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Title: Emulsions

By: Jake Webb

Purpose: Use the introductory information you have learned to write an introduction/purpose for our activity on emulsions. Observations: Put 1/4 a cup of red vinegar into a container. Add 1 cup of oil to it, cover and shake it. What happens? It separates quickly Given the instructors introduction what do you think you can do to get the emulsion to last? Add something like plant matter to thicken it How can we form a hypothesis that we can test? Experiment

Hypothesis:

Procedure: We will use cup red wine vinegar, plus any emulsifiers, as the water phase for each batch. We will use 1 cup canola oil as the oil phase. For each test batch start with the continuous phase and any emulsifier/stabilizer in a medium mixing bowl. Begin by vigorously whisking a slow steady stream of dispersal phase into the mixture. When all of the dispersal phase has been added pour the resulting mixture into a clear container to observe the results. We will each produce 5 batches 1. no stabilizer 2. thickened with starch or gum 3. thickened with vegetable particles (1 Tbls. mustard or tomato paste) 4. thickened with vegetable particles (2 Tbls. finely chopped spinach) 5. egg yolk lecithin ( 2 egg yolks) Mix each emulsion thoroughly. Place in clear containers side by side. Observe and record how long the emulsions last. Record any changes that occur. What might happen if we heat these emulsions? They will break

The data we are collecting is subjective. Make an observation of each mixture and evaluate it to look for coalescing or a stabilized emulsion.

Data/Results: Record your data, identify each sample and record the duration of the emulsion. Consider these questions.

Which liquid is being dispersed? Water Which liquid is the container liquid (continuous phase)? Oil How large are the droplets? Small, but they collect quickly Which emulsion begins to break first? Why? The vinaigrette, because there is nothing that helps the water molecules surround the oil molecules. Which emulsions begin to break but slowly? Why? The pesto slowly breaks, because the plant matter from the spinach and arugula keeps the water and oil together for a longer period of time. Which emulsions do not seem to change. Why? The lecithin in the egg yolk makes the oil and water stick together permanently.

Conclusions: Use these questions as prompts for writing your own paragraph conclusion. What generalizations can be made about emulsions? There are different types of emulsions, and depending on whether you want it to be temporary or permanent, there are different types of substances such as lecithin and plant matter to make the different types of emulsions. Where might this information have a practical application? When making a pesto, or aioli. Why might you choose one kind of emulsion over another? Depending on what I would use it for, or what I would be using it to cook with. What advice would you offer to someone who needed to make an emulsion? Add the oil/fat slowly, and temper slowly.