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Common-channel signaling & common associated signaling :

In telephony, common-channel signaling (CCS), in the US also commonchannel interoffice signaling (CCIS), is the transmission of signaling information (control information) on a separate channel from the data, and, more specifically, where that signaling channel controls multiple data channels. The logical alternative to CCS is channel-associated signaling (CAS), in which each bearer channel has a signaling channel dedicated to it. CCS offers the following advantages over CAS, in the context of the PSTN: Faster call set-up time Greater trunking efficiency due to the quicker set up and clear down, thereby reducing traffic on the network Can transfer additional information along with the signaling traffic, providing features such as caller ID Signaling can be performed mid-call The most common CCS signaling methods in use today are Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and Signaling System No. 7 (SS7). ISDN signaling is used primarily on trunks connecting end-user private branch exchange (PBX) systems to a central office. SS7 is primarily used within the PSTN. The two signaling methods are very similar since they share a common heritage and in some cases, the same signaling messages are transmitted in both ISDN and SS7. Channel-associated signaling (CAS), also known as per-trunk signaling (PTS), is a form of digital communication signaling.

In-band signaling:
In telecommunications, in-band signaling is the sending of metadata and control information within the same band or channel used for voice (e.g. DTMF tones) and can be heard by the callers, as opposed to out-of-band signals (e.g. SS7 control signals) which cannot be heard as they are on a different channel or band.

Out-of-band signaling:
The term out-of-band has different uses in communications and telecommunication. In case of out-of-band control signaling, signaling bits are

sent in special order in a dedicated signaling frame. D-channel in ISDN is an example of out-of-band and CCS signaling methods. The word band originates from the term band as used in radio and other electronic communications.

Subscriber Signaling:
Subscriber signaling takes place on the line between the subscribers and their local switch. Most subscribers are connected to their local switch by analog subscriber lines as opposed to a digital connection provided by an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). As a result, subscriber signaling has evolved less rapidly than network signaling.

Network signaling:
Network signaling takes place between nodes in the core network. This is generally from the local switch, through the core network, and to the destination local switchin other words, between the calling and the called party switch.