Anda di halaman 1dari 7

The concept of elasticity is not just an abstract idea its practical importance is very great.

(1) Importance For Government The concept of elasticity of demand helps the finance minister of the monopolist. When it imposes a tax. When a tax is imposed the price tends to rise. But if the demand is very elastic it will considerably fall when the price has risen and thus the government will not be able to earn expected revenue. Thus this concept of elasticity of demand helps the government to impose the tax on a commodity whose demand lass elastic and hence earn valuable revenue. (2) Importance for Businessmen The businessmen also take cue from the nature of demand while fixing his price. IF the demand is inelastic he knows that the people must buy such commodities. Thus he will be able to change a higher price and big profits. (3) Importance for Monopolist The concept of elasticity of demand is of special importance to the monopolist. He is in a position to control the price and fix high price when demand is inelastic and low price when it is elastic will bring him the maximum profit. (4) Application in Case of Joint Products In case of joint products seperate costs are not ascertainable. Hence the producer will mostly be guided by the nature of demand while fixing the price. (5) Determinitation of Wages The concept of elasticity of demand influences the determination of wages of a particular type of labour. If the demand of particular type of labour is inelastic trade union can easily get their wages raised. On the other hand of the demand for labour is relatively elastic trade union trade unions may not be successful in raising wages. (6) Importance for International Trade The concept of elasticity of demand is used in calculating the terms of trade. Whenever a country fees an adverse balance of payment the government considers the elasticity of demand for the countries export and imports before devaluing its currency. Price Determines the Demand The demand for the commodity is related to price. IT is always at a price. Prof. Beaham defines as under:

The demand for anything at a given price is the amount of it which will be brought per unit of time at that price. Demand varies with price. It varies inversely with price. If the price rises the demand contracts and if the price falls the demand extends. This responsiveness depends on many factors the effective demand for necessaries generally do not change with price. In other words the effective demand for necessaries is inelastic. The may rise or fall but the effective demand for necessaries remain practically the same. The effective demand for comforts is elastic. In other words variation in for comforts is in perpotion to a change in price. Monopoly Monopoly is that market from in which the single producer controls the whole supply of a single commodity that has no close substitutes. Two points must be noted in regard to the definition. First there must be an individual owner it seller if. There will be monopoly. That single producer may be individual owner or group of partners or a joint stock company or any other combination of producers of the state. Hence there must be a sole producer or seller in the market if it is to be called monopoly. Secondly, the commodity produced by the producer must have no close substitutes. Competing if he is to be called a monopolist this ensures that there must no rival of the monopolist. By the absence of closer substitutes we mean that there are no other firms producing similar products or product varying only slightly from that of the monopolist. The above two conditions ensure that the monopolist can set the price of his product and can pursue an independent price policy. POWER TO INFLUENCE PRICE IS THE VERY ESSENCE OF MONOPOLY. Market Price Market price is the actual price that prevails in the market at any particular time. It never remains constant. It changes from day to day and even from moment to moment. It can change at any time at any moment. Determination of Market Price Market price is determined by the relative forces of demand and supply. The demand depends upon the satisfaction, which a consumer drives from the consumption of the commodity. Supply on the other hand depends upon the cost of production of the commodity. The consumer tries to achieve more and more satisfaction least possible expenditure. He does not pay more than the marginal utility of the commodity to him the seller on the other hand tries to maximize his profit by changing as much as he can. He will never accept the price which is less

than the marginal cost of production of the commodity and thus marginal utility and marginal cost pf production are the two limits the maximum and the minimum and price is determined between these two limits, so we can say that, The price is determined at point where the amounts demanded and offered for sale are equal. ****

1. Determination of price policy:

While fixing the price of this product, a businessman has to consider the elasticity of demand for the product. He should consider whether a lowering of price will stimulate demand for his product, and if so to what extent and whether his profits will also increase a result thereof. If the increase in his sales is more than proportionate, to the reduction in price his total revenue will increase and his profits might be larger. On the other hand, if increase in demand is less than proportionate to fall in price, his total revenue we will fall and his profits would be certainly less. Therefore, knowledge of elasticity of demand may help the businessman to make a decision whether to cut or increase the price of his product or to shift the burden of any additional cost of production on to the consumers by charging high price. In general, for items having inelastic demand, the producer will fix a higher price and items whose demand is elastic the businessman will fix a lower price.

2. Price discrimination:
Price discrimination refers to the act of selling the technically same products at different prices to different section of consumers or in different in sub-markets. The policy of price-discrimination is profitable to the monopolist when elasticity of demand for his product is different in different sub-markets. Those consumers whose demand is inelastic can be charged a higher price than those with more elastic demand.

3. Shifting of tax burden:

To what extent a producer can shift the burden of indirect tax to the buyers by increasing price of his product depends upon the degree of elasticity of demand. If the demand is inelastic the larger part of the indirect tax can be shifted upon buyers by increasing price. On the other hand if the demand is elastic than the burden of tax will be more on the producer.

4. Taxation and subsidy policy:

The government can impose higher taxes and collect more revenue if the demand for the commodity on which a tax is to be levied is inelastic. On the other hand, in ease of a commodity with elastic demand high tax rates may fail to bring in the required revenue for the government. Govt., should provide subsidy on those goods whose demand is elastic and in the production of the commodity the law of increasing returns operates.

5. Importance in international trade:

The concept of elasticity of demand is of crucial importance in many aspects of international trade. The success of the policy of devaluation to correct the adverse balance of payment depends upon the elasticity of demand for exports and imports of the country. The policy of devaluation would be benificial when demand for exports and imports is priceelastic. A country will benefit from international trade when: (i) it fixes lower price for exports items whose demand is price elastic and high price for those exports whose demand is inelastic (ii) the demand for imports should be inelastic for a fall in price and inelastic for arise in price. The terms of trade between the two countries also depends upon the elasticity of demand of exports and imports of two countries. If the demand is inelastic, the terms of trade will be in favour of the seller country.

6. Importance in the determination of factors prices:

Factor with an inelastic demand can always command a higher price as compared to a factor with relatively elastic demand. This helps the trade unions in knowing that where they can easily get the wage rate increased. Bargaining capacity of trade unions depend upon elasticity of demand for workers services.

7. Determination of sale policy for supper markets:

Super Markets is a market where in a variety of goods are sold by a single organization. These items are generally of mass consumption. Therefore, the organization is supposed to sell commodities at lower prices than charged by shopkeepers in the other bazars. Thus, the policy adopted is to charge a slightly lower price for items whose demand is relatively elastic and the costs are covered by increased sales.

8. Pricing of joint supply products:

The goods that are produced by a single production process are joint supply products. The cost of production of these goods is also joint. Therefore, while determining the prices of these products their elasticity of demand is considered. The price of a joint supply product is fixed high if its demand is inelastic and low price is fixed for that joint supply product whose demand is elastic.

9. Effect of use of machines on employment:

Ordinarily it is thought that use of machines reduced the demand for labour. Therefore, trade unions often oppose the use of machines fearing unemployment. But this fear is not always true because use of machines may not reduce demand for labour. It depends on the price elasticity of demand for the products. The use of machines may reduce the cost of production and price. If the demand of the product is elastic then the fall in price will increase demand significantly.

As a result of increased demand the production will also increase and more workers will be employed. In such cases concept of elasticity of demand help the management to pacify the trade unions. But if the demand of the product is inelastic than use of more machines will cause unemployment.

10. Public utilities:

The nationalization of public utility services can also be justified with the help of elasticity of demand. Demand for public utilities such as electricity, water supply, post and telegraph, public transportation etc. is generally inelastic in nature. If the operation of such utilities is left in the hand of private individuals, they may exploit the consumers by charging high prices. Therefore, in the interest of general public, the government owns and runs such services. The public utility enterprises decide their price policy on the basis of elasticity of demand. A suitable price policy for public utility enterprises is to charge from consumers according to their elasticity of demand for public utility.

11. Explanation of paradox of poverty:

Exceptionally good harvest brings poverty to the farmers and this situation is called Paradox of Poverty. This paradox is easily explained by the inelastic nature of demand for most farm products. Since the demand is inelastic, prices of farm products fall sharply as a result of large increase in their supply in the year of bumper crops. Due to sharp fall in prices, the farmers get less income even by selling larger quantity. This paradox of poverty is the basis of regulation and control of farm products prices. Government fixes the minimum prices of farm products because the demand for farm products is inelastic. Thus, the concept of elasticity of demand helps the government in determining its agricultural policies.

12. Output decisions:

The elasticity of demand helps the businessman to decide about production. A businessman chooses the optimum product- mix on the basis of elasticity of demand for various products. The products having more elastic demand are preferred by the businessmen. The sale of such products can be increased with a little reduction in their prices. From the above discussion it is amply clear that price elasticity of demand is of great significance in making business decisions.