Anda di halaman 1dari 4

Summarize in not more than 120 words,

How camouflaging and mimicry help insects


Have you ever wondered why soldiers are always clad in green? This is to enable them to camouflage themselves during wartime. Hiding in the jungles, their green attire blend into the surrounding trees and shrubs, making it difficult for the enemies to spot them. Long before man make use of camouflaging, insects have already adopted the tactic of disguise to escape from the clutches of their predators. By having body colors close to those of the rocks and dried leaves, they catch less attention from the predators and hence escape from being pursued. However, this kind of disguise works only if the insects remain still in the presence of their predators.

Butterflies and moths have developed a variety of camouflage strategies since they are quite defenceless and their predators - birds are abundant in supply. Many moth caterpillars resemble dead twigs while the young of certain species of butterflies appear like bird droppings. Adult butterflies and moths camouflage themselves too, in attempts to escape from their hunters -- birds who are superior gliders. Possessing wings which resemble dried leaves help certain butterflies and moths to hide among heaps of dried leaves when predators are around.

Fortunately, not all insects choose the art of disguise to escape from their predators; otherwise, the world would be so dull and colorless. There are insects which assimilate the bright body colors of bees and wasps to escape from being pursued by their predators. The concept of mimicry was derived, owing to the bees and wasps. Long ago, birds have already learnt to avoid brilliantly colored wasps and bees in fear of their painful stings. Hence, over millions of years, many harmless insects have assimilated the bees and wasps by imitating their bright body colors and shapes. In this way, they appear dangerous to their predators and hence ward them off.

Mimics of the wasps and bees are most commonly found in the gardens. The furry, plump bee-fly not only appears like the bumble bee in terms of body

colors, even its hums sound similar too. The only difference is that the beefly does not have a sting and is hence harmless. The hoverfly is another insect which imitates the body colors of the wasps. Their bodies are striped yellow and black. The only deviations are that hoverflies do not have stings and they have only one pair of wings each while wasps have two pairs each. These variations are hardly noticed by the predators and hence help them to escape.

Summarize why the International Trophy Hunting

Organization was set up, how it helps the Hunza valley and why it is criticized. Keep your summary within 160 words.
The North-Eastern part of Pakistan is bounded by the Hindu Kush, Himalayan and Karakorum ranges. It is one of the most beautiful places in the world. The Hunza Valley, as it is called, claims to be the Shangrila of James Hilton's novel, The Lost Horizon. In Shangrila people never grew old. They lived in a paradise setting among snow-capped mountains and green valleys. Not only is this area one of breathtaking beauty but it is home to several endangered species of mountain animals like the Blue Sheep, the Markhor Goat, the Marco Polo Sheep, the Snow Leopard and the Ibex. Among these animals, the Marco Polo Sheep is almost extinct. The Ibex is one of four species of mountain goats. It belongs to the genus capra. The others are the Rocky Mountain Goat, the Cashmere Goat and the Chamois. The Ibex is found in mountain ranges in parts of Europe, Asia and Africa. Its coat is brown to gray in colour. The male Ibex has a majestic head with heavy horns up to 1.5 metres long. The female has shorter horns. They are surefooted and agile animals. They live in herds and are herbivorous animals. Hunting for wildlife is a deeply-entrenched tradition in the culture of the Hunza Valley villagers. Animals, especially the Ibex, are hunted for food. One Ibex could feed several families. It is estimated that about 200 Ibexes used to be killed a year for food. This activity placed the Ibex population in danger of extinction. Anxious to save the Ibex population but not deprive the local inhabitants of a source of food, the government and conservation societies set up the International Trophy Hunting Organization. Hunting and killing of Ibexes by the local population have been prohibited. Only regulated hunting by foreigners is allowed. The organization makes available a strictly limited number of hunting permits for Ibex trophy hunters per year. The cost per

trophy is about US$3,500. Successful hunters often donate a few thousand more. The reasoning is that with controlled hunting, only twenty Ibexes are killed in a year. Almost all the money goes to the Hunza tribes for buying food, developing their farms and improving the facilities of their homeland. For example roads have been built and schools and women's vocational centres have been set up. Because of these benefits, the valley dwellers have so far been cooperative. They are strict about enforcing the law. Gamekeepers patrol the area around the clock to prevent poaching. The penalty for unlawful hunting is severe. But cynics are questioning the system. How long can it be kept up? When will corruption set in? How damaging is this flow of money into the simple lives of the villagers? Will other endangered animals be included in this scheme? There is already talk of charging US$120,000 per kill for the beautiful and elusive snow leopards. Voices of protests from the villagers have become strong. Some of them consider their lifestyle and culture to be threatened. Money culture has entered their lives. They cannot accept the reasoning behind sacrificing one Ibex to save ten. To some villagers, the presence of foreign hunters free to take part in a traditional activity now denied them seems disrespectful. To these villagers, controlled hunting is an unwelcome intrusion in their lives. Tourists themselves have asked, 'Why kill? Isn't it enough to bring visitors to look at these magnificent creatures? Let us shoot with cameras, not hunting rifles!' Main points 1 Ibex an endangered species of mountain goat 2 Wildlife hunting for food old custom in Hunza Vallery. 200 Ibexes killed a year 3 Organization to save Ibex: prohibits Ibex hunting by locals, sells permits to foreigners 4 Limited hunting means only 20 Ibexes killed per year 5 Money raised for villagers to improve livelihood and infrastructure 6 Critics: Long term effects, money culture, other animals later? 7 Villagers feel threatened, foreign hunters invading their culture 8 Tourists ask why kill? Take photos instead

Write an essay on 1. All citizens under the age of 21 should be required to pass a driving education course before receiving a license to drive.

2. Any student caught cheating on an examination should be automatically dismissed from college.