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KALABAGH DAM (Proposed)

KEY FACTS Dam Type: Height: Length: Area at retention level Catchment Area: Gross Storage Capacity: Live Storage Capacity: Dead Storage: Retention Level: Main Spillway Capacity: Design Flood Discharge: Hydropower Generation: Maximum Discharge: Total Volume of Dam: Geology: Earthfill 260 ft. (above riverbed) 11,000 feet 164 miles2 110,500 miles2 7.9 MAF 6.1 MAF 1.8 MAF 915 ft amsl 1.07 million cusecs 1.92 million cusecs 3,600 MW 1.2 million cusecs (in 1929) 34 million yds3 Beds of clay stone, silt stone and sand stone

Please Insert Sketch of in the file called Location Map sent separately in MS Word format. It is a scanned figure.
1.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED KALABAGH DAM PROJECT

The Kalabagh Dam Project site is located 210 km downstream of Tarbela Dam and 26 km upstream of Jinnah Barrage on the River Indus. The project envisages the construction of 260 ft high rock-fill dam. With its maximum retention level at 915 ft., the dam will create a reservoir with usable storage of 6.1 MAF. The project has two spillways on the right bank for disposal of flood water. In the event of the highest probable flood, these spillways will have a discharge capacity of over 2 million cusecs. On the left bank is the powerhouse, which will be connected to twelve conduits, each 36 feet in diameter, with an ultimate generation capacity of 3,600 MW. It may be noted that the average flow at Kalabagh is 89 MAF, made up of 72 percent from the Indus, 25 percent from the Kabul and 3 percent from the Soan. The live storage of 6.1 MAF will be only 7% of the average annual flow. 2.0 INITIALLY PROPOSED KALABAGH DAM PROJECT

The initially proposed design of Kalabagh Dam consisted of an earthfill dam of about 265 feet height above the average riverbed and 4,150 feet in length. The crest of the embankment was to be at an elevation of 945 ft and top width 50 feet. The auxiliary dam, situated between the sluiceway and the natural high ground on the right bank, was to be 4,900 feet long with a maximum height of about 100 feet. The design features of the auxiliary dam were to be similar to those of the main dam. The proposal included the construction of a sluiceway - diversion structure located on the right bank and provided outlet and diversion facilities. Provisions were made for 33 diversion vents, each 20 feet wide and 25 feet

high, fitted with radial gates with a capacity of discharging 1.33 million cusecs when the reservoir were full at a water level of 925 feet. Depending upon the sluicing operation; the useful life of Kalabagh reservoir is almost unlimited. The maximum capacity of the storage was planned to be 9.375 MAF with a live storage of 7.771 MAF. The capacity at lowest water level was 1.604 MAF and 1.037 MAF at the sill of sluices. The level of full reservoir was to submerge 2,189 miles2 of land. Auxilliary gravity spillways were to-be-provided to discharge 1.4 million cusecs through 56 gates at 907 ft at sill level of spillway. The power facilities of the dam were to be similar to Tarbela and Mangla, having 8 power generating units, each with a power waterway and penstock of 36 ft internal diameter. 3.0 MODIFICATIONS IN THE PROPOSED DESIGN

The project was initially developed with a somewhat differing design criteria. The refined criteria were introduced in the subsequent layout optimization studies to accommodate technical, social, economic and political issues. The principal modifications were as follows: a) b) c) d) e) The retention level was 925 ft, which has been reduced by 10 ft to 915 ft. The probable maximum flood inflow was 3.5 million cusecs, which has been raised to 3.65 million cusecs. One gated overflow spillway and one orifice spillway of approximately equal capacity were to be provided. Four low-level outlets were initially provided, whereas, low-level outlets are provided now are also convertible conduits. Four tunnels have been added for powerhouse enhancement. The initial installed plant capacity was 2,400 MW comprised of 8 units of 300 MW each whereas now 12 units may be installed to provide 3,600 MW. The water retaining concrete structures, such as spillway headworks, would be designed and located so that they would not retain more than 160 ft head of water and would be founded on not less than 40 ft thick sandstone. The dam would be an embankment dam with slopes of 1 on 2.5 generally. No concrete structure should be built over the Kharjwan fault. The power station would be sited so that large rebound movements due to deep excavations would be avoided, if possible. The live storage capacity of the reservoir will now be 6.1 MAF with gross storage equal to 7.9 MAF which were 7.77 and 9.37, respectively in the initial design. The Orifice Spillway with crest elevation 40 feet below the minimum level of 825 will enable sluicing of silt-laden water of early floods and also help in the flushing of the sediment deposited in the narrow gorge of the reservoir.

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The Kalabagh reservoir (according to the existing design) will extend 92 miles upstream reaching 10 miles upstream of the confluence of Kabul-Indus. The

Kalabagh storage, at a 915 ft elevation, would pose no flood risk to Nowshera, which is located at an elevation of 938 ft. Neither would it effect the operation of Mardan SCARP, the outfall elevation of which is 958.7 ft. It is estimated that the project will submerge 35,000 acres of land. Of this, 27,500 acres will remain submerged and shall have to be acquired permanently. This area would cover 24,500 acres in the Punjab and 3,000 acres in the NWFP. 4.0 SITE SELECTION

The Government of Pakistan, assisted by consultants, first undertook engineering investigations for Kalabagh dam site during 1953-54. A site was selected about 3 miles downstream of the confluence of the Indus and Soan rivers and about 8 miles upstream from Kalabagh town (shown in the figure below as Site B). Preliminary investigations, with a number of borings, were undertaken which resulted in a preliminary feasibility study in 1956. In 1966, Site B was reviewed by experts who developed an alternative project proposal for the site, which included deep sediment sluices to avoid rapid loss of storage capacity. Shortly afterwards, WAPDA and some consultants made detailed investigations at Site A, about 2 miles downstream of Site B. Site A has the advantage of hard massive sandstone bedrock, but is situated between two major faults, across the river. In 1972, local consultants were appointed by WAPDA to undertake the feasibility study for the Kalabagh dam project. They identified the potential advantages of moving further upstream to a site not previously considered, marked as Site C in the sketch below. While work was in progress, it was reviewed by a Board of International Experts, who suggested that Site D, upstream from the confluence of the Indus and the Soan, should also be considered. Comparative studies were undertaken, and it was concluded that of the four sites, Site C was the most suitable. Extensive investigations were then concentrated on this site. While site investigation effort was concentrated on the areas around Site C, study of various alignments and project layouts for Sites C, D and alignments slightly downstream from Site C, called CE, E, F and G was continued. Site G was included to test whether there were any significant layout advantages to be obtained by choosing an alignment downstream from the next bend in the Indus. The cost estimates for the preferred layouts on alignments C, E, F and G were not significantly different. The cheapest was E but the others were all within 5% of E. Technically, however, alignments F and G had more disadvantages than advantages in comparison to C and E, and so alignments F and G were not carried forward any further in the study. Alignment CE was proposed as an adjustment of alignment C, to incorporate the favorable power station location, which had been developed for alignment E.

5.0

APPRECIATION OF THE KALABAGH DAM

Kalabagh Dam would enable additional and improved irrigation supplies to all provinces, within a short period. All other identified sites for dams have a much longer gestation period, in the absence of initial studies. The initial installation will generate 11,400 million Kwh of energy annually. As a consequence of conjunctive operation, it will enable enhancement of 600 MW of peaking capability and additional 336 million Kwh of annual generation at Tarbela. Kalabagh Dam will augment irrigation supplies, hydropower and alleviate floods. Additionally, indirect benefits like more industrial and food production, employment and agricultural boost will accrue. The project will have a useful economic life of over 50 years, without requiring any major replacement of machines and E&M equipment. The project will pay back its investment cost in a period of less than 10 years, as projected project annual benefits are US$ 628.18 Million and the project financial cost is US$ 6002 Million (inclusive of interest and escalations) at 1998 price level. On the basis of the project benefits accruing over a period of 50 years and investment cost for its construction, the proposed project shows an Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) of about 12% with a B.C. Ratio of 1.05:1 at 12% discount rate.

6.0

LAND ACQUISITION AND RESETTLEMENT ISSUE

Based on a 1999 estimate, the total population to be relocated because of the project is 120,000. Of this, 78,000 persons will have to be relocated from the Punjab and 42,500 from NWFP. The project includes compensation for all affectees for their properties which include land, trees, buildings and other structures at market price in compliance with the Land Acquisition Act. It is proposed to offer alternative land with minimum 12.5 acres to the land owning families. This would require about 74,000 acres of irrigated land. Another major incentive provided for the affectees in the case of this dam, not previously offered for such a project in Pakistan, would be to fully compensate the farmers for the land on the reservoir periphery, above normal conservation level of 915 feet that could be flooded once in five years. This land would remain the property of the original owners for cultivation, with the undertaking that they would not claim any damages to crops for occasional flooding. The comprehensive resettlement package proposed for Kalabagh is both, more innovative and attractive than those adopted for Mangla and Tarbela Dams. The basic objective is that the affectees should find themselves in a better socio-economic environment. According to the plan, non-agriculturist affectees would be trained in various trades in the Training Institutes to be established in the Model Villages. These measures will provide the affectees with maximum job opportunities, where they would also be able to invest their compensation money, thus giving them an assured means of livelihood for future. By dropping the retention level from 925 ft to 915 ft, the area to be affected by the envisaged reservoir has been reduced from 159,700 acres to about 134,500 acres. This includes 74% un-cultivable land in both the provinces. Of this, 95,800 acres falls in the Punjab and remaining 38,700 acres in the NWFP. The project estimate provides for Rs. 5,731 million as the cost of land acquisition, resettlement and relocation works at June 1991 prices. Resettlement Plan NEW MODEL VILLAGES EXTENDED VILLAGES NO. OF PLOTS PROPOSED

Punjab NWFP Total

17 10 27

7 13 20

9,700 7,000 16,700

Facilities Provided at No Cost a) SERVICES Water Supply Power Supply b) COMMUNITY BUILDINGS Schools Mosques

Paved Roads/Streets

Hall

Dispensary/ Union Council

7.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

The sole EIA for Kalabagh Dam was executed by WAPDA, through consultants, in 1984. The EIA surveyed the existing conditions of the project area with regard to geomorphology, water resources, land use and vegetation, wildlife and fisheries, human population, archaeological resources, transportation network and governmental administrative structure. The report briefly identified the likely environmental impacts on existing conditions during construction and operation of the proposed project, and recommended several actions to enhance the secondary benefits and minimize adverse impacts. In addition, the report brought out the areas where further studies would be required. The potential areas of concern identified in the report include the following: Resettlement due to submergence of population centres and dislocation of other infra structure facilities, borrow and spoil area issues, and lend use changes by impoundment. Interruption of the existing river navigation. Submergence of mineral resources by reservoir particularly Tut Oil fields. Submergence of archaeological and historical resources, like the historic town of Makhad. Effect on river ecosystem. Effects on the Indus delta. Effect on wildlife in the probable reservoir area. Recommendation on management aspects regarding further environmental assessment process and mitigation planning. 8.0 COST AND BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT

The total project cost at June 1998 price level, including contingencies, price escalation and interest during construction, is estimated as US$ 5,700 million. It would take 7 years for the first power unit to come in to operation. Project Benefits Average Annual Power Benefits Average Annual Irrigation Benefits Average Annual Flood Alleviation Benefits Additional Power From Tarbela AVERAGE YEARLY BENEFITS Rs. 25.50 Billion Rs. 3.50 Billion Rs. 0.70 Billion Rs. 3.50 Billion Rs. 33.20 Billion

9.0

RECENT STUDIES

The following aspects of the proposed Kalabagh Dam, related to environment, have been studied in the year 2000. Sedimentation and Backwater Study (including Nowshera Valley) Effect on Operation for Mardan SCARP Waterlogging of Pabbi-Mardan-Swabi Area Effect on Land Resettlement Action Plan Downstream Degradation Study (for Jinnah Barrage) Effect on Salaiba Cultivation (for riverain areas) Impact on Navigation and Fisheries Sea Water Intrusion in Indus Estuary

The total expenditure incurred by the Government of Pakistan, up to June 2000, for the proposed Kalabagh Dam Project is Rs. 1,216.5 million.

REFERENCES 1. Farhan Sami and Saira Shafi, Review the critical problems related to Kalabagh Dam in order to analyse the positive and negative scenarios and develop recommendations for the country, a masters thesis for Environmental Sciences Department, Kinniard College Lahore, September 2001. Pakistan Water & Power Development Authority, Annual Report 19992000, 2001. Dr. Nazir Ahmad, Water Resources of Pakistan, Miraj uddin Press, Lahore September 1993. Engr. Dr Izhar ul Haq, Barrages and Dams in Pakistan for Pakistan Engineering Congress, 1990. Planning Commission, Govt of Pakistan (Sep 2001), Ten Year Perspective Development Plan 2001-11& Three Year Development Programme 2001-04. Asian Development Bank TA, Water Resources Sector Strategy, National Water Sector Profile, April 2002. Planning Commission, Govt of Pakistan, Federal Govt Public Sector Development Programme 2001-2002, June 2001.

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