudes towards marriage in the last decade. Marriage is no longer held to be a "divine match" or a "sacred union". The rather flippant and superficial reasons given by many women and men to break a marriage do not portend well for the future. Today, the institution of marriage is in transition. There has been so much emphasis on gender equality without other supporting factors . . . that of acceptance of each other's strengths and weaknesses, no high expectations and division of labour, so much so, the incidence of divorce even in a country like India, with different norms of sustenance and forbearance, has gone up alarmingly. Till 1988 only one civil court was earmarked for divorcees under the Hindu Marriage Act, today, three Family Courts work overtime to deal with petitions from all religious groups. What is disturbing is the high divorce rate among older people, couples who have been married for 15-20 years, where the women want to call it quits owing to infidelity on the part of the husband, mental cruelty, and other factors which no longer need prolonged suffering, with the woman's economic independence. Where gender roles were defined, it was easier to conform to a pattern, but with the inevitable emancipation of woman, her economic independence, western influences and new value systems, imbibed from peer groups or passed on by her parents, marriage has assumed a new face. It should be remembered that couples do not exist in a social vacuum, but within a larger social context that forms and shapes the values, expectations and beliefs of the partners and constraints their patterns of interaction and transaction as a couple system. Today in India there is a disenchantment with the system of arranged marriages, and a reluctance to "take the matrimonial plunge." Even for dating couples, the world over, saying "yes" to a legal bond of matrimony does not come easy. More and more couples are wanting to test-drive holy matrimony before they say "I do." Living together before marriage is like a Nutri sweet; it doesn't provide the context to really find out the worth, the values, nor the character and commitment of the other person. More often than not, living together leads both partners to heartbreak. That marriage is in crisis, is a universal happening. Marriage is strongly institutionalised, not just in India but also in the West and is a preferred context for intimate relations and is the cornerstone of family life. There is a compulsive need to stay married and have children within the marriage. Marriage involves a high degree of interdependence, a close emotional bond, sharing of residence, a commitment over time, a sharing of roles and functions and an active physical relationship. Marriage INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 8

offers stability, providing an atmosphere of love, acceptance, encouragement and trust in which partners exchange instrumental and expressive support. In today's shifting values and changing times, there is less reliance on marriage. There are more number of extra-marital relationships, including open gay and lesbian relationships, a delay in the age of getting married, higher rates of marital disruption and a more egalitarian gender-role attitudes among men and women, where norms and values have been totally restructured. Priorities have shifted even in a country with hidebound traditions like India. Where the priority was the husband, it has shifted to careers as far as the woman is concerned and deep resentment surfaces when the husband is not willing to share duties in the home. Stay-at-home women who have given up careers to be good mothers and homemakers find this role daunting and frustrating as they tend to the demands of little children and the never-ending drudgeries of housework singlehanded. The woman's fatigue and pent up frustration is heaped on her husband producing the inevitable lacuna in the marriage. The husband is intimidated by the new-image woman, bewildered by the revolt, when he has been brought up all along to expect a conformist woman who regards her husband as the most important factor in her life. The answer to this lies in mothers bringing up their sons to accept the fact that gender roles are no longer defined and that men and women have to share the burden of work and child-rearing tempered with tolerance and understanding if the marriage has to work. With the present-day work-pressures, a feel for each other's needs and giving one another space is of paramount importance, with a healthy respect for each other. Couples who set apart time to do something together are those who have a successful marriage, prioritising this, even putting it above their children. When the children grow up and move away from the parental umbrella, the couple realise that they have only each other, and for ones who have not debated on this aspect, it is too late, and the rift is too wide, what with the chemistry on the wane and the predictability and sameness of a marriage jarring. It is imperative that each partner cultivates some interest which can be pursued well into retirement days and which will stave off the loneliness and pain when the children leave home. Women tend to be more concerned about their marriage than men and head for counselling. Wives tend to see themselves as the major force for resolving conflicts and when they give up the effort the marriage is generally over. The men feel that the expectations of the women are immense, and they cannot please them however hard they try, despite a sizeable contribution to the family. They are under pressure to improve financial contribution, share in raising the children and provide emotional support to the wives. With tremendous pressure at work, the men suffer emotional exhaustion. The simpler role of husbands in the past decades has now been replaced with a more complex role. But the emotional needs of a woman are different: she wants a soul-mate, someone who can understand her needs, someone who is caring and one who will take care of her when she is unduly stressed. The goal in a marriage is to become united in purpose and spirit, not to overpower and control each other. Couples that are already emotionally bonded have little or no trouble following this, because they have learnt how to behave in sensitive and caring ways in each of their life's roles. Couples emotionally distant have great difficulty accomplishing this goal, because they are accustomed to doing what they please, regardless of its effect on one another. It is hoped that in the years to come, INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 9

granted that children have inculcated the basic qualities of trust, sense of commitment and fulfilment of obligatory roles, marital relationships will stabilise and assume to some degree the importance that they held for the last generation. Marriage is often not the happily-ever-after phenomena as portrayed in fairy tales or films, nor is it a permanent state of romance. It is a life-long process of cementing a relationship in the face of several adversities and an ongoing process of physical and emotional accommodation, sharing and loving. Young people should neither idealise it too much nor have their knives sharpened all the time. The institution of marriage has changed in India and the new Indian marriage now: focuses on emotional fulfillment for both partners, and not merely procreation or recreation. is owned by both partners in the marriage and not by anyone else. Recognises two sets of personal spaces ('I' spaces) in a marriage, but pays due attention to the marriage space ('We' space) as well. appreciates that fights, issues and conflicts are inevitable when two individuals engage in a close and intense relationship. uses rational processes to manage these fights, issues and conflicts. employs a zero-tolerance policy towards abuse -- whether physical, verbal, sexual or emotional. pays adequate attention to the experience and expression of physical and emotional intimacy. believes that parents and children need their own spaces and that these should rest outside of the marriage space. works towards transparent and honest communication styles. does not hesitate to seek professional help when things get sticky between the partners or they find it hard to find solutions to their issues. understands that divorce is a legitimate option (if the marriage does not work despite the best efforts of both partners), but only the final one. There is no perfect marriage and there never will be one - neither is it necessary to be so. All the fun will be lost if marriage is always sedate and predictable. Society and changing values Materialism Materialism promotes the idolatry of possessions or material wealth. Possessions are believed to fill all human need and characterize quality of life. Materialism, at its simpler level, involves the focus on material "things" as opposed to that which is spiritual or intellectual in nature. A materialist can become obsessed by a desire to obtain them, or simply frustrated by the need to maintain them. The effects of materialism are similar to brainwashing. They have undermined any personal responsibility by claiming that thought is dictated biologically and by environment. Materialism's goals and their end results: Acquisition of material goods (lust, envy, false comfort, idolatry) Self interests, (selfishness, no compassion, greed, denies eternal soul and the Creator) INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 10

Accumulation, equivalent to success (no morals, no sense of right or wrong, preoccupation to money, jealousy, thievery) Voiding all faith and spiritual deity (hopelessness, unrepentant sin, despair, eternal death)

Today materialism operates rampantly throughout the world and Indians are increasingly indulging in a show of wealth, moving away from the basic philosophy of the country simple living, high thinking. Everything, from relationships to ceremonies, from intellectual pursuits to art has been reduced to the workings of materialistic thought. It has made individuals self-centred, focussed on achieving all for themselves, regardless of values, relationships, family sentiments and even at times their personal well being. Leadership Crisis The Indian society is undergoing a huge change with one leg tied hard by chains of biases and general incivility. The law and order machinery is primitive and still relies on ancient and inefficient methods. They look for easy and dramatic solutions of complex problems. There is a distinct lack of able leadership at the regional and local level. Successive, strong leadership can alone produce good results in India, with all its diversity (read, myriad opinions and fractured consensus). People hardly have good role models to look up to and emulate. At the local and regional levels, which are the training grounds for national level leaders, there are few who are willing to take initiative and bear the mantle of leadership. There are complex reasons for this crisis of leadership, but some which can be easily identified are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Merit is pushed out to accommodate candidates with clout. Administration lacks competent and neutral officers. Government machinery is inward looking and insular. People have no or little faith the fairness and efficiency of the administration. Administration is weak and non existent at some places. Administrators display brazen biases while taking decisions. Policemen are untrained, poorly paid with stressful and inhuman working conditions. Corruption is reported to be rampant in selection and promotion Incompetent people are being pushed in to positions of power and mess up badly. People are impatient and loaded with biases.

Corruption The last two decades of the existence of independence, India has seen a steep upward trend in the graph of existing corruption. The media, the public, the variety of forums for discussions and debates for the higher intellingensia are all neck deep buried in highlighting the rampant corruption in every sphere. What is meant by corruption and corrupt practices. In brief, anything that is below all standard norms of morality in a country, is called or defined as corruption and corrupt practices. These norms are a fixed standard in any given society, and when these are broken we say that, a society is getting corrupted. Corruption is not a development that has come overnight, it has been a continuous process for the last several decades and, to day it has seeped into the very blood stream of the system. The corrupt practices have now become a part of lifestyle to such an extent that, people do not seem to feel that there is anything wrong in what all they are doing., and that things should not be INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 11

as they are. On the contrary, they are inclined to justify all wrong saying that, without doing wrong one cannot exist or be functional. The highest level of the society, bureaucracy, is seen to have become most corrupt in the last two decades and the public is very well aware of the multi-scam decades of the eighties and nineties. Now, the scenario at the very top, can hardly allow for any space for any honesty to persist in any other layer of society. So, from this topmost layer, corruption has percolated to all levels and in all spheres of activities. The politician has encouraged the bureaucrat to be corrupt, and in turn the bureaucrat has enjoyed the protection of the politician, in all his nefarious activities. The Indian society in all its entirety is corrupt to the core, and now corruption is like a drug, without which the addict finds it difficult to survive. With this slow and steady and continuous spread of the fangs of corruption, today the situation is such that, there is no place or activity which is bereft of the fruits of corruption. It is important to eradicate corruption from the fabric of the society, if it is to breathe in free and fresh air. Irrespective of the status of the wrong doer everyone, big or small, high or low, must be dealt with an iron hand, and that also at a fast speed.

1.3 BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR FULFILMENT OF ASPIRATIONS OF EVERY HUMAN BEING, RIGHT UNDERSTANDING, RELATIONSHIPS AND PHYSICAL FACILITIES IN THAT ORDER. Individual Aspirations can be categorised into: a) Professional b) Personal c) Social Professional - Need for power - Need for affiliation - Need for achievement Selfactualisation Personal - Physiological needs - Safety & Security needs Social - Social needs - Esteem needs

When talking of individual aspirations, we can categorise them into three groups professional, personal and social. Every individual aspires to be the best in these categories though what he considers best can vary from his earning power to recognition of his talents to the power he enjoys over others. Based on his personal inclination an individual chooses a particular field of work and devotes his energies in accomplishing what gives him satisfaction. Professional aspirations: INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 12

Basically the professional aspirations of an individual can be studied from the point of view of the motivation theory forwarded by David McClelland in his 1961 book, The Achieving Society. The three needs indentified by him are:

achievement motivation (n-ach) authority/power motivation (n-pow) affiliation motivation (n-affil)

These needs and consequently the aspiration to satisfy them are found to varying degrees in all individuals, and this mix of motivational needs characterises a person's style and behaviour, both in terms of being motivated, and in aspiring to achieve them. The need for achievement (n-ach) The n-ach person is 'achievement motivated' and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goals, and advancement in the job. There is a strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment. Individuals exhibiting this need aspire for self satisfaction on the basis of the quality of their work and prefer devoting time to accomplishing tasks given to them. Some characteristics and attitudes of achievement-motivated people: achievement is more important than material or financial reward. achieving the aim or task gives greater personal satisfaction than receiving praise or recognition. financial reward is regarded as a measurement of success, not an end in itself. security is not prime motivator, nor is status. feedback is essential, because it enables measurement of success, not for reasons of praise or recognition (the implication here is that feedback must be reliable, quantifiable and factual). achievement-motivated people constantly seek improvements and ways of doing things better. achievement-motivated people will logically favour jobs and responsibilities that naturally satisfy their needs, ie offer flexibility and opportunity to set and achieve goals, eg., sales and business management, and entrepreneurial roles. Achievement-motivated people are generally the ones who make things happen and get results. This could extend to getting results through the organisation of other people and resources, with them often demanding too much of their staff because they prioritise achieving the goal above the many varied interests and needs of their people. The need for authority and power (n-pow) The n-pow person is 'authority motivated'. This driver produces a need to be influential, effective and to make an impact. There is a strong need to lead and for their ideas to prevail. There is also motivation and need towards increasing personal status and prestige. The Need for Power (N-Pow) is typical for people who like to be in charge. They can be grouped into two types: personal and institutional power. People with a high need for personal power want to direct and influence others.

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A high need for institutional power means that people like to organize the efforts of others to achieve the goals of the organization. High power people enjoy competition and status-oriented positions. While these people are attracted to leadership roles, they may not possess the required flexibility and people-centered skills. Managers with a high need for institutional power tend to be more effective than those with a high need for personal power.

The need for affiliation (n-affil) The n-affil person is 'affiliation motivated', and has a need for friendly relationships and is motivated towards interaction with other people. The affiliation driver produces motivation and need to be liked and held in popular regard. These people are team players. Some characteristics of high N-Affil people: They want to be liked and accepted by others, and attach importance to a personal interaction. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group. They strive to make and keep relationships with a high amount of trust and mutual understanding. They prefer cooperation over competition. Obviously, they perform well in customer service and client interaction situations. Aspiration for satisfying a strong Need for Affiliation undermines the objectivity and decision-making capability of managers. Generally, all three needs are present in each individual. They are shaped and acquired over time by the cultural background of the individual and his life experience and hence, he aspires to satisfy the dominant need. Training can be used to modify a need profile. Nevertheless, one of the needs is the dominant one, also depending on the personality. Personal Aspirations: An understanding of the personal aspirations of an individual stems from the basics that are required to live a respectable and secure life. Hence, personal aspirations are discussed under the heads of aspiring to fulfil the physiological needs and the safety and security needs of an individual. Physiological Needs (food, sleep, stimulation, activity) These are the very basic needs such as air, water, food, sleep, etc. When these are not satisfied an individual may feel sickness, irritation, pain, discomfort, etc. In fact, these are the basics without which the survival of a living being would be at stake. Hence, these are the ones which a person first aspires to fulfil. There would be different degrees to which an individual tries to attain these basic amenities in his life. So, while every individual needs to satisfy his basic, physiological needs, the status and level to which one belongs dictates the level and quality of food one consumes, the activities one indulges in and the kind of stimulation one needs. As the status of the person increases, he aspires for better gratification of his basic requirements. Safety Needs (security; protection from harm) While the physiological needs are for survival, the safety needs are for maintaining the sanity of the person. It is difficult to survive without the safety net and INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 14

individuals strive and aspire for bringing this safety into their lives. Safety is needed not only from physical danger like the elements (sun, wind, rain, etc.) it is also needed from emotional trauma and mental hurt. Thus, individuals seek to identify ways of securing themselves and their near and dear ones physically as well as emotionally. These aspirations deal with achieving stability and consistency in a chaotic world. These are mostly psychological in nature. People look for the safety and security provided by a home and family. However, if a family is dysfunctional caused by for example an abusive husband, the wife cannot aspire for other things, because she is constantly concerned for her safety. Love and belongingness have to wait until she is no longer in fear. How an individual achieves security is again going to be consistent with his status and the level of danger he perceives could harm him. Hence, while the average person is pretty happy within the confines of his home and feels is safe, a high profile politician would require the posse of security guards to give him peace of mind even within his home. Social Aspirations An individuals social aspiration is one of the major motors for social development, for improving the lot of the whole of society. In the late 1980s and 90s, social aspiration was recast to mean privatised consumption and lifestyle choice. The ability to buy more consumer goods, and to express your individuality, undoubtedly has its positive aspects. Todays emphasis is more on the private sphere, focussing on how the individual strives to fulfil his social aspiration of getting esteem and a sense of belonging in the society and community in which he lives.

Love and Belongingness Aspirations: (love, friendship, comradeship) Friendship, intimacy and a supportive and communicative family is something every human being aspires to have. It gives him happiness, a sense of usefulness and above all a network, support system to catch him when he falters. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs ("Safety in numbers"), or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging. Hence, the aspiration for becoming members of certain clubs, building lasting friendships and nurturing a healthy family. Esteem Aspirations (self respect, personal worth, autonomy) All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, self-respect. Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People aspire to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. It may be noted, however, that many

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people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Aspiring for earning esteem could translate into the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention or to the higher order of acquiring self-esteem, strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. The last one is higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness. Self Actualization Needs (full potential) This is "the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming." People who have everything can maximize their potential. They can seek knowledge, peace, esthetic experiences, self-fulfillment, oneness with God, etc. Basic Requirements for Fulfilment of Aspirations 1. Right Understanding a. Ends Vs Means People get ruined if they do not respond to fraudulent people with deception and fraud. b. Right understanding of the 6 disorders or shad vikaras Kama (desire) Krodha (anger) Lobha (greed) Moha (attachment) Mad (ego) Matsar (envy) c. Right understanding of the 6 vices or shad doshas Nidra (slumber) Tandra (drowsiness) Bhaya (fear) Krodha (anger) Alasya (slothfulness) Dirghasutrata (procrastination) d. 3 gunas Sattwa brahmana (yagya, satya, swadhyaya) The first guna is Sattwa. It is the power behind all knowledge oriented things & activities. It is the material cause of our mind & intellect and wherever there is sattwa guna, there is quietitude, thoughtfulness and better knowledge & wisdom. It is a blessing for all students and a doorway to all magnanimous & positive qualities and values. With sattwa guna there is a compulsive drive for more & more knowledge and its associated joys. Such people seek good books & good company, they prefer quietitude, simplicity and contentment, because it all facilitates their dedicated pursuit of knowledge. If they do not get good company then they are unhappy, and may go out of the way to seek good, wise company. They are basically healthy & good people. Its a joy to meet such people, because they are basically very sensitive, understanding and intelligent people. The main feature of these people is that they are not bothered about their needs & requirements. One, their requirements are very less, two, they do their best and truly leave the rest to god, moreover they do INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 16

not crave for the ephemeral, transitory joys of the world outside and seek something more permanent. They live more to serve & give rather than get. Even though such people may be less, yet they are also very different from the rest. They too seek, but seek knowledge and more permanent joy. It is these people alone who make a good sadhaka & student, and thus it is these alone who realize the truth of their Self and the world on the whole. They alone can awake to the Gunatita awastha. Rajas/ Rajo guna kshatriya (administration, leadership); Vaishya (agriculture, trade) Rajo guna is the power behind activity. Wherever there is activity in the creation, the knower's of gunas, see it as a play of rajo guna. Rajo guna is compulsive activity, helpless activity. It is activity borne out of a sense of lack within, an activity motivated by seeking. Activity which shall ensure our very survival and existence. While this guna too in right ratio is a blessing it does become a curse for someone who has its predominance. Wherever there is rajo guna there is self-centricity and selfishness. Whether it is work, enjoyments or relationships, its all for filling our cup. Concern and sensitivity is just a matter of necessity and convenience. It is rajo guna alone which brings about intense desires and fiery anger. Arrogance, and the entire family of Shad Vikara (Kama-Krodha etc) are all seen to be effects of rajo guna alone. Mind is unstable and disquiet, person does not have patience to even study properly, they resort to imagination more than to valid knowledge. A mind having predominance of rajo guna is a sure shot recipe for endless seeking and choking dissatisfaction. Such people see the world from vyashti (individualistic) point of view. The society and the world is fragmented for them, and the ego-prompted wars are an inevitability. They are very prone & susceptible to diseases like hypertension and various psycho-somatic disorders (stress etc.) Tamas / Tamo guna shudra (service) Tamo guna is responsible for all that is inert in the creation. Tamo guna is inert, and is thus the material cause of all inert things, the mountains, rivers, objects, and even the physical bodies of all living beings. Gunas effect everything including the moods & motivation of the mind. So whenever this Tamo guna starts increasing, we see inertia, inactivity and dullness in the mind. It is demotivated and disenthused and the mind is as though tired. The joy of people having predominance of tamo guna is in sleeping, loitering around with no sense of responsibility. The life is a burden for them and their value structure and accordingly formulated and accepted. While there are some benefits of tamo guna, its pre-dominance in the mind is a road to disaster and devolution. 2. Relationships a. Vasudhaiva kutumbakam entire world is one family A Coalition for Comprehensive Democracy is an initiative to bring together people and associations from various ideologies and streams to engage in dialogue on issue of democracy. Such dimensions include politics, ecology, gender, social justice, economy and culture. The roots of the Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam is in South Asia, where the concept (meaning the world is a family) has been part of the culture for thousands of years. The Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam initiative in practice means taking part in local, national, regional and global social forums as organiser of events and information agency. Means for fulfilling aspirations and the concept of vasudhaiva kutumbakam go hand in hand. The focus is on the attitude of the individual towards the world at large. Just as one would be open, receptive and all embracing for his family members and kith and kin, the concept of vasudhaiva kutumbakam calls for an open mind while dealing with diverse cultures, being receptive to what

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others have to offer and being alert to what needs change in ones own outlook and traditional thinking patterns. b. Concept of space the four bands INTIMATE BAND nearest band, reserved for nearest and dearest, family members (1.5 feet) FRIENDLY or PERSONAL BAND friends, club members, colleagues (4 feet) SOCIAL BAND acquaintances (12 feet) PUBLIC BAND strangers (24 feet) 3. Physical Facilities The sense organas or indriyas are eleven in number. Of them five are jnanendriyas and five karmendriyas. The jnanedriyas are senses of perception, responsible for our empirical knowledge or the knowledge of the sensory world. The karmendiryas are sense organs of action, responsible for our movements and activities. The five jnanedriyas or organs of perception are the eyes, the ears, the nose, the skin, the tongue and the mouth. The five karmendriyas or organs of action together with the jnanendriyas constitute the ten physical senses. Then there is the mind, or the manas, which is also likened to a sense in the Bhagavadgita:"manahsasthani'indriyani". It is the controller of the senses, because the senses act according to its instructions and intentions. In symbolic terms it is likened to Indra, the ruler of the heavens, while the gods are likened to the five senses. The senses are responsible for awareness and knowledge of the objective world with which individuals interact. They are not perfect instruments of knowledge and not very reliable in discerning the truth. By constantly keeping us in contact with the sense objects, they cloud our consciousness, creating the illusory notion that we are unique individuals different and separate from the rest of creation and that we are responsible for our actions and are the actual doers. They cause a multitude of desires for the material objects. Desire for them leads to attachment and from attachment arises conflicting emotions as ripples in our consciousness, such as anger, fear, anxiety, greed, envy and pride, resulting in bondage and suffering. Thus, in the words of the Bhagavadgita, a correct understanding of the true nature of the senses and their activities is the first step towards self-discipline and Self-realization. Without this awareness a seeker of truth cannot overcome the delusion of his mind and become free from the bondage to his physical and mental existence. By controlling his senses dutifully, he can become detached from the sense objects, and regain his freedom from the compulsion to act according to his desires.

1.4 MANAGING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN I AND BODY, FAMILY, SOCIETY, NATURE AND EXISTENCE. To be dealt with through practical sessions and case studies

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UNIT II 2.1 Cultural history of India; 2.2 Essentials of Indian Ethos; 2.3 Values in the cultural tradition on India; 2.4 Human values in management.

2.1

CULTURAL HISTORY OF INDIA

India's history and culture is ancient and dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. Beginning with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in farming communities in the southern lands of India. The history of India is one punctuated by constant integration with migrating peoples and with the diverse cultures that surround India. Placed in the center of Asia, history in India is a crossroads of cultures from China to Europe, and the most significant Asian connection with the cultures of Africa. India's history is more than just a set of unique developments in a definable process; it is, in many ways, a microcosm of human history itself, a diversity of cultures all impinging on a great people and being reforged into new, syncretic forms. IndHistory.com brings you the India's history starting from ancient history of India to modern Indian history. Shown below is the India timeline starting from 3000 BC of ancient Indus valley civilization and Harappa civilization to 1000 AD of Chola Dynasty of ancient history of India. Indian History in Short : The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization in such sites as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Lothal, and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic perio ds. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism first arose: this is the time to which the Vedas are dated. In the fifth century, large parts of India were united under Ashoka. He also converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to o ther parts of Asia. It is in the reign of the Mauryas that Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally informs the religion down to the present day. Successor states were more fragmented. Islam first came to India in the eighth century, and by the 11th century had firmly established itself in India as a political force; the North Indian dynasties of the Lodhis, Tughlaqs, and numerous others, whose remains are visible in Delhi and scattered elsewhere around North India, were finally succeeded by the Mughal empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity. The European presence in India dates to the seventeenth century, and it is in the latter part of this century that the Mughal empire began to disintegrate, paving the way for regional

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states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged 'victors', their rule marked by the conquests at the battlefields of Plassey and Buxar. The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete. Successive campaigns had the effect of driving the British out of India in 1947. SOCIAL CHANGES IN ANCIENT INDIA The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period during which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of the Indo-Aryans, were being composed. Scholars place the Vedic period in the second and first millennia BCE continuing up to the 6th century BCE based on literary evidence. The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization, was centered in the northern and north western parts of the Indian subcontinent. Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India. In its late phase (from ca. 600 BCE), it saw the rise of the Mahajanapadas, and was succeeded by the Maurya Empire (from ca. 320 BCE), the golden age, classical age of Sanskrit literature, and the Middle kingdoms of India. Vedic Literature The Vedic literature is composed of many books. The oldest texts are the Rig-veda, Yajurveda, Sama-veda, and the Atharva-veda. It is said in the Muktikopanishad that these four Vedas had 21, 109, 1000, and 50 branches respectively, with over 100,000 verses. Now, however, we can only find around 20,023 (some say 20,379) verses in total from these four Vedas. The Rig-veda, the Veda of Praise, contains 1,017 hymns, or 10,522 verses, arranged in ten books or mandalas. The first eight mostly contain hymns of praise to the various demigods, such as Indra and Agni. The ninth book deals primarily with the soma ritual, which was the extraction and purification of the juice of the soma herb. The tenth book contains suktas or verses of wisdom and mantras that would cause certain magical effects to take place. The Rig-veda hymns were mainly of praise to the gods that were invoked during the Vedic ceremonies for ensuring immediate material needs. The Rig-veda is also a mystical text that contains knowledge in its abstract imagery of what the seers had realized. It has information on yoga, the spinal current and the chakras, as well as the planets and their orbits. Many aspects of this mystical knowledge are also contained in the other Vedas. The Rig-veda is said to have had 21 branches, out of which only two are still available. Much of the Shakal branch is still available, along with the Brahmana and Aranyaka of the Shankhayan branch. Although there are some stories in the Rig-veda, there are few historical records of the early Vedic kings. This has been a mistake amongst various linguists and researchers who study the Rig-veda to try to get an historical understanding of the early Vedic kingdom and Aryans. The Yajur-veda is the Veda of Rituals and contains 1975 verse-mantras in 40 chapters, many of which are similar to those in the Rig-veda and used in rituals, usually by the
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adhvaryu priest. These contain different levels of knowledge and wisdom. The Yajur-veda once had 109 branches of knowledge, but now only parts of seven branches are found, of which the Vajasaneyi is prominent. The Yajur-veda, however, has two samhitas, or collections of verses, known as the White Yajur-veda (or Vajasaneyi-samhita) with the hymns and rituals, and the Black Yajur-veda (or Taittiriya-samhita) with their interpretations. These were primarily for the priests to use as a guide in performing sacred rituals, such as the ashvamedha or rajasuya, since they also contain directions or formulas that the priests use along with the verses that are sung during the ceremony. The Sama-veda, the Veda of Melodies, contains 1549 verses meant to be used as songs in various ceremonies, primarily for the udgata priest. Most of them are taken from the Rig-veda and arranged according to their use as utilized in particular rituals. From the original 1000 branches of the Sama-veda, three are still available, of which the Kauthumiya and Jaiminiya are prominent. The Atharva-veda is the Veda of Chants and once had 50 branches of which we have only the Shaunak branch today. It is a book of 5977 verses in 20 chapters containing prayers, spells, and incantations which in some respects resemble magical instructions found in the Tantras and even various magical incantations found in Europe. The Atharva-veda contains a small section of verses of instruction, wisdom, descriptions of the soul and God, but the majority of it consists of rules for worshiping the planets, rules for oblations and sacrifices, prayers for averting evil and disease, incantations for the destruction of foes, for fulfilling personal desires, etc., mostly for the material needs of people. Although the four principle Vedas include the concept of spiritual perfection or liberation, it is not so thoroughly developed or presented. Therefore, to help one understand what the goal of Vedic philosophy is, there are also other compositions along with the four Vedas, namely the Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and the Upanishads. Originally, the Brahmanas consisted of 1180 branches, with the same number of Aranyakas. Unfortunately, only a few of these branches remain today. The Upanishads also had 1180 branches to continue the explanation of these Vedic divisions of knowledge and practice. However, only about 200 are still available. The Brahmanas are compositions that accompany different portions of the Veda Samhitas with additional directions and details that the brahmana priests would use when performing the sacrificial rituals, along with some of their histories. They include the Aitareya, the Shankhayan or Kausitaki, and the Shatpath and Taittariya Brahmanas that are connected to the Rig-veda. These contain such instructions as what to meditate on and how to chant the mantras while conducting the sacrifice, etc. The Brahmanas also hold cosmological legends and stories that explain the reason for performing the Vedic rituals, along with the esoteric significance of the mantras and sacrificial rituals. They also describe the verses in the main Samhitas. Furthermore, they provide the seeds of the systematic knowledge of the Sutras, and can be used by the village householders. The Upanishads are essentially presented for the continued spiritual progress of the individual. If the Vedas emphasize and primarily consist of worship to the demigods for
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material needs and only hint at the prospect of spiritual liberation, then the Upanishads start to explain how worldly attachments need to be renounced so we can surrender to God. The word upanishad literally means to sit down (shad) near (upa) and below or at the feet with determination (ni). So it indicates that the student should sit near the feet of ones spiritual teacher and listen with determination to the teachings. Another meaning of the word shad in upanishad means to destroy. So the spiritual knowledge the student receives from the teacher destroys the ignorance of the true nature of the world and his own Self. As ones ignorance is destroyed, enlightenment can follow. The Upanishads are a collection of 108 philosophical dissertations. The Muktikopanishad (verses 30-39) lists all 108. (See Appendix One) However, there are over 100 additional compilations if you also count the lesser Upanishads that are not actually part of the primary group, making a total of well over 200. Out of all the Upanishads, the following eleven are considered to be the topmost: Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka, and Svetasvatara. The Upanishads were considered the secret and confidential knowledge of reality. The Smritis were additional books that included those of many ancient authors, such as the Manu-samhita, the famous Vedic law book, and Yagyavalkya Smriti, Parashar Smriti, and those of Brihaspati, Daksha, Gautama, Yama, Angira, Pracheta, Yogeshwara, Atri, Vishnu, and several others. There were also the Upa-Smritis (smaller books) of Narada, Pulaha, Garga, Pulastya, Shaunaka, Kratu, Baudhayana, Jatukarna, Vishvamitra, Pitamaha, Jabali, Skanda, Kashyapa, Vyasa, Sanatkumara, Janaka, Vashishta, Bharadwaj and others. Most anyone who has done a fair amount of Vedic study will recognize these names, but most of these books are now unavailable. These Smritis, especially like the Manu-samhita, explained the codes and laws or disciplines of proper conduct, and the consequences or recommended penances for bad or evil behavior. First among India's non-indigenous religious systems to develop was Hinduism, which had strong ties to the Indo-Aryan people who moved south through India and displaced the Indus Valley Civilization. Hinduism is based upon three primary texts: the Vedas (written 1400-1000 B.C.E.), the Upanisads (written 900-500 B.C.E.) and the Mahabharata (400 B.C.E. to 400 C.E.). The works of Hinduism describe two dynamic social systems: the varna system, better known as the caste system, and the asrama system, which is based upon age.

SOCIETY IN VEDIC TIMES The varna system has its origins in the conquering Indo-Aryan tribes, who set about creating a servant class out of the indigenous Indians during the latter half of the second millennium B.C.E. and the first half of the first millennium. Although the Vedas spoke of four varnas: Brahmans, Ksatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras, the actualization of the Hindu social system provided for only two major classifications: Brahman and non-Brahman. It is from this distinction that a conflict arose between the priestly teachers (Brahmans) and political
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leaders/warriors (Ksatriyas). In ancient times, social mobility existed and an individual could move from one varna to another, though with some difficulty. In modern times (since the coming of the British to India and their rugged reclassification of the castes), such social mobility is almost extinct. Very few other cultures have bothered to elucidate the specific roles of people based on age, though all societies have presumed certain responsibilities for people. The asrama system of Hinduism clearly defines the roles and responsibilities of people. Individuals start out as students, become householders, give up their homes to be hermits, and finally give up all worldly concerns to become ascetics. This system reflects the tendency of the human psyche to go from learning to raising a family to retiring from civic duties and family matters to finally seeking a release from everything they've seen and done through a spiritual revelation. Throughout the asrama system, the conflict between loka-samgraha (worldly existence) and moksa (spiritual release) is waged, to be finally won as an ascetic. Women are described in ancient Indian texts as being weaker than men. Lacking in physical and, more importantly, spiritual strength, they 'spoil' men and deter them from more spiritual concerns. They were incapable of moksa, cannot own property and can be sold. A man of higher varna was theoretically lawful in taking any woman he wished. Finally, the practice of sati (burning of widowed brides-both willingly and otherwise) has been widely recognized and condemned by modern audiences. In cultural reality, however, women wielded significant authority and rarely held to the restrictions presented within certain law texts (such as the Manu-Smriti). They had distinctive customs, rituals and spirituality, with which men were not allowed to interfere. Indian history is rife with famous women saints, healers and priests. Some examples include Andal, a 6th century A.D. sage and Jnanananda Ma of the 20th century. Moreover, in their roles as preservers of the households, women wielded significant authority over the daily lives of everyone living with them. All societies are riddled with inequalities and the customs of ancient India present themselves as models of inegalitarian hierarchies, both by defining social classes and by oppressing women. Fortunately for the people of that time, the realization of the system did not rigidly enforce the rules, which were written down. Nevertheless, the confining system gave rise to two other distinct groups within Indian history: the Jains and the Buddhists, both of whom spoke out against the inequality of Hindu social theory. Jainism, founded by Parsva in 800 B.C.E and spread by Mahavira around 550 B.C.E. rigidly defined some aspects of Hinduism and shed others. The varna system was maintained by the Jain laypeople, but with the exception of the Brahman caste. Naturally, the Brahmans, being the priests of the Hindu system, generally had little interest in Jainism, a religion primarily of the Ksatriyas and Vaisyas. It emphasized strict adherence to the principle of ahimsa (non-violence) to the exclusion of all else. Jains believe that karma has a physical
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existence in the form of material gathered on one's soul with every action one takes, good or bad. Jainism was widely accepted among merchants and warriors, but dislike by agriculturists because they necessarily killed animals when raising crops (which is considered evil by Jains). In spite of their professed beliefs, Jain leaders rarely became pacifists-instead they enforced passivity upon others and gave enormous sums of money to Jain temples. At close to the same time as Mahavira, a man named Siddhartha Gautama (now known as the Buddha) developed a new religion out of Hinduism. He based his religion and his new social system on four noble truths: (1) the existence of suffering, (2) the origin of suffering (desire), (3) the cessation of suffering (elimination of desire), and (4) the path to the cessation of suffering (an eightfold way of right behavior and thought). Within this new ideology, the varna system was completely disregarded; the Buddha believed a man to have established himself as a "Brahman" by being a wise and good man, not by being born of the proper family. He declared Vedic sacrifice to be wasteful and cruel (to other life forms) and advocated that people instead sacrifice their hatred and avarice-to shed them. Finally, he declared that a government should be established based upon a common will, public need, and reason. To a proper Buddhist, government is a social contract, not a tacit understanding. Siddhartha, himself born of a good family (and having shed all the trappings thereof), believed that the leader should be chosen because he is the most handsome, favored, intelligent, and capable. The leader should possess the virtues of justice (to rule with happiness and equality), morality (to be a good example), and wisdom (to seek good advisors). The Buddha established his own social construct in the sangha, or Buddhist monastery. At first, the Buddha admitted only those who had attained nirvana, then he allowed those to admit new adherents, and finally, he gave equal authority to all monks. In this way, the sangha evolved from a monarchy to an oligarchy to a democracy. In principle, the sangha was to be governed by the law of dharma, not by man, a spirit of equality, and unanimity in decision-making. Furthermore, it should be locally run and decentralized. Insofar as the people's collective power was the basis for government, it was communistic, but in that revolutions were unnecessary and surpluses given away it avoided what would later be considered the Marxist perspective. The existence of the sangha was based upon the desire for nirvana, not for a better material situation. Women in Buddhist communities were given the same accord and respect as men. They were considered equally intelligent and capable. The Buddha vehemently opposed prostitution and so attempted to convert temple prostitutes to his new religion. In spite of the theoretical equality of all people, however, the male-establishment had difficulty in accepting women as full equals. Their literature displays hesitancy over beginning a woman's monastery and allowing women to depart the lay life.

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Overall, Indian social theory expresses those conflicts that one expects to see within society over who will have power and who will not. In particular, class conflict between warrior and priestly classes and between men and women. Different religious cultures in India have dealt with such problems differently and to varying levels of success. STATUS OF WOMEN IN ANCIENT INDIA 2500 BC to 1500 BC (Early Vedic Period) This period is usually referred to as the early Vedic period. During this age a woman had a great extend of freedom like man, and her sphere of role relationships was not circumscribed by too may restrictions. At home, generally the mother was the mistress of the house. She had her usual routine of cleaning the house, sweeping the house with cow dung, decorate the house with lime powder, washing vessels; cooking food, looking after children; serving food to others first ; welcoming and entertaining the. The Vedic Samhitas refer to women taking active part in agriculture and other crafts like leather work, making gur, drawing water, churning butter-milk, making wine, weaving mats and sewing. They were also in charge of household finances and farm laborers. The Vedic hymns inform that both husband and wife were joint owners of family property. In Rig-Veda, a daughter retained her right of inheritance and could substitute a son. Women were permitted to have separate property of their own which came to be designed in later Smritis as Stridhan. Some of the high class women were highly educated and actively participated in intellectual philosophical discussions. One comes across references to lady sages like Gosha, Apala, Lopamudra, Indranni, Gargi and Maitreyi. During the Vedic period girls and boys were initiated into the Vedic studies by performing a rite of passage called upanayan ceremony. 1500 BC to 1800 AD (Later Vedic Period) Though it is difficult to say at which specific point of time deterioration in the status of women began, still there would be probably little disagreement among the experts if it is stated that women enjoyed a relatively -higher status in the early Vedic period. From about 1500 B.C. started the change in women's status due to various reasons, among which the most important was a denial of education. Traces of deterioration are found in all periods following 1500 B.C. But it became much more marked after the beginning of the Christian era and reached its peak after the Mughul invasion in sixteenth century. In short, the role of women conformed to the dictum laid down by Manu, the great law giver of second century that "a woman does not deserve freedom" and that her life should throughout be one of dependence on man. Another similar dictum laid down by Manu was that woman should be subservient in all stages of her life- "in childhood to the father, in youth to the husband and his elderly kins and to the son when widowed". Among the traditional Hindu families the fate of a woman, especially of the daughter-in-law, was always of subordination to all other members.

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WOMEN IN MEDIEVAL INDIA Medieval Indian Women Medieval India was not women's age it is supposed to be the 'dark age' for them. Medieval India saw many foreign conquests, which resulted in the decline in women's status. When foreign conquerors like Muslims invaded India they brought with them their own culture. For them women was the sole property of her father, brother or husband and she does not have any will of her own. This type of thinking also crept into the minds of Indian people and they also began to treat their own women like this. One more reason for the decline in women's status and freedom was that original Indians wanted to shield their women folk from the barbarous Muslim invaders. As polygamy was a norm for these invaders they picked up any women they wanted and kept her in their "harems". In order to protect them Indian women started using 'Purdah', (a veil), which covers body. Due to this reason their freedom also became affected. They were not allowed to move freely and this lead to the further deterioration of their status. These problems related with women resulted in changed mindset of people. Now they began to consider a girl as misery and a burden, which has to be shielded from the eyes of intruders and needs extra care. Whereas a boy child will not need such extra care and instead will be helpful as an earning hand. Thus a vicious circle started in which women was at the receiving end. All this gave rise to some new evils such as Child Marriage, Sati, Jauhar and restriction on girl education Sati: The ritual of dying at the funeral pyre of the husband is known as "Sati" or "Sahagaman". According to some of the Hindu scriptures women dying at the funeral pyre of her husband go straight to heaven so its good to practice this ritual. Initially it was not obligatory for the women but if she practiced such a custom she was highly respected by the society. Sati was considered to be the better option then living as a widow as the plight of widows in Hindu society was even worse. Some of the scriptures like 'Medhatiti' had different views it say that Sati is like committing suicide so one should avoid this. Jauhar: It is also more or less similar to Sati but it is a mass suicide. Jauhar was prevalent in the Rajput societies. In this custom wives immolated themselves while their husband were still alive. When people of Rajput clan became sure that they were going to die at the hands of their enemy then all the women arrange a large pyre and set themselves afire, while their husband used to fight the last decisive battle known as "Shaka", with the enemy. Thus protecting the sanctity of the women and the whole clan. Child Marriage: It was a norm in medieval India. Girls were married off at the age of 8-10. They were not allowed access to education and were treated as the material being. The plight of women can be imagined by one of the shloka of Tulsidas where he writes [r1] "Dhol, gawar, shudra, pashu, nari, ye sab tadan ke adhikari". Meaning that animals, illiterates, lower castes and women should be subjected to beating. Thus women were compared with animals and were married off at an early age. The child marriage along with it brought some more problems such as increased birth rate, poor health of women due to repeated child bearing and high mortality rate of women and children.
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Restriction on Widow Remarriage: The condition of widows in medieval India was very bad. They were not treated as human beings and were subjected to a lot of restrictions. They were supposed to live pious life after their husband died and were not allowed entry in any celebration. Their presence in any good work was considered to be a bad omen. Sometimes heads of widows were also shaved down. They were not allowed to remarry. Any woman remarrying was looked down by the society. This cruelty on widows was one of the main reasons for the large number of women committing Sati. In medieval India living as a Hindu widow was a sort of a curse. Purdah System: The veil or the 'Purdah' system was widely prevalent in medieval Indian society. It was used to protect the women folk from the eyes of foreign rulers who invaded India in medieval period. But this system curtailed the freedom of women. Girl Education: The girls of medieval India and especially Hindu society were not given formal education. They were given education related to household chores. But a famous Indian philosopher 'Vatsyayana' wrote that women were supposed to be perfect in sixty four arts which included cooking, spinning, grinding, knowledge of medicine, recitation and many more. Though these evils were present in medieval Indian society but they were mainly confined to Hindu society. As compared to Hindu society other societies such as Buddhism, Jainism and Christians were a bit lenient. Women in those societies enjoyed far more freedom. They had easy access to education and were more liberal in their approach. According to these religions gender was not the issue in attaining salvation. Any person whether a man or a woman is entitled to get the grace of god. During the time of king Ashoka women took part in religious preaching. According to Hiuen Tsang, the famous traveler of that time, Rajyashri, the sister of Harshavardhana was a distinguished scholar of her time. Another such example is the daughter of king Ashoka, Sanghmitra. She along with her brother Mahendra went to Sri Lanka to preach Buddhism. The status of women in Southern India was better than the North India. While in Northern India there were not many women administrators, in Southern India we can find some names that made women of that time proud. Priyaketaladevi, queen of Chalukya Vikramaditya ruled three villages. Another women named Jakkiabbe used to rule seventy villages. In South India women had representation in each and every field. Domingo Paes, famous Portuguese traveler testifies to it. He has written in his account that in Vijaynagar kingdom women were present in each and every field. He says that women could wrestle, blow trumpet and handle sword with equal perfection. Nuniz, another famous traveler to the South also agrees to it and says that women were employed in writing accounts of expenses, recording the affairs of kingdom, which shows that they were educated. CULTURE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA

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Culturally medieval period marks the beginning of new stage in the growth of India's composite culture. It saw the introduction of new features in art and architecture of India and their diffusion to all parts of the country. The architecture that developed during this period was the result of the synthesis of the traditions of Central Asia and Persia with the pre-existing Indian styles. During the 15th and 16th centauries distinctive styles of art and architecture also developed in the regional kingdoms which had emerged with the disintegration of the Sultanate. During this time notable advances were made in the development of languages and literature. Two new languages-Arabic and Persian became a part of India's linguistic heritage. Historical writings for the first time became an important component of Indian literature. Under the influence of Persian, new forms of literature such as the ghazal were introduced. The period saw two great religious movements. The Bhakti movement spread throughout the country. It disapproved religious narrow-mindedness, superstitions and observance of formal rituals. The Bhakti saints condemned caste inequalities and laid stress on human brotherhood. The other was Sufi movement. The Sufis or the Muslim mystics preached the message of love and human brotherhood. These two movements played a leading role in combating religious exclusiveness and narrow -mindedness and in bringing the people of all communities together. Sikhism began to emerge as a new religion based on the teachings of Guru Nanak and other saints. The growth of a composite culture reached its highest point under the Great Mughals in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Mughals built an empire which once again brought about the political unification of a large part of the country. Akbar the greatest Mughal Emperor followed the policy of Sulhkul (peace with all). Some of the finest specimen of Indian architecture and literature belong to this period. A new significant art form was painting which flourished under the patronage of the Mughal court. Influenced by the Persian traditions the Mughal painting developed into a distinct Indian style. It later spread to other parts of the country in various regional styles. Another significant development was the emergence of a new language Urdu which became the lingua franca of the people of the towns in many parts of the country. 2.2 ESSENTIALS OF INDIAN ETHOS

DEFINING INDIAN ETHOS Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary defines Ethos as the set of beliefs, ideas, etc. about social behaviour and relationship of a person or group while Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines it as the moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society. Indian Ethos is all about what can be termed as national ethos. Formally, the body of knowledge which derives its solutions from the rich and huge Indian system of ethics (moral philosophy) is known as Indian Ethos in Management (IEM). Is IEM
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some kind of Hindu concept of management? Certainly not. Management is behavioural science and it has to be culture specific. IEM has as its basis, the culture base of India and as a country whose culture has its roots in religion - it does draw its lessons from the religions of the land - be it Hinduism, Buddhism, or any other. The salient ideas and thoughts of Indian Ethos in Management revealed by our ancient scriptures are: 1. Atmano Mokshartham, Jagat hitaya cha: All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and spiritually in our lives 2. Archet dana manabhyam: Worship people not only with material things but also by showing respect to their enterprising divinity within. 3. Atmana Vindyate Viryam: Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the Divine, God within, through prayer, spiritual readings and unselfish work. 4. Yogah karmashu Kaushalam, Samatvam yoga uchyate: He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most. 5. Yadishi bhavana yasya siddhi bhavati tadrishi: As we think, so we succeed, so we become. Attention to means ensures the end. 6. Parasparam bhavayantah shreyah param bhavapsyathah: By mutual cooperation, respect and fellow feeling, all of us enjoy the highest good both material and spiritual. 7. Tesham sukhm tesham shanti shaswati: Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to them who see the Divine in all beings. 8. Paraspar Devo Bhav: Regard the other person as a divine being. All of us have the same consciousness though our packages and containers are different. Basic principles of Indian Ethos for Management (IEM): 1. Immense potential, energy and talents for perfection as human being has the spirit within his heart. 2. Holistic approach indicating unity between the Divine (The Divine means perfection in knowledge, wisdom and power), individual self and the universe. 3. Subtle, intangible subject and gross tangible objects are equally important. One must develop ones Third Eye, Jnana Chaksu, the Eye of Wisdom, Vision, Insight and Foresight. Inner resources are much more powerful than outer resources. Divine virtues are inner resources. Capital, materials and plant & machinery are outer resources. 4. Karma Yoga (selfless work) offers double benefits, private benefit in the form of self purification and public benefit.

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5. Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam - Excellence at work through self-motivation and selfdevelopment with devotion and without attachment. 6. Co-operation is a powerful instrument for team work and success in any enterprise involving collective work. Principles of IEM are universally applicable. IEM can help develop an effective and holistic management pattern which will assure all round growth in productivity, marketing and profitability. This will help in synchronizing private and public benefits and encourage individuals to lead an enriched quality of life together with worldly achievements. The best form of management has to be holistic and value driven which is the objective of IEM.
Items Management (Oriented by Science and Technology, Western Approach) Production, Productivity, Profit at any cost Management guided by mind only, led away by ego and desire. Soulless management Worker development, management of others, profit maximization, human being only given lip sympathy 5 Ms as Resources men, money, materials, machines and markets. Science & Technology, information for decision making Management (Oriented by Values and adopting holistic approach, Indian and Eastern) Material gain with belief in achieving human and social welfare in unison Management by consciousness, power beyond mind i.e., soul. Interiorized management Development of man, integrated growth harmony, happiness and health, management of self

Belief

Guidance

Emphasis

Tools

Men, machines, materials and methods as conscious partners all having consciousness whether manifested or dormant. Information and intuition for decisions. Ethics and values combined with skills Problem Solving Conflict resolution by negotiation, Conflicts resolution through compromise, arbitration. integration and synthesis on Liquidation of differences only for a stressing super ordinate common temporary period. No reference to goals so that enduring harmony higher consciousness and unity is assured. Self introspection, stepping back aids for solution Decision making Brain storming Brain stilling Development process Physical, Vital and Mental only. Integrated development. Whole Soul or spirit ignored. Material man approach, breath-control development only even at the cost of and meditation emphasized. man and nature Human enrichment and total quality Approach External behaviour. Mental, Noble attitudes, inner guidance, material, selfish only. Soulless team spirit, total harmony, global good INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 31

Indian ethos demands a subjective management system which leads to an understanding of the following: (a) Management Attitude Top management having firm belief in value-oriented holistic management. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all stakeholders employees, customers, shareholders and citizens. Fulfillment of social responsibility must be ensured. (b) Humanising the Organisation Looking at the three aspects of humane organisations, i.e., inter-personal relations, man-machine equation where man is the prime concern and inner management through mental and spiritual growth of individuals. (c) Interiorising Management Self management or management by consciousness. When the soul manages the other four members of the human being, namely, the body, mind, intellect and the heart, the conflict these four have amongst themselves can be resolved. This is management by consciousness. The objective of self management is to first know and manage oneself and then manage others. (d) Self-introspection Embark upon self-study, self-analysis and self-criticism to locate areas of friction and disharmony, a self examination of ones own thoughts, feelings, emotions, sensations and passions and a desire to reduce and subdue the ego. (e) Brain-stilling For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is a necessity. A perfect Mounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Brain-stilling or meditative silence is the most reliable method to discover solutions to problems and difficulties which seem to be difficult to be tackled by reason and intellect because through this one can come into contact with the inner mind or higher consciousness called Chetana. (f) Stepping Back (for a while) Never decide anything, never speak a word, never throw yourself into action without stepping-back. The stepping back from a situation for a while enables one to control and master a situation. (g) Self-dynamising Meditation A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of lower consciousness into higher consciousness and hence is called transforming meditation. Through meditation, in a silent and calm mind, one reaches a higher level of consciousness which offers guidance in the form of intuitions to tackle a multitude of problems. This is called consciousness approach to management. (h) Role of Intuition Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully developed, is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes. Faith is a prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition.
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Karma Yoga Karma Yoga is a good pathway for self purification and self-development, individual as well as collective growth and welfare, minimum play of passion, jealousy, hatred, greed, anger and arrogance, team spirit, team work, autonomous management, minimum control and supervision, etc. The result is all round happiness and prosperity. Karma Yoga is an endstate or an alias of Nishkam Karma (NK). Yoga means union between individual consciousness and supreme consciousnesses. Work is one of the several methods of achieving this union. Juxtaposed against the NK is the other attitude to work called Sakam Karma (SK). Let us have a look at the main points of difference between NK & SK: NK (Detached Involvement) Psychological Energy Conservation SK (Attached Involvement) Psychological Energy Dissipation / Burn Out Reactionless Action Reactionful Action Perfection is the Aim to handle both Success is the Aim success excludes success & failure Failure Inner Autonomy / Sufficiency Dependence on Externals, Thriving on Comparison Being in the world, but not of it Being in the world and also of it Socio-economically relevant Socio-economically questionable Work-commitment Reward-commitment Mind enrichment Job enrichment Excellence through work is worship Excellence through competitive rivalry It is evident that NK offers the most wholesome work psychology and should therefore be the Right Attitude to Work because it is based purely on the tremendous logic in its theory and the infinite power in its practice. Lord Krishna in the Gita says: Karmanyeva Adhtkaraste Ma Phaleshu Kadhachana Ma Karma-phala-heturbuhu Ma The Sangab Asthu Akarmani This means You have the right only to action, and never to the fruits of your actions, nor be attached to inaction. A practioner of NK should possess three important skills: (i) An ability to deal with situations in a mature way (ii) An ability to deal with relationships in a humane manner (iii) Understanding and tapping the power of the mind, which is infinitely flexible

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2.3

VALUES IN THE CULTURAL TRADITION ON INDIA

Human Values Indian Insights Values are basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Value system indicates a hierarchy based on ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity. Terminal values are desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his/her life time. Instrumental values are preferable modes of behaviour or means of achieving ones terminal values. Values are called gunas. A broad definition of values, derived from an insight into ancient Indias psychophilosophical wisdom literature is: Values are states of feelings/emotions that underpin the content of a choice/decision and determine the manner of using the intellect/reason for justifying and implementing that choice/decision. Character is the foundation of values. The sequence being: Character -> Values -> Attitudes > Behaviour Human Values is the sum total of qualities like truthfulness, integrity, gratitude, humbleness, forgiveness, patience, transparency, charitableness, simplicity, etc. Human Values make a person Antarmukhi (interiorized) while skills will make him more and more Bahirmukhi (exteriorized). Human values transcend moral, ethical and spiritual values. Indian values predominantly include: Tyaga (renunciation), dana (liberal giving), nishtha (dedication), satya (truth), ahimsa (nonviolence) and upeksha (forbearance) are the foundations for the Indian values system. Respect for parents and Elders: In most cases you will see that children have high respect for their parents and elders. Even when they grow up the respect always stays. Also, children take care of their parents till their last. Family orientation: Indians will have very close knit family. Nowadays it is difficult to have joint families, but in early days having a joint family was a matter of pride. Sacrifice and adjustment: Most Indians are known for their adjusting nature. They are not rigid and in most cases, they put others before themselves. Importance to Education: Education is probably the most important thing for parents about their children. Parents sacrifice their career and savings to give children better education. Trust in Institution of Marriage: In India more than 70 % are arranged marriages and divorce rate is less than 3%. This only goes to show that husband and wife make adjustments and go to lengths to ensure that marriage is successful.

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Golden Rule of Ethics The following are the forms of the golden rule in ethics. Each of these forms the basis of all human values. These are the core values to change one first. 1. Everything you want others to do to you, you shall do to others. 2. Do not do to others that which you do not wish them to do to you. 3. Do not do anything to others that if done to you, would cause harm to you. Values v/s Skills 1. To become, we need values. To do, we need skills. 2. Becoming (needing values) must precede doing (needing skills). Values should act as the basis of the skills acquired. 3. Values are the means of perfection. Skills must have sound system of values as the base. Otherwise, one can manipulate skills for ulterior motives. 4. Values are internal, dealing with internal development of a person, purifying mind and heart. Skills on the other hand only make a person proficient. Values are the means of perfection of personality. 5. The field of values is governed by union, holism and relatedness. More often than not, skills are used to bring about division, fragmentation and separation. 6. Values bring about excellence and universal good. Skills see us through mechanics of management. 7. Skills are not enduring, values are. 8. Skills change with passage of time. Policy is flexible, principles and values are not. We have permanent fundamental values. Skills must pass through the corridors of values and the corridors have to be kept not dark and untidy, but well lit and clean. Skill Value Matrix Values Skills Strong Weak Strong Most Desirable Tolerable Weak Dangerous Useless

The discussion in no way speaks against acquiring skills but tries to guard against only acquiring skills, as the matrix above testifies. Of course, the discussion in no uncertain terms makes it clear that values are more important that skills.
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Value-Oriented Holistic Management The etymological root of the term holism or holistic is the Latin word holon meaning total, whole or integrated as opposed to fragmented or splintered. It is generally used to mean a total view. It can be looked from the following two approaches: (a) A Rational approach, involving a process of aggregation (b) A Perceptive approach involving a process of synthesis Rational is a bottom up approach putting together the fragments or components or constituent elements and thus construct the whole. The perceptive approach is a top down approach see the whole first and then go into the constituent elements. This is considered to be real holism. Value-Oriented Holistic Management is the essence of the Indian Management thought which has been enriched by the rich Indian heritage and culture; the way we have looked at life over the ages. Management based only on skills can never be total or holistic. It is beyond doubt that management based on values supplemented by adequate skills can only be holistic and that is why we have this concept of Value-Oriented Holistic Management. This time tested approach to Management can help stop the rot that has crept into individuals and organizations.

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2.4

HUMAN VALUES IN MANAGEMENT

THERE are many ways in which the basic human values--Truth, Righteousness, Peace, Love and Non-violence--can be practised in the day-to-day conduct of business. There are different aspects of management such as marketing, finance, industrial relations, etc., but the most important aspect is "man-management." Each country has its own historical and cultural background and Indian managers should not mechanically copy practices imported from abroad but should keep in mind the Indian milieu and our national ethos. There is specific need for MBA students of the Sathya Sai Institute to infuse management practices in India with the cardinal values of Sathya, Dharma, Santhi, Prema and Ahimsa. All the values are interrelated. For example, a burning electric lamp, can be compared to Prema. For the lamp of love to burn, there should be a bulb. That bulb is Santhi. The bulb had to be connected to an electric wire. That wire is Dharma. And then the current has to flow in the wire. The current is Sathya. With the current of Sathya (Truth) flowing in the wire of Dharma (Righteous conduct), connected to the bulb of Santhi (Peace), the lamp of Prema (love) burns and sheds its light. Sathya, Dharma, Santhi and Prema constitute a single whole and not separate values. All the four values have to be adhered to equally. Honesty in business is a form of social service: With regards to Truth, it is often said that to be truthful in business will result in loss. This is not so. Though initially there may be some difficulty, in course of time integrity and honesty will bring their own reward. The MBA students must convince their chiefs in their respective firms how truth in accounts and audit helps to raise the image of the firm. They should be content with reasonable profit margins. Even if this policy does not pay in the beginning, in the long run it will be most rewarding. This is the way to inspire confidence. Running a business honestly must be regarded as a form of social service and spiritual sadhana. In the practice of Dharma, marketing practices should be fair to the consumers and there should be justice in the dealings with the workers. In the observance of peace, the MBA students should realise that they should not get ruffled by any kind of difficult situation. They have to maintain their calmness and try to pour oil on troubled waters. They should use the weapon of love in such situations. Fraternal relations bring industrial harmony: Prema must express itself in the business world by the executives developing the feeling that all engaged in the business--managers, workers and others--are members of one family. They must develop fraternal feelings towards all. With mutual love and regard, industrial harmony can be achieved. As regards Ahimsa, in the context of industrial management, it has a wider social meaning than merely avoiding causing harm to others. The avoidance of pollution of the atmosphere or of natural resources like rivers is one of the ways in which an enterprise practises Ahimsa. In these different ways, a great deal of good can be done to our people and nation by business managers who adhere to basic human values and who adopt a spiritual approach to the tasks of the business world.

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UNIT III 3.1 India as a matrix society; 3.2 Indian constitution as one of the sources of Universal Human Values; 3.3 U.N. declaration on Human Rights and Responsibilities. 3.4 Astaang yoga and holistic view of life.

3.1

INDIA AS A MATRIX SOCIETY

The concept of India as a social matrix can be viewed in terms of both the matrix as well as the circle approach. Globalisation should be seen within the context of cultural setting. India ia a multi-structured, multi-layered society with several layers of historical experiences. This is the uniqueness of Indian society. In the Indian context the constructs of caste, class and community are well accepted for analysis of society. Similarly the categories of region, religion and rural-urban are also widely used. Thus, we have following two sets of constructs, (caste, class, community/networks, categories) and (region, religion, rural, urban). When these two sets of constructs are juxtaposed, we get the picture of Indian society in the form of a matrix society.
Region Religion Rural Urban

Caste

Class

Community

Categories

The axis of the matrix can be identified in terms of gender. As the matrix rotates around the gender axis, a better perspective and appreciation on the social complexity emerges. It may be indicated that additional dimensions can be added to the matrix depending upon the levels of analysis. E.g. culture as a construct can also be included in the matrix along with elements such as cuisine, costume and customs. We can also refer to the matrix presented as diversity matrix as it is indicated of the diversity in the society.
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Analysis of the Indian society has usually been done on the basis of only one of the cells of the matrix. For example, the Marxist analysis largely ignores other cells and concentrates on class, while those pre-occupied with caste focus on that cell alone. A totality perspective implies that various cells of the diversity matrix contribute to the complexity of the society. Further, since the matrix rotates around an axis, each cell of the matrix creates a social envelop which is dynamic in nature. The matrix analysis can be used to analyse the past and the present and to predict changes for future. The relative importance of various cells helps in comprehensive analysis. The unpredictability of many social events can be traced to the matrix nature of Indian society. The dialectical intensity of each cell contributes to the unpredictability.

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3.2

INDIAN CONSTITUTION AS ONE OF THE SOURCES OF UNIVERSAL HUMAN VALUES.

A Constitution is the basic Law of a Country. It provides the rights, defines the duties, and delineates the responsibilities of every authority, official, institution and individual, living in the Country and governed by the Constitution. All Authorities and Institutions derive their existence and power from the Constitution. Hence every one of them have to work and function within the ambit of the Constitution. All others, have to exist and operate, within the limits and boundaries of the Constitution. Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly of India. It was originally elected before Independence for the United India. It met first on the 9th of December 1946. It worked for two years eleven months and eighteen days, before it adopted the Constitution.
The Preamble of the Indian Constitution is very significant, for, it reflects the soul of the Constitution. It embodies the ideals and aspirations of the people who made the Constitution, adopted and accepted it for their governance and future. It is part of the Constitution, and can be amended like any other provision in the Constitution, as long as that does not affect the basic character, principles and spirit of the Constitution. The Preamble of the Indian Constitution reads as follows THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA - PREAMBLE WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVERIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens : JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. Apart from the PREAMBLE, the Constitution has 22 main Parts with 23 Chapters, 395 Articles and Nine Schedules. These provide to every citizen many Rights and Freedoms. And naturally with Rights and Freedoms come many Duties. The Rights Freedoms and Duties of the Individuals, as Citizens of the Country, had been built into the Constitution in various Parts Chapters and Articles. Some of the Rights are specific and special for specified segments of the Society, otherwise marginalised discriminated exploited and suppressed. These are specifically in addition, and apart from those clearly laid out, as the Rights and Duties of all Citizens. RIGHTS OF INDIVIDUALS The Rights start from the Right to 1. Citizenship of the Country 2. The hopes and expectations that flow from Part IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 40

The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the State to its citizens and the duties of the citizens to the State. These sections comprise a constitutional bill of rights for government policy-making and the behaviour and conduct of citizens. These sections are considered vital elements of the constitution. The Fundamental Rights were included in the constitution because they were considered essential for the development of the personality of every individual and to preserve human dignity. The Fundamental Rights are defined as the basic human rights of all citizens. These rights, defined in Part III of the Constitution, apply irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed or gender. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to specific restrictions. The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines for the framing of laws by the government. These provisionsset out in Part IV of the Constitutionare not enforceable by the courts, but the principles on which they are based are fundamental guidelines for governance that the State is expected to apply in framing and passing laws. The Fundamental Duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. These dutiesset out in Part IVA of the constitutionconcern individuals and the nation. Like the Directive Principles, they are not legally enforceable. FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS The Fundamental Rights are contained in exclusive Part III of the Constitution. They are the 1. Right to Equality Articles 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 2. Right to Freedom Articles 19 to 22 3. Right against Exploitation Articles 23 and 24 4. Right to Freedom of Religion Articles 25 to 28 5. Cultural and Educational Rights Articles 29 and 30 6. Right to Constitutional Remedies Articles 32 to 35 Right to Property and the concerned Article 31 relating to Compulsory acquisition of property was omitted and repealed by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act 1978. 1. Under the Right to Equality, a) Article 14 provides the Right of EQUALITY BEFORE LAW b) Article 15 provides Rights for PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION ON GROUNDS OF RELIGION, RACE, CASTE, SEX OR PLACE OF BIRTH c) Article 16 gives the Right to EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN MATTERS OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT d) Article 17 deals with Rights associated with the ABOLITION OF UNTOUCHABILITY, and e) Article 18 deals with Rights associated with the ABOLITION OF TITLES Equality before law: Article 14 of the constitution guarantees that all citizens shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It means that the State cannot discriminate against a citizen on the basis of caste, creed, colour, sex, religion or place of birth. Social equality and equal access to public areas: Article 15 of the constitution states that no person shall be discriminated on the basis of caste, colour, language etc. Every person shall have equal access to public places like public parks, museums, wells, bathing ghats and temples etc. However, the State may make any special provision for women and children. Special provisions may be made INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 41

for the advancements of any socially or educationally backward class or scheduled castes or scheduled tribes. Equality in matters of public employment: Article 16 of the constitution lays down that the State cannot discriminate against anyone in the matters of employment. All citizens can apply for government jobs. There are some exceptions. The Parliament may enact a law stating that certain jobs can only be filled by applicants who are domiciled in the area. This may be meant for posts that require knowledge of the locality and language of the area. The State may also reserve posts for members of backward classes, scheduled castes or scheduled tribes which are not adequately represented in the services under the State to bring up the weaker sections of the society. Also, there a law may be passed which requires that the holder of an office of any religious institution shall also be a person professing that particular religion. Abolition of untouchability: Article 17 of the constitution abolishes the practice of untouchability. Practice of untouchability is an offense and anyone doing so is punishable by law. The Untouchability Offences Act of 1955 (renamed to Protection of Civil Rights Act in 1976) provided penalties for preventing a person from entering a place of worship or from taking water from a tank or well. Abolition of Titles: Article 18 of the constitution prohibits the State from conferring any titles. Citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign State. However, Military and academic distinctions can be conferred on the citizens of India. The awards of Bharat Ratna and Padma Vibhushan cannot be used by the recipient as a title. Human Values Promoted The right to equality works for promoting dignity of the individual along with a sense of belonging to the country and security of being the citizen of India without discrimination of any sort. It restores the faith of individual in the rule of democracy and promotes a spirit of sharing and brotherhood among the people living in the country. At the same time the act also recognises that there are still sections that need special protection/chances to develop to their fullest potential. Hence, provides for opportunities for such sections so that they may also become equal to the other citizens of the country. 2. Under the Right to Freedom, a) Article 19 on PROTECTION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS REGARDING FREEDOM OF SPEECH etc, it is said that, (1) all citizens shall have the right (a) to freedom of speech and expression (b) to assemble peaceably and without arms (c) to form association or unions (d) to move freely throughout the territory of India (e) to reside and settle in any part of the territory of and, (f) * * * * * * * * * * * (g) to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business The right to freedom in Article 19 guarantees the following six freedoms: 1. Freedom of speech and expression, which enable an individual to participate in public activities. The phrase, "freedom of press" has not been used in Article 19, but freedom of expression includes freedom of press. Reasonable restrictions can be imposed in the interest of public order, security of State, decency or morality. 2. Freedom to assemble peacefully without arms, on which the State can impose reasonable restrictions in the interest of public order and the sovereignty and integrity of India. INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 42

3. Freedom to form associations or unions on which the State can impose reasonable restrictions on this freedom in the interest of public order, morality and the sovereignty and integrity of India. 4. Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India though reasonable restrictions can be imposed on this right in the interest of the general public, for example, restrictions may be imposed on movement and travelling, so as to control epidemics. 5. Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India which is also subject to reasonable restrictions by the State in the interest of the general public or for the protection of the scheduled tribes because certain safeguards as are envisaged here seem to be justified to protect indigenous and tribal peoples from exploitation and coercion. Article 370 restricts citizens from other Indian states and Kashmiri women who marry men from other states from purchasing land or property in Jammu & Kashmir. 6. Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business on which the State may impose reasonable restrictions in the interest of the general public. Thus, there is no right to carry on a business which is dangerous or immoral. Also, professional or technical qualifications may be prescribed for practicing any profession or carrying on any trade. b) Article 20 gives the Rights of PROTECTION IN RESPECT OF CONVICTION FOR OFFENCES, in some unfair or unjust manner c) Article 21 gives the Rights of PROTECTION OF LIFE AND PERSONAL LIBERTY d) Article 22 gives the Rights for PROTECTION AGAINST ARREST AND DETENTION IN CERTAIN CASES, in some unfair and unjust manner Protection with respect to conviction for offences is guaranteed in the right to life and personal liberty. According to Article 20, no one can be awarded punishment which is more than what the law of the land prescribes at that time. This legal axiom is based on the principle that no criminal law can be made retrospective, that is, for an act to become an offence, the essential condition is that it should have been an offence legally at the time of committing it. Moreover, no person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. "Compulsion" in this article refers to what in law is called "Duress" (injury, beating or unlawful imprisonment to make a person do something that he does not want to do). This article is known as a safeguard against self incrimination. The other principle enshrined in this article is known as the principle of double jeopardy, that is, no person can be convicted twice for the same offence, which has been derived from Anglo Saxon law. This principle was first established in the Magna Carta. Protection of life and personal liberty is also stated under right to life and personal liberty. Article 21 declares that no citizen can be denied his life and liberty except by law. This means that a person's life and personal liberty can only be disputed if that person has committed a crime. "Personal liberty" includes all the freedoms which are not included in Article 19 (that is, the six freedoms). The right to travel abroad is also covered under "personal liberty" in Article 21. Rights of a person arrested under ordinary circumstances is laid down in the right to life and personal liberty. No one can be arrested without being told the grounds for his arrest. If arrested the person has the right to defend himself by a lawyer of his choice. Also an arrested citizen has to be brought before the nearest magistrate within 24 hours. The rights of a person arrested under ordinary circumstances are not available to an enemy alien. They are also not available to persons detained under the Preventive Detention Act. Under preventive detention, the government can imprison a person for a maximum of three months. It means that if the government feels that a person being at liberty can be a threat to the law and order or to the unity and integrity of the

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nation, it can detain or arrest that person to prevent him from doing this possible harm. After three months such a case is brought before an advisory board for review. 3. Under the Rights against Exploitation, a) Article 23 deals with PROHIBITION OF TRAFFIC IN HUMAN BEINGS AND FORCED LABOUR b) Article 24 deals with PROHIBITION OF EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN IN FACTORIES, etc Child labour and Begar is prohibited under Right against exploitation.The right against exploitation, given in Articles 23 and 24, provides for two provisions, namely the abolition of trafficking in human beings and Begar (forced labor), and abolition of employment of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories and mines. Child labour is considered a gross violation of the spirit and provisions of the constitution. 4. Right to Freedom of Religion Articles 25 to 28 Right to freedom of religion, covered in Articles 25, 26, 27 and 28, provides religious freedom to all citizens of India. The objective of this right is to sustain the principle of secularism in India. According to the Constitution, all religions are equal before the State and no religion shall be given preference over the other. Citizens are free to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their choice. 5. Cultural and Educational Rights Articles 29 and 30 All minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their own culture. In granting aid to institutions, the State cannot discriminate against any institution on the basis of the fact that it is administered by a minority institution. 6. Right to Constitutional Remedies Articles 32 to 35 Right to constitutional remedies empowers the citizens to move a court of law in case of any denial of the fundamental rights. For instance, in case of imprisonment, the citizen can ask the court to see if it is according to the provisions of the law of the country. If the court finds that it is not, the person will have to be freed. This procedure of asking the courts to preserve or safeguard the citizens' fundamental rights can be done in various ways. The courts can issue various kinds of writs. These writs are habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. When a national or state emergency is declared, this right is suspended by the central government. At the same-time vide part (2) of the same Article 19, the Constitution allows the Operation of any existing law, permits the States to make any law to impose restrictions on the above rights, that can be considered as reasonable. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY DPSPs aim to create social and economic conditions under which the citizens can lead a good life. They also aim to establish social and economic democracy through a welfare state. They act as a check on the government, theorized as a yardstick in the hands of the people to measure the performance of the government. The Directive Principles are non-justiciable rights of the people. The Directive Principles, though not justiciable, are fundamental in the governance of the country.

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Article 38 emphasises the welfare state model of the Constitution and emphasises the positive duty of the State to promote the welfare of the people by affirming social, economic and political justice, as well as to fight income inequality and ensure individual dignity. Article 39 lays down certain principles of policy to be followed by the State, including providing an adequate means of livelihood for all citizens, equal pay for equal work for men and women, proper working conditions, reduction of the concentration of wealth and means of production from the hands of a few, and distribution of community resources to "subserve the common good". These clauses highlight the Constututional objectives of building an egalitarian social order and establishing a welfare state, by bringing about a social revolution assisted by the State, and have been used to support the nationalisation of mineral resources as well as public utilities. Further, several legislations pertaining to agrarian reform and land tenure have been enacted by the federal and state governments, in order to ensure equitable distribution of land resources. Article 39A requires the State to provide free legal aid to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are available to all citizens irrespective of economic or other disabilities. Articles 4143 mandate the State to endeavour to secure to all citizens the right to work, a living wage, social security, maternity relief, and a decent standard of living. These provisions aim at establishing a socialist state as envisaged in the Preamble. Article 43 also places upon the State the responsibility of promoting cottage industries, and the federal government has, in furtherance of this, established several Boards for the promotion of khadi, handlooms etc., in coordination with the state governments. Article 43A mandates the State to work towards securing the participation of workers in the management of industries. Article 44 encourages the State to secure a uniform civil code for all citizens, by eliminating discrepancies between various personal laws currently in force in the country. However, this has remained a "dead letter" despite numerous reminders from the Supreme Court to implement the provision. The State, under Article 46, is also mandated to promote the interests of and work for the economic uplift of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and protect them from discrimination and exploitation. Several enactments, including two Constitutional amendments, have been passed to give effect to this provision. Article 45 originally mandated the State to provide free and compulsory education to children between the ages of six and fourteen years, but after the 86th Amendment in 2002, this has been converted into a Fundamental Right and replaced by an obligation upon the State to secure childhood care to all children below the age of six. Article 47 commits the State to raise the standard of living and improve public health, and prohibit the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs injurious to health. As a consequence, partial or total prohibition has been introduced in several states, but financial constraints have prevented its full-fledged application. The State is also mandated by Article 48 to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines by improving breeds and prohibiting slaughter of cattle. Article 48A mandates the State to protect the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country, while Article 49 places an obligation upon the State to ensure the preservation of monuments and objects of national importance.

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Article 50 requires the State to ensure the separation of judiciary from executive in public services, in order to ensure judicial independence, and federal legislation has been enacted to achieve this objective. The State, according to Article 51, must also strive for the promotion of international peace and security, and Parliament has been empowered under Article 253 to make laws giving effect to international treaties. Thus, the directive principles ensure that the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by promoting a social order in which social, economic and political justice is informed in all institutions of life. Also, the State shall work towards reducing economic inequality as well as inequalities in status and opportunities, not only among individuals, but also among groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations. The State shall aim for securing right to an adequate means of livelihood for all citizens, both men and women as well as equal pay for equal work for both men and women. The State should work to prevent concentration of wealth and means of production in a few hands, and try to ensure that ownership and control of the material resources is distributed to best serve the common good. Child abuse and exploitation of workers should be prevented. Children should be allowed to develop in a healthy manner and should be protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. The State shall provide free legal aid to ensure that equal opportunities for securing justice is ensured to all, and is not denied by reason of economic or other disabilities. The State shall also work for organisation of village panchayats and help enable them to function as units of selfgovernment. The State shall endeavour to provide the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, within the limits of economic capacity, as well as provide for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. The State should also ensure living wage and proper working conditions for workers, with full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural activities. Also, the promotion of cottage industries in rural areas is one of the obligations of the State. The State shall take steps to promote their participation in management of industrial undertakings. Also, the State shall endeavour to secure a uniform civil code for all citizens, and provide free and compulsory education to all children till they attain the age of 14 years. The directive principles commit the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health, particularly by prohibiting intoxicating drinks and drugs injurious to health except for medicinal purposes. It should also organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines by improving breeds and prohibiting slaughter of cows, calves, other milch and draught cattle. It should protect and improve the environment and safeguard the forests and wild life of the country. Protection of monuments, places and objects of historic and artistic interest and national importance against destruction and damage and separation of judiciary from executive in public services are also the obligations of the State as laid down in the directive principles. Finally, the directive principles, in Article 51 ensure that the State shall strive for the promotion and maintenance of international peace and security, just and honourable relations between nations, respect for international law and treaty obligations, as well as settlement of international disputes by arbitration.

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PART IVA - FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES The Duties of individual Citizens of India, have been laid out in Article 51A, Part IVA of the Constitution, as Fundamental Duties. These were not there in the Original version of the Constitution framed and adopted by the Constituent Assembly. These were inserted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act passed by the Parliament in 1976. Those read as Art. 51A. Fundamental duties. It shall be the duty of every citizen of India a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem; b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our National Struggle for Freedom; c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

d) to defend the Country and render National Service when called upon to do so; e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women; f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures; h) i) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform; to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the Nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement. All Rights and Duties always remain as silent Provisions interned in the Constitution. It is unto the People to realise them. They have to make the Governments to work, and ensure that they do their Duties and they get their Rights. Where necessary they have to fight for them, go to the Courts to agitate for them, and struggle in the Society to retain them. As Baba Saheb said, in his last speech in the Constituent assembly on 25th November 1949, while moving the Draft Constitution for adoption, the success or effectiveness of any Law and Constitution depends upon those who work them.

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3.3

U.N. DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations, Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge, Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional
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or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. Article 9. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Article 10. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. Article 13. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
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(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. Article 14. (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 15. (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Article 16. (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. Article 17. (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Article 18. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Article 19. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Article 20. (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association. Article 21. (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.

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(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. Article 22. Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. Article 23. (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Article 24. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay. Article 25. (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. Article 26. (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

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(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children. Article 27. (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Article 28. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. Article 29. (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 30. Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL OF UN The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations is a group of UN member countries that assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ECOSOC has 54 members, all of whom are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen among the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for a four-week session. Since 1998, it has held another meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Viewed separate from the specialized bodies it coordinates, ECOSOCs functions include information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations. In addition, ECOSOC is well positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UNs subsidiary bodies and it is in these roles that it is most active.

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Functions and Powers In the economic and social fields, the United Nations promotes: - Higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development; - Solutions of international economic, social, health, and related problems; - International cultural and educational cooperation; and - Universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. Responsibility for discharging these functions is vested in the United Nations General Assembly and, under its authority, in the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). ECOSOC serves as the central forum for the discussion of international economic, social, humanitarian and environmental issues, and for formulating policy recommendations addressed to Member States and the United Nations system. Through these discussions, the Council plays a key role in fostering international cooperation for development and in setting priorities for action. The Council also coordinates the economic, social and related work of the United Nations Funds, Programmes and Specialized Agencies known as the United Nations family of organizations. The functions and powers of the Economic and Social Council as defined in the United Nations Charter (Chapter X) are, primarily, to: - Make or initiate studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, health, and related matters and make recommendations with respect to any such matters to the General Assembly, to the Members of the United Nations, and to the Specialized Agencies concerned; Make recommendations for the purpose of promoting respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all; - Prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly, with respect to matters falling within its competence; - Call, in accordance with the rules prescribed by the United Nations, international conferences on matters falling within its competence; - Co-ordinate the activities of the Specialized Agencies through consultation with and recommendations to such agencies and through recommendations to the General Assembly and to the Members of the United Nations; - Furnish information to the Security Council and assist the Security Council upon its request. How ECOSOC works The Council holds several short sessions, ad hoc meetings, round tables and panel discussions with the participation of non-governmental stakeholders throughout the year, to prepare for its four-week substantive session in July. The work of the Council is also carried out by its subsidiary and related bodies.
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3.4

ASTAANG YOGA AND HOLISTIC VIEW OF LIFE.

Introduction to Ashtanga Yoga:- In Sanskrit "Ashta + anga" is Ashtanga. "Ashta" means Eight and "Anga" is limbs so it means Eight Limb path. Ashtanga yoga is based on Yoga Philosophy of Patanjali. The asanas, Pranayamas or the dharana or the yam and niyam are based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. History of Ashtanga Yoga Yoga has its roots about 5000 years BC as described in Vedic Philosophy and Tantras. Patanjali, great sage composed this path into a Darshan(Philosophy) in his Book Patanjal Yoga Sutra. In which he has formulated Yoga as a Eight Limbs or Eight Fold path. Eight Limbs of Ashtanga Yoga 1. Yama (Principles or moral code) 2. Niyama (Personal Disciplines) 3. Asana - (Yoga Postures / positions) A stable and comfortable posture which helps attain mental equilibrium. 4. Pranayama - (Yoga Breathing) Extension and control of breath. 5. Pratyahara - (Withdrawal of Senses) A mental preparation to increase the power of mind. 6. Dharana - (Concentration on Object) Concentration of mind on one object and its field. 7. Dhyan - (Meditation) With drawing mind from all external objects and Focusing it on one point and meditating on it. 8. Samadhi - (Salvation) State of Super bliss, joy and merging individual consciousness in to universal consciousness. Union between Jivatman and Paramatman. Realizing the Bramhan (pure consciousness) or Realization of God is the ultimate achievement of Human Birth. The first four limbsyama, niyama, asana, pranayamaare considered external cleansing practices. Defects in the external practices are correctable. However, defects in the internal cleansing practicespratyahara, dharana, dhyanaare not correctable and can be dangerous to the mind unless the correct Ashtanga yoga method is followed. The definition of yoga is "the controlling of the mind" [citta vrtti nirodhah]. The first two steps toward controlling the mind are the perfection of yama and niyama. However, it is "not possible to practice the limbs and sub-limbs of yama and niyama when the body and sense organs are weak and haunted by obstacles". A person must first take up daily asana practice to make the body strong and healthy. With the body and sense organs thus stabilized, the mind can be steady and controlled. With mind control, one is able to pursue and grasp these first two limbs. To perform asana correctly in Ashtanga yoga, one must incorporate the use of vinyasa and tristhana. "Vinyasa means breathing and movement system. For each movement, there is one breath. For example, in Surya Namskar there are nine vinyasas. The first vinyasa is inhaling while raising your arms over your head, and putting your hands together; the second is exhaling while bending forward, placing your hands next to your feet, etc. In this way all asanas are assigned a certain number of vinyasas" ("Ashtanga Yoga").
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The purpose of vinyasa is for internal cleansing. Synchronizing breathing and movement in the asanas heats the blood, cleaning and thinning it so that it may circulate more freely. Improved blood circulation relieves joint pain and removes toxins and disease from the internal organs. The sweat generated from the heat of vinyasa then carries the impurities out of the body. Through the use of vinyasa, the body becomes healthy, light and strong. Tristhana refers to the union of three places of attention or action: posture, breathing system and looking place. These three are very important for yoga practice, and cover three levels of purification: the body, nervous system and mind. They are always performed in conjunction with each other. Posture: The method for purifying and strengthening the body is called asana. In Ashtanga yoga, asana is grouped into six series. The Primary Series [Yoga Chikitsa] detoxifies and aligns the body. The Intermediate Series [Nadi Shodhana] purifies the nervous system by opening and clearing the energy channels. The Advanced Series A, B, C, and D [Sthira Bhaga] integrate the strength and grace of the practice, requiring higher levels of flexibility and humility. Each level is to be fully developed before proceeding to the next, and the sequential order of asanas is to be meticulously followed. Each posture is a preparation for the next, developing the strength and balance required to move further. Breathing: The breathing technique performed with vinyasa is called ujjayi [victorious breath], which consists of puraka [inhalation] and rechaka [exhalation]. Both the inhale and exhale should be steady and even, the length of the inhale should be the same length as the exhale. Over time, the length and intensity of the inhalation and exhalation should increase, such that the increased stretching of the breath initiates the increased stretching of the body. Long, even breathing also increases the internal fire and strengthens and purifies the nervous system. Looking Place: Dristhi is the gazing point on which one focuses while performing the asana. There are nine dristhis: the nose, between the eyebrows, navel, thumb, hands, feet, up, right side and left side. Dristhi purifies and stabilizes the functioning of the mind. In the practice of asana, when the mind focuses purely on inhalation, exhalation, and the drishti, the resulting deep state of concentration paves the way for the practices of dharana and dhyana, the six and seventh limbs of Ashtanga yoga. The four internal cleansing practicespratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhibring the mind under control. When purification is complete and mind control occurs, the Six Poisons surrounding the spiritual heart [kama (desire), krodha (anger), moha (delusion), lobha (greed), matsarya (sloth), and mada (envy)]will, one by one, go completely, revealing the Universal Self. In this way, the correct, diligent practice of Ashtanga Yoga under the direction of a Guru with a subdued mind unshackled from the external and internal sense organs eventually leads one to the full realization of Patanjali's eight-limbed yoga.

YAMAS AND NIYAMAS


Yoga is more than just a physical discipline. It is a way of lifea rich philosophical path. And the yamas (restraints) and niyamas (observances) are ten good common-sense guidelines for leading a healthier, happier life for bringing spiritual awareness into a social context.
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Yamas: The ancient Indian text, the Bhagavata Purana assigns 12 yogic restraints the Parashar Smriti, another text, puts forward ten. But the yamas as described in Patanjali`s Yoga Sutra are only five, which are also known as the great universal vows or the sarvabhauma maha vratas, because they are not limited by either class, creed, time or circumstances. They are the guidelines for how we interact with the outer world, the social disciplines to guide us in our relationships with others. These five are: Ahimsa (non-violence), Satya (truthfulness), Asteya (non-stealing), Brahmacharya (celibacy) and Aparigraha (noncovetousness) Ahimsa: According to the Yajnavalkya Samhita, ahimsa or non-violence is the awareness and
practice of non-violence in thought, speech and action. It advocates the practices of compassion, love, understanding, patience, self-love, and worthiness. Satya: Patanjali describes truthfulness as: "To be in harmony with mind, word and action, to conduct speech and mind according to truth, to express through speech and to retain it in the intellect what has been seen, understood or heard." A perfectly truthful person is he who expresses in his speech exactly what he thinks in his mind and in the end acts according to it. Asteya: Non-stealing or asteya is the third constituent of the yamas of Ashtanga Yoga. It upholds forgoing the unauthorized possession of thought, speech and action. Asteya stands against covetousness and envy. It advocates the cultivation of a sense of completeness and self-sufficiency in order to progress beyond base cravings. Brahmacharya: The Vedas, Smritis and Puranas all glorify the fourth constituent of celibacy. It is believed to be a behavior, which brings man nearer to the Divine. This yama believes in avoiding all sensual pleasures, whether mental, vocal or physical. Aparigraha: The literal meaning of aparigraha, the fifth yama, is the non-accumulation of worldly objects, caused by covetousness and attachment. The commentator Vyasa says that this last state of yama is attained when one remains totally detached from sensual pleasures of all kinds and so effectively refrains from committing himsa or violence of any sort.

Niyamas: The niyamas are the second constituents of Ashtanga Yoga. How we interact with ourselves, our internal world. The niyamas are about self-regulationhelping us maintain a positive environment in which to grow. Their practice harnesses the energy generated from the cultivation of the earlier yamas. According to sage Yajnavalkya, there are ten niyamas and the Bhagavad Gita lists 11 constituents. But Patanjali names only five: Shaucha or purity, Santosha or contentment, Tapa or austerity, Swadhyaya or self-education and IshwarPranidhan or meditation on the Divine Shaucha: Shaucha implies both external as well as internal purity. In the words of sage Manu, water
purifies the body; truthfulness the mind; true knowledge the intellect and the soul is purified by knowledge and austerity. It advocates the practices of intellectual purity, purity of speech and of the body. Santosh: The second niyama is that of contentment, which is described as not desiring more than what one has earned by his honest labor. This state of mind is about maintaining equanimity through all that life offers. Santosha involves the practice of gratitude and joyfulnessmaintaining calm at all costs. This state of mind does not depend on any external causes. Tapa: Austerity, the third niyama, is described in Yoga philosophy as power to stand thirst and hunger, cold and heat, discomforts of place and postures, silent meditation and ritual fasts. It also maintains that the perfect man is he who practices both mental as well as physical austerity. INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 56

Swadhyaya: According to the commentator Vyas, self-education or swadhyaya consists of scriptural


studies. The scripture being, the Vedas and Upanishads together with the recitation of the Gayatri Mantra and the Om mantra. Ishwar Pranidhan: This has been described as the last of the niyamas, as the dedication of all our actions, performed either by intellect, speech or body, to the Divine. The results of all such actions are by definition, therefore, dependent upon Divine decision. The mortal mind can simply aspire to realize the Divine through dedication, purification, tranquilization and concentration of the mind. This Divine contemplation spills over to all aspects of the yogi`s life.

The Benefits of Practicing Yamas and Niyamas: The yamas and niyamas help in managing our energy in an integrative manner, complementing our outer life to our inner development. They help us view ourselves with compassion and awareness. They help in respecting the values of this life, in balancing our inner growth with outer restraint. In short they help us to lead a conscious life. Yamas and niyamas are not about right and wrong. They are about being honest with the true Self. Living according to these principles are about living our lives in a better way, about moving towards an understanding, about making it possible to `connect` with the Divine.

ASANA / YOGASANAS
A yogasana is a posture in harmony with one`s inner consciousness. It aims at the attainment of a sustained and comfortable sitting posture to facilitate meditation. Asanas also help in balancing and harmonizing the basic structure of the human body, which is why they have a range of therapeutic uses too. Functions of Yogasanas Asanas basically perform five functions: Conative, Cognitive, Mental, Intellectual and Spiritual. Conative action is the voluntary exercise of the organs of action. The asanas being the main yogic instrument of balancing the body, they consist of various physical postures, which are designed to release tension, improve flexibility and maximize the flow of vital energy. The purpose of the asanas is to create a flow of positive energy so that our concentration is directed within ourselves and the mind is able to perceive (parokshya jnana) the effects of our purposive action. That is cognitive action. When the earlier two actions are fused, our mind`s discriminative faculty guides these organs to perform the asanas more correctly. The resultant rhythmic energy flow and awareness leads to a mental state of pure joy (ananda). Physical postures, therefore, end up affecting the various interrelated channels (nadis) of the mind-body complex. And ultimately the performance of a perfect yogasana leads to the absolute intellectual absorption of the mind on a single task (dharana), which in turn leads to the fusion of the individual spirit with the Divine Self (dhyana). Benefits of Yogasanas The regular practice of yogasanas has an immense amount of therapeutic value. Besides various physiological benefits, they positively affect our minds, our life force energies as well as our creative intelligence. Regular practice helps to keep our body fit, controls cholesterol level, reduces weight, normalizes blood pressure and improves heart performance. Physical fitness thus achieved leads to reduction of physical stress and greater vitality. Asanas
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harmonize our pranic ability and mental energy flow by clearing any blockages in the subtle body leading to mental equilibrium and calmness. They make the mind strong thus enabling our human body to suffer pain and unhappiness stoically and with fortitude. Various Categories of Yogasanas The various categories of asanas are: Standing Asanas, Forward Bending Asanas, Supine Asanas, Inverted Asanas, Abdominal and Lumbar Asanas, Twisting Asanas, Back Bending Asanas and Balancing Asanas.

PRANAYAMA
`Pranayama` is a compound term (`prana` and `yama`) meaning the maintenance of prana in a healthy manner throughout one`s life. More than a breath-control exercise, pranayama is all about controlling the life force or prana. Ancient yogis, who understood the essence of prana, studied it and devised methods and practices to master it. These practices are better known as pranayama. Since breath or prana is basic to life, the practice of pranayama helps in harnessing the prana in and around us, and by deepening and extending it, pranayama leads to a state of inner peace. Benefits of Pranayama The practices of pranayamathe correct breathing technique helps to manipulate our energies. Most of us breathe incorrectly, using only half of our lung capacity. Pranayama is a technique, which re-educates our breathing process, helps us to release tensions and develop a relaxed state of mind. It also balances our nervous system and encourages creative thinking. In addition, by increasing the amount of oxygen to our brain it improves mental clarity, alertness and physical well being. When practiced along with yogasanas the benefits of pranayama are more pronounced. According to Patanjali`s Yoga Sutra, pranayama enables the mind to acquire the capacity to concentrate on any given object of attention. It also says that scientific breathing helps in unveiling true knowledge from the darkness of ignorance. But it is eminently advisable to be aware of all the do`s and don`ts of pranayama before practicing them.

PRATYAHARA
Pratyahara involves rightly managing the senses and going beyond them instead of simply closing and suppressing them. It involves reining in the senses for increased attention rather than distraction. Pratyahara may be practiced with mantra meditation and visualization techniques. Benefits of Pratyahara It is essential to practice pratyahara for achieving the three meditative stages of dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Perfecting this technique of yoga is also essential in order to break out from the eternal cycle of rebirths.

DHARANA
The last three limbs of Ashtanga Yoga are the three essential stages of meditation. Dharana involves developing and extending our powers of concentration. This consists of various ways of directing and controlling our attention and mind-fixing skills, such as concentrating on the chakras or turning inwards.
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DHYANA
Dhyana is the state of meditation, when the mind attains the ability to sustain its attention without getting distracted. Strictly speaking, unlike the other six limbs of yoga, this is not a technique but rather a state of mind, a delicate state of awareness. This state rightfully precedes the final state of samadhi.

SAMADHI
Samadhi, or total absorption, is the ability to become one with the True Self and merge into the object of concentration. In this state of mind, the perceiver and the object of perception unite through the very act of perceptiona true unity of all thought and action. This is the acme of all yogic endeavorsthe ultimate `yoga` or connection between the individual and the universal Soul! Patanjali`s Yoga Sutra categorizes and grades the levels of samadhi in the first chapter or Samadhi Pada: Samprajnata Samadhi or distinguished contemplation and Asamprajnata Samadhi or non-distinguished contemplation, Savitarka Samadhi or deliberated absorption and Nirvitarka Samadhi or non-deliberated absorption, Savichara Samadhi or reflective meditation and Nirvichara Samadhi or non-reflective meditation, Sabija Samadhi, where the mind continues to carry seeds of earthly impressions and Nirbija Samadhi, where each seed of earthly impressions have been erased.

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UNIT IV 4.1 Ethics in the world of business. 4.2 Theories of Ethics Natural Law, Utilitarianism, Kantian Virtue 4.3 Kautilyan Model of Management. 4.4 Indian Humanistic and Spiritual approach to management. 4.5 Education system in Ancient India and modern management.

4.1 ETHICS IN THE WORLD OF BUSINESS. Ethics also called moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that seeks to determine the

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4.2

THEORIES OF ETHICS NATURAL LAW, UTILITARIANISM, KANTIAN VIRTUE

Ethics also called moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that seeks to determine the correct application of moral notions such as good and bad and right and wrong or a theory of the application or nature of such notions. Both 'ethics' and 'morality' have their roots in a word for 'customs', the former being a derivative of the Greek term from which we get 'ethos', and the latter from the Latin root that gives us 'mores', a word still used sometimes to describe the customs of a people. Although ethics has always been viewed as a branch of philosophy, its all-embracing practical nature links it with many other areas of study, including anthropology, biology, economics, history, politics, sociology, and theology. Yet, ethics remains distinct from such disciplines because it is not a matter of factual knowledge in the way that the sciences and other branches of inquiry are. Rather, it has to do with determining the nature of normative theories and applying these sets of principles to practical moral problems. Ethics is traditionally subdivided into normative ethics, metaethics, and applied ethics. 1. Normative ethics seeks to establish norms or standards of conduct; a crucial question in this field is whether actions are to be judged right or wrong based on their consequences or based on their conformity to some moral rule, such as Do not tell a lie. Theories that adopt the former basis of judgment are called consequentialist (see consequentialism); those that adopt the latter are known as deontological (see deontological ethics). 2. Metaethics is concerned with the nature of ethical judgments and theories. Since the beginning of the 20th century, much work in metaethics has focused on the logical and semantic aspects of moral language. Some major metaethical theories are naturalism (see naturalistic fallacy), intuitionism, emotivism, and prescriptivism. 3. Applied ethics, as the name implies, consists of the application of normative ethical theories to practical moral problems (e.g., abortion). Among the major fields of applied ethics are bioethics, business ethics, legal ethics, and medical ethics. THE ORIGINS OF ETHICS
When did ethics begin and how did it originate? Virtually every human society has some form of myth to explain the origin of morality. In the Louvre in Paris there is a black Babylonian column with a relief showing the sun god Shamash presenting the code of laws to Hammurabi (died c. 1750 bc), known as the Code of Hammurabi. The Old Testament account of Gods giving the Ten Commandments to Moses (flourished 14th13th century bc) on Mount Sinai might be considered another example.

The Renaissance and the Reformation The revival of Classical learning and culture that began in 15th-century Italy and then slowly spread throughout Europe did not give immediate birth to any major new ethical theories.
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Its significance for ethics lies, rather, in a change of focus. For the first time since the conversion of the Roman Empire to Christianity, man, not God, became the chief object of philosophical interest, and the main theme of philosophical thinking was not religion but humanitythe powers, freedom, and accomplishments of human beings. Although the Renaissance did not produce any outstanding moral philosophers, there is one writer whose work is of some importance in the history of ethics: Niccol Machiavelli (14691527). His book The Prince (1513) offered advice to rulers as to what they must do to achieve their aims and secure their power. Its significance for ethics lies precisely in the fact that Machiavellis advice ignores the usual ethical rules: It is necessary for a prince, who wishes to maintain himself, to learn how not to be good, and to use this knowledge and not use it, according to the necessities of the case. There had not been so frank a rejection of morality since the Greek Sophists. So startling is the cynicism of Machiavellis advice that it has been suggested that The Prince was an attempt to satirize the conduct of the princely rulers of Renaissance Italy. It may be more accurate, however, to view Machiavelli as an early political scientist, concerned only with setting out what human beings are like and how power is maintained, with no intention of passing moral judgment on the state of affairs described. In any case, The Prince gained instant notoriety, and Machiavellis name became synonymous with political cynicism and deviousness. Reacting against the worldly immorality apparent in the Renaissance church, Martin Luther (14831546), John Calvin (150964), and other leaders of the new Protestantism sought to return to the pure early Christianity of the Scriptures, especially as reflected in the teachings of Paul and of the Church Fathers, Augustine foremost among them. They were contemptuous of Aristotle and of non-Christian philosophers in general. Luthers standard of right and wrong was whatever God commands. Luther insisted that one does not earn salvation by good works; one is justified by faith in Christ and receives salvation through divine grace. It is apparent that if these premises are accepted, there is little scope for human reason in ethics. As a result, no moral philosophy has ever had the kind of close association with any Protestant church that, for example, the philosophy of Aquinas has had with Roman Catholicism. Yet, because Protestants emphasized the capacity of the individual to read and understand the Gospels without first receiving the authoritative interpretation of the church, the ultimate outcome of the Reformation was a greater freedom to read and write independently of the church hierarchy. This development made possible a new era of ethical thought. From this time, too, distinctively national traditions of moral philosophy began to emerge; the British tradition, in particular, developed largely independently of ethics on the Continent. Accordingly, the present discussion will follow this tradition through the 19th century before returning to consider the different line of development in continental Europe.

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NATURAL LAW Key philosophers are: St. Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274). His main work is: Summa Theologica (1273) Aristotle (384-322BCE). His main work is: Nichomachean Ethics Cicero (106-43BCE). His main work is: On The Republic Ethics is the struggle to determine what is right or wrong, or good and bad. Some ethical theories are hedonistic they say that pleasure (and the absence of pain) are the only ultimately good ends towards which to aim. Some Christian ethicists argue that following Gods will as revealed through prayer, scriptures and prophecy is the ultimate good. The roots of natural law can be found in the ancient Greek and Roman world. In the play Antigone, written in the fifth century BCE by Sophocles, Creon, the ruler of Thebes, forbids the burial of Antigones brother as punishment for his treason against Thebes. Antigone breaks Creons law and buries her brother. She argues that the State cannot overrule the immortal laws of the Gods, which in this case require the dead to be buried. In Nichomachean Ethics, the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote that natural justice was not always the same as that which was just by law. He observed that while laws may vary from place to place, natural justice is independent and applies to everyone no matter where they live. The ancient Stoics emphasised the importance of Logos, or rationality that governs the world and sees human nature as part of one natural order. They considered natural law, a law of right reason. Reason and human purpose Natural Law says that everything has a purpose, and that mankind was made by God with a specific design or objective in mind (although it doesnt require belief in God). It says that this purpose can be known through reason. As a result, fulfilling the purpose of our design is the only good for humans. The theory of Natural Law was put forward by Aristotle but championed by Aquinas (1225-74). It is a deductive theory it starts with basic principles, and from these the right course of action in a particular situation can be deduced. It is deontological, looking at the intent behind an action and the nature of the act itself, not its outcomes. In more detail, Aquinas talked of Primary Precepts. While Natural Law may be thought of as a deontological position (deon- duty; deontological ethical positions have absolute rules that it is our duty to follow), this part is teleological (Telos- purpose), meaning What is our purpose - what are we designed for?. The main purpose being Worship God, to live in an Ordered society, Reproduction, Learning and to Defend the innocent Real and apparent goods Aquinas argued that the self should be maintained. As a result, Natural Law supports certain virtues (prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance) that allow the self to fulfil its purpose. Similarly there are many vices (the seven deadly sins) that must be avoided as they prevent the individual from being what God intended them to be.
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Following a real good will result in the preservation or improvement of self, getting nearer to the ideal human nature that God had planned. There are many apparent goods that may be pleasurable (e.g. drugs) but ultimately lead us to fall short of our potential. Reason is used to determine the real goods. To correctly distinguish between apparent and real goods is to use reason rightly and to choose the right thing to do. Reason identified the natural or cardinal virtues: prudence, temperance, fortitude and justice. Scriptures reveal theological virtues as faith, hope and charity. To adhere to natural law, an individual should seek to develop the cardinal virtues. This development requires practice. It is also possible for the very opposite to become habitual if people are not careful. Exterior and interior acts For Aquinas, both the intention and the act are important. To act in a good way for the wrong reason is to perform a good exterior act but a bad interior act. Example: to help an old lady cross the road (good exterior act) to impress someone (bad interior act) is wrong. It should be done out of charity rather than for sake of admiration by others. On the other hand, good intentions dont always lead to good actions. The only end that Aquinas values is God. Aquinas believes that acts are intrinsically good or bad (good or bad in themselves) because when human beings act in accordance with their ultimate purpose, God is glorified. Primary and secondary precepts Whether or not acts lead towards God depends upon whether the action fits the purpose that humans were made for. The main purpose of human nature is to preserve the self and the innocent, to reproduce, to acquire knowledge, to live in an ordered society and to worship God. Secondary Precepts are the rules - absolute deontological principles - that are derived from the Primary Precepts. For example, the teleological principle "Protect and preserve the innocent" leads to rules such as "Do not abort," "Do not commit euthanasia" etc. These rules cannot be broken, regardless of the consequences. They are absolute laws. UTILITARIANISM Key philosophers are: Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). His main works include: Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789); A Fragment on Government (1776) John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). His main work is: Utilitarianism (1863) Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900). His main work is: The Methods of Ethics (1874) Teleological and Deontological Theories Ethical theories that concentrate on moral rules that cant be broken are deontological. For deontological ethics, the important thing isnt the result or the consequence of the action, but the action itself. If the action is wrong, then it wont do. For a deontologist, the end never justifies the means.

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Another group of philosophers argue that whether something is right or wrong depends on the result or the end of that action. Theories that are interested in ends are called teleological, from the Greek word for end telos. For a teleological ethical thinker, the end justifies the means. You decide the rightness of an action by the end it produces. A choice that results in a good end is morally better than a choice that results in a bad end. Qualities such as love, honesty and kindness are not good in themselves. They are only good in an instrumental way because they cause good results. Example: consider torture. A deontologist may argue that torturing prisoners is always wrong, no matter what the situation. On the other hand, a teleologist will want to look at the consequences of either choosing to torture or not choosing to torture before deciding whether or not it is right. Let us suppose that the prisoner has secrets that, once revealed will save the lives of many innocent people. The prison guards know he has the information. The teleological thinker will maintain that it is right to go ahead and torture to discover the truth, as it will save the lives of many innocents. Utilitarianism is the most famous teleological theory. The theory of utilitarianism was devised by Jeremy Bentham, an Englishman. Bentham worked on legal reform and wrote The Principles of Morals and Legislations (1789), in which he put forward his ethical theory. This can be divided into three parts: 1. His view on what drove human beings, what goodness and badness was all about. 2. The principle of utility (from the Latin utilis, meaning useful), which is his moral rule. 3. The hedonic calculus, which is his system for measuring how good or bad a consequence, is. The motivation of human beings Bentham maintained that human beings were motivated by pleasure and pain, and so he can be called a hedonist (hedone is Greek for pleasure). He said, Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign master, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. Bentham believed that all human beings pursued pleasure and sought to avoid pain. He saw this as a moral fact, as pleasure and pain identified what we should and shouldnt do. As a hedonist, Bentham believed that pleasure was the sole good and pain the sole evil: hence, Benthams utilitarianism is called hedonic utilitarianism. The principle of utility Once Bentham had established that pleasure and pain were the important qualities for determining what was moral, he developed the utility principle. The rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by its utility or usefulness. Usefulness refers to the amount of pleasure or happiness caused by the action. The theory is known as the greatest happiness principle, or a theory of usefulness. An action is right if it produces the greatest good for the
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greatest number, where the greatest good is the greatest pleasure or happiness and the least pain or sadness, and the greatest number are the majority of people. Good is the maximisation of pleasure and the minimisation of pain. When faced with a moral dilemma, Bentham argues that one should choose to act in such a way that brings the maximum possible happiness for the most people. However, the possible consequences of different actions must be measured clearly to establish which option generates the most pleasure and the least pain. To measure the results, Bentham proposed the hedonic calculus. Hedonic Calculus Benthams hedonistic utilitarianism states that we always ought to perform that act that leads to the greatest pleasure. This raises the question as to how we are to quantify pleasure; if we cannot put a value on the quantity of pleasure that an act produces, then we cannot compare it to other acts in order to decide which of them we ought to perform. To overcome this difficulty, Bentham proposed the hedonic calculus. The hedonic calculus lists seven features of pleasure to which attention must be paid in order to assess how great it is: intensity, duration, certainty, propinquity, fecundity, purity, and extent. Intensity - The intensity of the pleasure caused by an act is reasonably self-explanatory.
Mild pleasure is less valuable than intense pleasure, and so acts leading to the latter are to be preferred to acts leading to the former, other things being equal. Duration - The duration of the pleasure caused by an act must also be taken into account when assessing the goodness of the act. Transient pleasure is less valuable than lasting pleasure, and so acts leading to the latter are to be preferred to acts leading to the former, other things being equal.

Certainty - The certainty criterion refers to the probability of the pleasure resulting from
the act; how likely is it that the act will bring about the anticipated pleasure? If we must choose between an act that will definitely cause pleasure and an act that will only possibly bring about pleasure, then we do better to perform the former.

Propinquity - When deciding what to do, Bentham thought, we should bear in mind how
distant are the anticipated benefits of each possible course of action. The more distant the benefits, in either space or time, the less weight we should give them in making our decision.

Fecundity - The fecundity of an act is the likelihood that the pleasures or pains that it
causes will be followed by similar pleasures or pains. If the happiness that an act causes is likely to be followed by yet more happiness, then that act is better than a similar act that will cause only one isolated instance of happiness. Similarly, if the pain that an act causes is likely to be followed by still more pains, then that act is worse than it would otherwise be. Purity - It is also important to be attentive to the purity of pleasure and pain caused by an act. An act that causes only pleasure is better than one that causes the same amount of pleasure mixed with a little pain. When pleasure or pain is unmixed with their opposites, their purity is high; when they are so mixed, their purity is diminished. Extent - The final criterion for quantifying the pleasure caused by an act is its extent: the more people enjoy the pleasure, the better. This criterion, unlike the previous six, was not among the original criteria described by Bentham, but was added by John Stuart Mill. INDIAN VALUE SYSTEM and BUSINESS ETHICS Page 70

John Stuart Mill was the son of a follower of Jeremy Bentham. He was perhaps the greatest British philosopher of the nineteenth century. An administrator for the East India Company, he was also a member of Parliament. He wrote On the Subjugation of Women, one of the inspirations behind modern feminism. His works concerning ethics were On Liberty (1859) and Utilitarianism (1861). Mill maintained that the well being of the individual was of greatest importance and that happiness is most effectively gained when individuals are free to pursue their own ends, subject to rules that protect the common good of all. Act and Rule Utilitarianism Utilitarianism also exists in act form and rule form. Act utilitarianism maintains that, whenever possible, the principle of utility must be directly applied for each individual situation. When faced with a moral choice, I must decide what action will lead to the greatest good in this particular situation. If I am in a situation in which lying will create the greatest pleasure, then I should lie. If, in the next situation, lying brings about a lesser result than telling the truth, then I should tell the truth. According to act utilitarians, when determining whether the act is right, it is the value of the consequences of the particular act that count. I may break any law if, in that situation, greater happiness will result. Act utilitarianism has the benefit of flexibility, being able to take into account individual situations at a given moment, although the actions it justifies can change. This form of utilitarianism is more closely associated with Jeremy Bentham. There are a number of criticisms of act utilitarianism. First, it has the potential to justify virtually any act if, in that particular case, the result generates the most happiness. The second problem is that its impractical to suggest that we should measure each and every moral choice every time, especially as we may not have all the information required by the hedonic calculus. A third difficulty is that act utilitarianism can have some quite extreme results. Example: An act utilitarian goes out to see a film. On the way to the cinema, she sees someone collecting money for charity. She gives her money to the collector instead of buying the ticket, and then goes home. A week passes and she sets out to the cinema again. She meets the collector again and hands over her money and again returns home. In each case giving up her money to help the greatest number generates the greatest happiness. However, taken to extreme, all leisure activity would end which seems a little hard to stomach. The other form of utilitarianism rule utilitarianism addresses this difficulty. Rule Utilitarianism focuses on general rules that everyone should follow to bring about the greatest good for that community. Rule utilitarianism establishes the best overall rule by determining the course of action which, when pursued by the whole community, leads to the best result. This type of utilitarianism is more closely associated with John Stuart Mill and John Austin (The Province of Jurisprudence, 1832). In a particular situation I must obey
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the rule even if it doesnt lead to the greatest pleasure for me in this particular situation. In rule utilitarianism, rule takes priority over the immediate situation. Evaluating Utilitarianism First it seems reasonable to link morality with pursuit of happiness and the avoidance of pain and misery. Second, it also seems natural to consider the consequences of our actions before deciding what to do. Third, utilitarianism offers a balanced, democratic morality that promotes the general happiness. It doesnt support individual pursuits that are at the expense of the majority. It is a commonsense system thats practically applicable to real life situations. It has no need for a special wisdom. However, there are a number of difficulties with utilitarianism. The first concerns all theories that rely on consequences for deciding which actions are good. One needs to be sure that what he thinks will come about as a result of a particular action will actually come about. Utilitarianism depends upon accurate predictions of the futures, but human beings dont always display accurate foresight. The consequences of actions may not become apparent until years into the future. A second difficulty is found in measuring pleasure. The balancing process brought about using the seven criteria of the hedonic calculus appears straightforward. However, can the different pleasures and different pains be so easily quantifiable? Can the pain of an inoculation be compared with the pain of getting injured? Some pain is good for us, it is there for a reason. The hedonic calculus formula isnt as straightforward as it at first appears. It is questionable whether an action can be declared good by an empirical test as suggested by hedonic calculus. Third and a more profound difficulty concerns the issue of justice. While utilitarianism ensures a maximum pleasure result, it does not set out how that pleasure is distributed. It ensures that most people receive pleasure but it guarantees nothing for minorities. Five bullies get pleasure from torturing a single boy. His pleasure is sacrificed for the greater benefit of theirs! That men are happy with their lot never entails that their lot is what it ought to be. For the question can always be raised of how great the price is that is being paid for the happiness. The fourth difficulty is utilitarianisms failure to consider different views on what happiness is. It asserts that theres common agreement about what brings pleasure and what brings pain. This can be challenged at many levels. Not only do people have different tastes with regard to music, art and literature, but there are even extreme exceptions with regard to physical sensations there are people who find pleasure in experiencing pain. Despite these weaknesses, utilitarianism has proved popular and useful. In The Methods of Ethics (1874), Henry Sidgwick produced a more complex account of utilitarianism. He rejected Benthams view that people pursued their own pleasure and replaced it with ethical hedonism the view that individuals should seek general happiness.
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KANTIAN PHILOSOPHY Key Philosopher: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). His main works include: Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (1785); Critique of Practical Reason (1788); The Metaphysics of Morals (1797) Kant was concerned with Deontological ethics. Deontological theories are concerned with actions rather than the consequences. The theory states that if an act is wrong, it is wrong in all circumstances, irrespective of the consequences. This view of ethics stands in opposition to the teleological views such as utilitarianism, which tend to hold consequences as the determining factor for the moral worth of an act. Kants theory is deontological as its base is duty. To act morally is to do ones duty and to do ones duty is to obey the moral law. Kant stresses that one should not attempt to do something that he cannot conversely meaning that if one ought to do something, it implies that it is possible to do it. Moral statements are prescriptive in nature meaning they prescribe an action. Ought implies can and therefore if I say I ought to do x, it means that I can do x. According to Kant, human beings seek an ultimate end called supreme good, the summum bonum a state in which the human virtue and happiness are united. Since he believed that it was impossible to reach this state in one life, he deduced that men needed immortal souls to succeed to this end. On one hand Kant rejected theological arguments in favour of existence of God and on the other his ethical theory assumes immortality and the existence of God. In a way, Kants morality leads to God. Kant asserted that there existed an objective moral law and man knew this law through reason and without any reference to consequences. He believed that moral rules existed and were binding. Kants statements on morality are based on knowledge of an act. Drawing from this it can be seen that statements of knowledge can be a priori (knowable without reference or prior to experience) or a posteriori (knowable through experience). Another division which can be made is that knowledge may be analytic (meaning the predicates or parts of the sentence may say something that is necessarily true about the subject) or knowledge may be synthetic (meaning requiring empirical tests such as observations, measurements or experiments). While an analytic is necessarily true by its own authority, a synthetic statement may or may not be true. Therefore, statements could be a priori analytic (such as 1+1=2) or a priori synthetic (); alternatively these could be a posteriori analytic () or a posteriori synthetic (Jack is a butler). Moral statements are called a priori synthetic due to the fact that moral knowledge is gained by pure reason, not by experience (a priori) and also that moral statements may be right or wrong.

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Thus: Non-ethical statements are either: A priori analytic necessarily true and knowable without experience A posteriori synthetic possibly true and to be validated through experiment. Ethical statements are: A priori synthetic knowable through reason, not sensation or experience and may or may not be true. Analytic proposition: the predicate is logically contained in the subject (its negation would be meaningless) Examples: "Every thing has a size", "Americans are people" Truth is self-evident once the concept is analyzed Knowledge is not increased Synthetic proposition: their truth is not self-evident Examples: "My car is white", "This room is large" Truth is based on experience of the world Knowledge is increased Empirical proposition: their truth depends on perception Example: "My car is white", "Rob is American" A-priori proposition: their truth does not depend on perception (all analytic propositions are a-priori) Example: "God exists" Synthetic proposition: their truth is not self-evident A-priori proposition: their truth does not depend on perception Synthetic a-priori propositions: their truth is not dependent on reality, but only on intuition ("2+2=4", "A straight line is the shortest distance between two points", "Every event has a cause"), they could be denied without logical absurdity although we consider them "true" (e.g., non-Euclidean geometry) All mathematical propositions are synthetic a-priori: they depend on intuition (they apply a-priori concepts to space and time, which are also a-priori): Intuition is of a "spatial" kind in geometry (judgements of geometry are about the structure of space) Intuition is of a "temporal" kind in arithmetic (judgements of arithmetic are about the structure of space) Physics is made of synthetic a-posteriori (empirical) propositions but also uses synthetic a-priory propositions (e.g., that one event causes another event), which apply a-priory concepts such as causality Each category implies a corresponding principle of Physics Analytic and a-priori: ok (Analytic and empirical: no) Synthetic and empirical: ok (Physics) All propositions of Physics constitute synthetic a-posteriori (empirical) judgements: they are indefinitely revisable Synthetic and a-priori: can we increase our knowledge independently of experience?
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Kant's thesis: Yes (transcendentalism). Synthetic and a-priori judgments are possible (Physics can yield new knowledge) Knowledge consists in categorizing perceptions Leibniz: all propositions are analytic, even empirical ones (all empirical propositions can be shown to be logically necessary) Hume: only analytic a-priori and synthetic empirical, but no synthetic a-priori propositions A synthetic a-priori judgement is one that is true not because 1. experience 2. the predicate is logically contained within the subject It can be proven true via a "transcendental argument", which is a set of methods to use the mind's own functioning to increase the mind's own knowledge. Example: "There are objects that exist in space and time outside of me" Proof: It would not be possible to be aware of myself as existing without presupposing the existence of something permanent outside of me to distinguish myself from Synthetic a-priori knowledge: "The amount of energy is always conserved" "The angles of a triangle always add up to 180 degrees" Synthetic propositions are applications of a concept (universal) to an object (particular) Concepts are: a-posteriori/empirical concepts (abstracted from perceived objects), a-priori concepts or "categories" (not abstracted from objects, but still applicable to objects), ideas (neither abstracted from nor applicable to objects) Kant's psychology: Synthetic a-priori propositions are applications of categories (a specific kind of concepts) to the perceived objects The subjective universe of perceived objects is transformed into the objective universe of causally-linked physical objects by the application of categories to perception A chaotic senseless universe of disconnected events is turned into an ordered, meaningful universe of connected events It is the thinking being who creates this ordered, meaningful reality (by means of the categories) Kant's psychology: Ideas are due to an infinite series of deductive inference (why? why? why?_) There are only three and they originate Psychology (what is the soul?) Cosmology (what is the world?) Theology (what is God?) Ideas cannot be applied to experience Categories can only be applied to perceptions Applying categories to non-perceived (abstract) ideas leads to an antinomy (a thesis and its antithesis can both be proven true), the domain of metaphysics Antinomies can both be proven true:
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1. "The world has a beginning in time and is limited as regards space" and "The world has no beginning and no limits in space" 2. "Every complex substance is made of simple parts" and "Nothing is composed of simple parts" 3. "Humans have free will" and "Humans have no free will" 4. "There exists a necessary being (God) in the world" and "There does not exist a necessary being (God) in the world" The domain of the thesis is the mental world, the domain of the antithesis is the spatiotemporal world Kant's Ethics: There is an absolute good The existence of morality is as evident as the existence of physical objects Categorical imperative: good actions are those that one would want as universal laws Proofs of God are flawed (they apply an idea to experience, as if it were a category) The only evidence of God is that there is no justice (reward proportional to virtue) in this world, therefore there must be an afterlife Reason is the final authority for morality ("choose your action as if the principle guiding your action were to become a universal law") Goodwill and Duty Kant believed that the highest form of good was goodwill, which he also argues in his book, Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. According to him, to have a good will is to do ones duty. To do ones duty is to perform actions that are morally required and to avoid actions that are morally forbidden. To perform a moral action out of a desire for the good consequence it brings is to act in self-interest and is not a morally good action. We dont do our duty because of the consequences of doing it we do it for duty itself. Kants theory directly opposes utilitarianism. If a murderer asked us whether our friend, who he was pursuing, was hiding in our house, Kant would insist we were honest. The utilitarian would se greater happiness being caused by a lie, but Kant does not consider consequences, only action, and to lie would be wrong. Act as if you live in a kingdom of ends Kant required moral statements to be such that you act as if you, and everyone else, were treating each other as ends. You cant act on a rule that assumes that others dont treat people as ends. It combines the others in that (i) it requires that we conform our actions to the maxims of a legislator of laws (ii) that this lawgiver lays down universal laws, binding all rational wills including our own, and (iii) that those laws are of a merely possible kingdom each of whose members equally possesses this status as legislator of universal laws, and hence must be treated always as an end in itself. The intuitive idea behind this formulation is that our fundamental moral obligation is to act only on principles which could earn
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acceptance by a community of fully rational agents each of whom have an equal share in legislating these principles for their community. Freedom Kant believed that humans were free to make rational choices. If people were not free, the possibility of making moral choices would be denied. This ability to freely rationalise or reason, is what distinguishes humans from animals who lack this ability. We have to be free to do our duty. If our choices are not free, our actions are controlled by factors beyond our control, and then we cannot be moral agents. Kant thought that ought implied can in other words, something thats impossible cant be a moral option, and therefore every moral option must be possible. Ethics and Morals The difference between ethics and morals can seem somewhat arbitrary to many, but there is a basic, albeit subtle, difference. Morals define personal character, while ethics stress a social system in which those morals are applied. In other words, ethics point to standards or codes of behavior expected by the group to which the individual belongs. This could be national ethics, social ethics, company ethics, professional ethics, or even family ethics. So while a persons moral code is usually unchanging, the ethics he or she practices can be other-dependent. Thus, ethics is dictated by what others think and their standards, while morals are dictated by personal and individual beliefs.

When considering the difference between ethics and morals, it may be helpful to consider a criminal defence lawyer. Though the lawyers personal moral code likely finds murder immoral and reprehensible, ethics demand the accused client be defended as vigorously as possible, even when the lawyer knows the party is guilty and that a freed defendant would potentially lead to more crime. Legal ethics must override personal morals for the greater good of upholding a justice system in which the accused are given a fair trial and the prosecution must prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

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4.3

KAUTILYAN MODEL OF MANAGEMENT.

KAUTILYA Kautilya was probably born around 360 B.C.E., was very influential during Chandragupta's rule (321-297 B.C.E.), and might have lived beyond the latter date. This implies that he was a junior contemporary of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.). However, there is no evidence that Kautilya was aware of Aristotle's ideas. Kautilya wrote The Arthashastra, the science of wealth and welfare, during the latter half of the 4th century B.C.E.. The Arthashastra contains 150 chapters, which are classified by topic in 15 books. It consists of three reasonably well developed parts: (i) national security issues including a foreign policy, (ii) administration of justice including crime and punishment issues, and (iii) policies related to economic development, taxation, labor management and financial management. The latter includes a discussion on the critical role of accounting. The Arthashastra is a theoretical treatise designed to instruct kings everywhere and for all time. Kautilya also completed two other works: Chanakya-Sutras (Rules of Science) and Chanakya-Rajanitisastra (Science of Government Policies). MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION The Mauryan period marked the culmination of historical process into the formation of a state which was characterized by a centralized system with a developed taxation system, a professional army and a cadre of officials. Two factors contributed to the rise of Mauryan Empire. Firstly, the development of a money economy which was aided by the use of iron and the subsequent spurt in agriculture and crafts on one hand and the use of punch marked coins on the other causing the kinship ties to decline and the rise of a private spirit. This made possible centralized fiscal collection and integrated authority. The increasing supply of various taxes facilitated the growth of a state apparatus. Secondly, in the social sphere, the forces of urbanism and a strong agriculture base intensified the process social differentiation as the varna system filled the void created by the decline of kinship ties. This social differentiated and the strengthening of varna system facilitated state formation; the elected chief became hereditary as that genealogical right became entrenched in India because of the varna system. It further strengthened the position of the chief. His right to rule derived the secular and religious sanction; former through contract theory of state which speaks of taxation in lieu of protection and latter by religious validation. Thus the main reason for the exaltation of royal power lay in the growing importance of warrior class from the Mauryan times. The coexistent policy of aggrandizement followed by Magadha steeled the warriors and brought them to the fore.

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Two strands are evident on the question of the origin of monarchy in ancient Indian thought the mystical and the contractual. The mystical was woven around the divine appointment of king strengthened around ceremonies like rajsuya, vajpeya and asvamedha. The contractual theory spoke of taxation in lieu for protection. The Mauryan state essentially rested on the latter thought. Arthashastra doesnt deny the propaganda value of the former. The king was the supreme authority of the state and the nucleus of the administrative system. In the Kautilyan scheme, royal order supersedes all other sources of authority including Dharma. The all embracing power of king is furnished by Ashokan edicts which talk of paternal despotism and seek to regulate even social and religious lives of the people. Legislation was largely a matter of confirming social usage and king had a fairly free hand but was expected to consult with his ministers. However the final decision laid with the monarch. Though the king was an autocrat, not limited by constitutional controls, there were many checks on his sovereignty which included dharma, council of ministers and most significantly, the public opinion. The kings duties included appointment and removal of the ministers, defence of treasury and the people, work for progress and welfare of the people, punish evil and influence the praja through his morality. The large empire necessitated the presence of a strong and elaborate bureaucracy which was essentially supported by the economy. This bureaucracy supported not only the administration of political and civil affairs but also the economic affairs where the state was directly engaged in commercial activities. The council of ministers was an advisory body with no fixed number of ministers. Arthashastra stresses that councilors should speak freely and openly and work should be carried out according to majority verdict though the king could turn down their decision. It also lays down qualifications for the appointment of ministers, like the person should not be lured by wealth, not succumb to pressure etc. i.e. he should be sarvopadashudha (purest of all). The state tried to control all the spheres of life through its vast bureaucracy. Kautilya mentions 18 Tirthas who were probably called mahamatras or high functionaries. He also provides for 27 superintendents concerned mostly with economic functions. Some of them also performed military duties. He also refers to duties of Gopa, sthenika, dharmastha, nagaraka etc. These were employed in urban, rural and border administration. Also a new class of mahamatras worked as dharmamahamatras, enforcing the social and political order ushered in by Ashoka. Various lists indicate a tendency to increase the no. of officials. The bureaucracy was paid mainly in cash and was highly hierarchical. It is suggested by the pay scales for different categories of employees, the highest like mantrin, purohita, senapati and yuvaraj receiving 48,000 panas and lowest being paid only 60 pannas.
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Bureaucracy formed the arm of the royal power, but the crucial factor that contributed to it was the development of the coercive power of the state on an unprecedented scale. According to Justin, Chandragupta Maurya possessed 600,000 troops which was thrice the no. of infantry possessed by Nandas. The usual limbs, the infantry, the cavalry, the chariots, the elephants were strengthened by the addition of 2 wings- the navy and transport and commissariat a development suggested by both Megasthenes and Kautilya. The power of Sword was strengthened by the royal monopoly of arms and the control over the artisans who produced arms. The Mauryan Kingdom was divided into four provinces which were further divided into districts and villages. The provincial governor was directly appointed by the king and was usually a member of the royal family. District governors were usually appointed by the provincial governors. The provincial governors were powerful and could act as a check on the viceroy and on occasions acted as effective rulers. Ashoka sent inspectors for tours every five years for an additional audit and check on provincial administration. The district was divided into a group of villages and the final unit of administration was the village. The group of villages was staffed with an accountant who maintained registered land and the tax collector who was concerned with various kinds of revenues. Each village had its own official such as the headman who was responsible to the accountant and the tax collector. The Mauryan rural administration as can be inferred from above was mainly designed to meet the needs of revenue administration though enforcement of law and order also remained an important task. The growing economic activities of the state and the needs of urban settlements led to the creation of a machinery for town administration. The municipal administration of Patliputra described by Megasthenes does show the concern of the government for certain basic urban problems, such as sanitation, care of foreigners, registration of births and deaths etc. Kautilya does not give any indication of the association of local elements with town administration which is imposed from above. He lays down in detail the duties of the Nagaraka which included maintenance of law and order, supervision of sanitation arrangement and to take measures against outbreaks of fire. The Nagaraka has under him subordinate officials called sthanika and gopa who were placed in charge of the wards into which the town was divided. Border administration was also an important element of administration. Ashoka introduced an element of moderation in his border administration and his dealings with the tribal people. The dharmamahamataras were asked to persuade the border people to confirm to dharma, rules to peaceful social conduct such as obeying the king and desisting from violence. But if they did not obey these rules, they were threatened with punishments.

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The governance of the vast territory with the help of an expanding bureaucracy and a huge standing army involved expenditure. This seems to have been the guiding principle of the Mauryan state in undertaking and regulating numerous economic activities which brought it profit. It founded new settlements and sought to rehabilitate the decaying ones. The shudras for the first time were aided by the state to settle as farmers in these settlements. Kautilya deliberately fostered the rusticity of villages to augment agricultural output so as to achieve the maximum levels of surplus. The other source of taxation included the water tax (on land using the irrigation facilities of the state), tax on trade of cattle, livestock and dairy produce etc. Vishti (forced labour) was practiced. All this required strong and efficient machinery for assessment, collection and storage. However Kautilya considers assessment more important than storage and depositing. The list of taxes is impressive and must have proved oppressive. But even all these were not considered adequate to meet the needs of exchequer, which had to finance the vast military and bureaucratic establishments. These, therefore had to be supplemented by the reclamation of virgin lands, exploitation of mines and the running of goldsmiths shops, liquor shops and weaving concerns, all done under the aegis of the state. The first efficient system of police and criminal administration buttressed by an elaborate system of espionage was developed during the Mauryan period. The kantakasodhana was organised to deal with a large number of eco crimes. The organisation of criminal administration was evidently an indigenous phenomenon. Similar is the case with various categories of spies who were employed to keep an eye and report on the criminal and anti-government activities of the people. The Dharmasthiyas were courts which decided personal disputes. The nearest approach to a modern police-cum-magisterial officer was the Pradista, but he had some revenue functions also. On the other hand the samaharta, the sthanika and the gopa who had mainly judicial functions were also assigned some police and magisterial duties. Fines served as punishments in most cases. But certain crimes were considered too serious to be punished by fines alone and capital punishment was inflicted even by Ashoka, although he was a supporter of non-violence. Penalties, however, were based on varna hierarchies i.e. for the same kind of offence, brahmanas were punished far less severely than a shudra. The Mauryan maintained friendly relations with several contemporary powers. Chandragupta received the Greek ambassador Megasthenes, Bindusara had cordial relations with Antiochus and Ashokas edicts mention Antiochus Theos of Syria, Ptolemy III Philadelphus of Egypt, Antigonus Gonatus of Macedonia and Alexander etc. Ashoka also exchanged missions with Ceylon and gave his daughter in marriage to a Nepalese

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nobleman. Friendly political relationship with foreign rulers promoted commerce and communications with the outside world as well as exchange of ideas. The Mauryan state took a keen interest in public works. These included: 1. 2. 3. 4. Interest in irrigation as it could be a major source of revenue e.g. Sudarshan lake Provision of medical treatment and medicines to both men and animals. State also helped citizens during natural calamities The Arthashastra mentions that king should look after orphans, old, unattended women etc. 5. Laying down and repairing of roads etc. Thus, though essentially a police state, the Mauryan Empire also worked for the welfare of the people. FACTS ABOUT MAURYAN ADMINISTRATION Sources Arthashastra, Indica, Inscriptions of Ashoka Remarkable features Centralizing tendency and enormous powers of the ruler. According to Kautilya, Kings order overrides religious injunctions, historical traditions and prevalent customs. Four branches of knowledge (Kautilya): Trayi Varta aspect Anvekshiki Dandaniti Religious and moral aspect Agriculture, animal husbandry & commerce, i.e. commercial Logical aspect (derived by common sense) State power

According to Kautilya, first three are possible through fourth. According to him, the Saptangas of State are: Raja, Amatya, Janapad, Durga, Mitra, Danda (sena) and Kosa (Kosha). Enemy eighth added by Kautilya later. Hellenistic influence centralizing tendency. But even then, according to Kautilya the aim of all such power is welfare of the people. Rock Edict VI There is no greater deed than service to others. Ashoka. Controls on the power of the king are Niti and Dharm, education and training of the king, consulting institutions like cabinet of ministers, and people and their opinion. There were 18 high officials namely, Mantri, Sannidhata, Purohit, Pradeshtha, Senapati, Vyavaharika, Yuvaraj, Nayak, Mantriparishadadhyaksha, Danapala, Dauvarik, Antarveshik, Prashastri, Samaharta, Karmantika, Durgapala, Antapala and Paur. Purohit, Senapati and Yuvaraj were the most important. They received 48000 panas per anum.

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Dauvarika, Antarveshika, Samaharta, and Sannidhata next. They received 24,000 panas per anum. Officers mentioned in Adhyaksha Prachara Chapter of Arthashastra: Shulkadhyaksha Chief Controller of Customs and Octroi Pautavadhyaksha Chief Controller of Weights and Measures Manadhyaksha Chief Surveyor and Timekeeper Sutradhyaksha Chief Textile Commissioner Sitadhyaksha Chief Superintendent of Crown Lands Suradhyaksha Chief Controller of alcoholic beverages Sunadhyaksha Chief Superintendent of Slaughter-houses Ganikadhyaksha Chief Controller of Entertainers Mudradhyaksha Chief Passport Officer Vivitadhyksha Chief Controller of Pasture Lands Navadhyaksha Chief Controller of Shipping Kupyodhyaksha Chief Superintendent of Forest Produce Panyadhyaksha Chief Controller of State Trading Lakshanadhyaksha Chief Master of the Mint Sauvarnik Chief Master of the Mint Nivigrahaka Lower level treasurer The State was divided into following parts: Uttarapath Takshila Dakshinapath Suvarnagiri Kalinga Toshali (Samapa) Avanti Ujjain Prachya Pataliputra There were 6 Committees of 5 each for town administration Taxation (revenue), Commerce, arts and crafts, registration of births and deaths, and industries and foreigners as mentioned in Indica. Kautilya mentions only Nagaraka for this purpose or Nagaradhyakshas. Other political units were like Janapad a district-like entity under Samaharta Sthaniya 800 towns/ villages Dronamukha 400 towns/ villages Kharvatika 200 towns/ villages Sangrahan 100 towns/ villages Gram A group of about 20 villages had their chief Gopa
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Army according to Megathenes had 6 wings Horse, Elephant, Chariot, Cavalry, Navy and Military transport. According to Kautilya, there were only 4 wings (the first four), therefore called chatturangini sena. According to him, Brahmans should not be admitted into army. According to Kautilya, there were two Courts namely, Kantakashodhana (Criminal) and Dharmasthiya (Civil). There were two types of spies (Gudhapurushas): Sanstha and Sanchara. Sources of income: Durg customs etc Rashtra -

Income from cities and townships through various taxes, Income from various Janpadas e.g. Bhag (land tax), Sita (income from Crown land), and Bali (from pilgrimage places and other religious places) Toll for the transport on bridges on rivers Road tax Tax from pasture lands Income from mines Income from fruits, vegetables etc. Income from animals Forest produce

Nadipalastar Vartani Vivitap Khani Satu Vraj Vana

Seven Castes as mentioned by Megasthenes were Philosophers or brahmanas/ darshanik, Cultivators or farmers, Soldiers, Herdsmen, Artisans, Magistrates and Councilors. Officers appointed by Ashoka Rajuka: Officers in control of land and justice who were authorized to award honours and penalties. Their duty was to promote the welfare of people. Strabo calls them Officers of bandobast. Yuktas: Subordinate officers entrusted with secretarial work and accounting Pradeshika: Administration of law and order, revenue. Administration of large land tracts, etc Prativedak: Special reporters of king and they had direct access to him Dhammamahamatra: The most important official entrusted with establishing and promoting Dhamma. Authorized to tour and alleviate the woes of people.

AGRICULTURE AND LAND REVENUE General Features of Agrarian Economy Settlement of permanent villages was recognised in the Arthsastra as a method for the expansion of agrarian economy. These settlements ensured a sound and stable resource
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base for the State to extract taxes and the land tax formed the bulk of it. This process of settlement was called janapadanivesa, but the extent of how this was done is not clearly known. Growth of agriculture meant that the cultivator began to assume an increasingly important role. Megasthenes in his account of the Indian society and its division into seven classes mentions the farmers as the second class, next only to the philosophers who are mentioned as the first class and followed by the soldiers who are mentioned as the third class. Some lands were sita or crown lands. In these areas the King's and the State's rights of possession, cultivation, mortgage and sale were naturally superior. In fact, in the Arthasastra a sitadhyaksa or superintendent of agriculture is mentioned who probably supervised the cultivation works here. These areas were in all probability fertile and suited to high productivity. These were also areas where slaves were deployed working under direct State supervision. The advanced knowledge of agricultural techniques, described in depth in the Arthasastra, also probably refer to these lands. Agriculture in other areas of the Mauryan State, known as janapada territories, was in all probability, carried on privately. In the Jataka stories there are frequent references to gahapatis and grambhojakas. These groups are said to have employed hired labourers on land indicating their capacity to do so as a land-owning gentry. In contrast, the labourers are described to be in a pitiable condition and sometimes, slaves are also mentioned. The King could own land in his personal capacity in both sita and janapada areas though direct references to this for this period are lacking. The Arthasastra has references to different types of agricultural operations supervised by officials. The most important reason for the success of agriculture in the state owned lands was the facility of irrigation provided by the State. There were rules for the regulation of water supply for the benefit of agriculturists. A number of officers were employed who measured the land and inspected sluices by which water was distributed into the branch channels. That irrigation facilities existed in other areas as well is indicated by the mention of an irrigation cess amounting to a fifth, a fourth or a third of the produce in the Arthasastra. This cess was levied only on irrigated soil in areas where rainfall was scarce. In these areas a regular supply of water could ensure a normal yield of crops. Pushyagupta, one of the governors of Chandragupta Maurya, is said to have built a dam for creating a reservoir of water near Girnar in Saurashtra. This was known as Sudarshana tadaga (water tank). This reservoir became so famous that its history can be traced to the middle of the fifth century A.D. for a period of about eight hundred years. Land Revenue Organisation Some villages were exempted from taxation. They were probably rare exceptions and in fact, it has been suggested that this was so because these villages may have provided soldiers to the State. It is also suggested by scholars that in order to bring virgin soil under cultivation in some villages remission of taxes was allowed for a period of time. The essential resources needed for the Mauryan State could only be got from land revenue.
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Therefore, the land revenue collection had to be efficiently organised so as to expropriate the maximum possible surplus from the people. It is generally stated that the Mauryan rule oonstitutes a landmark in the history of the improvement of tier system of taxation in ancient India. The Mauryas in fact attached great importance to the assessment of land revenue and the highest officer in charge of this was the samsharta. The sannidhata was the chief custodian of the State treasury. Since the revenue was also collected in kind, providing storage facilities was also the duty of the latter. 1/4th of the produce was paid in tax by the peasants. Also a tribute was paid by them. Land tax (bhaga) was the main item of revenue. According to the texts, it was levied at the rate of 1/6th of the produce. But it is possible that in the Maurya period it was quite high and levied at the rate of 1/4th of the produce. The Lumbini Edict of Asoka says that when he visited Lumbini, the birthplace of the Buddha, he exempted the village from the payment of bali and reduced the payment of bhaga to 1/8th parts. Even Asoka's great respect for the Buddha did not prompt the emperor to exempt the village totally from the payment of taxes. Sharecropping was another way by which the State collected agricultural resources. The sharecroppers were in the first place provided with seeds, oxen, etc., and received arable land for cultivation. In this kind of situation the peasants probably gave half of the produce to the State. The above taxes were further supplemented by a large number of customary dues that the peasants had to pay. The Mauryas also introduced some new taxes and made already existing ones more effective. The peasants paid a tax called pindakara paid by husbandsmen, which was assessed on groups of villages. This was also customary in nature. Often the villages had to supply provisions to the royal army passing through their respective territories and this naturally increased their burden. The exact nature of hiranya is also not known, but it was probably a tax paid in cash because hiranya literally means gold. Bali, the traditionally known levy from the Vedic times, continued under the Mauryas, and all the above taxes which are described by Kautilya in the Arthasastra must have burdened the peasantry considerably. Nonetheless, he continues to recommend that in case the State still falls short of its needs, several other fiscal measures for periods of emergency could be made use of. For example one such measure was the levy of pranaya which literally meant a gift of affection. This is a tax first mentioned by Panini but elaborated upon for the first time in the Arthasastra. It amounted to It3 or '14 of the produce according to the nature of the soil. It is usually interpreted as a voluntary gift but once put into practice, in reality it must have become obligatory. Further, in times of emergency the cultivators could be forced to raise two crops. The importance of these measures was constantly emphasized as the country did face famines, and during these bleak periods the level of revenue collection must have naturally fallen.

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As land revenue was the backbone of the Mauryan economy, the Arthasastra is careful in designing the revenue system of the State. It is particular in defining the different types of villages to be taxed as the fertility of soil varied from place to place. There is also attention paid to special categories of revenue collectors and assessors. Undoubtedly then, the Mauryan State, atleast in its major areas, must have ensured a substantial land revenue collection without which the government machinery and the army would have been difficult to maintain. TRADE AND TOWNS The non-agrarian economy of the Magadhan empire revolved around two interrelated developments: i) expansion of trade and commerce, and ii) establishment of new towns and markets. The development of the agrarian economy had given a solid economic basis to the Mauryan empire particularly in the Ganges Valley: However, it was the expansion of commercial economy that enabled it to extend its resource base to other parts of the country. Organisation of Trade Trade did not suddenly develop during this period. It was part of the larger process of economic change which had begun much before the Mauryan times. The Jataka stories have frequent references to caravan traders carrying large quantities of goods to different parts of the country. The security provided by Mauryan rule enabled internal trade to blossom. Major trade routes to West Asia and Central Asia passed through north-west India. The main trade routes in northern Indian were along the river Ganges and the Himalayan foothills. Major centres like Rajagriha in Magadha and Kausambi, near present-day Allahabad, were connected in this way. Pataliputra, the capital of the Mauryas, had a particularly strategic location and was connected by river and road in all four directions. The northern route going to such sites as Sravasti and Kapilavastu was connected through the city of Vaisali. From Kapilavastu this route linked up Kalsi, Hazara.and eventually led up to Peshawar. Megasthenes also talks of a land route connecting the north-west with Pataliputra. In the south it was connected to Central India and in the South-east t o Kalinga. This eastern route turned southwards to finally reach Andhra and Karnataka. The other part of the eastern route continued down to the Ganges delta to Tamralipti which acted as an exit point for the south and south-east. From Kausambi moving westwards another route led to Ujjain. This continued either further west to the coast of Gujarat or west south across the Narmada and was regarded as dakshinapatha (southern route). The overland route to countries of the West went via Taxila near Islamabad. The opening up of communications in various parts of the Indian sub-continent was the direct result oi the expansion of settlements, as it facilitated movement from one place to another. This naturally fostered trade. Internal
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trade was considerably benefited because river transport had been improved once the forests around the Valleys had been cleared under State initiative. The State's policy particularly under Bindusara and Asoka to have peaceful and friendly relations with the Greeks gave fillip to foreign trade as well. Trade was carried on in different ways. It was intrinsically linked to the methods of production and its organisation. Primarily in north India craft production was organised on guild (sreni) lines. This was so in the pre-Mauryan period as well. Under the Mauryas when the number of artisan groups had increased we find guilds organised in different towns, inhabiting particular sections of them. These guilds generally worked and lived together in a closely .knit relationship. Craft was necessarily hereditary and in most cases specialization was handed down from father to son. These guilds became very powerful in the postMauryan period as is evident from a number of inscriptions. Megasthenes also mentions the artisans as one of the seven castes/classes he noticed during his stay in India. The wellknown guilds of the period were those of metallurgists of various kinds, carpenters, potters, leatherworkers; painters, textile workers, etc. Northern Black Polished Ware is a good example of craft activities. It became a specialized kind of pottery-making craft and its availability outside the Ganges Valley is limited. This indicates that it was a technique developed in this-part of the country and was perhaps dependent on a particular type of clay available here. Like the artisans, the merchants were also organised along guild lines. Certain kinds of merchants were connected to particular artisan groups which made distribution of goods easier. They too inhabited identifiable parts of the cities which came to be associated with their professions. State administration under the Mauryas also took up the organisation of trade. This administrative control on production and distribution made it more efficient. This did not mean that it directly interfered with and changed the guild organisations. On the other hand, it increased its control on the distribution of their goods and itself became a producer. At another level, it gradually converted some crafts into some sort of small-sca!e industries. The State did this by directly employing some of the artisans like, armourers, shipbuilders, builders in stone, etc. They were exempt from payment of tax because they rendered compulsory labour service to the State. Other artisans like spinners, weavers, miners etc., who worked for the State were liable to tax. The above mentioned steps to organise trade and commodity production were part and parcel of State policy. This policy was aimed at augmenting its efficiency in economic spheres of activity and its revenues. Megasthenes mentions a superintendent of commerce whose duty was to fix prices of goods and also to interfere if there was a glut in any commodity. He is also mentioned in the Arthasastra as panyadhyaksa. This text lists the various officials that were in charge of the different economic activities. The office of the samsthadhyaksa that looked after the markets was in fact to check the wrong practices of
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the traders. The pautavadbyaksa or superintendent of weights and measures exerted a strict control on maintaining standard weights and measures. State boats that facilitated transport were put under the charge of a navadhyaksa. He helped in-regulating river transport and collecting ferry charges. All traders had to pay taxes and custom's dues ranging from '15th to '125th of the value of goods. These were supposed to be collected by a superintendent of tolls called the sulkadhyaksa. Where the State produced goods, different categories of officials looked after particular departments. These goods were called rajapanya. The State was careful to choose those areas of commodity production and trade that were essential for its functioning and yielded good revenues. Sometimes State goods could also be sold by private traders as their network of distribution was more well-organised and widespread. However, a majority of artisans either continued to work individually or within the complex structure of the guilds. The guilds continued to serve the very important purpose of cohesively organising petty producers and most importantly, controlling them, Even the artisans found it advantageous to join them since this eliminated the expenses of working alone or competing with others of the same profession. From the State's point of view the guilds facilitated the collection of taxes. Finally since they concentrated locally and also specialized in particular crafts there was a strengthening of that particular trade. Growth of Urban Economy The process of urbanism which had begun in the pre-Mauryan period witnessed further growth in the Mauryan period. Two major sections of population inhabited the towns, namely, artisans and merchants and the officials of the government. The urban economy characterised by the activities of the manufacturers of goods and of merchants as also by a system of exchange began to spread from the Ganges Valley to other areas of Western and &.Central India, the Deccan and South India. Proliferation of rural settlements and the prosperity of the gahapatis enabled the social base of urban centres to expand further. In many cases it were the rich rural families that developed contacts with towns and provided financial support needed particularly by merchant groups. Kautilya's Arthasastra talks about a process of durganivesa or durgavidhana i.e. the State founding walled towns. These towns were said to be peopled by priests, nobles, soldiers and also merchants, artisans and others. There are also detailed descriptions in this text on the protection of towns and their lay-out so that economic regulations could be carried out properly. Arthasastra viewed towns (durga), or the janapadas, as an important source of revenue. The taxes received from towns paid rich dividends to the State and therefore, development and administration of towns was given much importance by the Mauryans. In fact, when mention is made of taxing guilds located in the capital or durga, the impression is that those in the countryside enjoyed exemption. This may have been because town population was easier to regulate and organise.
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Pataliputra was administered by thirty officials who were divided into six Committees of five members each. Of these six Committees four were related to economic activity. These were Committees dealing with industrial arts, trade and commerce, the supervision of the public sale of manufactured goods and the collection of tax on articles sold. The other two committees were concerned with the welfare of foreigners and the registration of births and deaths. The general administration of law and order in the cities was thus important to ensure the proper functioning of its economic activities. Population mobility and interaction between social groups was necessary for the urban economy to remain healthy and prosperous. This could be ensured by a certain degree of political stability in the metropolitan and core areas of the empire. Another significant aspect of the urban economy is that it created the situation for the development of transactions in cash and the circulation of coined money. Though the use of currency began in an earlier period, it became fairly common during the Mauryan period because of the development of commerce. Its use in trade is self-evident but the importance of cash in the economy can be gauged from the fact that it was probably used to pay salaries of the officials. The Arthasastra lists the range of salaries expected to be paid and this varied from 48,000 panas to 60 panas annually. For such a powerful cash economy to function the minting of coins and the supply of metals like silver and copper required to do so were of prime importance. That these were harnessed by the Mauryas is evident from the innumerable punch-marked, mostly silver, coins which are assignable to this period. Of these the majority are stated to be from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar which constituted the core area of the empire. For the kind of urban economy that envisaged substantial State control. The State also had to maintain a monopoly in certain important spheres of activity. Thus, the Arthashastra provides for a superintendent of mines called akaradhyaksa whose chief function was to look for new mines and reopen old ones. Like mining metals another area of State monopoly was mining salt. The importance of different kind of metals was not only for minting coins but for such important commodities as making weapons. Apart from equipping soldiers with arms, the government was probably also concerned about supplying implements for agriculture. The concern for keeping a monopoly over mining and trading in mineral products thus secured for the Mauryan State the most crucial raw materials. Proper utilization of these in turn secured for them a greater return in both agrarian and non-agrarian sectors. Once economic-control of urban centres was established and their administration well-regulated, control over various janapadas through these towns also increased. Due to an increase in commercial transactions, the centres of exchange and trade had also increased in number.

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Socio-Economic Changes in Mauryan India The requirements of resources for the Mauryan State were very high. The taxes realized from the region of Magadha and adjoining areas were not enough to meet this demand. Therefore, attempts were made to control resources in other parts of the country as well. For example, Kalinga, the Karnataka plateau and Western India where Asokan inscriptions are found, were such areas. To regulate certain types of economic activities in such far off regions, the Mauryas worked out different strategies. This depended on the nature of resources the particular region offered. The conquest of Kalinga, for instance, offered control of an agriculturally rich area as well as the control of important trade routes that passed through it to the mineral rich areas of South India. Thus the main motive behind acquiring such regions as Karnataka seems to have been that they were rich in gold and other precious materials. The Arthasastra and the inscriptions of Asoka tell us about the tribes (atavikas, aranyakas) that inhabited the various parts of the empire. They often separated the more developed areas from the less developed areas. Kautilya's advice to the State was to win them over to a settled agrarian life. He devotes a full chapter to how tribes could be systematically broken up and several methods, fair or unfair, were deployed to do this. This was necessary in order that groups of five to ten families could settle down permanently for bringing more land under cultivation. Asoka's attitude towards the tribes was paternalistic, but he too warns them that in case they failed to conform or disobeyed orders of the Maharmatras, stern action would be taken against them. Controlling of the forest tribes was important from two points of view: i) First, it was necessary for new agrarian settlements to be secure as disturbances from tribes would interrupt their economic development. ii) Secondly, trade routes often bordered or passed through tribal regions and these had to be made secure.

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4.4

INDIAN HUMANISTIC AND SPIRITUAL APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT.

Spiritual management seems a new concept though its roots can be traced from the time of start of the humanity. However, in the new world where management in its broader and clearer image has evolved so much that the term spiritual management gains a special meaning. People who follow the principles of spiritual management feel that they are something special, and that they have some special benefits of itspiritual management can create special culture, special work-ethics, special interest of employees in their work, and of course the special care taken both by the employers and God. Spiritual management basically consists of dealing with the employees and the labor on the grounds of humanity, rather than the traditional approach of senior and junior. Though that relationship has to be maintained, but at the same time, the human factor should not be ignored, which often is the case.This traditional approach often creates chaos and unrest in the companies, and people often find themselves grinded in the congested atmosphere.They certainly need some fresh air, and spiritual management offers them much relief. Like almost all types of management practices and theories, spiritual management is also gaining momentum, and more and more companies are realizing the benefits. Even bigger companies and production houses have resorted to the spiritual management. Companies that incorporate spiritual management to their concepts indulge in a variety of activities:

They become more caring to the needs of the employees which may include their family problems. Many companies start their work by offering prayers and asking God for grace on each individual employee and on the company as a whole. They tend to bring spiritual ethics and code of conduct in their work-culture. This often involves reading from spiritual texts in meetings and maintaining that the directives of those highly authoritative texts can be implemented in the present scenario. Instead of buzzing parties and enjoying swagger in terms of pomp-shows, companies turn to some social activities that are oriented to provide social service, valuable information to people, and helping the social sector.

Benefits of spiritual management Sometimes people tend to question the benefits and effectiveness of spiritual management and its value in terms of business. Well many companies have reported that they are able to create more favorable work environment through spiritual management. Employees and employers share a closer relationship and there are lesser chances of strikes, etc. The

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quality of work, no wonder, has improved and so the concernedness of the employees towards the common goals of the company. Though some companies still shy away from stating openly about the spiritual management approach, many companies are coming forward to make an emphatic statement.Spiritual management does work and it fits perfectly in the new definition of management! Spiritual management appears a new entrant in the field of business and management, placing everyone as a human first and then an employee! These activities have at least five dimensions, on the main aspects that must be considered in the analysis of work, and all the employee needs to be entrepreneur and feel accomplished for production: a) Technical aspects - involves issues relating to place of work and adjustment physiological and sociological. b) Physiological aspects - is the degree of adaptation man - place of work - Physical environment and the problem of fatigue - the human being is not a machine and does not work like a machine. c) Moral aspect - considers the skills, the motivation, the degree of awareness, satisfaction and the intimate relationship between work activity and personality - the work is an extension of personality, is how a person measures his worth and his humanity. d) Social aspect - considers the specific issues in the working environment and external factors such as family, social class, etc.. e) Economic aspect - as the production of wealth - the work is a way of life. Businesses is evaluated by the following requirements: 1) Environment of the business - credibility, respect, fairness, pride and camaraderie; 2) Profile of the company - benefits, compensation, ethics and citizenship, professional development and balancing work and personal life "There is ways that discover and adopts measures of how to maximize the work efficiency. - Every person is influenced exclusively by rewards wage, economic and material, not considering the needs of staff achievement and promotion. The humanism considers the improvement of development, welfare and dignity as the ultimate objective of all human thought and action - above ideals and values of religious, ideological or national. The commitment to humanism defends the adoption of the following three fundamental principles:

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a) Philosophical, consisting in the design of humans - men and women - as be autonomous and rational and respect fundamental to all human beings while endowed with free will, rationality, moral awareness, capacity imaginative and creative. b) Social policy, which consists of a universal ethic of equality, reciprocity and human solidarity and a policy of pluralistic democracy, fair and human. c) Educational, consisting of the commitment to help all individuals in implementation and improvement of its potential. So, with the humanistic approach, "the concern with the machine, the working method, with the formal organization and the principles of administration applicable to organizational aspects give priorities to the concern with man and his social group: the technical aspects for the formal psychological and sociological aspects. The school of human relations was born from the need of reducing the dehumanization of work and at the same time, increasing the efficiency in business. The informal groups can communicate with ease, and find supportive environment for the majority of their problems. The formal organization is the organizational structure - organs, functions, hierarchical levels and functional relationships - and informal organization is the set of interactions and relationships that are established between the workers - uses and customs, traditions and social norms. The informal organization is reflected by attitudes and provisions based on the opinion and sentiment. The expression of the need to 'join up' and do not change quickly or make the logic: relate to the sense of values, the lifestyles and the acquisition of social life that a person strives to preserve and defend of which is willing to fight and resist. The social man, which is based on the following aspects: a) Employees are complex social creatures, with their feelings, desires and fears. The behavior at work - as the behavior in any place - is a consequence of many motivational factors. b) People are motivated by human needs and achieve their satisfaction through social groups with whom they interact. Difficult to participate and connect with the group cause elevation of turnover of people, lowering of moral, psychological fatigue, reduced levels of performance, c) The behavior of social groups can be manipulated by an appropriate style of supervision and leadership (human abilities). d) The social norms of the group act as regulatory mechanisms of the behavior of members. The levels of production are controlled by the rules of the informal group. This social control takes both positive sanctions (stimulation, social acceptance, etc..) And negative (mockery, isolation from the group, etc.).. The employee is seen as a being creative and thinking, and issues such as integration, social behavior and participation in decisions.

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To be successful in all organizations, the organizational man must have the following characteristics of personality: a) Flexibility, given the constant changes that occur in modern life, and the diversity of roles in various organizations, which can get a reversal, the sudden shutdown of organizations and new relationships. b) Tolerance to frustration, to avoid the emotional distress arising from the conflict between organizational needs and individual needs, the mediation is done by rational rules, written and comprehensive, seeking involve the entire organization. c) Ability to rewards and compensate the routine work on the organization, accordingly personal preferences and vocations, and other types of work. d) Standing desire to achieve, to ensure compliance and cooperation with the rules that control and provide access to the career positions within the organization, providing social rewards and sanctions and materials. These characteristics of personality vary in degree depending on the organization and position held.

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4.5

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN ANCIENT INDIA AND MODERN MANAGEMENT.

EDUCATION SYSTEM IN ANCIENT INDIA "He who is possessed of supreme knowledge by concentration of mind, must have his senses under control, like spirited steeds controlled by a charioteer." says the Katha Upanishad (iii, 6). A single feature of ancient Indian or Hindu civilization is that it has been moulded and shaped in the course of its history more by religious than by political, or economic, influences. The fundamental principles of social, political, and economic life were welded into a comprehensive theory which is called Religion in Hindu thought. The total configuration of ideals, practices, and conduct is called Dharma (Religion, Virtue or Duty) in this ancient tradition. Learning in India through the ages had been prized and pursued not for its own sake, but for the sake, and as a part, of religion. It was sought as the means of self-realization, as the means to the highest end of life. viz. Mukti or Emancipation. It may be said with quite a good degree of precision that India was the only country where knowledge was systematized and where provision was made for its imparting at the highest level in remote times. Whatever the discipline of learning, whether it was chemistry, medicine, surgery, the art of painting or sculpture, or dramatics or principles of literary criticism or mechanics or even dancing, everything was reduced to a systematic whole for passing it on to the future generations in a brief and yet detailed manner. University education on almost modern lines existed in India as early as 800 B.C. or even earlier. The ideal of education has been very grand and noble, its aim being training for completeness of life. As the individual is the chief concern and center of this Education, education also is necessarily individual. It is an intimate relationship between the teacher and the pupil. The relationship is inaugurated by a religious ceremony called Upanayana. By Upanayana, the teacher, infuses the pupil with his spirit, and delivers him in a new birth." The pupil is then known as Dvija, "born afresh" in a new existence, "twice born" (Satapatha Brahmana). The education that is thus begun is called by the significant term Brahmacharya, indicating that it is a mode of life, a system of practices. This conception of education moulds its external form. The pupil must find the teacher. He must live with him as in member of his family and is treated by him in every way as his son. The school is the home of the teacher. It is a hermitage, amid sylvan surrounding, beyond the distractions of urban life, functioning in solitude and silence. The constant and intimate association between teacher and taught is vital to education as conceived in this system. The pupil is imbibing the inward method of the teacher, the secrets of his efficiency, the spirit of his life and work, and these things are too subtle to be taught. It seems in the early Vedic or Upanishadic times education was esoteric (esoteric = understood by or meant for only a select few who have special knowledge or interest). The word Upanishad itself
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suggests that it is learning got by sitting at the feet of the master. The knowledge was to be got, as the Bhagavad Gita says, by obeisance (An attitude of deference and deep respect), by questioning and serving the teacher. Rigvedic Education The Rig Veda is established as the earliest work not merely of the Hindus, but of all IndoEuropean languages and humanity. It lays the foundation upon which Hindu Civilization has been building up through the ages. Broadly speaking, it is on a foundation of plain living and high thinking. Some of the prayers of the Rig Veda, like the widely known Gayatri mantram also found in Samaveda and Yajur veda touch the highest point of knowledge and sustain human souls to this day. The Rig veda, is a compilation of 1,017 hymns. The works of the rishis were utilized to constitute six different Mandalas. These Rishis are Gritsamada, Visvamitra, Vamadeva, Atril, Bharadvaja, and Vasistha. Every Rishi was a teacher who would start by imparting to his son the texts of the knowledge he had personally acquired and such texts would be the special property of his family. Each such family of Rishis was thus functioning like a Vedic school admitting pupils for instruction in the literature or texts in its possession. The relations between teacher and taught was well established in the Rig Veda. The methods of education naturally varied with the capacity of pupils. Self-realization by means of tapas would be for the few. Education and Women The history of the most of the known civilizations show that the further back we go into antiquity, the more unsatisfactory is found to be the general position of women. Hindu civilization is unique in this respect, for here we find a surprising exception to the general rule. The further back we go, the more satisfactory is found to be the position of women in more spheres than one; and the field of education is most noteworthy among them. There is ample and convincing evidence to show that women were regarded as perfectly eligible for the privilege of studying the Vedic literature and performing the sacrifices enjoined in it down to about 200 B.C. This need not surprise us, for some of the hymns of the Rig Veda are the composition of twenty sage-poetesses. Women were then admitted to fulfill religious rites and consequently to complete educational facilities. Women-sages were called Rishikas and Brahmavadinis. The Rig Veda knows of the following Rishikas Romasa, Lopamudra, Apala, Visvavara, Ghosha, Sraddha-Kamayani, Urvasi, Indrani, etc. The Brahmavadinis were the products of the educational discipline of brahmacharaya for which women also were eligible. Rig Veda refers to young maidens completing their education as brahmacharinis and then gaining husbands. Yajurveda similarly states that a daughter, who has completed her brahmacharya, should be married to one who is learned like her. A passage occurs in YajurVeda (xxvi, 2) which enjoins the imparting of Vedic knowledge to all classes, Brahmins and Rajanyas, Sudras, Anaryas, and charanas (Vaisyas) and women.

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No one can recite Vedic prayers or offer Vedic sacrifices without having undergone the Vedic initiation (Upanayana). It is, therefore, but natural that in the early period the Upanayana of girls should have been as common as that of boys. The Arthava Veda (xi. 5.8) expressly refers to maidens undergoing the Brahmacharya discipline and the Sutra works of the 5th century B.C. supply interesting details in its connection. Even Manu includes Upanayana among the sanskaras (rituals) obligatory for girls (II.66). Music and dancing was also taught to them. Brahmavadins used to marry after their education was over, some of them like Vedavati, a daughter of sage Kusadhvaja, would not marry at all. The Vedic women received a fair share of masculine attention in physical culture and military training. The Rigveda tells us that many women joined the army in those days. Education in the Epics Takshashila was a noted center of learning. The Mahabharata tells of numerous hermitages where pupils from distant parts gathered for instruction round some far-famed teachers. A full-fledged Asrama is described as consisting of several Departments which are enumerated as following: 1. Agnisthana, the place for fire-worship and prayers 2. Brahma-sthana, the Department of Veda 3. Vishnusthana, the Department for teaching Raja-Niti 4. Mahendrasthana, Military Section 5. Vivasvata-sthana, Department of Astronomy 6. Somasthana, Department of Botany 7. Garuda-sthana, Section dealing with Transport and Conveyances 8. Kartikeya-sthana, Section teaching military organization, how to form patrols, battalions, and army. The most important of such hermitage was that of the Naimisha, a forest which was like a university. The presiding personality of the place was Saunaka, to whom was applied the designation of Kulapati, sometimes defined as the preceptor of 10,000 disciples. The hermitage of Kanva was another famous center of learning, situated on the banks of the Malini, a tributary of the Sarayu River. It was not a solitary hermitage, but an assemblage of numerous hermitages round the central hermitage of Rishi Kanva. There were specialists in every branch of learning cultivated in that age; specialists in each of the four Vedas; in sacrificial literature and art; Kalpa-Sutras; in the Chhanda (Metrics), Sabda (Vyakarana), and Nirukta. There were also Logicians, knowing the principles of Nyaya, and of Dialectics (the art of establishing propositions, solving doubts, and ascertaining conclusions). There were also specialists in the physical sciences and art, experts in the art of constructing sacrificial altars of various dimensions and shapes (on the basis of a knowledge of Solid Geometry); those who had knowledge of the properties of matter (dravyaguna); of physical processes and their results of causes and their effect; and zoologists having a special knowledge of monkeys and birds.
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Then there was the hermitage of Rishi Bharadvaja at Prayaga, or of Atri at Chitrakuta; the hermitage of Vyasa was another seat of learning. There Vyasa taught the Vedas to his disciples Sumantra, Vaisampayana, Jamini and Paila of great ascetic merit. Among the other hermitages noticed by the Mahabharata may be mentioned those of Vasishtha and Visvamitra and that in the forest of Kamyaka on the banks of the Saraswati. Period of Panini With the passage of time these institutions turned into Universities and were maintained with the munificent gift of the public and the state. In this way many institutions were formed of which Taxila, Ujjain, Nalanda, Benares, Ballavi, Ajanta, Madura and Vikramsila were very famous. Taxila was famous for medicine and Ujjain for Astronomy. Both were pre-Buddhist. Jibaka the well known medical expert and the state physician of the King of Magadha of the 6th century B.C., Panini the famous grammarian of 7th century B.C. and Kautilya, the authority on Arthasastra, of the 4th century B.C. were students of Taxila. There is evidence that girls have been admitted in Vedic schools or Charanas. Panini refers to this specially. A Kathi is a female student of Katha school. There are hostels for female students and they are known as Chhatrisala. Each Charana or school has an inner circle of teachers known as Parisad. Their decisions on doubts about the reading and the meaning of Vedic culture are binding. Pratisakyas are said to be the product of such Parisad. The academic year has several terms. Each term is inaugurated by a ceremony called Upakarnmana and ends by the Utsarga ceremony. Holidays (Anadhyayas) are regularly observed on two Astamis (eight day of the moon) two Chaturdasis (fourteenth day of the moon), Amavasya, Purnima and on the last day of each of the four seasons, called Chaturmasi. Besides these Nitya (regular) holidays there are Naimittika (occasional) holidays due to accidental circumstances, eg. storms, thunder, rain, fog, fire, eclipses etc. Buddhist Education Buddhist education can be rightly regarded as a phase of the ancient Hindu system of education. Buddhism, itself, especially in its original and ancient form, is, as has been admitted on all hands, rooted deeply in the pre-existing Hindu systems of thought and life. Universities of Ancient India 1. Taxila - The Most Ancient University, Takkasila was the most famous seat of learning of ancient India. Takkasila was also the capital of Gandhara. It was founded by Bharata and named after his son Taksha. As a center for learning the fame of the city was unrivalled in the 6th century B.C. The fame of Takkasila as a seat of learning was of course due to that of its teachers. The Jatakas constantly refer to students coming to Takkasila to complete their education in the three Vedas and the eighteen Sippas or Arts. Takshila was famous for

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military training, wrestling, archery and mountain- climbing. Takshashila, was destroyed by the barbarian White Huns in 455 A.D. 2. Nalanda - Nalanda was the name of the ancient village identified with modern Baragaon, 7 miles north of Rajgir in Bihar. Nalanda was one of the world's first residential universities, i.e., it had dormitories for students. It is also one of the most famous universities. In its heyday it accommodated over 10,000 students and 2,000 teachers. The university was considered an architectural masterpiece, and was marked by a lofty wall and one gate. Nalanda had eight separate compounds and ten temples, along with many other meditation halls and classrooms. On the grounds were lakes and parks. The library was located in a nine storied building where meticulous copies of texts were produced. The subjects taught at Nalanda University covered every field of learning, and it attracted pupils and scholars from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, Persia and Turkey. The library of Nalanda, known as Dharma Gunj (Mountain of Truth) or Dharmagaja (Treasury of Truth), was the most renowned repository of Buddhist knowledge in the world at the time. Its collection was said to comprise hundreds of thousands of volumes, so extensive that it burned for months when set aflame by Muslim invaders. The library had three main buildings as high as nine stories tall, Ratnasagara (Sea of Jewels), Ratnodadhi (Ocean of Jewels), and Ratnarajaka (Delighter of Jewels). In 1193, the Nalanda University was sacked by an Islamic fanatic Bakhtiyar Khilji, a Turk; this event is seen by scholars as a late milestone in the decline of Buddhism in India. 3. Vikramasila - Vikramasila, found by king Dharmapala in the 8th century, was a famous center of international learning for more than four centuries. The teaching was controlled by a Board of eminent teachers and it is stated that this Board of Vikramsila also administered the affairs at Nalanda. The University had six colleges, each with a staff of the standard strength of 108 teachers, and a Central Hall called the House of Science with its six gates opening on to the six Colleges. Grammar, logic, metaphysics, ritualism were the main subjects specialized at the institution. In 1203, the University of Vikramasila was destroyed by the Mahomadens under Bakhtyar Khilji. Professional and Useful Education Medical science The Vedic literature refers to the healing feats of Asvins, who though originally human beings, were later deified by a grateful posterity. This science was fairly well developed by the 4th century B.C., for the Greeks, who had accompanied Alexander, were very well impressed by the skill of Indian doctors in curing the cases of serpent bites. The Jatakas refer to the medical students at Taxila treating for cranial abscesses and intestinal displacement. Medical education was usually imparted by private teachers. The student had to be well versed in Sanskrit, for most of the books on medicine were written in that language.
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Practical training in surgery and pharmacy and constant discussion were some of the important features of the training. Training in Surgery: The beginners were taught how to hold and use the surgical instruments by practicing upon pumpkins, water melons etc. under the teacher's direction. Puncturing was demonstrated on the veins of dead animals, the manner of holding the probe on dry Alabu fruits, application of bandages on stuffed human figures and the use of caustics on soft pieces of flesh. Susruta emphasizes on the importance of dissection for perfecting the student's knowledge; and points out that mere book learning cannot give a clear idea of the actual internal constituents of the human body. Corpses used to be decomposed in water and students were then required to dissect them and visualize the nature of skin, muscles, arteries, bones, internal organs, etc. Anatomical knowledge that was imparted was fairly high when compared with the contemporary standards elsewhere. Smallpox inoculation is an ancient Indian tradition and was practiced in India before the West. The Hindus were the first nation to establish hospitals, and for centuries they were the only people in the world who maintained them. Excavations at Kumrahar near Patna have revealed in 1953 the existence of one university-cum hospital named Arogyavihara. India continued to be famous for its medical skills throughout the ancient period. Her doctors could perform surgical operations for cataract, hydrocele, abscesses, extraction of dead embryos etc. They were in demand in Mesopotamia and Arabia for guiding and training the physicians there. Military Education The average citizen and villager was expected to be able to defend his own hearth and home: The Arthasastra expressly lays down that every village ought to be able to defend itself. That such was actually the case in several parts of India would become quite clear from the accounts of Alexander's invasion, as given by the Greek historians. In several places the Macedonian was opposed not so much by state forces as by the whole population in arms. There can be no doubt that in many of the republican states of the Punjab, the Kathas, the Malavas, the Sibis, etc. every adult used to receive military training. One of the famous center of military training was Taxila, situated in the north-west. Commercial Education There was considerable inter provincial and foreign trade going on in the ancient times. The maritime activity of ancient India were considerable, and the trade with South East Asia, Egypt, Greek and Rome was very profitable to India during the early centuries.

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ADD MATTER FROM

Pg 53 CONCEPT OF YOGA Balachandran, Raja Nair

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