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Chapter 9- Water Resources The Hydrologic cycle The flow of water links the atmosphere, ocean and land

through energy and matter exchanges. The hydrologic cycle is a model of Earths water system, which has operated for bi llions of years from the lower atmosphere to several km beneath Earths surface. Surface Water- Interception occurs when precipitation strikes vegetation or othe r ground cover. Water soaks into the subsurface through infiltration, or penetra tion of the soil surface. It further permeates soil or rock through vertical mov ement called percolation. A soil-water budget Can be established for any area of Earths surface by measuring the precipitation input and output of both the supply of the water resource and the natural demand s on the resource is essential to sustainable human interaction with the hydrolo gic cycle. Water resources represent the ultimate output of Earths water system The soil-water-balance Equation The moisture supply to Earths surface is precipitation (PRECIP or P), arriving as rain, snow, sleet or hail. It is measured by the rain gauge. Evaporation is the net movement of free water molecules away from a wet surface into air. Transpiration is the movement of water through plants and back into the atmosphe re; it is a cooling mechanism for plants. Evaporation and transpiration are combined into one word- evapotranspiration. Th e ultimate demande for moisture is evapotranspiration (POTET or PE), the amount of water that would evaporate and transpire under optimum moisture conditions. I t is measure with an evaporimeter. Precipitation= Actual Evapotranspiration ( Potential evapotranspiration - defici t) + Surplus +/- Change in soil-moisture storage. PRECIP= ACTET ( POTET-DEFIC) + SURPL +/- D STRGE Groundwater Groundwater is a part of the hydrologic cycle, but it lies beneath the surface b eyond the soil-moisture root zone. Ground water does not exist independently bec ause its replenishment is tied to surface surpluses. Excess surface water moves through the zone of aeration, where soil and rock are less than saturated. Event ually, the water reaches the zone of saturation where the pores are completely f illed with water. The permeability of subsurface rocks depends on whether they conduct water readi ly (higher permeability) or tend to obstruct its flow (lower-permeability). An aquifer is a rock layer that is permeable to ground water flow in usable amou nts. An acquiclude is a body of rock that does not conduct water in usable amounts. The upper limit of the water that collects in the zone of saturation is the wate r table; it is the contact surface between the zones of saturation and aeration. A confined aquifer is bounded above and below by impermeable layers of rock or s ediment. An unconfined aquifer has permeable layer on top and an impermeable one beneath. Freshwater Supply Nonconsumptive uses or water withdrawal remove water from the supply, use it the n return it. However consumptive uses remove water from a stream but do not retu rn it, so the water is not available for a second or third use. Desalinization as a water resource involves the removal of organics, debris, and salinity from seawater through distillation or reverse osmosis. This process yi elds potable water for domestic uses. Chapter 10 - Global Climate Systems Elements that produce Earths Climates:

Insolation Temperature Humidity Seasonal Precipitation Atmospheric pressure Winds Air masses Types of Weather disturbances Cloud Coverage * Climate cannot be observed and does not exist at any particular moment, theref ore it is a conceptual statistical construction from these measure weather eleme nts. Principal Climate Components: Insolation Energy input for the climate system, varying widely over Earths surface by latitu de and temperature patterns daily and seasonally. Controls are Latitude and Long itude and Altitude/Elevation, land-water heating differences, and cloud cover. Termperature Temperature variations result from a coupling of dynamic forces in the Atmospher e to Earths pattern of atmospheric pressure and resulting wind systems. Pressure Pressure gradient force causes air to move from an area of higher barometric pre ssure to an area of lower barometric pressure due to the pressure difference. Air Masses The location and physical characteristics of air masses, vast bodies of consiste nt air that from over oceanic and continental source regions. Precipitation The hydrological cycle transfers moisture, with its tremendous latent heat energ y, through Earths climate system. The moisture input climate is precipitation in all its forms. Its patterns are important for it is a key climate control factor. Average temperatures and day length help to approximate POTET, a measure of nat ural moisture demand. Climate Classification Types: (Grouping data or phenomena in related categories) Genetic classification Based on causative factors. Ex: the interaction of air masses. C.W Thornthwaite in 1948 using the water-budget approach and vegetation types. Empirical Classification Determined by statistical data. Ex: Ice core samples. Temperature and precipitat ion data. Wladimir Koppen classification system on heat zones, distinguishing climatic reg ions. Classification Categories: Tropical (equatorial and tropical latitudes) Rain forest- rains all year Monsoon - 6 t0 12 months rainy, Ex : Yangon, Myanmar Savana- less than 6 months rainy Ex: Arusha, Tanzania * Tropical Climates occupy 36% of the earths surface, straddling the equator, rou ghly between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Consistent day length and insolation input Intertropical convergence zone, bringing rain with the shifting with the high su n Warm ocean temperatures and unstable maritime air masses Mesothermal (mid latitudes, mild winter) Humid subtropical- hot summers, Ex: Columbia, South Carolina Marine West Coast- warm to cool summers, Ex: Vancouver Mediterranean- dry summers, Ex: San Francisco, California *Mesothermal climates occupy approximately 55% of the worlds population ridences. These are the latitudes of greates air mass action.

Shifting air masses of maritime and continental origin Migrating cyclonic (low-pressure) and anti cyclonic (high pressure) systems brin g changeable weather conditions. Micro thermal (mid and high latitutes, cold winter) Humid continental- hot to warm summers, Ex: New York City, US and Dalian, China Subarctic- Cool summers to very cold winters, Ex: Churchill, Manitoba * Microthermal Climates occupy 21% of Earths land surface or 7% of total surface. Poleward of the mesothermal in the southern hemisphere Increasing seasonality and greater temperature ranges Upper-air westerly winds and undulating Rossby waves, which bring warmer air nor thward and colder air southward for cyclonic activity and convectional thunder s torms fron mT masses in the summer. Hot summers and cooling northward, short spring/fall seasons surrounding winters that are cold to very cold. Continental polar air masses dominate winter, blocking cyclonic storms Polar (high latitudes and polar regions) Tundra- high latitude or high altitude, Ex: Greenland tundra Ice caps and Ice sheets- perpetually frozen, Ex: Antarctica and Greenland Polar Marine Highland (compared to low lands at the same latitude, highlands have lower tempe ratures) * Polar and highland climates cover about 19% of earths total surface and 17% of its land area. Cold climates, low sun altitude Extremes of day length between winter and summer determine the amount of insolat ion received Low sun Altitude during long summer days Low humidity, low precipitation Light-coloured surfaces of ice and snow reflect substantiall energy away from th e ground surface reducing net radiation. Desert (permanent moisture deficits) Arid deserts- tropical, subtropical hot, mid latitude cold, Ex: Albuquerque, New Mexico Semi Arid Steppes- tropical, subtropical hot, and mid latitude cold, Ex: Waglett , Australia * Arid and Semi Arid Cimates occupy more than 35% of earths land area distributed by latitude and the amount of moisture deficits. Dry, subsiding air in subtropical high-pressure systems dominates Mid latitutes deserts and steppes form in the rain shadow of mountains, those re gions to the lee of precipitation intercepting mountains. Continental interiors, Central Asia Shifting subtropical high-pressure systems produce semi arid steppe lands around the periphery of arid deserts. ** Global Warming: p. 317 Chapter 11- The Dynamic Planet & Endogenic Systems Time Scale Types: Relative Sequence of events, based on the relative positions of rock strata above or belo w each other. Base on the important general principle of superposition which sta tes that rock and sediment always are arranged with the youngest beds superposed toward the top of a rock formation and the oldest at the base if the have not b een disturbed. The study of these sequences is call Stratigraphy. Ex: Precrambri en Eon at the bottom (beginning) of the time scale and the Holocene Epoch (today ) at the top Absolute Specific time in actual millions of years ago shown on the time scale, obtained th

rough scientific methods such as radiometric dating. These absolute ages permit scientists to actively update geologic time, refining the time-scale sequence an d lending greater accuracy to relative dating sequences. ** Geologic time scale p. 333 Summary timeline of all earths history Earths age 4.567 billion years Depicts 2 important kinds of time; 1.Relative is sequence of events/what happened in order 2.Absolute the actual millions of years ago - # of years before the present Fossils, the remains of ancient plants and animals Stratagraphy the order and relative position of strata and their relationship to geological time Uniformitarianism same physical processes active in the environment today have b een operating throughout geological time. The Earths Internal Layers 1. Earths Crust thin covering Sima (Oceanic Crust/Lower Layer) silica & magnesium & iron, ocean floor (basalt) ~ 5km thick Sial (Continental Crust/Upper Layer) granite, high in silica & aluminum, potassi um, calcium and sodium ~ 30km thick 2. Earths Mantle (figure 11.2) A. Upper Mantle ~ 2900km thick, uneven i) Uppermost mantle (next to crust) high velocity zone, seismic waves transfer t hrough rigid cooler layer (uppermost+crust=litosphere, 45-70km thick) ii) Asthenosphere pockets of increased heat from radioactive decays, least rigid region. Slow movement in this zone disturbs overlying crust and creates tectoni c activity, (partial melting zone) iii) Upper Mantle uneven B. Lower Mantle 3. Outer Core(liquid) Molten iron, lighter density high temperatures cause rocks to melt 4. Inner Core solid iron, high pressures wont melt rock. T ~ 2500 C formed shortly after Earth condensed Outer core + Inner Core is divided by a transition zone several hundred km wide. Earths Magnetism The fluid outer core generates at least 90% of Earths Magnetic field. And magneto sphere that surrounds and protects Earth from solar wind and cosmic radiation Outer core converts thermal and gravitational energy into magnetic energy. North Magnetic Pole moves Geomagnetic Reversals 9 times in the past 4 million years; on average every 500,000 years north and south poles reach low intensitys then rapidly to full power opposite. Chrons one interval where Earth is predominantly one polarity Tool for rock units, understanding play tectonics and movement The Geological Cycle (Figure 11.6) Endogenic system: building landforms (internal) Exogenic system: eroding landforms (external) Cycled fueled with heat from solar energy and internal heath Tied to the hydrological cycle(water processes), rock cycle(rock types and trans formations), and tectonic cycle (heat, energy and material recycling) 1.Rock Cycle 8 major elements (O,Si,Al,Fe,Ca,Na,K,Mg others) Minerals natural compounds with specific chemical formula, crystal structure Rocks group of minerals or solid organic matter. a. Igneous (Melted) o solidifies and crystallizes from a molten state(90%). o Form from magma (fluid gaseous and under tremendous pressure) o Magma intrudes into crustal rocks, cools & hardens or extrudes onto the surfac e as lava.

o Intrusive igneous rock that cools slowly in the crust forms a pluton (any intr usive igneous rock body) o Largest pluton is a batholith (irregular shaped mass with surface greater than 100km squared) o Dike pushes it way across layers of sediments o Sill body of magma that pushes its way btw layers of sediments. o Extrusive igneous rock produced by volcanic eruptions and flows - Felsic high in silica, al, k,& Na, have low melting points. Lighter in color a nd less dense than magic mineral rocks. - Mafic low in silica & high in Mg & Fe, have high melting points darker and den ser. b. Metamorphic Rocks o Changed by physical or chemical changes under pressure and increased temperatu re o More compact and harder and more resistant to weathering and erosion i) regional metamorphism earth creates enough pressure in the bottommost layers to transform sediments into metamorphic rock. ii)contact metamorphism molten magma rising within the crust may cook adjacent roc k. o Foliated mineral structure demonstrates a particular alignment after metamorph ism and some minerals may appear wave striations in the new rock. c. Sedimentary Solar energy and gravity drive this process with water as the principal transpor ting medium. Involves lithification process of cementation, compaction and hardening of sedim ents. Transported from high energy sites to low to be dumped Stratigraphy is the study of the sequences (superposition), thickness and spatia l distribution of strata yield clues to the age/origin of the rocks. i) Clastic Rock formed from the mechanically transported fragments of older rock ii) Chemical Rock formed from the dissolved minerals transported in solutions, s ome having organic origins. Chemically precipitated from solution. Underground r adiogenic heat and gravity. Aboveground solar energy and gravity, rotation & tid al forces. 2. Plate Tectonics Movement of crustal segments. history: wegener one super continent 225 mya during the Triassic period. PANGEA Building/construction to changes in the configuration of Earths crust as a result of internal forces. Includes: upwelling of magma, lithospheric plate movements, sea-floor spreading, lithospheric subduction, earthquakes, volcanic activity, lithospheric deformati on. Seafloor spread & production of new crust: mid-ocean ridges direct result of upwelling flows of magma from hot areas in the upper mantle, athenosphere and perhaps from the deeper lower mantle. Mantle convection brings magma to the crust, the crust fractures and magma extru des onto the seafloor, then cools to form new seafloor. New crust generates magnetic particles in the lava orient with the magnetic fiel d in force while lava cools. The particles become locked in this alignment as ne w seafloor form, creating a magnetic tape in the seafloor. Records each magnetic reversal and reorientation of Earths Polarity. Seafloor relatively young 208 mya is the oldest Oceanic crust is shortly lived old crus plunging beneath continental crust along Earths deepest trenches Subduction of Lithosphere Continental crust less dense when collided with denser ocean floor the ocean flo or grinds beneath the continental crust forming a subduction zone. Subducting slab of crust exerts a gravitational pull on the rest of the plate. Trenches coincide with these subduction zones; lowest features on earths surface Subducted portion of lithosphere travels into the asthenosphere where it remelts

(recycles) Spreading ridges and subduction zones are areas of earthquakes and volcanic activ ity. The Formation & Breakup of Pangea Represents only the last 225 my of earths 4.6 billion Before this the landmasses were unrecognizable. Still discovering older arrangements(Rodinia) Massive mountains exert high gravitational field and attracts water to it; trenc hes less gravitational field drop in sea level Speeds 1-12cm.year different directions & speeds Wilson Cycle : Super continents (1966) 5 previous in 3 billion years act as insulator: mass traps geothermal heat in earth. Steps in cycle: assembly, stability splitting to reassembly: 500 my cycle. Can be incomplete assembly Evidence: 6 orogenic episodes terranes, exotic terranes. Plate Boundaries 1.Divergent Boundaries diverge at mid-ocean ridge - characteristic of sea-floor spreading centres - spreading makes zones of tensions 2.Convergent Boundaries characteristic of collision zones ( continental and ocea nic lithosphere collide) - zones of pressure and crustal loss 3.Transform Boundaries players move laterally past each other at right angle to a seafloor spreading centre. - right angle fractures stretching across the mid-ocean ridge. Transform Fault spreading centre mid-ocean ridges are the location - parallel to the direction in which the plate is moving. - mid-ocean ridge begins at a point of weakness in crust (not a straight line) - beyond the spreading centers, 2 sides of the fracture zones join and are in ac tive. Earths Surface Relief Feature relief refers to vertical elevation differences in the landscape topography the undulating form of earths surface including its relief ocean basins are entirely below sea level. Continental landmasses - portions of crust that reside above or near sea-level. Crustal Formation process * a continetal shield is a region where a craton is exposed at the surface. 3 Main stress types on rock strata: 1. tension; stretching (normal fault) 2. Compression; shortening (reverse fault) 3. shear; twisting or tearing (strike-slip fault) Strain is how rocks respond to stress: - Folding bending - Faulting breaking - Compression at converging plates, deform them by folding - Along the ridge of a fold, layers slope downward away from the axis is an anti cline. - In the trough of a fold layers slope downward toward the axis is a syncline. Faulting Rocks on either side of the fracture displace relative to the otherside. Zones where fractures in the rock demonstrate crustal movement. At the moment of fracture a sharp release of energy occurs (earthquake) Fracture surface along which two sides of a fault move is the fault plane. 1) Normal Fault(tension fault) forms when rocks are pulled by tensional stress ( pulls away) - rock on one side moves vertically along an inclined fault place. -downward shifting side is hanging wall it drops relative to the footwall block escarpment. 2) Reverse Fault(compression or thrust) results when rocks are forced together b

y compressional stress - converging plates force rocks to move upward along fault plane. - if the fault plan forms a low angle relative to the horizontal it is a thrust fault. 3) Strike-Slip Fault forms when rocks are torn by lateral shearing stress - right or left lateral - can create linear rift valleys. Horst upward faulted blocks Graben downward faulted blocks Orogenesis ( Mountain Building) - folding and faulting, plate collision, addition of terranes, volcanic addition , uplift. - Continent to continent, ocean to continent, ocean to ocean - Eg. Rocky mountains, Appalachians, Himalayas Earthquakes Crustal plates has tremendous friction when gliding past each other. A force of plate motion builds a deformation in the rocks until friction is over come and the sides along plate boundaries or fault lines suddenly break loose. T he two sides of the fault plane then lurch into new positions and release enormo us amount of seismic energy. Series of shocks caused by movement in crust or upper mantle often along fault l ines. Stresses pass threshold point: sudden failure. Focus: point of failure(where the motion of seismic waves are initiated) Epicentre: point of surface above focus Aftershock: further slippage along fault lines. Seismograph: records vibrations transmitted as waves of energy throughout the Ea rths interior and crus. Qualitative damage intensity scale Quantitative mag. Of energy released scale Volcanism eruptions of molten rock at earths surface. -oceanic: new crustal material at sea floor spreading margins -continental: near plate margins -hot spots: Hawaii forms at the end of a central vent/pipe that rises from the asthenosphere and up per mantle through the crust into a volcanic mountain. Crater: a circular surface depression, usually forms near or at the summit Magma rises and collects in a chamber deep below until conditions are correct. Lava(molten rock), gases & pyroclastics(pulverized rock and clastic material eje cted violently) pass through the bent and to the surface and build volcanic land form. 2 prinicple forms of flowing basaltic lava 1) Aa rough and jagged with shape edges 2) Pahoehoe forms a thin crust that develops olds and appears ropy Cinder cone: a small cone-shaped hill with truncated top formed from cinders tha t accumulate during moderately explosive eruptions. Determining eruption type: -magmas chemistry -magmas viscosity A. Effusive Eruptions (gentle) - produce enormous volumes of lava annually on the sea floor. - produce low viscosity magma -shield volcano typical mountain landform gradually rises to the surface to a su mmit crater. B. Explosive Eruptions -volcanic activity inland from subduction zones produce explosive volcanos -subducted melted ocean plate and other materials is thick -tends to block the magma inside and trap gases and causes pressure for an explo sive eruption.

i) Composite volcano steep sides and conical - forms a plug near the surface explosion of megton blast tops and sides off the se mountains, less lava large amounts of pyroclastics Plateau basalts flows from fissure eruptions which accumulate to form a plateau. Chapter 13- Weathering and Mass Movement exogenic proceses endogenic processes cause uplift weathering and mass movement cause breakdown, lowering & flattering continual parts of geological cycle geomorphology is the science of landforms (origin, evolution, form and spatial d istribution) denudation is any process that wears away or rearranges landforms geomorphic threshold the point at which there is enough energy to overcome resis tance against movement. Slopes form boundaries of landforms. Weathering Process Breakdown of rock in place Erosion means that material is removed Disintegrate rock into mineral particles or dissolve them in water Surface and subsurface activity Breakdown of bedrock-parent material (sediments +weathered rock) creates broken up rock = regolith Doesnt transport, generates them for erosion. Factors: -types of rocks

-characteristics of rocks: Jointing fractures or separations in rock that occur without displacement of the sides Weakness -climate: Temperatures and variability Water availability -vegetation plant roots can enter crevices and break up a rock -orientation (exposure) Types of weathering: 1) Due to Physical processes (mechanical, dominates in drier, cooler climates) When rock is broken and disintegrated without any chemical alteration or increas e of surface area -Frost Action can exceed the tensional strength of rock -also causes join block separation -Salt weathering dry weather brings moisture into the surface, as water evaporat es dissolved minerals in water grow crystals. Crystals grow and exert force stro ng enough to spread apart individual mineral grains and break the rock - thermal shock, expansion and contraction 2) Due to Chemical Processes ( wetter warmer climates) -actual decomposition of minerals in rocks -reaction btw air, water, and minerals in rocks -spherodial weathering sharp edges and corners of rocks are rounded as the alter ation of minerals progress through the rock. (oion) -Hydration combination of water with a mineral. - some minerals when hydrated they expand creating a wedging pressure - Hydrolysis minerals combining with water -decomposition process that breaks down siliate minerals in rocks. - involved water and elements in chemical reactions to produce different compoun ds. - Oxidation certain metallic elements combine with oxygen to from oxiders ex. Ru sting in the iron of rocks. - dissolution of carbonates when a mineral dissolves into a solution. Reactions whereby carbon combines with minerals dissolving them. Karst: -Limestone must contain 80% or more calcium carbonate for dissolution -complex pattern of joints in the otherwise impermeable limestone are needed for water to form routes to subsurface drainage channels. -must be an air zone btw ground surface and water table. Vegetation cover is required to supply varing amounts of organic acids that enha nce the solution process. Mass Movement Processes: Down slope movement of earth materials under the direct influence of gravity. Angle of repose: steepness depends on the size and textures of the grains to ach ieve equilibrium (gravity vs. friction/shearing) Transport processes do not usually involve incorporation by water, air or glacie r ice. May reduce strength of soil, rock, and contribute to plastic and fluid be havior of solids. 4 Classes: Fall, Slide, Flow and Creep. 1) Discontinuous Creep: Ratchet-like movement due to soil expansion and contraction Movements are shallow(generally <30cm depth) typical rates are a few mm/year Produced by a) wetting & drying b) freezing & thawing (frost creep/needle ice cr eep) c) heating & cooling. Theoretical pathway of a particle during a single expansion-contraction cycle. Heave and settlement of particles due to freeze-thaw activity Flow 1) Continuous Creep: Slow deformation of soil; very slow (<1mm/year) Produced by gravity acting downslope

In permafrost, causes movements on all slopes and results in rock glaciers which can more several cm/year 2) Solifuction Combination of frost creep and gelifluction ( slow movement down slope of satura ted soil over frozen ground during the spring and summer) Surface rates typically 1-5cm/year Can form tongue like solifluction loves and sheets These ranges in size from a few m to several 10s of m in width with a rise of .5 -3m high Solifluction forms to not have a scar upslope. Rapid Mass Movement FLOW CONTD Movements incorporate viscous, fluid or plastic motion. 1) Earthflow slowest rapid mass movement Rarely cause damage Cresecentic scar in source area Short flow track Leading to an area with bulging loves of soil (vegetation cover usually intact) 2) Mudflow most fluid Fastest flow (80km/h), most dangerous At least 50% fine material and <30% water Basin shaped source area Long narrow track and expanded depositional zone 3) Debris Flow similar form to mudflows but contain larger particles Usually move a little more slowly Most often caused by precipitation 4) Quick Clay Flow horse shoe shaped form Slumping around their headwalls and mudflow in their floors, develop within Leda Clay (produced by deposition of glacial material in the Champlain Sea) Marine salts are leached out reducing soil strength Flow occurs following triggers of above-normal precipitation or an earthquake Clay liquefies. SLUSHFLOW outburst of water-saturated snow along a stream course, with generally several times the stream channel. Rapid Mass Movement SLIDES: Movement along one or more discrete failure surfaces (shear planes) 1)Slump failure surface is deep and curved(rotational slump) U-shaped form with a discrete headwall, arcuate blocked and a tangled toe Main causes are steepening of slope by basal erosion heavy precipitation or eart hquakes. 2)Rock Slide: failure along a flat plane parallel to the ground. Occur where bedding planes and slopes dip in the same direction In Canadian Cordillera there are about 5 such events per century (eg. Frank 1903 33million m cubed) Rock Avalanche mass of boulder rocks that slide down an incline on a layer of sma ller rocks 3)Debris Slide: failure of non-consolidated material along a plane parallel to t he ground. Active layer detachments are a special case that occur over permafrost as result of rapid thaw of icy soils over still frozen material. 4)Rapid Mass Movement FALLS: Vertical or near vertical movement of particles thr ough the air - Rockfall most rapid mass movement, free falling/bouncing or rolling of blocks down slope, produces talus at base of slope. Major cause is freeze-thaw weatheri ng - Block fall vertical movement of an entire piece of slope principally occurs in frozen sediments undermined by thermal erosion. 5) Complex Movements: Mixture of an other types, many movements are complex; may be difficult to separate after the event. Chapter 14- River Systems

Rivers as Systems Open systems, matter and energy flowing through Inputs: energy(hydrological cycle), water(precipitation) and sediment(weathering ) Outputs: water(evapotranspiration, stream discharge); energy, sediment (depositi on, load) Energy: Poential to kinetic energy, transformation by motion driven by gravity. Water uses kinetic energy to carry load and move itself Base level: no more kinetic energy, no more work done. Sediment moved: produced by weathering mass movement and slope erosion. Steams: steady state systems: inputs and outputs constant and equal Dynamic equilibrium: changes from year to year, changes over longer time Drainage Basins Separated by a topographic divide Basins drain to a single outlet Sizes vary Each basin can be subdivided - drainage divide separtates the drainage basin and its watershed from other basins. Internal vs. external basins Water discharge: varies with inputs Sediment yield: varies with basin Controls: -climate and hydrological: weathering, erosion, transport available water - Basin characteristics i) geology: sediment yield, rate of weathering ii) vegetation: erosion, runoff, weathering, infiltration, iii) land use: water availability, infiltration iv) relief: mass movement, rate of runoff, potential energy Stream flow in channels Q(discharged) =V (velocity) x W (width) x D (depth) m cubed/s Channel size: changes from sheet flow to rills to gullies to permanent channels Base level is a level below which a steam cannot erode its valley. -ultimate base level: mean sea level -local base levels: inland seas or lakes, dams, or reservoirs -temporary base levels: particularly resistant rock units may slow erosion for s ome time - ulimate base level changes with global water level changes: last ice age Stream gradient the rate of elevation decline from its headwaters to its mouth. (driver gravity) Channel shape: cross sectional area related to amount of water passing through varies with part of basin changes through time with input conditions related to basin size longitudinal profile: steep and gently slope sections (concave form: changes ove r time) established to allow load transport: graded stream steep sections: faster flow but lower discharge, more turbulence, coarser bed ma terial gently sections: finer bed load, larger discharges. Drainage Patterns the arrangement of channels for efficient water clearance controls: geological structure, tectonic activity, lithology, climate. Channel Patterns Straight streams control is rock type, rare in nature, short lengths( ex. Rapids ) Meandering streams control is slope energy dissipation, lower land areas, fine m aterial (silts, sand) Braided streams control is load vs. carrying capacity, upper reaches, coarse mat erial (in mountain tops)

Stream Erosion Movement of water and sediment causes erosion: hydraulic action: water lift and forward momentum abrasion: friction, impacts Stream capacity: total load a stream can carry at a particular discharge. Stream competence: streams ability to move particles of a specific size. (how wel l it can move big things) Entrainment by water: Small grain sizes: high critical entrainment (or erosion) velocity: strong cohes ion because grains do not extend into flow Large grain sizes: high critical entrainment velocity: particles have large subm erged weights. Medium grain sizes: (.1-.2mm, fine sand to coarse silt) easiest to move: non-coh esive and light therefore have the lowest critical entrainment velocities Stream Transport 1)solution: dissolved material limestone or soluble salts (dissolved load) 2)suspension: very fine material help up by the flow (suspended load) 3)saltation: bouncing in short hopes in flow, drop out again (both bed and suspe nded load) 4)traction: rolling or sliding along the bed (bed load) Stream Deposition streams deposit material when no long sufficient energy to carry it where it is deposited creates landforms Main Forms are: 1)Floodplains are flat area, covered with water at high flow conditions Streams have low grade often meadner Mostly fine materials Levees, oxbow lakes, back swamps(landscape dropped off) and yazoo streams (strea ms that want to go into main stream end up parallel 2) Terraces formed by cutting down into previously deposited material Changes in base level climate base level or tectonic Paired (same levels on channel) or unpaired (staircase un level 3) Deltas deposits into lakes or ocean drop in velocity, drop of load Different shapes: ocean energy system vs. supply rate Alluvial fans: same but not under water. Climate & Landforms Effectiveness of water to shape land depends on - level of stream discharge - amount of rock waste available for tansport - factors: weathering, geology, effective mass movement, high stream discharge - humid mid-latitude regions: extensive vegetation protects soil, infriltrates w ater, stable stream enivonment.s - tropical seasonal regions: chemical weathering, seasonal vaiability of Q, vege tation not constant, erosion and change, lowering of land, not deeper valleys. - Sub-polar areas: shot flow season, high energy Q, little vegetation, larger ma terial, effective frost weathering, wide, braided streams. - Arid regions: irregular flow, high Q, no vegetation, ill defined channels, var ied size alluvium Human Impacts on Fluvial process and landforms: - affect climate: urban areas, albedo - affect the land use in the basin: deforestation to agriculture to urban also m ining - affecting channel system itself: lining channels, straightening reaches, dredg ing rivers, changing sediment availability. - Affect discharge regimes: dams & reservoirs; water extraction for use. Chapter 15- Aeolian Systems Capacity of wind

Velocity increases with height Turbulent Similar to water, threshold velocity Size, weight clay exception: optimum size Deflation: removal, what remains? Desert pavements, lag deposits Deflation hollows Blowouts wind encounters loose sediment, deflation remove enough material to for m basins Abrasion: sandblasting Ventifacts artifacts of the wind aerodynamically shaped in a specific direction Yardangs streamlining rock structures that are aligned parallel to the most effe ctive wind direction, leaving behind distinctive elongated ridges or formations. Transport Processes: Finer, farther, longer Larger, more discontinuous Similar to aqueous environments -suspension -traction -saltation -creep -slumping, sliding Aeolian Depostion: Suspension, motion while sufficient velocity Presence of obstructions: surface roughness Ripples: form in crests and troughs positioned transversely to the direction of the wind. Dunes: is a wind sculpted accumulation of sand. -windward (stoss side) gentle -leeward (slipface) steep -asymmetric, angle of respose crescent, linear, and star shapes Aeolian Environments: Costal environments: beach dunes Ice-front environments: outwash & loess Arid fluvial environments: dry beds Human activity Aeolian environments: agricultural, former wetlands, costal Chapter 16: The Ocean and Coastal Systems Importance: connections atmospheric, climatic, temperature regulation Use: transportation, recreation, water resources, biological resources, biologic al diversity, food sources Dynamic equilibrium Energy: waves, tides & currents Inputs: solar energy, water (precipitation, runoff) alluvial material, slope mat erial Outputs: water Factors: changing sea level, human influence Salinity: measure of dissolved solids 3.5% parts per hundred Factors: precipitation input, evaporation, fluvial, brackish water Highest salinities 20N to 20S latitudes: evaporation, net loss Seasonal variation at high latitudes: melting of ice, low evaporation, high inpu t. Vertical variation in salinity: origins of waters Temperature Variations, depth and laterally Layered structure: mixing zone, thermocline (transition), deep cold zone. Stable, little change, little mixing (conduction, wave action, eddies) Factors modifying water temperature:

- solar radiation inputs (drives the atmosphere and the hydrosphere) - connections/isolation of body - advection: mixing of water, movement around globe (currents) - evaporation & condensation: transfer to and from atmosphere - sensible heat convection increasing and decreasing - surface winds: mixing Sea Level mean sea level: average at specific site over many years varies with -waves, currents, tides, -air temperature & pressure differences, -ocean temperature differences, -changes in oceanic volume -historic changes: Ice Ages Tides changing sea level with gravitational pull: sun & moon affected by rotation of earth, basin shape, latitude, shoreline shape rising(flood) ties vs. falling (ebb) tides spring tides: greatest tidal range between high and low tides neap tides: lesser tidal range * difference is spring tides are when the moon and the sun are either in conjunc tion or opposition and neap is when their in neither 1)Diurnal Tides 2)Semi-diurnal Tides 3)Mixed tides Tidal Ranges: macrotidal, microtidal, mesotidal Waves Friction of air on water molecules: transmission of energery -- waves and wave trains - variable scale: speed, direction, duration, fetch - wind waves vs. swells - seismic sea waves, storm surges properties - wave height crest to trough - wave length crest to crest - wave period - #/min circular pattern, particle motion vs. energy motion: waves of oscillation path changes shape as approaches shore, elliptical, flattened orbit -friction, slows waves -increase height, sharper crests - positive stability point: breakers. (energy & water driven onto shore) Refraction: shoreline & submarine topography bends wave, differential slowing - waves go slower in shallower water, faster in deeper water - causes deflection of incoming waves towards coast. Distribution of energy, straighten coasts - waves reaching shallow water slowed at headland, rest of wave bent. - Energy focused on headlands, dissipated in coves - Erosion headlands, deposition bays, coves Waves arriving on shore: swash and backwash -swash deposits material at angle of arriving wave. -backwash carries material back at right angles to shore, steepest gradient(resu lts in long shore (littoral) drift) -long shore currents: slight angle due to refraction, movement along beach zone. Marine Erosion: Interaction of waves, tides, currents -interaction of sea and land -freshwater and marine processes -living organisms Weathering and mass movement Geology

Erosion by: -force of waves alone -trapped air -abrasion -corrosion (solution) Erosional processes & landforms Rugged, high relief often tectonically active Negative sediment budget Pacific coasts Forms: Sea Cliffs, stacks/arches & caves, wave-cut platforms Depositional processes & landforms Gentle relief, large supply of sediment Atlantic & gulf coasts Positive sediment budget Forms: barrier spits & tombolos, Baymouth bars & barriers, islands, beaches Living Coastlines Coral Reefs: coast fringing ridges built by marine organisms on frame of predece sors Need clear water, warm temperatures, cleansing wave action Exposed at low tide, covered at high tide Fringing reefs, barrier reefs, atolls Vegetation can influence shoreline evolution: protected areas - trap sediment, filter water, change level & energy Mangroves: elaborate root systems - reduce wave energy & erosion, hold shoreline sediments, develop mudflats - within 30 latitude bands Salt marshes: 30N & higher - associates with estuaries - intertidal zone features, highly productive - colonize exposed mud flats Human impacts reduction of sediment input: rivers & coastlines harbours, land reclamation changing sediment transport paths affecting vegetation pollution rising sea levels Chapter 17- Glacial Systems A glacier is a mass of ice originating on land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid precipitation and showing evidence of past and present movement. Glacier Ice Formation Snowflake granular snow firn glacier ice Where: 11% lands surface area (30% at last major extent) Locations of altitude or latitude: climate controls -equatorial glaciers: 5000m line -s. Greenland: 600m line Major concentrations: -world: Antarctica, Greenland -Canada: arctic, Coastal, Rockies -Queen Elizabeth Islands, Baffin Island, Cordillera 2 Major Types: Continental vs. Alpine variety of sizes, shapes, amount of ice. Continental Glaciers 1) Ice Sheets: extensive areas ice covers topography unconfined flow due to gravity

Laurentide Ice Sheet Ex. Greenland, Antarctica 2) Ice Caps: Also not constrained: ice covers underlying topography Smaller than ice sheets <50000km squared) Dome-like surface, circular Polar and sub-polar regions. Ex. Yukon, Canadian Arctic, Spitsbergen, Iceland 3) Ice Fields: No dome-like surface Topographic restraint Often produce many outlet glaciers Ex. Patagonia, St. Elisa, Columbia 4) Ice Shelves Where glaciers float out onto ocean Mix of fresh ice and sea ice Varying thickness Sensitive climate change indicators Ex. Antarctica, Ellesmere Island, Greenland 5) Alpine Glaciers Valley Glaciers (subtype) Occurs on all continents Flow contained valley, ice may flow into valley from ice field Commonly steep Flow due to gravity Accumulation area & terminus area. Many Forms: Cirque glaciers, piedmont glaciers, tidewater glaciers (explained la ter) 6) Glacier Processes: Movement drive by weight & gravity Based on accumulation: equilibrium Inputs: accumulation zone snow, ice, rain, avalanches. Outputs: ablation zone meltwater, debris, icebergs Mass budget: Gain vs. Loss - equilibrium line - positive vs. negative mass balance ELA (equilibrium line altitude) highest elevation that snowline reaches at end o f summer. New accumulation above, ablation below. Can be used to track glacier h ealth and change Glacial Movement Ice behaves in a plastic manner: -deforming & flowing under pressure -at depth within glacier -freezing & thawing at base: regelation Ice behaves in a brittle manner: -upper surfaces -breaks: crevasses(cracks in surface, response to stresses tension, friction wit h walls, compression), ice falls Water below the glacier helps movement: lubrication Surges Ice flow does not always balance out with snow accumulation Episodic high speed movement to get rid of excess mass -distorted medial moraines -rapid terminus advance -lots of new crevassing Occur in geographically restricted areas -karakoram Himalaya, Spitsbergen, Alaska/Yukon, Canadian High Arctic, Greenland Glacial Landforms: Erosion Erosion of material by ice: scraping, polishing, plucking, bulldozing across sur faces: -hardness of rocks, lines of weakness -debris in the basal ice -water for lubrication Glacier movement erodes soil and scours bedrock -abrasion, plucking, bulldozing, impacts

most effective under warm ice -water for lubrication, ease of movement -hardness of rocks, lines of weakness -debris in the basal ice polished rock: debris in ice smoothes surfaces Cirques: original curved site of small glaciers -bowl shaped depressions at the head or side of a glacier valley -may fill with lake post-glaciation called tarn. Tarns: small mountain lakes in former glacial hollows U-shaped valleys & Fjords: past presence of glaciers Aretes & horns: remnants of backwards erosion. Pyramid shaped or knife edge ridg e -- Horns: remnants of erosion on 3 or more sides where cirques come together - -Aretes: ridge separating two adjacent glacier valleys or cirques (erosion on both sides) Hanging valleys: glacial valleys above one another, tributary glacier valley. - a former tributary glacier valley above a u-shaped glacier valley Glacial Landforms: Deposition Deposition of material by ice and by water: some specific forms, some featureles s, unsorted and sorted is glacial drift. Till describes direct ice deposits left as unstratified and unsorted debris Fewer forms from alpine glaciers -many types of moraines: medial, lateral, end(terminal), ground Many forms from ice sheets & continental glaciation -Eskers, Drumlins, roche mouthonnee, kettles, kame. Terminal/frontal/end moraines -show maximum extent -may have ridge form -may be irregular -often get reworked Gound Moraine -has little to no structure -flat to gently rolling topography -characteristic of prairies Drumlins: deposited till that has been streamlined in the direction of continent al ice movement, blunt end up and tapered end downstream. -elongated ridges of till (& rock) -parallel with flow -steep end (oval or rounded) faces where ice came from -Lee side tapers Roche Moutonee - an asymmetrical hill of exposed bedrock. Kame: outwas plain -a small hill, knob or mound of poorly sorted sand and gravel that is deposited directly by -water, by ice (crevasses) or in ice cause indentations in the surfa ce Kettle Lakes: melting of a block of glacier ice buried by sedimentation. Periglacial Systems Areas close to ice sheets in polar environments that do not have an ice cover, b ut are influenced by permafrost and often have ground ice. -incomplete vegetation cover of herbaceous plants and dwarf trees -ground is snow free for part of the year -frequent fluctuations of air temperature across 0 C Perfmafrost: ground (rock or soil) that remains below O for more than 2 years -solely based on temperature, not prsenece of frozen water -perennially frozen ground (permafrost) -seasonally-thawed ground (active layer) Continnuous permafrost: all surfaces except beneath deep lates & rivers, thicker at higher latitudes, altitudes

Discontinuous permafrost: disconnected patches, more extensive farther north, fa rther up Alpine permafrost: at locations due to altitude, level lowers with increasing la titude Sub Sea permafrost: relict from glacial times? Active Layer: soil & rock layer of varying thickness that thaws each summer. Frequent freeze/thaw cycle Varying thickness: location, exposure, latitude, longitude Changes: climate, disturbances, human impact Permafrost table: upper limit of permafrost Lower limit determined by heat transfer from core, balanced against cooling from atmosphere. Talik: unfrozen ground above permafrost, usually under water bodies. Periglacial processes: Weathering: frost cracking very important repeated freeze-thaw cycles Effective for providing scree, material for mass movement and fluvial transport mass movement -rock falls: many bare slopes -heaving: lift and drop movement down slopes -solifuction: slow movement downslope due to gravity -gelifluction: slow sliding over underlying permafrost layer -debris flows: thaws slumps over frozen substrate Ground ice variable content 100% to nearly none ice segregation: movement of liquid water in frozen ground formation of: pore ice, lenses, segregated ice, intrusive ice, wedge ice Patterned Ground frost action processes: rearranging particles due to expansion of water on freez ing frost sorting: combination of heaving(vertical motion) & thrusting ( horizontal motion) development of patterned ground Landforms 1) Ice wedges cracks in ground due to freezing: opens for water water freezes, pushing soil: raised centers, depressed centers repeats over long time: ice wedges 2) Pingos freezing of water in soils after draining lakes pressure of freezing cause doming ice cored mounds Mackenzie Delta 3) Palsas Low frost mounds Core of inter-layered ice and peat Originate from ice segregation Often associated with discontinuous permafrost Typically 1-7m high, 10-30m wide 4) Rock Glaciers Transitional between glacial and periglacial Accumulations of rock debris with ice core With glacier shape and spreading down-valley 5) Thermokarst Melting of ice allows development of irregular features Hoe much water? How sound soil structure? Ponds, bogs, cave-ins