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Transformer Protection

Page 188

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Transformer: Function principle and equivalent circuits

I1 U1

w1

w2

I2 U2

R1
U1
I1

X1

X 2'

R2 '

1 2

I2'

U 2'

Equivalent electromagnetic circuit

Equivalent electric circuit

I w + I w = I w1 1 1 2 2
At load and short-circuit:

RTK

X TK

I << I1, 2 '

I1 w1 = I 2 w2

U1

I1 = I 2 '

U 2'

X TK = X 1 + X 2 '
RTK = R1 + R2 '

Page 189

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Typical Transformer data

Rated power MVA 850 600 300 300 40 16 6.3 0.63

Ratio kV/kV 850/21 400/230 400/120 230/120 110/11 30/10.5 30/10.5 10/0.4

Short-circuit voltage % UN 17 18.5 19 24 17 8.0 7.5 4.0

No-load magnetizing current % In 0.2 0.25 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.15

Page 190

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer Inrush current

Flux

IRush
Rem
Inrush-current of a single phase transformer

U t

Im

Source: Sonnemann, et al.: Magnetizing Inrush phenomena in transformer banks, AIEE Trans., 77, P. III, 1958, pp. 884-892

Page 191

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Inrush currents of a Y--transformer


Neutral of Y-winding earthed
T

S
R

IR

IS
IC
Oscillogram:

ID

I mT
I mR

IR

5 1 I R = I mR I mC 6 6
1 1 IS = ImR ImT 6 6

IR

IS
IT

IS
IT

5 1 IT = ImT ImR 6 6

Source: Sonnemann et al. : Magnetizing Inrush phenomena in transformer banks, AIEE Trans., 77, P. III, 1958, pp. 884-892

Page 192

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Inrush current : Content of 2nd und 3rd harmonic


I m( ) I m(1)

100
80

B 360O

60

I m ( 2)
40

I m(3)
20

I m(1)
17,5%

I m(1)
90O 180O 270O

360O Width of base B

240O
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Page 193

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Inrush currents of a three-phase transformer recorded with relay 7UT51

Page 194

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer Inrush current:


Amplitude and time constant

I Rush IN

12 10 8 6 4 2

Rated power in MVA 0,5....1,0 1,0 >10 10

time constant in seconds 0,16....0,2 0,2 .....1,2 1,2 ....720

10

50

100

500

Rated transformer power in MVA

Page 195

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Sympathetic Inrush
Wave form: Transient currents:

I1
I2

I1

Current circulating between transformers

IT
IT
I1
Transformer being closed

I2
RS XS

IT
G
resistance T1

I2
T2

G
Transformer already closed

IT

I1
T1 T2

I2

Page 196

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer overfluxing

Deduction of wave form Im % 100 80 60 40 20 0,5 0 10 t 0 20 ms 100

Harmonic content I150/I50 I250/I50 I350/I50 I50/InTr

B 1,5 1,0

104 Gau

120

140

% 160 U/Un

10

15 A Im

Page 197

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Vector group adaptation with matching CTs Current distribution with external ph-ph fault
Ir
r

IR
R

I1
3
1

IS
S

I2 I3

Is It

IT
T

3 /1
87T 87T 87T

Page 198

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Vector group adaptation with matching CTs Current distribution with external ph-E fault
R S T
IR IS IT Yd1 I1 I2 I3 Ir

Is s It

tm IT=3
3 /1

It = 3

tg
87T 87T 87T

Ir = 3

rm rg

Tm Sm Rm
Page 199

Tg Rg
2007-08

R0 S0 T0 Sg
Author: G. Ziegler

30O
sm

tm rm

tg rg

30O sg

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Traditional I0-elimination with matching CTs Current distribution in case of an internal earth fault

L1 L1 L2 L2 L3

L3

Sensitivity only 2/3 IF! Non-selective fault indication!


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Page 200

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Traditional I0-correction with matching CTs Current distribution with external ph-E fault

a A b B c

3/1

87T 87T

87T

Page 201

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Traditional I0-correction with matching CTs Current distribution with internal ph-E fault

a A b B c C

3/1

87T

87T

87T

Page 202

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer differential protection, connection

L1

IA1 IA2 IA3

IB1 IB2 IB3

UA
(110 kV)

L2 L3

UB
(20 kV)

Digital protection contains: Adaptation to

7UT6

Ratio UA / UB Vector group

Software replica of matching transformers

Page 203

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Digital transformer protection Adaptation of currents for comparison (1)


CT 1 W1 W2 CT 2

JR-prim JS-prim JT-prim

Jr-prim Js-prim Jt-prim

JR-sec JS-sec JT-sec

N o r m

IR IS IT

IR* ComI0parison elim. IS* I IT*


SN

Ir** Vector Is** group It** adapt.

Ir* Is* It*

I0elim.

Ir Is It

N o r m

Jr-sec Js-sec Jt-sec


SN 3 U N -2

I N Transf W1 =

3 U N-1

I N Transf W2 =

IR

I IS = N Prim CT 1 I N Transf - W1 IT

J R sec J S sec = kCT 1 JT sec

J R sec J S sec JT sec

Ir

I I s = N Prim CT 2 J s sec = k CT 2 I N Transf -W2 It J t sec

J r sec

J r sec J s sec J t sec

Page 204

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Digital transformer protection Adaptation of currents for comparison (2)


CT 1 JR-prim JS-prim JT-prim W1 W2 Jr-prim Js-prim Jt-prim CT 2

JR-sec JS-sec JT-sec

N o r m

IR IS IT

IR* Com_ I0parison elim. IS* I IT*

Ir** Vector Is** group It** adapt.

Ir* Is* It*

I0elim.

Ir Is It

N o r m

Jr-sec Js-sec Jt-sec

I0 =

1 (I R + IS + IT ) 3

Example Yd5:
IR IR * Ir ** IS = I S * + I s ** IT * I t * * I T

I R * = I R I0 IS* = IS I0 IT * = IT I0

I r ** 1 0 1 Ir * 1 I s ** = 1 1 0 I s * 3 It ** 0 1 1 It *

1 I0 = (I r + Is + I t ) 3

I r * = I r I0 Is * = Is I0

I t * = I t I0

Page 205

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Adaptation of currents for comparison


Relay input data Input data:
n times 30O vector group number (only for 2nd and 3rd winding, 1st winding is reference) Rated winding voltage rated winding power Primary rated CT current direction of CT neutral I0-treatment At windings with tap changer: Winding 1 (reference) is normally: High voltage side

UN (kV) SN (MVA) INW (A) Line or BB Elimination / Correction / without Side XX INW S (A) Neutral CT

U max U min UN = 2 U max + U min

Assignment input for REF Primary rated current of neutral CT Earth side connection to relay: Q7 or Q8?
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Page 206

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Digital transformer protection Current adaptation, Example (1)


SN = 100 MVA UN1= 20 kV 3000/5 A
7621 A

Yd5

UN2= 110 kV W1 600/1 A


2.400 A

W2

1A 5A

Page 207

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Digital transformer protection Current adaptation, Example (2)


20-kV-side 110-kV-side

I N Trafo W2 =
J r,s, t -sek =

100MVA 3 20kV

= 2887A

I N Trafo W1 =

100MVA 3 110kV

= 525A

1 13200 3 = 4,4 3 A 3000 3000 I Norm = 4,4 3 = 4,57 3 A 2887

J R,S,T -sek = I Norm =

1 2400 = 4,0 A 600

600 4 = 4,57A 525

I0-elimination: 1 0 1 4,57 3 4,57 / 3 I r ** 1 1 1 0 4,57 3 = 2 4,57 / 3 I s ** = 3 0 1 1 0 It * * 4,57 / 3

Vector group adaptation: Yd5 Ir * 2 1 1 0 4,57 3 1 Is * = 1 2 1 4,57 = 2 4,57 3 3 It * 1 1 2 0 4,57 3

4,57 3 4,57 3 I A R = I R * +I r * * = =0 I A S = I S * + I s * * = 2 4,57 3 + 2 4,57 3 = 0 I A T = IT * +I t * * = 4,57 3 4,57 3 =0


Page 208 2007-08 Author: G. Ziegler Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

7UT6 Operating characteristic


IDiff/ In
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 I1 I2
B

IDIFF = |I1+ I2| IStab = |I1| + |I2| Tripping area


2

ID

7UT6

IF F =

I DIFF >>

ST A

e op Sl

Stable operation

I DIFF >

1 Slope
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Additional stabilisation for high Is.c.


9 10 11

0 0

Istab / In

Page 209

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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I0-elimination / correction: Summary

I0- elimination necessary at all windings with earthed neutral or with grounding transformer in the protection range Earth fault sensitivity reduced to 2/3 ! Incorrect fault type indication! I0- correction provides full earth current sensitivity and correct phase selective fault type indication, however requires CT in the neutral-to-earth connection of the transformer. As an alternative, earth differential protection can be used to enhance earth fault sensitivity.

Page 210

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer winding to earth fault


Solid earthed neutral

IF per unit
10

UR hUR Infeed side IF IK

8 6 4 2 40 60

IF

IK

20

80

100

Short-circuited winding part h in %

Source: P.M. Anderson: Power System Protection, McGraw-Hill and IEEE Press (Book)

Page 211

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Transformer winding to earth fault


Resistance or reactance earthed neutral

UR hUR Infeed side IF IK RE

%
100

I I Max
50

IF IK

h U R IF = RE U 2n h w2 IK = IF = h IF w1 U1n 3

40 100 60 80 Short-circuited winding part h in %

20

2 1 U 2n U R IK = h 3 U1n RE

Source: P.M. Anderson: Power System Protection, McGraw-Hill and IEEE Press (Book)

Page 212

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer winding to earth fault


Earth fault in the delta winding

IK Grid

IK
5 x In 4 3 2 1

R 0% 20%

33,3% 50% 100%

20

40

60

80

100

Location of the earth fault h in %

Page 213

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer winding short-circuit

100

10 IP 8 x In

IK

IF , IK x In 80
60

IF
40 4

IK
20 2

IF
0 5 10 15 20 25

Short-circuited winding part h in %


Source: Protective Relays, Application Guide, GEC Alstom T&D, 1995

Page 214

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Restricted earth fault protection of relay 7UT6

I0* = IN * I0* = I R + I S + IT = 3I0 I restr = I I I + I


* 0 ** 0 * 0 ** 0

IR IS IT

Basic operating area: IOp = I0*


* * for 900 I 0 / I 0* +900 if IOp Iset Extended operating area: * IOp = I 0 k0 I restr * * for + 900 I 0 / I 0* +2700 if IOP Irestr
Page 215 2007-08 Author: G. Ziegler

IN IE I0* I0**

I>

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Restricted earth fault protection of 7UT6 Operating characteristic (2)

K0 1.0 1.4 2.0 4.0

Limit 130 120

k0 =2

Limit=110O
4

I* 0 I 0-set

110 100 90
3 2 1

I** 0 I* 0

I Ph =1 IN

External fault
180O 130O 120O 110O 100O

Internal fault

I**/I* 0 0

90O

80O

70O

60O

50O

0O

Page 216

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Restricted earth fault protection of 7UT6 Polar characteristic

K0= 4 K0= 2
120 100 2 1.6 80 60

K0= 1.4

140 1.2 160 0.8

I0 * (I 0 */I 0 **) e 40 I0 * *
20

K0= 1
180

Blocking

0.4 0

Tripping +1
0

200

340

220 240 260 280 300

320

Page 217

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Restricted earth fault protection 87N (7UT6) Application aspects

Increased sensitivity with earth faults near winding neutral Preferably used in case of resistance or reactance neutral earthing Sensitive to turns short-circuit I0 / IN amplitude and angle comparison 2nd harmonic stabilised Can protect a separate shunt reactor or neutral earthing transformer in addition to the two winding transformer differential protection Not applicable with autotransformers! (as only one stabilising input at
transformer terminal side, -- high impedance principle to be used in this case.

Page 218

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer HI-earth fault protection

IR IS IT

Ir Is It

ZE
IE>

IN

IE>

Page 219

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

HI differential protection of an autotransformer

IR IS IT

Ir Is It

87

87

87

Page 220

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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HI earth fault protection of an autotransformer

IR IS IT

Ir Is It

IN
I>

Page 221

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer tank protection 64T: Principle

IE>

Insulated

Page 222

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Transformer protection, Relay design

Transformer Protection with Siemens SIPROTEC 7UT6

7UT612

Page 223

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Digital transformer protection relay 7UT613: Current inputs and integrated protective functions
YN
R S T

yn0

d5

> (2)

> (1)

I>>, I>t

ITE

IT

Page 224

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Relay 7UT6: Application examples

I I Shunt Reactor Two winding transformer I Three winding transformer I Transformer bank (1-1/2-LS)

Generator / Motor
Page 225 2007-08 Author: G. Ziegler

Busbars
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7UT6 Operating characteristic

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

IDIFF = |I1+ I2| IStab = |I1| + |I2| Tripping area


, 07 6 e op sl = 1 8 60 )

ID

7UT61

IF F =

ST A

IDiff/ In

9 8

I1

I2
B

I DIFF >> (1604)

Restraining area

e lop s
1 slope ) (1606

2 oin p

t=

t oo (f
5

of 1606 ) = (1618 ) slope = 1/2 ft border line (le pick-up limit

I DIFF > (1603) 0

Add-on restraint for high ISC 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11

Istab / In

Page 226

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Advantages of digital transformer differential protection

High stability against c.t. saturation provided by integrated saturation detector and add-on stabilisation High stabile against inrush currents due to advanced filter technology (Fourier analysis) and optional cross-blocking function High stability against over-excitation ( 5th harmonic blocking) Short tripping time - typically 1.5 cycles High set I fast tripping < 1 cycle Sensitive earth differential protection against interturn faults and earth faults near winding neutral Integral ratio and vector group adaptation (no external auxiliary CTs required) Integral thermal overload protection External start of fault recording (e.g. by gas pressure relays)
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

Page 227

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

7UT6 Integrated protection functions


87T

Transformer differential protection


I> Rush-stabilised (2nd harmonic)

49-1 49-2 50/51 50HS 87N 64T

Stabilised against overfluxing (5th harmonic) I>> high set element, non-stabilised

Thermal overload protection Time overcurrent protection (IT or DT) Earth current differential protection (7UT613) Tank protection (7UT613)

Page 228

2007-08

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Application examples

Page 229

2007-08

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Protection of a two winding transformer

7SJ600 7UT512 50 51 W1 49

52

W1 (OS) W2 (US)

Bu

87T

W2

51

52

52

52

Page 230

2007-08

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Protection of a three winding transformer


7SJ600 50 51 7UT513 W1 49-1 Bu W1 W2 W3 87T W2 49-2

52

W3

51

52

Load

Page 231

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Restricted earth fault protection for a two winding transformer

7SJ600 7UT513 50 51 W1 49-1 Bu 87T W2 (US) ZE 51 87TE W2

52
W1 (OS)

52

52

52

Page 232

2007-08

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Protection of an autotransformer

7SJ600 51N 51BF 50 51

52

7UT513 87 TL Load 52 51 59 7RW600 50 BF 7SJ600


3Y

87 TH

7VH600

49 52 Bu 50 51 50 BF 51 N
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

7SJ600

Page 233

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Protection of a large transformer bank

52

52

7SA6 21 49 7UT513 87 TL
3

50 BF 87 TH 7VH6 (3)

49

Load

52 51 59N 7RW6 50 BF 7SJ6 52 7SA6 51N 7SJ6


Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

21

49

51 BF

Page 234

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

Differential protection of generation units

52

52

52

52

IT IT

IT

IT

G G
IG

IG

52

IG

Page 235

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Differential protection of generation units (2)

52

IT 52 *) IT

IG
*) same ratio as generator CTs

52 Auxiliaries

Page 236

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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Thermal protection of transformers

Cu

Rth1

Oil Rth2

Legend: PCu: Winding losses (I2R) PFe: Core and tank losses Rth1: Thermal resistance Copper-Oil Rth2: Thermal resistance Oil-Air (cooling medium) C1: Winding thermal capacity Thermal capacity of Oil, Core and tank Winding copper temperature Oil temperature C2: Cu: Oil:

C1 PCu PFe

C2

Amb Lifetime of insulation depends on the winding Hot-spot temperature. 6 OC higher temperature increases the aging of the insulation by the factor 2!

Amb.: Ambient temperature

Page 237

2007-08

Author: G. Ziegler

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7SA6: Temperature monitoring

RS485 Interface

Oil Temp.

Two thermo-devices can be connected to the serial service interface Monitoring of up to 12 measuring points (6 per thermo-device) One input is reserved for hot spot monitoring (measurement of oil temperature) Thermistors: Pt100, Ni100 or Ni120

The the upper oil temperature is directly measured by the use of thermoelement. The hot spot temperature is calculated by the relay using the thermal model Cu-Oil:

d Cu 1 I 1 ( Cu Oil ) = dt Th Th Ir
Page 238 2007-08 Author: G. Ziegler

I = actual transformer current Ir = rated transformer current th =time constant of the winding
Copyright Siemens AG 2007. All rights reserved. PTD SE PTI

7UT6: Temperature monitoring with hot spot calculation (1) Example: Natural cooling

h = O + H gr k Y

h= hot spot temperature h= oil temperature Hgr=hot-spot-to-oil temperature gradient k= load factor I/In Y= winding exponent

Oil Temp. HV LV

Aging rate:

V=

Aging at h = 2( h 98)/6 Aging at 98C

98O is reference for the aging of Cellulose insulation

Mean value of aging during a fixed time interval:


2 1 L= V dt T2 T1 T1

Page 239

2007-08

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7UT6: Temperature monitoring with hot spot calculation (2) Example: Natural cooling

(L)

h = o + H gr k Y 73 + 23 1.151.6 = 102C

V = 2( h 98)/6 = 2(10298)/6 1.6


102C 73C

k, V, L

108C 98C

[C]

h o

h Hot spot temp. o oil temp. (from thermodevice)

1.6

k (I/In)

V (relative aging) L (mean value of V)

1.15

Page 240

2007-08

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