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Ampair 6000 x 5.

5
Owners Manual
Installation Operation Maintenance

Ampair Energy Ltd Unit 2, Milborne Business Centre, DT11 0HZ, Dorset, UK Web: www.ampair.com Tel: +44 (0)1258 837 266 sales@ampair.com
Ampair is a registered trademark of Ampair Energy Ltd, manufacturers of small scale power systems since 1957.

Ampair, 2010 Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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Table of amendments
Issue number 1.0 1.1 Amendment summary Initial issue Revised product weight, revised blade bolt torque settings, revised dimensions for electrical control board, quick installation checklist notes added. Date 1 October 2009 6 August 2010

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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1 2

Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 7 Important safety instructions ...................................................................................................... 8 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 Disclaimer ......................................................................................................................... 8 Symbols used in this manual ............................................................................................. 8 General safety instructions ................................................................................................ 8 Modifications ................................................................................................................ 9 Mechanical dangers ...................................................................................................... 9 Electrical dangers ....................................................................................................... 10 Dangers when mounting the wind turbine or working at height .................................... 11

Specifications .......................................................................................................................... 13 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 Performance ................................................................................................................... 15 Power curve ............................................................................................................... 16 Annual energy production curve .................................................................................. 16 Tower top loads .............................................................................................................. 18

Before installation .................................................................................................................... 19 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Turbine models ............................................................................................................... 19 Choosing the correct turbine (grid or battery)................................................................... 20 Turbine options ............................................................................................................... 20 Packing list ..................................................................................................................... 20 Recommended tools ....................................................................................................... 21 Choosing a location ........................................................................................................ 22 Choosing a tower ............................................................................................................ 23 Working with your electrical utility .................................................................................... 23 Working with your planning (zoning) authority ................................................................. 23

Installation ............................................................................................................................... 25 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.3 Electrical installation ....................................................................................................... 25 Wiring ......................................................................................................................... 25 Inverters ..................................................................................................................... 25 Wire sizing .................................................................................................................. 26 Connection sequence ................................................................................................. 26 Grounding .................................................................................................................. 29 Fusing / circuit breaker................................................................................................ 29 Metering ..................................................................................................................... 29 Mechanical installation .................................................................................................... 29 Lifting the turbine ........................................................................................................ 30 Tower top flange ......................................................................................................... 31 Fitting the blades and nosecone ................................................................................. 31 Torque table ............................................................................................................... 32 Testing ........................................................................................................................... 32 CD 2900 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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Operation ................................................................................................................................. 33 6.1 6.2 6.3 Starting and stopping ...................................................................................................... 33 Speed control ................................................................................................................. 33 Multiple redundant relay controls ..................................................................................... 34

Maintenance and inspection ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Shutting down for maintenance ....................................................................................... 35 Annual owner visual inspection ....................................................................................... 35 Actions in the event of a minor malfunction ..................................................................... 35 Actions in the event of a major malfunction ..................................................................... 36 Actions in the event of flying debris or flying ice ............................................................... 36 Turbine access ............................................................................................................... 36 Turbine checks when accessible ..................................................................................... 37

8 9

Warranty and repair ................................................................................................................. 37 Electrical drawings ................................................................................................................... 37 9.1.1 Single line drawing of Ampair 6000 grid connection at 220/240V with dump load and Aurora PVI 6000 ...................................................................................................................... 38 9.1.2 Single line drawing of Ampair 6000 grid connection at 220/240V with dump load and MWI 5000 ................................................................................................................................ 39 9.1.3 Block diagram of Ampair 6000 grid connection at 220/240V with dump load and Aurora PVI 6000 .................................................................................................................................. 40

10

Typical short monopole masts Stainton and Valmont ........................................................ 41 10.1.1 10.1.2 Drawings of monopole mast erection sequence ...................................................... 49 Typical monopole foundation requirements Ampair 6000w x 5.5m .......................... 51 Stainton / Valmont 10m (32) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ... 54 Stainton / Valmont 12m (39) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ... 55 Stainton / Valmont 15m (49) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ... 56 Rohn 60 (18m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ....................... 57 Rohn 80 (24m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ....................... 58 Rohn 100 (30m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ..................... 59 Rohn 120 (36m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5 ..................... 60 Rohn standard foundations for self supporting lattice towers ................................... 61

11

Drawings for planning applications ...................................................................................... 53 11.1.1 11.1.2 11.1.3 11.1.4 11.1.5 11.1.6 11.1.7 11.1.8

12 13 13.1 13.2 13.3 14 15 15.1

CE certificate of compliance for Ampair 6000 ...................................................................... 62 Use of unusual items: Nordlock washers, threadlock, cable grips ........................................ 63 Nordlock washers ........................................................................................................... 63 Medium strength thread lockers: Loctite 242 or Bondloc 242 ........................................... 63 Cable grips (cable socks, strain relief grips, bus drop grips) ............................................. 65 Safe siting guidelines .......................................................................................................... 66 Wind speed estimation ........................................................................................................ 67 Using anemometers ........................................................................................................ 67 CD 2900 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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15.2 15.3

Using wind atlases .......................................................................................................... 67 Other correction factors and urban locations ................................................................... 69 Microgeneration Certification Scheme ..................................................................... 69 Warwick Wind Trial ................................................................................................. 70 Energy Savings Trust ............................................................................................. 70 Carbon Trust .......................................................................................................... 70 Altitude, Temperature, Humidity .............................................................................. 70 Further reading ....................................................................................................... 70 Table of wind speed correction factors with height & terrain .................................... 71

15.3.1 15.3.2 15.3.3 15.3.4 15.3.5 15.3.6 15.3.7 16 17 18

Turbine commissioning checklist ......................................................................................... 73 Turbine logbook .................................................................................................................. 78 End user warranty registration card ..................................................................................... 79

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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1 Introduction
Thank you for purchasing an Ampair 6000 wind turbine. Ampair has been producing high quality marine grade wind turbines for over thirty-five years, since 1973. All our turbines are made by us here in the UK in our own factory. The Ampair 6000 is designed and manufactured to give you many years of trouble free power generation. However as with any wind turbine reliable and effective operation will depend on where it is located and how it is assembled and connected. Periodic monitoring, inspection and maintenance are required. Furthermore there are safety hazards associated with all wind turbines and this is why we ask that you read this entire manual carefully.

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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2 Important safety instructions


Please read these instructions in their entirety before installing or operating and save these instructions for future reference. WARNING: Read and save all of these instructions.

2.1 Disclaimer
The information in this manual is believed to be correct and reliable. However Ampair assumes no responsibility for inaccuracies and omissions. The user of this information and product assumes full responsibility and risk. All specifications are subject to change without notice. Wind turbines, electrical power and battery systems, and wind turbine mounting systems are all capable of causing death or serious injury or fire if incorrectly installed, operated, or maintained. If in doubt, ensure that all activities are carried out by trained and competent personnel.

2.2 Symbols used in this manual


WARNING: Warning: risk of injury or death proceed with extreme caution

PROFESSIONAL: Professional installation: highly recommended

IMPORTANT: Important: please take note

TIP: Tip: helpful information

2.3 General safety instructions


Wind turbines are electrical machines with high speed rotating parts which are typically mounted at height. Thus there are a variety of sources of potential hazards which can result in death or serious injury. These dangers exist during installation, operation, or inspection and maintenance. This wind turbine complies with international safety standards and therefore the design or installation must never be compromised.

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2.3.1 Modifications
Do not make any modifications to the turbine system including the associated electronics and mounting system. The only modification that is permitted is that the body of the turbine may be repainted in another colour by painting over the top of the existing coating, but not the blades. WARNING: Do not open the turbine body or inverter housing. Doing so without factory authorisation will invalidate the warranty. Do not paint or otherwise modify the blades. Do not modify the electrical system. Do not modify the mounting system.

2.3.2 Mechanical dangers


The wind turbine and its mounting systems must be installed in accordance with this manual and applicable local and national building code. Failure to do so will affect and possibly void your warranty. Always obtain relevant planning consents or building permits before installation. WARNING: Always install in accordance with this manual and applicable local and national building codes. Always obtain planning consents or building permits.

The main dangers are the spinning rotor. The rotor blades are very sharp and can cause very serious injuries even at low speeds or whilst stationary. WARNING: Never touch the rotating rotor (the blades or hub) whilst it is moving. Never try to stop the rotor by hand. Do not mount the rotor where people or animals can reach the area swept by the rotor. Wear protective gloves when handling the stationary rotor.

The rotor blades are made of glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic and other composites. They are extremely strong and are designed to withstand severe weather. However the blades may break if objects (e.g. ropes, branches, clothing, flying ice, other debris) enter the rotor. If this happens the rotor will discharge very sharp fragments of blade and debris at high speed. Also any items that become tangled in the rotor (such as ropes) will whip around unpredictably and with great force. WARNING: Avoid any objects entering the rotor. Never try to stop the rotor by throwing a rope or other object into it. Shut the turbine OFF if ice accumulates on blades to prevent possible injury from ice flying off blades. Shut the turbine OFF if there is flying debris in severe weather. Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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In order to maximise aerodynamic efficiency and to minimise sound levels the rotor blades trailing edges are very sharp. Handle these carefully and use gloves. WARNING: Use gloves when handling the rotor and blades.

Apply the proper torque and / or adhesive to all mechanical fasteners. WARNING: Apply the proper torque and / or adhesive to all mechanical fasteners.

The wind turbine is free to swivel about the pivot. This means that even when the rotor is stationary it can swivel and may hit or trap anybody who has approached the machine. The machine will not make a noise as it swivels and such a blow can be with great force and little warning (especially in gusty wind conditions). WARNING: Prevent the machine swivelling before entering the radius of the rotor. Wear a safety helmet before entering the radius of the rotor.

2.3.3 Electrical dangers


The wind turbine and its electrical systems must be installed in accordance with this manual and applicable local and national electrical code including grounding techniques. Failure to do so will affect and possibly void your warranty. Always obtain relevant electrical consents before installation. WARNING: Always install in accordance with this manual and applicable local and national electrical codes. Always obtain relevant electrical consents.

All electrical connections must be properly made. Apply the proper torque to all electrical fasteners. WARNING: Apply the proper torque to all electrical fasteners.

The generator can produce very high open circuit voltages. WARNING: Avoid handling bare open circuit wiring tails unless the rotor is physically stopped and the utility grid and/or battery system physically isolated.

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Very high charging currents can be experienced. WARNING: Install cables with sufficient cross sectional area of conductor. Inadequately sized cables can rapidly overheat and create a fire hazard. Install electrical components of sufficient voltage and current capacity at all points in the circuit.

A battery must never be short circuited as the fault current is extremely high. If you do so there is a serious risk that you will set the battery and cabling on fire, as well as releasing flammable and potentially explosive gases (hydrogen) from the battery, and you will probably destroy the battery. WARNING: Never short circuit a battery. Install fuses immediately adjacent to the wind turbine side of the battery (but not within the battery compartment as the spark from a blowing fuse could ignite an explosive hydrogen/air mixture).

Charging lead acid batteries releases flammable and potentially explosive hydrogen gas. Unsealed lead acid batteries have vent caps to release this gas, which can detonate if it is mixed with air and a spark is present (e.g. from a switch or a blowing fuse) or other ignition source (e.g. naked flame or hot surface such as an exhaust). WARNING: Provide sufficient ventilation to the battery compartment. Do not locate ignition sources within the battery compartment.

2.3.4 Dangers when mounting the wind turbine or working at height


Very careful attention must be given to the strength and integrity of the mounting. Note that the mounting has to withstand both the thrust from the wind, as well as the weight of the turbine, and any other loads such as accumulations of ice or loads during erection or maintenance. Only install on a suitable mounting specified by Ampair or by a competent professional engineer. WARNING: Only use adequately designed mounting systems.

A fall from the height at which a wind turbine is ordinarily mounted will often result in death or serious injury. Therefore whenever practicable carry out as much work as possible on the wind turbine at ground level. If it is necessary to work on an installed wind turbine then use an appropriate access system such as a mast that is designed to carry the load of a person; a man-rated winch or rope access system; a hydraulic lift or other safe working platform. Wear appropriate safety equipment and make the general working area as a tidy and safe as possible. If possible work during daylight on windless days. Above all else think carefully about what you need to do and plan your work carefully, Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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have all the tools and equipment ready before you start, then brief all the members of the work team thoroughly including the actions in the event of an accident and/or injury. WARNING: Whenever possible work on the ground or deck, not at a height. Use safety harnesses, safety helmets, and safety slings, etc. Use man-rated lifting equipment and access systems Work in daylight, on windless days (and in calm seas). Keep the work area clear, plan your work, have your entire equipment ready, and brief the team before starting the job.

Falling objects are potentially fatal. Do not step underneath hanging loads or folding/tilted masts. Make sure that onlookers are kept back beyond the collapse radius of any masts. Ensure that any suspended objects or tools are secured (e.g. by safety lanyards). Prevent onlookers from approaching (e.g. erect a safety barrier and warning signs). WARNING: Secure any objects that might fall. Do not go underneath hanging loads and the work area; wear safety helmets. Keep onlookers at a safe distance.

When working on the wind turbine, especially when working at height, it is important to make sure it is first electrically safe. Therefore prevent it generating (use the stop switch and tie one of the rotor blades to the mounting system or mast) and disconnect it from the battery system and/or electrical utility supply. WARNING: Disconnect all batteries and other power sources such as electrical utility supply. Prevent the generator from unintended starting. Never approach the running rotor.

If the wind turbine were to collapse into water then it could electrocute people or animals in contact with the water. Therefore do not mount it where there is any danger of it collapsing into water. WARNING: Do not install this wind turbine where there is any danger of it collapsing into water.

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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3 Specifications
PVI version 220/240 V AC grid-tie Reference power at 11.0 m/s (24.6 mph) 6000 W (into grid) MWI version 48V DC battery charge 4600 W (into grid) 4800 W (into battery) Power form 230 V AC, 50Hz 208 / 240 / 277 V AC, 60 Hz Reference annual energy at 5.0 m/s (11.2 mph) Type Starting wind speed Cut-in wind speed Cut-out wind speed Survival wind speed 8500 kWh/yr Horizontal axis downwind three-blade with stall control 3.0 m/s (6.7 mph) 3.5 m/s (7.8 mph) 15 - 35 m/s (3356 mph) (see note in section 6.2) Vref: design reference wind speed = 50m/s (111.8mph) Ve50: extreme wind speed = 70m/s (156.6mph) Maximum power 6000 W continuous to grid
2 1

48 V DC 115V AC or 230V AC

4600 W continuous to grid 8000 VA surge (5s)

Maximum voltage from turbine into interconnect unit from interconnect unit into inverter from interconnect/inverter into utility grid Maximum current from turbine into interconnect unit from interconnect unit into inverter from interconnect/inverter into utility grid Direction of rotation Rotor swept area 20Arms per phase 25A DC 32Arms Clockwise looking downwind 23.74 m (255 feet )
2 2

300 Vrms AC 400 V DC 240 Vrms

300 Vrms AC 300 Vrms AC 240 Vrms

20Arms per phase 17Arms per phase 25Arms

The Vref windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the design reference wind speed averaged over 10 minutes.
2

The Ve50 windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the expected extreme wind speed averaged over 3 seconds with a recurrence interval of 50 years. This is equivalent to the Vref definition used in EN40.

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Rotor diameter Rotor speed Tip speed Generator output Over speed control

5.5 m (18 feet) 70 250 rpm 20 - 72 m/sec (65 - 236 ft/sec) Three phase to interconnect unit Electronic speed control or dump load control, plus triple redundant relay brake 120 kg body + 36 kg blades = 156 kg total (344 lbs) Marine grade powder coated aluminium castings with marine grade stainless steel fittings Solid glass filled polypropylene (twintex
TM

Weight Body construction

Blade construction Generator type Yaw control Towers

Direct drive NdFeB permanent magnet brushless Passive 10m, 12m and 15m tilt-up unguyed monopole 60 foot, 80 foot, 100 foot, and 120 foot unguyed lattice Interface flange for any other suitable tower

Noise Longevity IEC 61400 class

54 dBA at 30m from turbine in 11 m/s wind 20-year design life in IEC 61400 Class I conditions Designed to comply with IEC 61400-2 as a Class I turbine: Vav: mean annual average windspeed = 10m/s (22.4mph) Vref: design reference windspeed = 50m/s (111.8mph) Ve50: extreme windspeed = 70m/s (156.6mph)
5 4 3

Inspection

Annual visual inspection from ground level Continuous automatic monitoring

Environment

Marine grade (all Ampair models are fully sealed marine grade with stainless steel or powder coated aluminium components; we do not make cheaper land grade products)

3 4

The Vav windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the annual average wind speed at hub height of the turbine.

The Vref windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the design reference wind speed averaged over 10 minutes.
5

The Ve50 windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the expected extreme wind speed averaged over 3 seconds with a recurrence interval of 50 years. This is equivalent to the Vref definition used in EN40.

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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Temperature range

-20C to +40C ambient standard -40C low temperature (LT) version available on request

Conformity - general

BS EN 61400-2 (2006): small wind turbines BS EN 60335-1 (1994) safety of household appliances LV Directive 73/23/EC: EU low voltage directive EMC Directive 89/336/EC: EU EMC directive Machinery Directive 98/37/EC WEEE Directive 2002/96/EC RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC

Conformity - inverters

PVI inverter for grid connection per: VDE 0126-1-1; G83 / G59; EMW 89/336/CEE DK5940 EN 50438 UL1741 IEEE 1547.1 MWI inverter for grid connection per: CE listed, and intended for off-grid use or on-grid connection in countries with no specific grid connection standard

3.1 Performance
All specifications are nominal pending completion of the test programme.

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3.1.1 Power curve


All specifications are nominal pending completion of the test programme.

Wind speed (m/s) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0

Wind speed (mph) 0.0 2.2 4.5 6.7 8.9 11.2 13.4 15.7 17.9 20.1 22.4 24.6 26.8 29.1 31.3 33.6 44.7 55.9 67.1 78.3

Power (W) 0 0 0 50 300 500 1000 1500 2400 3200 4500 6000 6000 6000 6000 6000 See note in section 6.2 See note in section 6.2 See note in section 6.2 See note in section 6.2

3.1.2 Annual energy production curve


All specifications are nominal pending completion of the test programme.

Mean annual average wind speed (m/s) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 (mph) 0.0 1.1 2.2 3.4 4.5 5.6 6.7 7.8 8.9 10.1 11.2 12.3 13.4 14.5 15.7

Annual energy production (kWh/yr) 0 0 0 26 226 732 1,583 2,802 4,399 6,335 8,507 10,757 12,921 14,867 16,509 CD 2900

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Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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3.2 Tower top loads


The thrust loads in the table below do not include a safety factor. Ampair recommends a minimum safety factor of 1.5 for most circumstances.

Wind speed (m/s) 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.0 42.5 45.0 50.0 52.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0

Wind speed (mph) 8.9 11.2 13.4 15.7 16.8 17.9 19.0 20.1 22.4 24.6 26.8 29.1 31.3 33.6 44.7 55.9 67.1 78.3 83.9 89.5 94.0 95.1 100.7 111.8 116.3 123.0 134.2 145.4 156.6

Thrust (kN) 0.20 0.32 0.46 0.63 0.63 0.82 0.82 1.03 1.28 1.55 1.21 1.13 1.09 1.07 0.43 0.68 0.98 1.33 1.52 1.73 1.91 1.96 2.19 2.71 2.93 3.28 3.90 4.58 5.31

Thrust (lbs) 46 72 103 141 141 184 184 233 287 348 271 255 246 241 97 152 219 298 343 390 430 440 493 609 659 737 877 1,029 1,194

Notes re IEC 61400 definitions

Vav for Class IIII wind (mean annual average at hub height) Vav for Class III wind (mean annual average at hub height) Vav for Class II wind (mean annual average at hub height) Vav for Class I wind (mean annual average at hub height)

Vref for Class IV wind (10 min average) Vref for Class III wind (10 min average) Ve50 for Class IV wind (3 sec gust, 50 year recurrence) Vref for Class II wind (10 min average) Vref for Class I wind (10 min average) Ve50 for Class III wind (3 sec gust, 50 year recurrence) Ve50 for Class II wind (3 sec gust, 50 year recurrence) Ve50 for Class I wind (3 sec gust, 50 year recurrence)

The notes given refer to the IEC 61400 definitions of wind classes which is different than the wind class system used for resource assessment in the USA.

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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4 Before installation
4.1 Turbine models
Instructions in this manual apply to the following models which you must specify at the time of order, 6 7 8 notifying Ampair of voltage, frequency, and country of use . Turbine Blade diameter Nominal utility voltage 240 V AC 230 V AC
9

Frequency

Nominal battery voltage none none 48 V DC 48 V DC

Inverter

Ampair 6000 x 5.5 PVI 60Hz Ampair 6000 x 5.5 PVI 50Hz Ampair 6000 x 5.5 MWI 50/60Hz Ampair 6000 x 5.5 MWI 50/60Hz

5.5 m 5.5 m 5.5 m 5.5 m

60Hz 50Hz 50/60Hz 50/60Hz

PVI PVI MWI MWI

10

230 V AC 115 V AC

The PVI inverter can be adjusted between 208V, 230V, 240V, and 277V. These are nominal voltages and the PVI inverter will track the actual utility grid voltage within a range around these nominal voltages. The permissible range is controlled by software parameters. The permissible voltage ranges are quite wide and for example nominal 230V can also be written 220/240V and in the European Union the grid operator is allowed to vary the grid voltage either between 207.0V-243.8V or 216.2V - 253.0V. From this you can see that one should not be so concerned about precisely determining voltage as electrical equipment and systems are designed to operate over a range. In most USA housing the utility connection is either two (or three) phases of 208V or split phase 220/240V or 277V but within the houses they are wired so that domestic equipment using 110/120V will operate and this is why there is no need for a 110/120V version of the PVI. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mains_electricity for information on world grid voltages and frequencies.
7

The PVI inverter cannot automatically switch between 50Hz and 60Hz and this must be set in the factory during manufacture. These are nominal frequencies and the PVI inverter will track the actual utility grid frequency within a range around these nominal frequencies. The permissible range is controlled by software parameters. The permissible frequencies are quite narrow but fortunately these days there are only two options in widespread use being 50Hz (Europe) or 60Hz (North America).
8

The MWI inverter can automatically switch between 50Hz and 60Hz but it cannot automatically switch voltages between nominal 230V and nominal 115V. It is mainly for off-grid and third world use.
9

This version is listed as nominal 240V, 60Hz for use in North America, Central America, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan etc and the local grid voltage is programmed through the front screen. The voltage range options are as follows:208V = 183-228V 240V = 211-264V 277V = 244-304V
10

This version is listed as nominal 230V, 50Hz for use in the European Union, Australia, Asia, Africa, Mercosur, etc and the local grid voltage ranges are programmed at manufacture to suit the country. The typical voltage range options are as follows:G83/1 = 207-264V EN50438 = 207-253V Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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For many countries the utility connection parameters must be set in the factory and cannot be modified by the user or installer and for this reason Ampair denotes country-specific versions, with a country or other code, e.g.: Ampair 6000 x 5.5 PVI 240V - 60Hz US Ampair 6000 x 5.5 PVI 230V - 50Hz UK A low temperature version of the Ampair 6000 is indicated by the suffix of LT after the country code: Ampair 6000 x 5.5 MWI 230V 50/60Hz AQ LT

IMPORTANT: If you have questions call your distributor or Ampair before ordering.

4.2 Choosing the correct turbine (grid or battery)


If you are connected to an electrical utility grid and do not experience many inconveniencing utility power failures then the PVI models will probably be most appropriate for you. The PVI models do not work with batteries and so will not be able to power your premises in the event of a utility power failure, even if the wind is blowing. Because they do not work with batteries you do not need to carry out any battery monitoring, maintenance, and replacement. If you are not connected to the electrical utility grid then the MWI models are almost certainly appropriate for you. These can connect to 48V battery systems and operate a local 230V grid or a 115V grid so that you can use normal 230V or 115V appliances. You will need to carry out routine battery monitoring, maintenance, and replacement. Batteries are not included with the turbine. If you are connected to an electrical utility grid but experience many inconveniencing utility power failures then the MWI models may be appropriate for you. The MWI inverter will connect to the utility grid and operate a local grid and can switch between these two modes to provide a limited uninterruptible power supply (UPS) facility, provided that it is also connected to a suitable 48V battery system. However the MWI inverter is not accepted for connection to the utility grids in all countries and areas so you must consult your local utility operator before choosing this. The MWI tends to be used in the developing world where there are no specific grid connection requirements. You will need to carry out routine battery monitoring, maintenance, and replacement. Batteries are not included with the turbine. The PVI model and the MWI model use the same turbine nacelle which is the most expensive part, so it is possible to convert the system from the PVI layout to the MWI layout or vice versa at a later date.

4.3 Turbine options


No options are offered at present. In the future we may offer lightning packages (other than the standard lightning rod and lightning bonds), multi-phase connection packages, and remote monitoring packages. Early units are supplied with remote monitoring packages that include an industrial mobile telephone (GSM / GPRS) and antennae and wind speed & direction sensors. These units also report the internal control parameters and report system performance to the Ampair server so that they can be monitored online. Separate instructions are provided for this.

4.4 Packing list


The Ampair 6000 x 5.5 is shipped on one standard pallet with a separate box for the blades which you should inspect on receipt for damage or missing parts. This should be done before the carrier departs and any damage informed immediately. Box one: rotor blades Shipping dimensions: Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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Shipping weight: Contents:

60kg (132 lbs) 3 x rotor blades each approx 2.7m long When you receive the blades carefully inspect them for cracks or other damage from shipping. The most likely time for damage to occur is during transit. Once inspected store them carefully until use.

Box two (pallet): inverter and interconnect unit + turbine + transformer + ginpole sling Shipping dimensions: Shipping weight: Contents: 80 x 120 x 110 cm (32 x 47 x 43) 250kg (551 lbs) 1 x inverter 1 x interconnect unit 1 x turbine generator assembly complete with: 1 x hub 1 x nosecone 1 x power cable connector set 1 x instrumentation cable connector set 3 x nosecone bolts (socket head cap screw M5 x 25) 15 x blade bolts (socket shoulder screw M10-12 x 80) 8 x yaw flange bolts (M16 x 70) 8 x yaw flange nuts (M16 full) 16 x yaw flange washers (M16 plain) Medium strength threadlock compound (Bondloc 242, Loctite 242, or equivalent)

4.5 Recommended tools


You will need the following tools (which are not supplied) to install the Ampair 6000 on the tower and to make the wiring connections to the power electronics. You may also need other tools for tower assembly and for field-installation items such as trenches and utility connections. The spanners and torque wrenches used for the tower base are rather large so you may choose to hire these and it is recommended that you check which tower you have and read the particular tower instructions carefully before hiring unnecessarily:

Spanners (turbine: 24mm=M16) (tower: 36mm=M24; 46mm=M30) Allen (hex) keys (turbine: #4=M5; #8=M10) Torque wrench (turbine: 5-250Nm) (tower: 700-1400Nm)) Sockets for torque wrench (turbine: 24mm=M16) (tower: 36mm=M24; 46mm=M30)

Slotted (flat) screwdrivers Phillips screwdrivers Ring terminal crimp tool Wire strippers and cutters Multimeter Griphoist (3.2t SWL; depends on tower)

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4.6 Choosing a location


Where and how to mount a wind turbine is critical. The consequences of selecting a poor location can be unsafe operation, poor reliability, and low power output or all three. As well as reading these guidance notes, if in doubt please consult Ampair or your distributor for advice. The wind turbine should be sited as high as practicable, clear of windbreaks or buildings and away from sources of turbulence. These conditions are shown diagrammatically below.

The taller the tower the more energy will ordinarily be produced and for this reason many people emphasise the need for tall towers. However the taller the tower the more expensive the total installed cost because of the additional cost of the tower and of larger foundations and excavations. There are also aesthetic and acoustic considerations which may influence planning permission. For this reason you will need to use judgement when selecting the appropriate tower height. WARNING: Before a wind turbine is installed in an excessively windy location, the operators must satisfy themselves that the site is suitable. It may be necessary to log site wind speed and direction data at various heights prior to installing the machine. Any indication of turbulence means that the generator should be re-sited or raised above the turbulence. Wind data must be from exactly where the turbine is to be sited, not merely close by. If possible avoid roof-top mounting which can give rise to turbulence, shock loads and vibration. If roof-top mounting is selected then ask Ampair for advice. Our preference is to site the turbine approximately twice the height of the nearest obstruction if close to an obstruction, or alternatively to site it about 10m (33 feet) above any obstruction within a 75100m (200-300 feet) radius.

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4.7 Choosing a tower


The Ampair 6000 can be mounted on a variety of tower types provided they are either supplied by Ampair for this purpose, or they meet the tower load specifications provided by Ampair and are designed by a professional engineer and comply with local and national building codes. The minimum tower height that Ampair recommends is 10m (33 feet) and a tower this short should only be considered in a windy location with very few obstructions, or where there are severe planning sensitivities. Normally towers are in the range of 15m to 30m (50 to 100 feet), although towers of 40m (130 feet) are used if there are tall trees or other obstructions. Towers may be monopole or lattice, and may be guyed or unguyed. Also they may be designed to tilt down for installation and servicing, or they may be fixed and need the services of a crane or a work platform for installation and servicing. An advantage of guyed towers is that they use less foundation than unguyed towers and so are often cheaper. Disadvantages of guyed towers are that they obstruct more land than unguyed towers and the obstructed land is not ordinarily compatible with vehicle movements, children, or livestock. It is generally a matter of local preferences and local fabrication capabilities as to whether monopoles or lattice towers are used. Monopoles can either be of the welded pipe and flange variety, or can be highly engineered stressed skin constructions using folded or extruded fabrications. It is important to make sure that towers are designed and manufactured to suit your local environmental conditions such as increased loads from icing; or increased corrosion from marine locations, salt pans or industrial pollution.

4.8 Working with your electrical utility


Before committing to purchase of a wind turbine that you intend to connect to the electrical grid we strongly recommend that you or your installer contact your electrical utility provider to confirm that this is acceptable. The names for the grid operator vary from country to country and the legal responsibilities vary as well. In the UK the company who sells you electricity is often not the company who operates the electrical distribution network. In the UK the term distribution network operator is used but in many other countries a single electrical utility operates the network and sells electricity. The grid-connected version of the Ampair 6000 uses the PVI inverter that is certified for grid connection in most countries of the world. In some countries it is a legal requirement to notify the authorities before connection; in other countries notification is required after connection. The PVI inverter will export excess power if the turbine is producing more power than you are consuming. In most countries you will be paid for exporting electrical power to the grid but the details of this vary from country to country, and from state to state. This is sometimes referred to as net metering or as microgeneration tariffs or as feed-in tariffs. The MWI inverter can also export excess power to the grid but it is not certified for connection to the grid in as wide a range of countries. However it can be used as an inverter in the off-grid mode even where grid connection is not permitted. See section 4.2 for further information. Your utility may ask for certificates of compliance regarding the PVI or MWI inverter supplied with the Ampair 6000. These can be downloaded from the Ampair website www.ampair.com . If you cannot find what you are looking for on the Ampair website please contact Ampair or your Ampair distributor.

4.9 Working with your planning (zoning) authority


Some local authorities require planning permission to erect small wind turbines or indeed many other structures. This may or may not be distinct from a building permit. This is not required in all countries or all states or planning (zoning) authorities. We strongly recommend that you or your installer contact your local authorities to discuss any requirements prior to purchase. Many drawings of the Ampair 6000 on a variety of towers and at various scales are available for download from the Ampair website www.ampair.com . A selection of drawings are included in this Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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instruction manual. If you cannot find what you are looking for on the Ampair website please contact Ampair or your Ampair distributor.

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5 Installation
The Ampair 6000 is designed for easy installation and no special training or knowledge should be required beyond the normal electrical and mechanical trade skills. However Ampair recommends installation by professionals.

Professional installation: highly recommended

This section deals with the mechanical and electrical installation of the turbine nacelle and the associated power electronics. It does not deal with the installation of a particular tower or mast. Each tower type requires different installation instructions and these are addressed in the Appendices. The Ampair 6000 system includes a dedicated circuit breaker and a dedicated power meter within the Ampair interconnect unit. Depending on your local electrical utility requirement you may or may not need to install a separate circuit breaker and/or second meter. The Ampair 6000 system includes special inverters and safety systems that will brake the turbine and disconnect it from the utility system if a fault is detected. This is so that the electrical utility line crews can work safely to repair any faults in the utility lines without risk of the lines being energised by the Ampair 6000. Because of this the default mode of the Ampair 6000 is in brake mode and the rotor shaft will be difficult to turn.

5.1 Electrical installation


5.1.1 Wiring
The Ampair 6000 includes an inverter and an interconnect unit as well as the nacelle assembly. Refer to the single line diagrams in section 9 that relate to your model, either the PVI or the MWI version. The drawings in section 9 are for reference and may be modified and submitted for approval to your local electrical utility or planning authority. WARNING For your safety, make sure power is turned off before working on any and all electrical connections. IMPORTANT It is extremely important that the installation is in accordance with local and national building and electrical codes as specified by the NEC (USA National Electrical Code), CEC (Canadian Electrical Code), UBC (Uniform Building Code) or IBC (International Building Code). These codes will vary from city to city and country to country. Professional installation: highly recommended especially so as to comply with applicable local or national building and electrical codes.

5.1.2 Inverters
The inverter in the PVI model is suitable for connection to electrical utilities in almost all the world as discussed in section 4.2. As described in section 3 it is compliant with: VDE 0126-1-1; G83 / G59; Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

EMW 89/336/CEE DK5940

UL1741 IEEE 1547.1 CD 2900 Page 25 of 82

EN 50438 The inverter in the MWI model is not certified for connection to electrical grids in as wide a range of countries. If in doubt about suitability for a particular country please contact Ampair or your local Ampair distributor. Certificates for the PVI and MWI inverters are available for download on the Ampair website and may be submitted to your local electrical utility or planning authority.

5.1.3 Wire sizing


There are two cables which run between the turbine head assembly and the inverter. One of these cables carries the generated power and the other carries the instrument data signals and auxiliary 24V DC power. Each cable must contain three conductors and the minimum gauge of each conductor is given in the table below. Length (m) 40 m 70 m 100 m 200 m 300 m 400 m 500 m 600 m 700 m Power cable gauge in copper 2.5 mm 4 mm
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Instrument cable gauge in copper 0.5 mm


2 2 2

14 AWG 12 AWG 10 AWG 8 AWG 6 AWG 6 AWG 4 AWG 4 AWG

0.5 mm 2.5 mm 2.5 mm 4 mm 4 mm 6 mm 6 mm


2 2 2 2

4 mm 6 mm

1.25 mm

2 2

14 AWG 14 AWG 12 AWG 12 AWG 10 AWG 10 AWG

10 mm 16 mm 16 mm 25 mm 25 mm

Copper conductors must be used. This table is based upon 6000W power production (being 20A per phase into the inverter) combined with maximum power carrying capacity for the shorter distances, and a maximum 10V per phase voltage drop for the longer distances of the power cable. The data cable is based on 2V per conductor voltage drop, i.e. 4V drop for go and return. Thicker conductors can be used if you choose. The maximum wire size that can be connected to the 2 power cable connector underneath the turbine flange is 10 mm (8 AWG) and so if a larger wire size is required because of the installed distance then a junction box should be fitted close to the base of the tower to enable transitioning to the preferred wire size. This junction box is also a convenient point for transitioning to steel wire armoured cable (SWA) for buried cable runs, and is also a convenient point for making connections to ground. If unarmoured cable is used a separate earth conductor must be included on the power cable, i.e. it must be four conductors. The cable that runs down the tower should include an earth conductor that is connected to the ground at the base of the tower.

5.1.4 Connection sequence


WARNING For your safety, make sure power is turned off before working on any and all electrical connections. It is suggested that the connections are made in the following sequence: 1. Connect turbine power and instrument cables to interconnect unit. 2. Connect inverter to interconnect unit. 3. Connect dump load to interconnect unit (if used). Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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4. Connect utility mains to interconnect unit. 5. Connect battery bank to interconnect unit (if used). 6. Connect turbine and tower.

5.1.4.1 Inverter & interconnect connections


Refer to the drawings of section 9 for the details of the wiring layout. Ampair now ships the Ampair 6000 interconnect/dump load/inverter pre-wired on a board that is 1100mm wide by 1000mm tall (with a max depth of 240mm). The wiring from the turbine terminates at the interconnect box. The instrument cable uses clamp connectors. The power cable and instrument cable armour should be stripped back and taped up with electricians insulating tape without connecting the armour to the chassis of the interconnect unit. Connect the dedicated two pole circuit breaker (RCBO) of the interconnect unit to the isolation transformer provided taking care to match the available tapping (220/230/240) to the grid supply voltage at the site. Connect the tapped side of the transformer to electrical utility mains at the distribution board, breaker panel, or consumer unit. This is marked public supply emergency isolation.

Dump Load * must have adequate ventilation

PVI 6000 inverter

100 cm

Interconnect unit + GPRS aerial

Allow 10cm access to this side of inverter for USB diagnostic cable

110 cm

The dump load must be adequately ventilated, if necessary it can be removed from the pre-wired board and moved to a ventilated location. If the dump load is sited outside it must be adequately protected from the elements whilst still maintaining adequate ventilation. The inverter is 800mm tall and 240mm deep. Allow at least 50mm above the inverter and 150mm below the inverter to lift it into and out of location and to install conduit. The interconnect unit is not as deep or as tall as the inverter. Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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All cabling should be implemented in accordance with local codes and ordinarily these require that cabling is armoured (SWA, steel wire armoured), or is run inside trunking or in conduit. The picture above is unusual in that it is deliberately without conduit or trunking for clarity. The run/stop switch on the interconnect unit is lockable and the system may be isolated either by removing the fuses from the interconnect unit or by the two pole RCBO on the interconnect unit. In some countries all electrical meters are located outside the building. Some installations will require 11 a visible lockable disconnect switch located next to the external electrical meter and/or at the base of the tower. These disconnect switches can be utilized by your local utility in the event of a power outage to ensure no voltage is placed on the utility line during repair. If this is required it is extremely important to install in accordance with local and national regulations.

5.1.4.2 Turbine & tower connections


The turbine is supplied with a Buccaneer connector on the generated power cable and an Ecomate connector on the instrument cable that emerge from the bottom of the pivot. The mating Buccaneer and Ecomate connectors are also supplied with the turbine. Make up your power cable and instrument cable into the mating Buccaneer and Ecomate connectors being sure to observe the minimum wire sizing of section 5.1.3. Take care that the cable strain reliefs in the connectors are firmly gripping the cable. The pins of the connectors and the wiring colours are given in drawings of section 9 and are:

Power cable = Buccaneer connector L1 = brown L2 = black L3 = blue L4 = earth (green & yellow) Instrument cable = Ecomate connector pin 1 = 24V (red) pin 2 = 0V (black) pin 3 = signal (green) pin 4 = unused In tall masts the hanging cables should be supported using a cable strain relief also known as a cable grip or cable sock. These are supplied (see section 13.3) and should be fitted as part of the connector installation. In tall monopole masts foam pipe insulation can be cut into collars and put around the cable to stop the cables slatting against the inside of the masts as they sway in high winds. At the base of the mast transition from unarmoured cable to armoured cable in a metal junction box. The armoured cable then runs to the remotely located inverter and interconnect unit. It is at the tower base junction box that the earth of the power cable should be connected to the tower earth system. The armour of the armoured cables should also be grounded to the earth of the tower ground system at this junction box.

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There is no requirement for an external lockable disconnect switch in the UK electrical code (BS7671, also known as the IEE Wiring Regulations). It is a local requirement in some USA cities. Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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5.1.5 Grounding
System grounding in accordance with local electrical codes is the responsibility of the installer. Ampair recommends the following practice: 1. The nacelle power cable has a ground conductor that should be taken to ground at the tower ground system. 2. The nacelle pivot should be grounded to the tower top flange; the tower base flange should be grounded to the tower ground system. 3. The armour of the armoured power cable and the armoured instrumentation cable should be connected to the tower ground system. 4. The armour of the armoured power cable and the armoured instrumentation cable should not be connected to interconnect unit. The intent (insofar as practicable) is that the tower ground system acts as the path for any lightning strike. 5. The interconnect unit and inverter are connected to each other by the 240V earth conductor which is also connected to the earth of the 240V distribution board. In case of conflict between local or national electrical codes versus the Ampair recommended practice then the local or national electrical code must be given priority. If in doubt contact Ampair or your local Ampair distributor.

5.1.6 Fusing / circuit breaker


The single phase circuit that comes from the interconnect unit should be connected to the utility supply at the consumer unit in a dedicated circuit using a 32 Amp C type miniature circuit breaker (MCB) or motor-rated fuse. It is possible to use a B type MCB but more nuisance trips of the MCB will be experienced on initially powering up the circuit due to the large capacitance in the interconnect unit and inverter. The Ampair 6000 interconnect unit incorporates a 40A 30mA two pole (single pole and neutral; SP+N) residual current breaker with overload (RCBO) in the single phase connection to the utility supply. On the front cover of the interconnect unit this is marked public supply emergency isolation. An RCBO is a combination of an RCD and an MCB. An RCD is a residual current device that senses small leakage currents that are too small to trip a conventional circuit breaker and which act very fast so as to preserve life. In the United States and Canada an RCD is called a GFI which means ground fault interrupter. An MCB is a miniature circuit breaker that protects an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or faults and an MCB is resettable unlike a fuse.

5.1.7 Metering
The Ampair 6000 interconnect unit incorporates a single phase electrical power (kWh) meter. This is 12 an EN 50470 meter that is approved by Ofgem . Accuracy is to EN 62052-11 and EN 62053-21 as a Class 1 meter. In some locations it may be a requirement that a separate and additional meter is fitted.

5.2 Mechanical installation


Install the tower or mast, and then pass the electrical cables through the mast. Make up the electrical connectors (plugs & sockets) on the cable as described in section 5.1.4. Fit a cable strain relief below each connector to take the weight of any suspended cable. These are sometimes called cable stockings or cable socks. Then offer up the Ampair 6000 to the tower top flange. How you do this will depend on whether you are using a tilt down (hinged) tower or whether you are using a fixed tower that requires the use of a

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Ofgem are the regulator of the UK gas and electricity industry. CD 2900 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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work platform or equivalent for access. See section 10 for instructions for erecting short monopole towers. In both cases first unpack the turbine and remove the fibreglass nose cone and set it safely to one side. Check the fit of the blades in the pockets in the hub and note that the holes in the hub for the blade bolts will only allow the blades to be installed one way around.

5.2.1 Lifting the turbine


The turbine is heavy and mechanical assistance is recommended to lift it safely. It may be lifted three ways: 1. Larksfoot a soft sling around the mid point of the body. This way is best if you wish to lower the turbine vertically onto the tower top flange. 2. Generator shaft pin. There is a hole at the end of the generator shaft which a pin can be passed through and used for lifting with a sling. This way is best if you wish to offer the turbine up to a horizontal tower flange. 3. Larksfoot a soft sling around the base of the tower top flange. This way is less useful for assembly purposes and care must be used as the turbine will tip and slew to an odd angle as it is lifted clear. If using a tilt down mast the simplest and safest way to offer up the turbine to the tower top flange is to transport the turbine to site on a cart or trailer. Lay the turbine on its side on the cart with the pivot flange clear. Adjust the height of the tower to match the turbine. Mate the power connectors and then gently slide the pivot flange and tower top flange together taking care not to trap any cables and connectors. Insert a few pivot flange bolts with their washers and nuts then raise the turbine and mast together to a convenient working height and insert the remainder of the tower top flange bolts.

A similar procedure is used if lowering the turbine vertically onto the tower top flange. Care must be taken not to trap any cables and connectors. Once all the tower top flange bolts are in place they must be correctly torqued in accordance with the table in section 5.2.4. For added security Loctite 242 should be used and a witness mark scribed on flange and fasteners (use paint or an indelible marker) so that it can easily be seen whether any nuts or bolts are moving in service.

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5.2.2 Tower top flange


The pivot flange is a standard 125mm nominal BS4504 NP10/16 plain flange which is a DIN specification. Dimensions: PCD = 210mm OD = 250mm ID = 170mm thick = 22mm in carbon steel holes = 8 hole dia = 18mm bolts = M16 x 70

5.2.3 Fitting the blades and nosecone


The wind turbine blades are shipped with a protective strip on the trailing edge. The trailing edge is very sharp and it is best to leave this protection on the blades until the last moment. At all times use protective gloves when handling the blades as they are essentially large heavy knives. Once the turbine nacelle is firmly fitted on the tower insert each blade into the matching blade pocket in the hub. When correctly fitted the blades should angle away from the tower and all five blade bolts should pass smoothly through the hub and blade. These bolts are a very snug fit so that the blade does not slop around in service and if absolutely necessary the holes can be gently reamed with an M12 drill. They are shoulder bolts so the thread at the end of the bolt does not carry the load. The pin formed by the main shaft of the shoulder bolt is what carries the load. The centre bolt of each blade is offset so that a blade cannot be installed backwards. Insert all shoulder bolts into all blades before tightening any bolt and then one by one add Loctite 242 to the thread of each shoulder bolt then tighten them securely. Torque them per section 5.2.4. Lastly slip the fibreglass nosecone over the blades and fasten in place with socket head cap screws and Loctite 242.

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If running in rime icing conditions it may be preferred to trim the fibreglass nosecone away flush with the hub so that there is least opportunity for rime ice to bridge the gap and freeze the turbine solid. There is no point in trimming further away as the hub itself cannot be trimmed. Trimming like this only affects the look of the turbine and does not affect the normal function.

5.2.4 Torque table


Item Quantity Description Recommended dry torque 32 Nm Security

Tower top flange to pivot flange bolts Blade bolts

M16 x 70 (plain bolts, nuts, washers) M10-12 x 80 (socket head shoulder bolt) M5 x 25 (socket head cap screw)

Loctite 242

3 blades 5 per blade 3

15 Nm

Loctite 242

Nose cone bolts

6 Nm

Loctite 242

5.3 Testing
If you have installed the Ampair 6000 on a tilt-down tower it can be function tested before tilting up the tower. Once all the electrical and mechanical installation steps of section 5.1 and 5.2 have been completed then turn the power off at the two pole RCBO on the interconnect unit. 1. Attempt to rotate the rotor shaft by turning the blades gently by hand. It will turn slowly but will be difficult to turn. You must be careful when you do this as the blades are very sharp. You must make sure people and livestock are kept clear and you must wear gloves. 2. Check that the fuses are all correctly inserted. Now turn on all power going to the Ampair 6000. Turn on the MCBO marked public supply emergency isolation on the interconnect unit; switch the run/stop switch marked wind turbine isolator on the interconnect unit to run; and turn on the breaker or MCB or switch at the distribution board and any other breakers or switches. A small light should come on the power meter on the interconnect unit. Wait approximately 1 minute. If you listen carefully you should hear some quiet clicks from the nacelle and from the interconnect unit. 3. Attempt to rotate the rotor shaft by turning the blades gently by hand. If assembled and connected correctly, it should spin easily. Be careful as those blades are dangerously sharp. 4. Now prove that it will stop. Turn the run/stop switch on the interconnect unit to stop and it should stop. Then turn it back to run and it should rotate easily. Then turn off the MCBO switch and it should stop. Then turn the MCBO back on and try the distribution board switch or any other switches you have put in the circuit. In all cases shutting off the electrical power should cause the turbine to come to a stop. 5. If the turbine does not spin freely after this test then check carefully for loose or disconnected wires and check against the circuit diagrams that it is connected correctly. Repeat the test until you are successful and on no account seek to make any modification inside the turbine, inverter, or interconnect unit. 6. Complete the commissioning check list of section 16, signing off each stage as you go. Afterwards send a copy to Ampair. 7. Fill in the warranty registration card at section 18 after the turbine is installed and mail or fax a copy to Ampair.

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6 Operation
6.1 Starting and stopping
To start the Ampair 6000 ensure that the mains power is on to the interconnect unit and that the MCBO on the interconnect unit marked public supply emergency isolation is switched on. After a short delay of no more than one minute, the turbine and interconnect unit will complete an electronic handshake and then the turbine is ready to start. Set the run/stop switch or run/short switch marked wind turbine isolator to run and if there is sufficient wind the turbine will rotate. The turbine will commence rotating at a wind speed of approximately 3.5m/s and once it is rotating it will continue to rotate down to wind speeds of approximately 2.5m/s. Once the inverter has synchronised with the utility grid it will produce power until it stops but until the inverter it has synchronised with the utility grid it will require approximately 3.5m/s to achieve synchronisation. When the turbine rotates fast enough the inverter will wake up and attempt to synchronise with the utility grid. There is a minimum time for this to occur depending on the regulations in each country - it tends to vary between one minute and five minutes. The progress of this can be monitored on the LCD display of the inverter and you will hear two separate clicks from the inverter as the DC relays operate, and then the AC relays operate. The left-most green LED will light up. Once synchronised with the grid the turbine will generate power which will either be exported into the grid or used on site. Whether power is exported or used on site will depend on whether the turbine is generating more power than is being used locally. Power will always be used locally in preference to being exported. The inverter monitors the electrical utility grid and will stop exporting power if the grid (or local power network in the case of the MWI) is outside safe limits. The other turbine monitoring systems will then shut down the turbine nacelle if necessary. When the wind speed reduces and the turbine stops producing power the inverter will revert to standby mode after approximately 40 minutes. This is to conserve power as it takes a little bit of power to keep the inverter synchronised with the grid. As the inverter reverts to standby mode you will hear two separate clicks and the LCD screen will go blank and the left-most green LED will go out. If you simply wish to stop the turbine turn the run/stop or run/short switch to stop or short. This is marked wind turbine isolator on the panel and it will stop the turbine but leave the inverter and interconnect unit energised. If you also wish to de-energise the inverter and interconnect unit then switch the two pole MCBO on the interconnect unit to off.

6.2 Speed control


The rotational speed of the Ampair 6000 is controlled in the first instance by the power curve set in the inverter. The inverter maximum power is approximately 6000W (which is 6kW) and the faster the 13 wind blows and the faster the turbine rotates the more power is generated . Once the inverter has reached maximum power then further speed control is either by the electrical dump load or by the electronic speed control depending on the version. If the wind speed is so high that the dump load or electronic speed control cannot keep the rotational speed and voltages within acceptable limits then the turbine automatically applies the brake for a short period (a few minutes). Then the turbine releases the brake and resumes normal operation. The acceptable limits are a combination of the acceptable loads in the turbine and in the masts and foundations. Ampair are monitoring early versions of the Ampair 6000 using telemetry systems and will raise the limiting speed as evidence is accumulated that it is safe to do so. This is why Ampair are

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The actual inverter maximum power is dependent on the voltage of the utility grid which does vary, and in some countries it is throttled so that the current that is produced is kept within regulatory limits. An example of a country which requires throttling is Ireland where if the grid voltage is running low then the turbine will reduce power output. This process is automatically controlled in the inverter. Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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only giving an approximate range of operating wind speeds and rotational speeds in the system specification. There is considerable extra safety margin built into the Ampair 6000 which is why this monitoring programme is underway as part of the planned design evolution of the platform.

6.3 Multiple redundant relay controls


In the nacelle of the turbine there are multiple electromechanical relays. Any one of these relays can brake the turbine. The normal operating position of these relays is braked and it takes the application of a 24V DC signal to release them. This 24V DC signal is generated in the interconnect unit and transmitted to the nacelle through the instrumentation cable. If that cable is cut then the turbine will stop automatically. The nacelle casting is internally divided into three compartments. One compartment houses the stator which is separate from the electronics by a cast bulkhead, and another cast bulkhead divides the electronics & slip-ring compartment into two. There are two separate sets of connections to the stator and they emerge from the stator compartment into the different sides of the electronics compartment. This precaution is taken so that even if there is an internal fire in one side of the electronics compartment it will not prevent relays on the other side of the electronics compartment from automatically shutting down the turbine by applying the brakes through the unaffected stator connections. An added benefit of these cast bulkheads is that they make the entire nacelle very stiff which improves ultimate strength and the long term reliability of the bearings. Ampair also use twice as many bearings as most small turbines because Ampair use rotor shafts and pivot shafts with bearings at both ends. This makes the shafts longer and more expensive, and doubles the cost of the bearings, but it improves long term reliability. Inside the nacelle there are other monitoring systems which monitor many operating parameters and report them to the interconnect unit via the instrumentation cable. The interconnect unit can transmit them to Ampair using a telemetry unit such as a GSM or GPRS telephone and then the Ampair server can display them on the internet for the owner and for Ampairs own monitoring.

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7 Maintenance and inspection


The Ampair 6000 is designed for 20-year operation in an IEC Class I environment with a mean annual average wind speed of 10m/s (22.4mph). All seals, bearings, slip rings, and electrical components are designed and selected for these conditions and the corresponding extreme conditions.

7.1 Shutting down for maintenance


To shut down the Ampair 6000 first set the lockable run/stop switch to stop and then turn the MCBO to off. If servicing the unit it should also be disconnected from the utility electrical supply by disconnecting at the distribution board. Finally remove the fuses from the interconnect unit. WARNING For your safety, make sure power is turned off before working on any and all electrical connections. Shutting down in this manner will de-energise the entire electrical system and stop the turbines rotor.

7.2 Annual owner visual inspection


Although the Ampair 6000 is designed for a 20-year life as with any other piece of valuable and potentially dangerous rotating equipment we recommend annual inspections by the owner. The nacelle and interconnect unit continuously monitor a range of operational parameters. If a telemetry unit (such as a GSM or GPRS telephone) is connected to the interconnect unit then it can report these back to the Ampair website for on-line monitoring and analysis. During day-to-day operation the owner should remain alert for abnormal sounds from the turbine or power electronics and contact Ampair or an Ampair distributor if any abnormal sounds are heard. Once per year stop the Ampair 6000 and use binoculars to carefully examine the blades, nacelle, and tower for cracks or damage. Carefully examine the base of the tower and foundations for any signs of cracking or looseness of bolts. Pay especial attention to the leading edges of the blades (the blunt edge) and to the welds at the intersection of the tower top flange with the tower, and to the welds at the intersection of the tower base flange and the tower. Make a note of the power output from the meter on the front of the interconnect unit and write this and any observations in the logbook at section 15. If anything unusual is noticed contact Ampair or an Ampair distributor.

7.3 Actions in the event of a minor malfunction


If the Ampair 6000 stops working for no apparent reason and there is sufficient wind to operate the turbine normally, then investigate the following possible causes: 1. The electrical utility grid is outside the acceptable range. This will be indicated on the LCD display on the inverter. If this is the case, take a careful note of what it says and raise the issue with the operator of the grid. Please keep Ampair or your Ampair distributor informed if you do this. It is an unfortunate fact that in many countries the grid operator is permitted to operate the grid within a wider range of tolerances than the grid operator will allow Ampair to program into the inverter. This means that the Ampair 6000 can sometimes be prevented from producing through no fault of its own. The acceptable range of grid parameters varies from country to country (see section 4.1 on country codes) and sometimes it is possible to negotiate a relaxation of the parameters with the grid operator. This will require that Ampair or an Ampair distributor visit site to reprogram the inverter. 2. That a fuse has blown or an MCB or other circuit breaker has been tripped or isolated. Check carefully and adjust or replace as required.

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3. The utility grid has been interrupted. If this is the case the Ampair 6000 will stop producing to the grid. In the case of the PVI version it will stop producing completely and in the case of the MWI it will go into stand-alone mode. If you are unable to locate the reason for the Ampair 6000 not working then contact Ampair or your Ampair distributor.

7.4 Actions in the event of a major malfunction


In the event of a dangerous or major malfunction completely shut down the Ampair 6000. To do this first set the lockable run/stop or run/short switch to stop or short (this is the one marked wind turbine isolator on the panel) and then turn the MCBO to off (this is the one marked public supply emergency isolation). Then disconnect the system from the utility electrical supply by disconnecting at the distribution board. Finally remove the fuses from the interconnect unit. Then contact Ampair or an Ampair distributor. Completely shut the Ampair 6000 down if there is an unusual amount of vibration or unusual mechanical noise, or if there is any sign of smoke or combustion from the nacelle or the inverter or interconnect unit.

7.5 Actions in the event of flying debris or flying ice


Shut the Ampair 6000 down if there are high winds and debris is flying through the air. This is a common sense precaution to minimise the possibility of damage to the system from impacts. If ice accumulates on the blades of the Ampair 6000 then shut it down until the ice is shed. This is a common sense precaution to minimise the possibility of it flinging chunks of ice around. The onboard monitoring system of the Ampair 6000 includes a vibration sensor to detect instances such as debris and ice and so it can be left to run unattended. However if you are present and able to take more precautions it is common sense to do so.

7.6 Turbine access


If you need to gain access to the Ampair 6000 first shut it down as described in section 7.1 which will de-energise the electrical system and stop the rotor. Then if the tower is a tilt-down tower you should lower it to the ground in accordance with the relevant lowering instructions. Alternatively if you are gaining access to the tower by using a cherry-picker or man-lift or equivalent then first securely tie-off the blades to the mast. Tie a rope around a blade and then around the tower. This will lock the rotor blades to the mast and prevent the nacelle from yawing. WARNING For your safety, make sure power is turned off before working on any and all electrical connections. IMPORTANT Read all the safety instruction in section 2 before attempting to gain access to the turbine or tower.

Professional installation: highly recommended if access is required for any reason.

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7.7 Turbine checks when accessible


When the turbine is accessible the following checks should be made: 1. Carefully examine the blades for any signs of cracks, abrasion, or other damage. Wash them in warm soapy water to remove dirt. 2. Check all bolts for security, ideally by observing that the witness marks have not moved. Check tightness per table of torques in section 5.2.4 . 3. Look between the main casting and the hub to see if any grease has been expelled from the outer rotor bearing. Check for any slop in the rotor shaft. 4. Look under the main casting at the pivot to see if any grease has been expelled from the lower pivot bearing. Check for any slop in the pivot shaft. 5. Examine the outside of the body for corrosion, cracks, or other deterioration. Wash with soapy water. 6. Remove the nacelle and check the blade hub bolts. Replace nacelle as per section 5.2.3. 7. Examine the tower carefully for cracks and that all bolts are tight. 8. Check earth bonds on tower and turbine. 9. No further maintenance should be required. 10. Make a note of your observations in the logbook at section 15. 11. If any signs of damage or abnormalities are observed contact Ampair or an Ampair distributor. After performing the above checks take off the rope and/or tilt up the tower in accordance with the tower erection instructions. Then return the turbine to normal service per section 6.1.

8 Warranty and repair


Please see Ampair terms and conditions for details of the warranty. These are available on request or may be downloaded from the Ampair website. Please keep your invoice as proof of purchase. Please fill in the warranty registration card at section 18 when the turbine installed and mail or fax a copy to Ampair. Please also complete the commissioning check list of section 16 and send a copy to Ampair. The warranty is dependent on correct installation of the Ampair 6000 The Ampair warranty applies to customers who have purchased directly from Ampair or from an Ampair authorised distributors or Ampair authorised installers. As stated in the Ampair terms and conditions the warranty is void if you have used the product for purposes beyond its intended use or in excess of its specified capacity or if you or others have altered, repaired, or tried to repair or tampered with it. If a repair is required then contact Ampair or an Ampair distributor to either gain approval or arrange for Ampair to carry out a repair. Except with prior authorisation from Ampair or an Ampair authorised distributor there are no user repairable parts within the nacelle, or within the inverter or interconnect unit. The only user replaceable parts are the fuses; the turbine blades; the fibreglass nose cone; or whole modules. Ampair reserves the right to change specifications without prior notice in the interest of product development.

9 Electrical drawings
See following pages.

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9.1.1 Single line drawing of Ampair 6000 grid connection at 220/240V with dump load and Aurora PVI 6000

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9.1.2 Single line drawing of Ampair 6000 grid connection at 220/240V with dump load and MWI 5000

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9.1.3 Block diagram of Ampair 6000 grid connection at 220/240V with dump load and Aurora PVI 6000

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10 Typical short monopole masts Stainton and Valmont


In Europe it is relatively common to use unguyed monopole masts or towers of between 10m to 20m (33 feet to 66 feet) height and this section gives guidance on how to install them. Disadvantages These short masts are not ideal as they place the turbine within the atmospheric boundary layer and close to the ground where the drag of the surface slows the wind down a lot which means that the turbine will generate less power. The amount that the wind is slowed down depends on how rough the ground surface is compared with the height of the tower. If the roughness is just grass or heather then a low 10m mast may be acceptable but if the roughness is trees or buildings then even a 20m monopole mast may be unacceptably low. A purist will always try to get as high a tower or mast as possible but in the real world of locating small wind turbines many planners and owners prefer to sacrifice height (and power) to keep the aesthetic intrusion within what they consider to be acceptable. This is a fact of life and we have to accept it and for this reason Ampair manufacture a range of unguyed monopole masts of 10m, 12m and 15m which are available either from Ampair or from Stainton (UK) and Valmont (USA and worldwide). Advantages An advantage of the hinged unguyed monopole masts that we offer is that they can be erected by small teams with no unusual equipment except for a strong winch known as a griphoist (also known by the trade names of turfor or tirfor) which is an extremely safe winch that is designed not to accidentally let the steel wire rope (SWR) slip and cause an accident. The masts are supplied with a ginpole and when installed and used properly the hinged base allows for the griphoist and ginpole to lower the mast for turbine installation or inspection at ground level. This eliminates or greatly reduces the need to work at height which makes work safer and cheaper. Another advantage is that they are supplied in sections of no more than 6m (18 feet) which means they can be easily transported. Safety A full risk assessment should be carried out prior to installation by a competent professional installer. Special tools Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

Apart from the normal civil engineering equipment installing a tower requires the use of a 3.2 tonne safe working load (SWL) grip hoist, and a torque wrench. Installation sequence The drawings below (section 10.1.1) show the normal sequence of events and should be read in conjunction with these notes. 1. Foundation The foundation size depends on mast height and on the wind regime at the location, as well as on local building codes. The table of foundation requirements (section 10.1.2) is Ampairs minimum recommendations which may be increased but should not be reduced unless you engage your own civil engineer.

A 1m winch base must be set at least 10m from the turbine foundation and it must be square with the hinge line. This must be on the side opposite the side which the mast will be lowered. A loop of 10mm dia wire CD 2900 Page 41 of 82

mesh must be embedded in this winch base and project above as the anchor point for the winch.

The mast base should be temporarily suspended above the open excavation and carefully levelled. Insert the rebar anchor bolts in the mast base with two nuts above and one nut below. This holds the rebar anchor bolt vertical whilst the concrete is poured and allowed to cure. Care must be taken that the anchor bolts to do not splay outwards or toe inwards because if they are not dead vertical the mast base cannot be removed. The rebar anchor bolts supplied are longer than are needed for most of the shallow slab foundations that are described in section 10.1.2 . This is because sometimes clients prefer to install a pier foundation and the bolts are long enough to suit these as well. If the bolts are longer than you require (after allowing for any grouting etc) then you have three choices: 1. Dig a sump under the foundation to take the bottom of the bolts. 2. Cut off the bottom of the bolts. 3. Bend the bottom of the bolts into J bolts. You will probably need a blowtorch (blowlamp) to soften the bend.

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A steel reusable mast base template can be supplied in advance if it is preferred to prepare the foundation prior to the arrival of the mast on site. The rebar bolts will not grip the concrete unless they are fully wetted. It is vital that they are fully wetted and so a concrete poker should be used. The concrete must be left to cure fully before any attempt is made to use the rebar anchor bolts. If no accelerator is used leave the concrete to cure for four weeks. Using the rebar anchor bolts before the concrete has cured will cause them to rotate in the concrete and then they become useless so the whole foundation is scrap. If you do not want to grout the base at a higher level than the main concrete foundation then holes must be set into the main concrete foundation to accept the tower bolts. To do this either wrap the tower bolts in tape and grease and tighten them down fully into the wet concrete, or set tin cans into the wet concrete. Alternatively the base will be raised and grouted during installation as discussed later. 2. Set out mast

Transport the mast sections to site and lay out neatly. A mini digger is very useful to lift the heavier pieces. Remove the tower bolts and set to one side. It is a matter of preference and availability of handling equipment whether the hinge pins are removed and the tower base put into position and then the lower section of the tower fitted back with the hinge pins, or whether the whole lot is laid in position together. With the tower horizontal on the ground loosely slip the upper tower sections over the lower section taking care to keep the ginpole lugs and shackle fittings on the top side. On some towers there are two sections and on some towers there are three sections. Mark an overlap line 400800mm down from the top of each inside section (see table 3). Put a steel bar such as a piece of scaffold pole across the top flange of the tower and pad the flange surface with some wood. Pull the griphoist wire through the tower and fasten around the steel bar. Snug the griphoist body up against the underside of the tower base flange and again pad it with wood. Use the griphoist to wind in the cable and slowly compress the sections of the mast onto each other until the overlap line is reached. There is no need to be too aggressive as they will self-tighten in service.

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Fasten the nuts on the foundation bolts with double nuts and Nordlock washers. Do not use any other washers with the Nordlock washers (see section 11.1.4 for information on Nordlock washers). Torque the nuts as per the table below for dry joints.

with a short length of earth braid on the lugs provided adjacent to the tower hinge. 3. Ginpole & griphoist Add the ginpole and then the steel wire rope and shackle that is from the top of the ginpole to the tower. Seize all shackles with a length of wire or a nylon cable tie. 4. Trial raise & lower The purpose of this step is to prove that the tower can be safely raised and lowered before installing an expensive and heavy turbine on it.

Table 1: Foundation bolts for monopole towers Foundation bolts Number of bolts Bolt size Dry tightening torque 10m tower 4 M30 1401 Nm 12m tower 8 M24 703 Nm 15m tower 12 M24 703 Nm After ensuring that everyone is standing well clear of the topple zone and that all shackles are seized (tied with wire, or a tie-wrap), and that the hinge pins are in place, slowly use the grip hoist to raise the mast to a vertical position. The least controlled moment is when the mast is just coming vertical and it rocks into position and two tag lines should be fitted to the mast and tended to control this smoothly. Once the tower is vertical the base must be wriggled to align with the tower bolts. This can be done using a crowbar but the biggest lever is the ginpole. Insert all the tower bolts with Nordlock washers to check that they CD 2900 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

Install an earth electrode (lightning rod) if you have not already cast in a concrete encased ground electrode. Connect the lug on the tower base to the earth electrode with braid, and connect the tower base to the tower Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2

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fit easily. When in use the torques must be as per the following table 2 below.

Table 2: Tower bolts for monopole towers Tower bolts Number of bolts Bolt size Dry tightening torque 10m tower 4 M30 1401 Nm 12m tower 8 M24 703 Nm 15m tower 12 M24 703 Nm

Then pull the instrumentation and power cables through the mast and terminate them top and bottom in the connectors and the tower base junction box leaving enough slack to make the connection to the turbine. Place the turbine nacelle next to the end of the tower and connect the power and instrument cables. Then bolt the turbine nacelle to the top of the tower. See main turbine installation section for details.

Remove the tower bolts and lower the tower to the ground. To tip the tower off vertical either use the tag line or place a screw jack (a car jack) under the ginpole bracket. 5. Fit turbine After lowering the end of the mast to a safe and comfortable working height it is recommended that it is chocked securely, for example with a stack of pallets.

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Raise the tower slightly so that it is at a height that it is convenient for inserting the blades and re-chock the tower. Take care because as you raise it the turbine will swivel downwards and can trap your fingers if they are in the way which will cut them off. Insert the blades and their corresponding blade bolts then the nacelle cover. Take care because the blades are very sharp and will cut you. See main turbine installation section for details. Connect the tower top earth bond to the turbine nacelle earth bond on the pivot. At this stage the blades should not spin easily because the safety relays in the nacelle have braked the turbine.

6. Connect electronics Connect the main power cables and the main instrument cable in the tower base junction box. Connect the inverter and interconnect unit in the to the turbine cables. Connect the interconnect unit to the consumer unit (also known as a distribution board, service panel, or breaker board). All of this is explained in detail in the main turbine installation section. Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

At this point you are ready to check the correct operation of the turbine stop switch and the various functions of the inverter and interconnect. You should get people and animals to stand clear outside of the arc of the blades when you do this because you will need to spin them gently and they are extremely sharp.

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Never leave the turbine lowered on the tower and unattended and accessible to animals, children, people and livestock. The turbine blades are sharp and they will cause serious injuries or even death. 7. Final commissioning Raise the mast carefully using the griphoist. It will be heavier this time and it has a turbine on it that catches the wind more. Switch the turbine off before raising the mast and keep a tagline on the mast with someone holding it securely.

tower in a strong wind and you should put additional people on the tagline if in doubt. Make sure that as the tower base comes into position that it does not trap any of the cables within the mast base. When the tower is erect insert the tower bolts and torque them. Then observe the turbine to see if the tower is level. It is important that the tower top flange is level so that the turbine will track even the lightest of breezes. It is important not to assume that this is the same as the tower foundation being level, or the tower centre line being level (even allowing for the taper of the tower) as the top or bottom flanges may not be perfectly square on the tower. The fastest way to do this is to use a remote reading spirit level at step 4 and a clever spirit level for this purpose is commercially available on the market. The cheaper way is simply to monitor how the turbine responds to a change in direction. If it always settles pointing the same way then it is not level. Ideally it should settle wherever it is placed if there is no wind. In low winds it is convenient to put a tagline on the turbine itself and pull it around to different directions. In variable winds just simply monitor the yaw response of the turbine. There are two simple ways to level the tower. The first way is to install some steel shims between the tower flange and the base flange, or between the base flange and the concrete. If only a few shims are needed this is acceptable but care must be taken that the base of the flanges does not deform. It is important that the flanges are supported across the majority of their surface area and especially at the edges and putting too many shims in and in the wrong places can weaken them. The second way to level the tower is to note that the rebar anchor bolts are supplied with three nuts. Two of these nuts are intended to go above the base flange. The third nut can go underneath the base flange and you can then level the entire tower by adjusting these nuts. If you do this the tower flange will be about 60mm above the concrete foundation and so once you have the tower levelled you must make up some wooden shuttering and then pour a stiff grout mix underneath the tower base flange making sure that it is fully packed in.

Make sure that everybody including the tagline attendant is outside the topple zone. It is important not to let the wind get underneath the turbine and flip it up because that can break the hinge, or break the grip hoist cable if it flops back. This means that you should not raise or lower the

If you are in a very cold area you should embed a drain channel in the grout, sloping from the centre of the tower base to outside. This allows any water that gets inside the tower an opportunity to run out rather than staying inside and crevice freezing the tower off its anchor bolts. CD 2900

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Similarly you should ensure that the concrete and grout is installed such that it drains freely without water pooling on the top. Such pools of water can cause corrosion or freeze-thaw action. If you accidentally fill the electrical conduit with concrete then it is permissible to carefully drill a 20mm diameter hole in the tower side to accept the cables. These holes must be filed smooth and must not contain any stress raising notches. They must be no larger than 20mm diameter and they must be spaced evenly around the tower, not grouped together. Once the tower is erected and the turbine is fully commissioned it is normal to remove the ginpole and set it to one side in a safe place. At the same time a ladder should be used to remove the ginpole sling. Some farmers prefer to leave them on but they should certainly not be left on in an area where vehicles or livestock or children could hit them. Table 3: Overlaps for monopole towers Overlap Lower overlap Upper overlap 10m tower 400mm na 12m tower 600mm na 15m tower 800mm 700mm

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10.1.1

Drawings of monopole mast erection sequence

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10.1.2

Typical monopole foundation requirements Ampair 6000w x 5.5m

A. NOTES applying to all cases:


1. Details and reinforcement generally as AMP061 (see next page). Reinforcement cover to be 75 min 100 max. 2. Concrete to be RC30 to BS EN 206-1 or equivalent (RC30 = reinforced concrete, 30N strength after 28 days cure). 3. Base of excavation should be undisturbed subsoil or well rammed hardcore. 4. Unless ground conditions warrant shuttering, concrete may be poured against soil.

B. NOTES re definitions for all cases:


1. The Vav windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the annual average wind speed at hub height of the turbine. 2. The Vref windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the design reference wind speed averaged over 10 minutes. 3. The Ve50 windspeed definition per IEC 61400-2 (ed2, 2006) is for the expected extreme wind speed averaged over 3 seconds with a recurrence interval of 50 years. This is equivalent to the Vref definition used in EN40.

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10.1.2.1

Drawing of typical monopole foundation requirements Ampair 6000w x 5.5m

This drawing typical only. Consult table of section 10.1.2 for details of foundation dimensions and reinforcement etc.

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11 Drawings for planning applications


On the following pages you will find the outline drawings for the 10m, 12m, and 15m unguyed monopole towers supplied by Stainton / Valmont, and for 60, 80, 100, and 120 unguyed lattice towers supplied by Rohn. These drawings are only for illustrative purposes for applying for planning permission. The full drawings can be downloaded from www.ampair.com including a variety of scaled views and various projections. The foundations for the Stainton / Valmont towers should built in accordance with section 10.1.2 as the foundation sizes in these drawings are illustrative only. The foundations for the Rohn towers are given in the last drawing of this section 11.1.8. It is foolish to pour concrete into a foundation without first being in possession of all the mating steelwork. Unless you physically have the mating steelwork or a steel template it is highly likely that the foundation bolts will be in the wrong location and you will have wasted a lot of time, money, and effort. This advice will now be repeated: PROFESSIONAL: Professional installation: highly recommended It is foolish to pour concrete into a foundation without first being in possession of all the mating steelwork. Unless you physically have the mating steelwork or a steel template it is highly likely that the foundation bolts will be in the wrong location and you will have wasted a lot of time, money, and effort. Important: please take note IMPORTANT: It is foolish to pour concrete into a foundation without first being in possession of all the mating steelwork. Unless you physically have the mating steelwork or a steel template it is highly likely that the foundation bolts will be in the wrong location and you will have wasted a lot of time, money, and effort. Tip: helpful information It is foolish to pour concrete into a foundation without first being in possession of all the mating steelwork. Unless you physically have the mating steelwork or a steel template it is highly likely that the foundation bolts will be in the wrong location and you will have wasted a lot of time, money, and effort.

TIP:

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11.1.1

Stainton / Valmont 10m (32) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.2

Stainton / Valmont 12m (39) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.3

Stainton / Valmont 15m (49) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.4

Rohn 60 (18m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.5

Rohn 80 (24m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.6

Rohn 100 (30m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.7

Rohn 120 (36m) self supporting lattice tower with Ampair 6000 x 5.5

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11.1.8

Rohn standard foundations for self supporting lattice towers

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12 CE certificate of compliance for Ampair 6000

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13 Use of unusual items: Nordlock washers, threadlock, cable grips


13.1 Nordlock washers
Some of the bolted connections on the turbine or tower use Nordlock washers. These are proprietary products made by Nordlock (see www.nordlock.com for further information) which are rather expensive and must be used properly but are better than the alternatives in some situations. It is important to install them as a pair with the cam faces against each other and the teeth faces on the outside. The pictures below explain how they work. Do not use ordinary plain washers in combination with Nordlock washers. The Nordlock washers can be reused provided they are clean and in good condition.

13.2 Medium strength thread lockers: Loctite 242 or Bondloc 242


LOCTITE Product 242 or Bondloc 242 is a single component anaerobic medium strength thread locking material, which is thixotropic. It cures when confined in the absence of air between close fitting metal surfaces and is particularly suitable for less active substrates such as stainless steel and plated surfaces. It prevents loosening and leakage of threaded fasteners where disassembly with hand tools is required for servicing. It is blue in colour (this is important do not confuse it with other colours which cannot all be disassembled). It should be applied before assembly and it reaches full strength in between 20 minutes and 24 hours depending on temperature. It can be used from -55 to +150 deg C. Full material safety data sheets can be downloaded from the Henkel or Loctite or Bondloc websites. The use of gloves is recommended and it should not be ingested and eye contact should be avoided.

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Apply several drops to the bolts in the nut engagement area. Assemble and tighten the fastener. Leave to cure. If particularly difficult to disassemble apply localised heating.

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13.3 Cable grips (cable socks, strain relief grips, bus drop grips)
Two cable grips are provided with each turbine, the BD-041 and the BD-053 size. These are also known by various names including strain relief grips, cable grips, bus drop grips, Chinese fingers or cable socks. These are to assist in providing strain relief for the weight of the cables without the electrical connectors (plug & socket) having to carry the weight. The smaller grip should suit most sizes of the instrumentation cable and the larger grip should suit most sizes of the power cable. Make them up onto the cables before wiring the connectors into place. They should be hooked onto the lower pivot flange of the turbine after mating the connectors and before fastening the pivot flange bolts, adjusting as necessary so that they are taking the load of the cable.

Ampair supply UL listed Amtec grips. If alternative sizes are required then Amtec grips or an equivalent other brand can be purchased from Delta Electrical Products (www.deltaelectricproducts.com) or good quality electrical wholesalers if Delta do not have a local stockist. The galvanised steel version Ampair supplies are intended for use inside the dry environment of monopole towers. If a wet corrosive environment is anticipated then purchase suitable stainless steel grips. The table below is for PVC sheath YY specification cable which many installers will choose to use inside monopole towers and can be used as a guide if considering other cable grip sizes. Cores x CSA Cores x AWG Outside cable diameter approx 7.7 mm 10.0 mm 13.2 mm 16.2 mm 20.7 mm 23.8 mm Weight, approx Amtec part number Description Bus drop cable grip size range, cable diameter approx 0.30" - 0.43" (8mm - 12mm) 0.41" - 0.56" (11mm - 14mm) 0.41" - 0.56" (11mm - 14mm) 0.53" - 0.73" (14mm - 19mm) 0.70" - 0.85" (18mm - 22mm) 0.82" - 1.0" (22mm - 25mm) Breaking strength, approx 450 lbs 550 lbs 550 lbs 1000 lbs 1400 lbs 1400 lbs

3 x 1.5 mm 3 x 2.5 mm 4 x 4 mm 4 x 6 mm
2 2

2 2

3 x 16 AWG 3 x 14 AWG 4 x 12 AWG 4 x 10 AWG 4 x 8 AWG 4 x 6 AWG

81 kg / km 153 kg / km 320 kg / km 443 kg / km 737 kg / km 1087 kg / km

7304-002 (BD-030) 7304-003 (BD-041) 7304-003 (BD-041) 7304-004 (BD-053) 7304-005 (BD-070) 7304-006 (BD-082)

single eye bus drop, dry location single eye bus drop, dry location single eye bus drop, dry location single eye bus drop, dry location single eye bus drop, dry location single eye bus drop, dry location

4 x 10 mm 4 x 16 mm

2 2

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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14 Safe siting guidelines

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15 Wind speed estimation


It may seem strange to include a section on wind speed estimation in this wind turbine manual but we know that many prospective clients will read the manual before they purchase a turbine and so we want them to understand in advance their likely local wind speed so that they can make an informed purchasing decision. This is one reason why we put our manuals on our website. It is not in our long term interest to sell a wind turbine to a client who will be disappointed because they have too little wind, or who puts it on too short a tower for the wind that they do have. This is a practical approach to the subject and is not academically rigorous. Many trained site assessors or turbine installers will be able to perform more thorough and accurate site resource assessment than is described here.

15.1 Using anemometers


An obvious way to find out the wind at the location is to put an anemometer at the same location and height as the turbine will be, and to monitor it for as long as possible. This should ideally be at least a year but with some common sense one can eliminate sites with very low wind speeds within a matter of months. Another way to obtain an indication of the wind at the location is to look for an anemometer nearby that is in similar surroundings. Some airports and weather stations publish their readings and if you are fortunate enough to live near one of these then you can gain some confidence from this. Be careful about using public anemometers as they may be on unusually windswept sites such as the wide open expanses of an airfield which are not representative. The Ampair 6000 includes a built-in anemometer which sends its information to the internet and if the owner has allowed this information to be published then you will find it on the Ampair website. In a sense this is the best option as you can also see the power output of the turbine and so understand the relationship between wind speed and power output at real sites near you, rather than the perfect test conditions we use for our formal test work. This information is on the Ampair website www.ampair.com in the myAmpair section which we will update as the Ampair 6000 spreads around the world. We want to be open about real world performance and we encourage you to make your information public if you choose to buy an Ampair, not just so as to assist other customers but also so as to assist schools, students, and the general public.

15.2 Using wind atlases


You can estimate the wind at your location by looking at a wind speed atlas. Many of these are published on-line by governments or states. Some of them are maps which you have to read, and others allow you to enter your post code (zip code) or map reference to give you an estimation of the wind at your site. These atlases should be used with care as they tend to overestimate wind speed for small wind turbines and in the remainder of this section we will briefly explain why this is and how to compensate for it. Wind speed atlases are not the result of putting an anemometer every kilometre or mile and recording the results that would be far too expensive. Instead they are usually mathematical models run in very large computers that simulate how the wind flows over an idealized landscape. These mathematical models are referenced to a few anemometers which are almost always at perfect sites for wind farms. These models give fairly good results at heights of interest to the wind farm developers which tend to be around 50m (165 feet) above ground level (agl). The models almost always assume the ground is uncut tall grass prairie with most of the small scale lumps and bumps of the landscape smoothed out. These models are quite expensive to build and are the first stage in deciding where to site a wind farm. The second stage is that the developer purchases a more detailed model of the areas that interest them. The third stage is that they put anemometers on masts at the actual site for a year or two and further refine their models to the accuracy that the banks or investors demand before they will loan the money to invest in a wind farm. The small wind turbine community cannot afford this of course. We have to make do with the free public wind atlases and by understanding how they were created we can compensate for their inaccuracies with a bit of common sense. We will use examples from a British Wind atlas 14 published by the UK government on the internet and called NOABL but the method described can be adapted to

14

NOABL stands for Numerical Objective Analysis of Boundary Layer. At the moment the NOABL database can be accessed on the British governments Department of Business website at http://www.berr.gov.uk/energy/sources/renewables/explained/wind/windspeed-database/page27708.html but the Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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many other wind atlases or public national wind databases. As the wind flows over the landscape it is slowed down by the friction of the land and so the most accurate wind speed prediction is the one at the greatest height. The public wind atlases uses pretty basic models to predict how much each layer is slowed down and the most commonly used frictional prediction methods are the power law method or the logarithmic method. On the next page weve put a handy set of tables to take all the maths out of the power law method which tends to be the more 15 conservative . The wind speed reduction with height assumed by most wind atlases is that the terrain is relatively smooth rolling hills covered in prairie grass. So if we take the greatest height that the wind atlas gives us and re-correct it for the actual terrain which you probably know a lot more about than the mathematical model, then we can make a better estimate. How to do this is shown in the following worked examples. You will also need to use online maps and photos so as to be able to convert from post codes to map references and to look at the terrain in the area if you are not local. We tend to use www.multimap.com and www.maps.google.com for this. Worked example Park Farm Address: Park Farm, Warfield, Berkshire, UK Post code: RG42 5RH Map reference: SU865712 i.e. SU8671 is the 1-km grid square Predicted wind speed at 45m agl, per NOABL: 6.1 m/s Predicted wind speed at 25m agl, per NOABL: 5.5 m/s Predicted wind speed at 10m agl, per NOABL: 4.7 m/s This looks remarkably like NOABL is using the wind speed correction table 1b for crops and tall grass. However the area is better described as trees, hedges, and a few buildings, or maybe as suburbs. So using the table 1e we can estimate the wind speed for 5m and 10m above ground level (agl) as: Predicted wind speed at 45m agl, per table 1e: 6.1 m/s Predicted wind speed at 10m agl, per table 1e: 3.9 m/s Predicted wind speed at 5m agl, per table 1e: 3.2 m/s (i.e. just add 0.1 to the entry for 6.0m/s) (i.e. just add 0.1 again to keep it simple) (i.e. just add 0.1 again to keep it simple)

Our 10m agl prediction of 3.9 m/s is a lot less than the wind atlas prediction of 4.7 m/s. It just so happens that the 16 wind at this site was measured at 7m agl during the Warwick Wind Trial and was found to be 2.8 m/s. In fact the anemometer used for the Warwick trial was next to some buildings and so this could be better described as typical of a suburb which is table 1f: Predicted wind speed at 45m agl, per table 1f: 6.1 m/s Predicted wind speed at 10m agl, per table 1f: 3.7 m/s Predicted wind speed at 5m agl, per table 1f: 3.0 m/s (i.e. just add 0.1 to the entry for 6.0m/s) (i.e. just add 0.1 again to keep it simple) (i.e. just add 0.1 again to keep it simple)

So five minutes with a wind atlas, some common sense, and these look up tables gets a result of about 3.4 m/s at 7m agl which is pretty close to the 2.8 m/s at 7m agl obtained by using an anemometer for a whole year. As it happens this site is a good illustration of a poor site. It is the Ampair factory which is in some old farm buildings one field away from the residential suburbs (we may move in the future as we are expanding). This is why some testing is done on this site even though it is not terribly windy and our local planners are nervous about tall towers. Worked example Misty View Farm

government is constantly being reorganised by politicians and you may have to hunt for it using a search engine as each reorganisation sets up a new website.
15 16

The power law method gives results that are about 0.2-0.5 m/s more conservative than the logarithmic method.

The Warwick Wind Trial was an independent trial conducted by the consultancy Encraft using approximately 26 sites and five different wind types of turbine. It was primarily looking at the issues associated with mounting very small micro turbines on buildings. In this section a few examples are drawn from the Warwick Wind Trial sites. See www.warwickwindtrials.org.uk and www.encraft.co.uk . Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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Address: Misty View Farm, Portkellis, Cornwall, UK Post code: TR13 0LG Map reference: SW699344 i.e. SW6934 is the 1-km grid square Predicted wind speed at 45m agl, per NOABL: 7.7 m/s Predicted wind speed at 25m agl, per NOABL: 7.0 m/s Predicted wind speed at 10m agl, per NOABL: 6.3 m/s The actual terrain is crops, grass, and low stone walls with some buildings and occasional hedges and trees. So we would expect the results to be something in between tables 1b, 1c, and 1d and using the 45m agl result of 7.7 m/s from NOABL to work from we get. Table 1b Predicted wind speed at 45m agl, per tables Predicted wind speed at 25m agl, per tables Predicted wind speed at 10m agl, per tables Predicted wind speed at 5m agl, per tables 7.7 m/s 6.9 m/s 5.8 m/s 5.1 m/s Table 1c 7.7 m/s 6.8 m/s 5.6 m/s 4.8 m/s Table 1d 7.7 m/s 6.7 m/s 5.3 m/s 4.5 m/s

As it happens this is another Ampair site where we have been testing very small micro turbines for a few years on poles at 5m agl and we know that the actual wind speed at 5m agl is 5.8 m/s. The reason for this is that the test site is on a flat field set back from upslope of a hill and the air is being compressed as it flows over the hill and so the lower layer of the air picks up additional speed as it is squeezed between the ground and the layers of air above it. This is the effect that the NOABL model hints at with its unusual 10m agl result and is indicative that the topography at Misty View Farm is just large enough to be included in the mathematical models idealised smoothed landscape. Recent work by the Carbon Trust also suggests that the NOABL underestimates speeds at windy sites and overestimates speeds at calm sites. Finally it shows that there is no substitute for judgement and if at all possible putting an anemometer up for a while. We suggest that the minimum height tower for an Ampair 6000 is a 10m tower and that should only be considered on very open sites such as Misty View Farm where it is basically open grassland. Most other sites would be well advised to use higher towers.

15.3 Other correction factors and urban locations


Recently there has been interest in mounting small wind turbines in urban areas for the simple reason that this is where most purchasers live. The greatest interest has been in micro wind turbines of less than approximately 1.5kW power but there has also been interest in small wind turbines of up to 20kW power. Various field trials have shown that in general there is insufficient wind resource to justify installing wind turbines in urban areas if economic power production is the objective. This is because the urban environment acts rather like the canopy of a dense forest and the wind skims over the top raising the effective ground level by the height of the buildings. There are other factors such as the amount of turbulence and the probability distribution of the wind speeds. Various guidelines have resulted from these trials which are outlined below to allow you to investigate further if this is relevant to you. In general Ampair does not encourage mounting small wind turbines on buildings or in urban areas although we appreciate that sometimes there is no alternative.

15.3.1

Microgeneration Certification Scheme

The Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) has published a standard for certifying installation of small wind turbines and the serial number of the standard is MIS 3003. Within this is a basic set of wind speed correction factors to cater for urban and suburban environments. Used with judgement they are as good as the more complex methods and as future revisions of MIS 3003 are issued they are likely to improve. Although written for the UK they can be used anywhere and do not depend on any UK-specific information. Just search on the internet for MCS MIS 3003 and you will find the latest version which can be downloaded for free, we also try to keep an up to date version on the Ampair website.

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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15.3.2

Warwick Wind Trial

The Warwick Wind Trial publicly tested micro wind turbines on 26 sites. The results can be located at www.warwickwindtrials.org.uk and Encraft who are the engineering consultancy that managed the Warwick trial have some online estimation calculators at www.encraft.co.uk .

15.3.3

Energy Savings Trust

The Energy Savings Trust (EST) has conducted a private trial of approximately 100 turbines, mostly of the micro wind size and in urban locations, but some small wind turbines and in some rural locations. Their online estimation tools are UK-specific but that may change in the future and so it is worth looking at www.energysavingtrust.org.uk . So far they have not published much information about their results but they seem to have been in line with the Warwick Wind Trial, MIS 3003, and Carbon Trust report.

15.3.4

Carbon Trust

The Carbon Trust has conducted a publicly funded study into small wind turbines in general, and wind speeds in particular, which is documented in two reports. The overview is Small-scale wind energy: Policy insights and practical guidance and the scientific report is Small-scale wind energy: Technical report both of which can be downloaded from www.carbontrust.co.uk and which are very thorough. The on-line estimator tool that the Carbon Trust has released is UK-specific and is also limited in its utility by being based on proprietary databases for wind and for land use which means that it cannot be referenced in standards but is worth looking at for information.

15.3.5

Altitude, temperature, humidity

Strictly speaking it is worth while correcting for altitude, temperature and humidity. These factors do not affect the wind speed but they do affect the amount of energy in the wind because all three affect the density of the air which is driving the blades. In practice unless you live above 2000m (6000) or in the Arctic these are not factors one should be too concerned about as they are ordinarily less important than most of the other variables.

15.3.6

Further reading

There are a number of books available that discuss this subject and indeed anything else about small wind turbines from a laymans perspective. The one we would most recommend is: Title: Author: Publisher: ISBN Wind Power: renewable energy for home, farm, and business Paul Gipe Chelsea Green Publishing, Vermont, USA 1-931498-14-8

This book also covers a myriad of other topics about small wind turbines and contains a wealth of practical advice in plain english. We disagree with the author on one or two design matters but that is a minor quibble for such an excellent book. The author is admirably independent of all the small wind turbine manufacturers and does not edit any magazines, which removes him from direct commercial pressures.

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15.3.7

Table of wind speed correction factors with height & terrain

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16 Turbine commissioning checklist


Please complete this and retain in the manual for future reference.
Turbine siting Is the turbine generally in a safe location? (e.g. without hazard to nearby buildings and structures) per section 14 safe siting guidelines ? Turbine support structure and sitework Are foundations appropriate to turbine & tower per section 10 and 11? Are foundations appropriately sized using appropriate materials? Are foundations protected from water pooling and ice formation? Are turbine support structure fixings secure? Are all guy shackles and turnbuckles secured (on guyed towers)? Are guy anchors suitable (on guyed towers)? Is the turbine support structure protected against climbing (especially relevant to lattice towers)? Is lowering equipment suitable and properly stored (especially for gin pole towers)? Are winch anchor points suitable per Ampair instructions? Name Signature

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Date

I confirm support structures and site works are complete and ready for safe turbine installation & tower erection.

Turbine mechanical installation Is the turbine installed per Ampairs instructions? Have all the bolts been torqued per Ampairs instructions? Have the Nordlock washers and/or threadlock compound been used per Ampairs instructions? Is the turbine brake system working and electrically function tested (see section 5.3)? Name Signature

Yes

No

N/A

Date

I confirm turbine mechanical installation is complete and ready for safe tower mechanical erection.

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Output cables Are cable sizing per Ampair instructions or are cable calculations provided by the installer? If cables are sized by the installer are cables sized to provide voltage drop of <4%? If not, has this been justified? Are the cables of suitable current rating? Are the cables suitable for installation method (e.g. armoured, water resistant, UV stable)? Are the cables properly installed and fixed with safe routeing (e.g. at sufficient distance from heat sources and sharp surfaces/edges)? Are the cable strain reliefs properly installed? Are turbine electrical connections sound and weatherproof? Turbine junction box(es) if appropriate Is the junction box installed correctly and electrical connections secure? Is the junction box in suitable location, appropriate boxing (IP rating should be noted on documentation) Are dual supply warning labels in place? Earthing and lightning protection Is the turbine support structure earth correctly installed? Is lightning/surge protection correctly installed, if required (in addition to Ampair specified kit)? Turbine interconnect (controller, metering and isolator) and inverter Is the interconnect unit installed correctly and all electrical connections secure? Is the controller in a suitable location, with appropriate boxing (IP rating should be noted on documentation)? Is the interconnect unit suitably ventilated and mounted appropriately? Is the interconnect unit correctly mated to the battery system or the grid connect system per the commissioning checklists in the sections below? Name Signature

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Date

I confirm turbine electrical installation is complete and ready for safe turbine electrical operation.

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Function testing, documentation & user/customer instruction Have all tower and anchor bolts been correctly torqued following tower erection? Are the turbine speed and vibration levels acceptable? Is the tower top flange level and is the turbine yawing correctly to track the wind? Has the Operation & Maintenance manual been supplied including problem diagnostics, contact details, maintenance schedule/record sheet, etc? (this checklist comes from the Manual) Have manuals for all specific equipment been passed to the customer (including inverter, batteries, etc, as appropriate) Has all warranty information been passed to the customer, including system and all parts i.e. turbine, wiring, inverter/batteries? Has information on the system design been supplied to the customer, e.g. V(max), I(max), noise levels, electrical schematics and site layout / civil works drawings, design life of system parts? Has the installation certificate & test sheet (BS 7671, National Electrical Code, or other local or national code) been supplied (as appropriate)? Grid-connected systems only: Has signed approval from public electrical utility (DNO) been passed to the customer? Grid-connected systems only: Has a print out of protection settings been supplied? Has the safe operation and shutdown of the turbine been explained to the user/customer? Has the metering system been explained to the user/customer? Name Signature

Yes

No

N/A

Date

I confirm turbine commissioning is complete and safely handed over to the client including training & documentation.

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Battery systems additional checks


General design Is battery over-current protection provided within the design? Is manual isolation of the battery (battery disconnect) provided within the design? Battery specification Has the battery manufacturer been contacted or their data reviewed for system recommended charge rates? Installation Is battery isolation installed such that turbine cannot directly feed the loads when the battery is disconnected? Is the battery in a secure, vented and appropriate location? Is the battery housed suitably and terminals protected? Are all the cables to the battery fused, with fuses as close as practicable to the battery? Are battery fuses rated for DC? Is the fuse rating less than (de-rated) cable rating? No fuse in common between wind turbine and DC load? (Where DC loads used) Are inverter and controls suitably housed, mounted and ventilated? Are DC cables sized for safety and voltage drop (particularly inverter cables)? Are DC cables safely installed/routed? Is AC wiring to BS 7671, National Electrical Code, or other local or national code? Is there an isolator between battery and controller/inverter? Are battery voltage and turbine output meters installed and visible? Are dump heaters suitably mounted to prevent fire/burns and installed with high temperature cables? Labelling/signage Are battery installation labels present (no smoking etc)? Are fuses and points of isolation labelled? Are the system schematic and installer's contact details displayed?

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

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Are all signs suitably fixed and durable? Name Signature

Date

I confirm battery system is complete and ready for safe operation.

Grid-connected systems additional checks


General design Is the inverter supplied with a current relevant type test certificate (for country of use e.g. VDE 0126-1-1, EN50438, UL1741, G83/1) or has agreement been reached, in writing, with DNO or electrical public utility? Installation Is the inverter suitably installed for heat dissipation? Is the interconnect unit installed adjacent to the inverter? (otherwise fit a local double-pole AC isolator) Is the interconnect unit installed adjacent to the point of interconnection? (otherwise fit a doublepole AC isolator (lockable in the off position only) adjacent to at the point of interconnection with the supply) Is AC cable suitably specified and installed in accordance with Ampair instructions or have suitably size calculations been provided by installer? Is cabling suitably selected and secured/routed? Is suitable AC fault current protection provided at the distribution board (specified and installed in accordance with BS 7671, National Electrical Code, or other local or national code)? Labelling/signage Are dual supply notices installed at the service termination, meter position and all points of isolation? Is the point of AC isolation suitably labelled? Is a system schematic displayed? Are protection settings and installer's contact details displayed? Are all signs suitably fixed and durable? Has disconnection if grid fails been checked? Name Signature

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Yes

No

N/A

Date

I confirm grid connect system is complete and ready for safe operation.

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17 Turbine logbook
Date kWh meter reading Observations

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18 End user warranty registration card


Please fill in and mail or fax a photocopy of this warranty registration card back to Ampair together with the completed commissioning check sheets. Please keep the original in this owners manual for your future reference. We will not use this information for marketing purposes or sell it. Ampair Energy Ltd Unit 2, Milborne Business Centre, DT11 0HZ, Dorset, UK Web: www.ampair.com Tel: +44 (0)1258 837 266 sales@ampair.com
Ampair is a registered trademark of Ampair Energy Ltd, manufacturers of small scale power systems since 1957.

Ampair, 2010 About you: Your name: Your address: (include post or zip code)

Your telephone: Your email: About your installer: Date of installation: Who installed the turbine:

Were you happy with the installation service: About your turbine: Turbine nacelle serial number: Inverter serial number: Turbine model (see section 4.1): Tower type and height (circle all that apply):

yes no comments: (this helps us educate installers)

Interconnect serial number Blade serial numbers

monopole lattice guyed unguyed tilting fixed __________feet metres ________________ tower manufacturer

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Wind speed:

Your expected annual average wind speed __________mph metres/second

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This page deliberately blank

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Ampair Energy Ltd Unit 2, Milborne Business Centre, DT11 0HZ, Dorset, UK Web: www.ampair.com Tel: +44 (0)1258 837 266 sales@ampair.com
Ampair is a registered trademark of Ampair Energy Ltd, manufacturers of small scale power systems since 1957.

Ampair, 2010

Date: 6 August 2010 Issue: 1.2 Ampair 6000 x 5.5 Owners Manual

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