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Advanced Communication Networks

Iqbal Uddin Khan

Assignment # 5
Q1. Ans: Suppose we need a communication service to transmit real-time voice over the Internet. What features of TCP and what features of UDP are appropriate? TCP It is for reliable communication as it work against packet loss, but recovery of packets and retransmission may cause communication overhead and delay in propagation of data. In voice transmission it is not necessary. UDP It is a connection less protocol and deliver packets more quickly as there is no process of packet recovery and has less headers compare to TCP, as packet loss in real time voice transmission is not much noticeable up to some extend so UDP is mostly used. Suppose a user has two browser applications active at the same time, and suppose that the two applications are accessing the same server to retrieve HTTP documents at the same time. How does the server tell the difference between the two applications? The port number is different for each browser or the tabs opened within it. So the server sending data will distinguish by the requests port number. Consider the operation of non-persistent HTTP and persistent HTTP. (a) In non-persistent HTTP (version 1.0): Each client-server interaction involves setting up a TCP connection, carrying out the HTTP exchange, and closing the TCP connection. Let T be the time that elapses from when a packet is sent from client to server to when the response is received. Find the rate at which HTTP exchanges can be made using non-persistent HTTP. If T is considered to be the time of one way communication then, TCP connection involves 3 step of handshake, 2 steps of packets request and receive and last step for connection closing so it will be up to 6T. (b) In persistent HTTP (version 1.1) the TCP connection is kept alive. Find the rate at which HTTP exchanges can be made if the client cannot send an additional request until it receives a response for each request. As the initial steps of handshaking will not be repeated, so taking T as time it will be 1T or simply T as client/server sends and wait for receive without sending any other request. (c) Repeat part (b) if the client is allowed to pipeline requests, that is, it does not have to wait for a response before sending a new request. As it is sending multiple requests considering R to be number of request and T as time so the time may be consumed will be R/T seconds. What is the difference between a physical address, a network address, and a domain name? Physical Address: Is the MAC address of NIC. Network Address: Is the Unique IP of each client within a specific network. Domain Name: Are the typical names to identify specific server, for example www.google.com.pk is a domain name well its IP in WWW cloud is 74.125.230.248. Suppose that the DNS system used a single centralized database to handle all queries. Compare this centralized approach to the distributed approach in terms of reliability, throughput (volume of queries/second that can be processed), query response delay, and maintainability. Distributed Systems are far more reliable in sense of scalability, security, request handling and Recovering form loss and disaster. So Distributed approach is better than a centralized DNS system.

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Advanced Communication Networks Iqbal Uddin Khan Q6. Explain why it is useful for application layer programs to have a "well-known" TCP port number? Ans: Well-known port numbers are beneficial for server end, as well known would be easy to be determine by protocols according to the request. Q7. Ans: Q8. Use a web browser to connect to cnn.com. Explain what layers in the protocol stack are involved in the delivery of the video newscast. (Hint use Wireshark). It involves HTTP, TCP, ICMPv6, TLSv1 and SSDP. Use a web browser to connect to an audio program, say www.rollingstone.com/radio/ (Rolling Stone Radio) or www.cbc.ca (CBC Radio). Explain what layers in the protocol stack are involved here. How does this situation differ from the delivery of video in problem 7? The protocols used are same as in Q7, but the difference is that the data incoming is much less and no need to be sync with the video. The nslookup program can be used to query the Internet domain name servers. Use this program to look up the IP address of www.pnec.edu.pk. Non-authoritative answer: Name: pnec.edu.pk Address: 111.68.107.33 Aliases: www.pnec.edu.pk

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