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Manifest Destiny

WHAT: The concept that the nation was meant (by god) to spread west to the Pacific. SIGNIFICANCE: People moved West! WHY: California Gold Rush, 1849 First coined by newspaper editor, John OSullivan in 1845. Government program that sold land to settlers for $10 fee -160 acres (1/4 mile square) -Must be 21 years of age and head of household -Must be American citizens or immigrants filed for citizenship -Must farm land for 5 years EFFECT: More people moved WEST!

Homestead Act, 1862

The Great Plains

More people moved here after the Civil War and the Homestead Act (1862). It was originally called the GREAT AMERICAN DESERT by Major Stephen Long (an explorer) CHANGE: By the late 1800s, it was called the Bread Basket of America!

Major factors for people Gold Rush, Homestead Act, escape discrimination (Exodusters) moving (migrating or immigrating westward) Mid to late 1800s? boomtowns/ghost towns Comstock Lode Open Range Range Wars haciendas Name the big business Cyrus McCormick ? Buffalo Sod Busters Barbed-Wire They grew up over-night in the west providing: restaurants, laundries, hotels for miners. EXAMPLE Virginia City, Nevada Discovery of one of the largest silver deposits in the world ($230 million) in Virginia City, Nevada. RESULT: Encouraged people to move to Nevada! Vast area of grassland owned by the government in the west. Provided free grazing land for cattle herds Fights over land (open range) between farmers and ranchers RESULTS: Over time long drives ended and big-business ranches developed! huge Spanish ranches in the southwest owned by the rich! mechanical reapers Plains Indians relied most on the buffalo. Name for people who moved WEST, plowed, and farmed the Great Plains? HINT Think about their houses! Major invention of Joseph Glidden that changed the west by helping farmers fence off their land. It was one of the reasons the long drives ended!

John Deere

He invented the steel plow in the 1830s. It helped the Sod-Busters break through on the Great Plains after the passing of the Homestead Act in 1862?

List 3 major improvements in technology which helped farmers who moved west after the Civil War. Bonanza Farms Long Drive

Dry farming, steel plow, mechanical reaper, barbed wire

Name for large farms on the Great Plains that made huge profits! Usually WHEAT FARMS! They turned into big businesses? The movement of cattle by cowboys to railheads for shipment to eastern markets. Texas to Kansas Kansas to stockyards in Chicago In the stockyards they were slaughtered and their meat was packaged for shipment to consumers in the east

Wheat Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Battle of the Little Big Horn, 1876 Major Indian victory Sioux led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse 7th Cavalry led by general George A. Custer Called Custer's last stand RESULT: Over 200 men from seventh cavalry killed nomads people who move from place to place! EXAMPLE Great Plains Indians (relied on the buffalo)

Sand Creek Massacre, 1864 Colonel J.M. Chivingtons militia massacred some 600 Indians. The Indians thought that they were going to negotiate a peace treaty. Women were shot while praying, children were killed and braves were tortured and mutilated Chief Joseph Best known leader of the Nez Perce (Pacific Northwest) - a humanitarian and peacemaker famous for resistance to against American encroachments on their land KEY: Didnt want to be moved to a reservation in Idaho Tried to flee to Canada! Last major armed conflict between the Great Sioux Nation and the United States Later described as a "massacre" in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs

Battle of Wounded Knee, 1890

Dawes Act, 1887

GOAL: The goal was to assimilate Native Americans into white culture quickly WHAT: outlawed tribal ownership of land forced 160-acre homesteads into the hands of individual Indians and their families the promise of future citizenship (after 25 years) RESULTS: stripped tribes of their land BUT FAILED to incorporate Native Americans into U.S. society

Helen Hunt Jackson

published A Century of Dishonor 1881 detailing the federal governments bad record in dealing with the Indians EFFECT: created a certain amount of sympathy for the plight of the Indians

Buffalo Soldiers Boomers/Sooners Movement of people after the Civil War, during the late 1800s (from where to where)? urbanization immigration emigration 1st major wave of immigration to the U.S.? 2nd major wave of immigration to the U.S.? Nativism Angel Island Ellis Island assimilation Primary source Secondary Source

Name for African American cavalry soldiers - 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry These groups took part in the Oklahoma land rush (1889)! ___________ waited for the signal during the Oklahoma rush and ___________ jumped the gun. rural to urban

movement of people to cities The act of moving into a country (usually to become a permanent resident) COMING IN. When people leave their native country or place to start new lives elsewhere. Northern and Western Europe Southern and Eastern Europe Policy of favoring American-born residents (over recent or new immigrants) Located in San Francisco Bay, it was a reception center for most Asian-born immigrants to the U.S. (1910). Located in NY Harbor, it was the main reception center for immigrants coming into the U.S. on the eastern coast (1892-1934) When one culture rapidly conforms with another. With the Dawes Act, the U.S. wanted Native Americans to ___________ into American society. Documents or objects containing FIRSTHAND evidence of events (they were actually there!) EXAMPLE Letter from George Washington Works that are NOT ORIGINAL manuscripts or records of events. They usually interpret firsthand accounts. EXAMPLE textbooks

THEMES to prepare for:


- How did WWII affect the lives of Americans?

- How did technology and innovation affect the settlement of the West after the Civil War?