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MSC Nastran 2012

Demonstration Problems
Main Index
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Revision 0 11/12/2011
NA*V2012*Z*Z:Z*MN-DPM
Main Index
Cont ent s
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1 2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
3 3-D Sheet Metal Forming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
4 3-D Loaded Pin with Friction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5 Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
6 Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7 Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading . . . . . . . . 115
8 Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading. . . . . . . . . . 120
9 Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
10 Engine Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
11 Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body
Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
12 Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems 4
13 Ball Joint Rubber Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
14 Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
15 Tube Flaring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
16 Cup Forming Simulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
17 Double-sided Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
18 Demonstration of Springback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
19 3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
20 Composite Fracture and Delamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
21 Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
22 Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
23 Bolted Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
24 Friction Between Belt and Pulley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
25 Modal Analysis with Glued Contact. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
26 Interference Fit Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
27 Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
28 Model Airplane Engine Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Main Index
5
Contents
29 Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic
External Superelement Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
30 Paper Feeding Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
31 Wheel Drop Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
32 Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
33 Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
34 Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
35 Engine Mount Topology Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483
36 Wheel Topology Optimization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
37 Local Adaptive Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
38 Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
39 Brake Squeal Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
40 Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531
41 Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598
42 Mine Blast Under a Vehicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
43 Blastwave Hitting a Bunker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
44 Concentric Spheres with Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems 6
45 Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797
46 Thermal Stress Analysis of an Integrated Circuit Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
47 Dynamic Impact of a Rigid Sphere on a Woven Fabric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913
48 Shape Memory Analysis of a Stent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 926
49 Shell Edge Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 935
50 Large Rotation Analysis of a Riveted Lap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979
51 Creep of a Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 992
52 Hydro-forming of a Square Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
53 Chained Analysis: Fan Blade Out with Rotor Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
54 Ball Penetration using SPH Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
55 Square Cup Deep Drawing using Forming Limit Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039
56 Hydroplaning Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1055
57 Heating and Convection on a Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073
58 Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085
59 Shallow Cylindrical Shell Snap-through . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
60 Deformable Baffle in a Duct using OpenFSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
Main Index
7
Contents
61 Steady State Heat Transfer due to Natural Convection between Two
Noncontacting Bodies located in Nearby Vicinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109
62 Girkmann Problem using Axisymmetric Shell Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
63 Beam Reinforced Shell Structure using Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
64 Stent Analysis with Growing Rigid Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
65 Convection Correlations for Printed Circuit Board (PCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
66 Satellite in Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1163
67 Thermal Contact on Surface, Edge and Solid Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1177
68 Collection and Primitives Radiation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184
69 Simulation of Fuel Tank Filling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196
70 User-defined Subroutines for Heat Transfer Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212
71 Impact of a Rigid on Composite Laminate using GENOA PFA Material . . 1225
72 Automated Bolt Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1232
73 Cylinder Upsetting with Plastic and Friction Heat Generation . . . . . . . . . 1244
74 Under Water Explosion (UNDEX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254
77 Three Methods of Sloshing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1269
Main Index
Preface
Preface

Introduction 9

Feature Cross Reference 10

Overview of SimXpert 14

List of Nastran Books 14

Technical Support 15

Internet Resources 17
Main Index
9
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
Preface
Introduction
This demonstration problems manual, written for those with a working knowledge of Nastran, highlights the steps
necessary to use the advanced features of the MSC Nastran 2012, including contact, elastic-plastic creep, elastomeric
material nonlinearities, heat transfer, and adaptive mesh refinement. The subsequent application examples focus on
how to include these advanced features by making relatively modest changes to existing MSC Nastran bulk data files
using either a text editor or using a pre- and post-processing program like SimXpert exemplified in the video showcase
below. Click the thumbnails (Figure P-1) to open streaming videos, or read on and youll find these videos at the end
of the indicated chapters.
Figure P-1 MSC Nastran Another World - Click Thumbnails for Streaming How To Videos
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Main Index
10
Every application example has a working input file(s) available to simulate the results found in each chapter, and upon
clicking its name, it will be downloaded into your browser to use. Once an understanding of how to invoke a new
feature has been reached, you are encouraged to experiment by changing some of the input parameters and rerunning
the application. Furthermore, as confidence grows, these models can serve as stepping stones to more complex
simulations that can help you better understand and improve your simulations.
Feature Cross Reference
The basic features in Table P-1 are cross referenced to each chapter for your convenience. Click the chapter number
in the table to go to the summary of that chapter.
Table P-1 Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control
Ch. Sol Element Type(s) Material Loads/BC Contact
Load
Control
1 400 plane strain Isotropic Elastic Point Load yes NLPARM
2 400
axisymmetric &
3-D
Isotropic Elastic Pressure yes NLPARM
3 400
plane strain and 3-D
shell
Elastic-plastic
Moving
Rigid Body
yes NLPARM
4 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic Point Load yes NLPARM
5 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic
Gravity,
Pressure
yes NLPARM
6 400 2-D & 3-D
Composite - Orthotropic
Elastic
Point Load no NLPARM
7 400 3-D shell
Composite - Orthotropic
Elastic
Pressure no NLPARM
8 400 3-D shell
Composite - Orthotropic
Elastic
Pressure no NLPARM
9 700 3-D shell and solid Metal
Centripetal,
Impact
yes TSTEPNL
10 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic gasket
Pressure,
Bolt Loading
yes NLPARM
11 400 3-D shell Elastic-plastic yes NLPARM
12 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic Pressure no NLPARM
13 400 axisymmetric Mooney, Ogden yes NLSTEP
14
103 &
700
3-D shell Isotropic Elastic Point Load no TSTEPNL
15 400 axisymmetric Elastic-plastic yes NLPARM
Main Index
11
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
Preface
16 400 3-D shell Elastic-plastic
Moving
Rigid Body
yes NLPARM
17 400 plane strain Elastic-plastic yes NLPARM
18 400 plane strain Elastic-plastic yes NLPARM
19 400 3-D Elastic-plastic
Moving
Rigid Body
yes NLPARM
20 400 plane strain Isotropic Elastic cohesive VCCT yes NLSTEP
21 700 3-D Fabric, Seatbelt, Rigid, Airbag yes TSTEPNL
22 700 3-D Fabric, Seatbelt, Rigid, Side Airbag yes TSTEPNL
23 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic
Bold Load,
Pressure,
Thermal
yes NLPARM
24 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic Point Load yes NLPARM
25 103 3-D Isotropic Elastic
Glued
Contact
yes NLPARM
26 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic
Interference
Fit
yes NLPARM
27 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic Snap Fit yes NLPARM
28 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic/gasket
Bolt Loads,
Pressure
yes NLSTEP
29 200 3-D Isotropic Elastic Point Load no
30 700 3-D Isotropic Elastic Rollers yes TSTEPNL
31 700 3-D
Isotropic Elastic, Composite,
Rubber, Elastic-Plastic
Impact yes TSTEPNL
32 700 3-D Elastic-plastic, rigid Impact yes TSTEPNL
33 101 Beam Composites Point Load no
34 200 2-D, & 3-D Isotropic Elastic Point Load no
35 200 3-D Isotropic Elastic Point Load no
36 200 3-D Isotropic Elastic Point Load no
37 101 plane stress Isotropic Elastic Edge Load no
38 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic
Distributed
Load
yes NLPARM
Table P-1 Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control (continued)
Ch. Sol Element Type(s) Material Loads/BC Contact
Load
Control
Main Index
12
39 400 3-D Isotropic and Anisotropic
Distributed
Load
yes NLPARM
40 700 3-D Elastic-plastic Impact FSI TSTEPNL
41 700 3-D Elastic-plastic Explosion FSI TSTEPNL
42 700 3-D shell and truss Elastic-plastic Explosion FSI TSTEPNL
43 700 3-D Elastic-plastic Explosion FSI TSTEPNL
44 400-HT 3-D membrane Isotropic Radiation no NLSTEP
45 400-HT 3-D Isotropic
Thermal
Loads
no
TSTEPNL,
NLSTEP
46 400-HT 3-D Isotropic Thermal no NLSTEP
47 400 3-D beams Elastic-plastic
Beam To
Beam
yes TSTEPNL
48 400 3-D Shape Memory
Prescribed
Displacemen
t
NLPARM
49 400 3-D shells Isotropic Elastic
Prescribed
Displacemen
t
yes NLPARM
50 400
3-D shell, CWELD,
CFAST, CBUSH
Isotropic Elastic Point Load no NLPARM
51 400 Axisymmetric Isotropic Elastic Creep Pressure no NLSTEP
52 400 3-D Elastic-plastic Pressure yes NLSTEP
53 700 3-D Elastic-plastic Blade Out yes TSTEPNL
54 700 3-D shell Elastic-plastic, hydrodynamic Impact yes TSTEPNL
55 700 3-D shell
Anisotropic Elastic-plastic,
rigid
Moving
Rigid Body
yes TSTEPNL
56 700 3-D solid & shell Mooney
Hydroplanin
g
FSI TSTEPNL
57
400 -
HT&RC
2-D Isotropic Convection no NLSTEP
58 400-RC 3-D Isotropic Convection no NLSTEP
59 400 3-D shell Isotropic Point Load no NLSTEP
60 400 3-D Isotropic OpenFSI no TSTEPNL
Table P-1 Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control (continued)
Ch. Sol Element Type(s) Material Loads/BC Contact
Load
Control
Main Index
13
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
Preface
61 400 3-D Isotropic Convection yes NLSTEP
62 400 Axisymmetric Isotropic Elastic
Gravity,
Pressure
no
63 400 3-D shell and beam Elastic-plastic Pressure no NLSTEP
64 400 3-D Elastic-plastic
Moving
Rigid Body
yes NLSTEP
65 400-RC 3-D Isotropic
Convection,
Advection
no NLSTEP
66 400-RC 3-D Isotropic, Honeycomb Radiation no NLSTEP
67 400-RC 3-D Isotropic
Prescribed
Temperature
s
yes NLSTEP
68 400-RC 3-D Isotropic
Radiation,
Distributed
Flux
no NLSTEP
69 700 3-D Isotropic FSI TSTEPNL
70 400-RC 2-D Temp. dependent Convection no NLSTEP
71 700 3-D shell
Orthotropic, Progressive
Failure
Impact yes TSTEPNL
72 400 3-D Isotropic Elastic Bolt Load yes NLSTEP
73 400 Axisymmetric Elastic-plastic
Moving
Rigid Body
yes NLSTEP
74 700 3D Euler, 2D Shell
Multi-Mat Fluids,
Elastic/Plastic
Undewater
Explosion
FSI
Coupiing
TSTEPNL
77 700 3D Euler, 2D Shell
Multi-Mat Fluids,
Elastic/Plastic
Prescribed
motion
FSI
Coupling
TSTEPNL
Table P-1 Cross Reference of Solution Sequence, Element Types, Materials, Loads/BC, Contact, and
Load Control (continued)
Ch. Sol Element Type(s) Material Loads/BC Contact
Load
Control
Main Index
14
Overview of SimXpert
SimXpert is an integral component of the enterprise simulation environment. It incorporates direct integration with
SimManager and SimDesigner. SimXpert is a multi-disciplinary simulation environment for the analyst including
workspaces between which one common model can be shared. The workspaces provide different tools appropriate to
the discipline:
Structures linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using MSC Nastran
Thermal linear FEA using MSC Nastran
Motion multi-body dynamics of rigid and flexible bodies using the Adams C++ solver
Crash nonlinear explicit dynamic FEA using LS-Dyna
MSC Explicit - nonlinear explicit dynamic FEA using MSC Nastran
Template Builder - Captures Simulation Procedures Consisting Of SimXpert Commands And Macros
Process Builder - Creating Enterprise Processes (SimProcess)
All solvers are included. Workspaces also filter the simulation model. Only the parts of the model that have relevance
to a workspace are visible.
The simulation process allows knowledge capture and re-use through the use of templates.The template builder allows
you to: define a sequence of tasks and sub-tasks, drag-and-drop existing scripts in a visual editing environment, and
publish the finished template to SimManager for re-use across an organization.
To learn more about SimXpert, see Appendix A: Getting Started in SimXpert.
List of Nastran Books
Below is a list of some of the Nastran documents. You may order any of these documents from the MSC.Software
BooksMart site at http://store.mscsoftware.com.
Installation and Release Guides

Installation and Operations Guide

Release Guide
Reference Books

Quick Reference Guide

DMAP Programmers Guide

Reference Manual
Main Index
15
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
Preface
Technical Support
For help with installing or using an MSC.Software product, contact your local technical support services. Our
technical support provides the following services:
Resolution of installation problems
Advice on specific analysis capabilities
Advice on modeling techniques
Resolution of specific analysis problems (e.g., fatal messages)
Verification of code error.
If you have concerns about an analysis, we suggest that you contact us at an early stage.
Users Guides

Getting Started

Linear Static Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

MSC Demonstration Problems

Thermal Analysis

Superelement

Design Sensitivity and Optimization

Implicit Nonlinear (SOL 600)

Explicit Nonlinear (SOL 700)

Aeroelastic Analysis

User Defined Services

EFEA Users Guide

EFEA Tutorial

EBEA Users Guide


Main Index
16
You can reach technical support services on the web, by telephone, or e-mail:
Web Go to the MSC.Software website at www.mscsoftware.com, and click on
Support. Here, you can find a wide variety of support resources including
application examples, technical application notes, available training courses, and
documentation updates at the MSC.Software Training, Technical Support, and
Documentation web page.
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Phone: (34) (91) 5560919
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E-mail Send a detailed description of the problem to the E-mail address below that
corresponds to the product you are using. You should receive an acknowledgement
that your message was received, followed by an E-mail from one of our Technical
Support Engineers.
Patran Support
MSC Nastran Support
Dytran Support
MSC Fatigue Support
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Main Index
17
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
Preface
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Main Index
Chapter 1: 2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact

Summary 19

Introduction 20

Solution Requirements 20

Analytical Solution 20

FEM Solutions 21

Modeling Tips 25

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 28

Input File(s) 68
Main Index
19
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Summary
Title Chapter 1: 2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Contact features Advancing contact area
Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable contact
Friction
Comparison of linear and parabolic elements
Geometry 2-D Plane strain (units: mm)
Block height = 200
Block width = 200
Cylinder diameter =100
Thickness = 1
Material properties

Linear elastic material
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Symmetric displacement constraints along vertical symmetry line.
Bottom surface of the foundation is fixed
Contact between cylinder and block
Applied loads
Vertical point load
Element type 2-D Plane strain
8 -node parabolic elements
4-node linear elements
Contact properties
Coefficient of friction and
FE results 1. Plot of normal contact pressure against distance from center of contact
2. Plot of tangential stress against distance from center of contact
3. Plot of relative tangential slip against distance from center of contact
F
E
cylinder
210kN mm
2
= E
block
70kN mm
2
= v
cylinder
v
block
0.3 = =
u
x
u
y
0 = = ( )
F 35kN =
0.0 = 0.1 =
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
SOL 400 Contacted Surface
SOL 400 Contacting Surface
Analytical
Distance (mm)
Contact Pressure N/mm
2
Main Index
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CHAPTER 1
20
Introduction
A steel cylinder is pressed into an aluminum block. It is assumed that the material behavior for both materials is linear
elastic. The cylinder is loaded by a point load with magnitude in the vertical direction. A 2-D approximation
(plane strain) of this problem is assumed to be representative for the solution. An analytical solution for the frictionless
case is known - (Ref: NAFEMS, 2006, Advanced Finite Element Contact Benchmarks, Benchmark 1 2D Cylinder
Roller Contact).
Solution Requirements
There are two solutions: one using a friction coefficient of 0.1 between the cylinder and block and one frictionless.
Length of contact zone
Normal pressure distribution as function of distance (x-coordinate) along the contact surface
Tangential stress distribution as function of distance along the contact surface
These solutions demonstrate:
More elements near the contact zone
Which surface is treated as master (contacting) and slave (contacting)
The analysis results are presented with linear and parabolic elements.
Analytical Solution
An analytical solution for this contact problem can be obtained from the Hertzian contact formulae (Hertz, H., ber
die Berhrung fester elasticher Krper. J. Reine Angew. Mathm. 92, 156-171, 1881) for two cylinders (line contact).
The maximum contact pressure is given by:
where is the applied normal force, the combined elasticity modulus, the length of the cylinder and the
combined radius.
The contact width is given by:
Using the normalized coordinate with the Cartesian x-coordinate, the pressure distribution is given by:
The combined elasticity modulus is determined from the modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio of the cylinder and
block , , , and , as follows:
F 35kN =
p
max
F
n
E*
2tBR*
------------------ =
F
n
E* B R*
2a
a
8F
n
R*
tBE*
----------------- =
x a = x
p p
max
1
2
=
E
cyl i nder
E
bl ock
u
cyl i nder
u
bl ock
E*
2E
cyl i nder
E
bl ock
E
bl ock
1 u
cyl i nder
2
( ) E
cyl i nder
1 u
bl ock
2
( ) +
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
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21
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
The combined radius of curvature is evaluated from the radius of curvature of the cylinder and block and
, as follows:
For the target solution, the block is approximated with an infinitely large radius. The combined radius is then evaluated
as:
Using the numerical parameters for the problems the following results are obtained:
Note that half the contact length is equal to 6.21 mm which corresponds to approximately 7.1 degrees of the ring.
Hence, it is clear that, in order to simulate this problem correctly, a very fine mesh near the contact zone is needed.
FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 (SOL 400) for the element mesh
shown in Figure 1-1 using plane strain linear elements. The elements in the entire cylinder and entire block have been
selected as contact bodies. Contact body IDs 5 and 6 are identified as a set of elements of the block and cylinder
respectively as:
BCBODY 5 2D DEFORM 5 0 .1
BSURF 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
and
BCBODY 6 2D DEFORM 6 0 .1
BSURF 6 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248
...
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other:
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 6 0. 0. .1 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 6 0. 0. .1 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
Thus, any deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes.
The order of these bodies is important and is discussed later. For the simulations with friction, a bilinear Coulomb
model is used (FTYPE = 6). The slave or contacting nodes are contained in the elements in the cylinder, whereas the
master nodes or nodes or contacted segments are contained in the elements in the block.
R
cyl i nder
R
bl ock
R*
R
cyl i nder
R
bl ock
R
cyl i nder
R
bl ock
+
------------------------------------------- =
R*
R
cyl i nder
R
bl ock
R
cyl i nder
R
bl ock
+
-------------------------------------------
R
bl ock

lim R
cyl i nder
= =
a 6.21mm =
p
max
3585.37N mm
2
=
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CHAPTER 1
22
Figure 1-1 Element Mesh Applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran
Nonlinear plane strain elements are chosen by the PSHLN2 entry referring to the PLPLANE option as shown below.
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1 +
+ C4 PLSTRN L +
Herein referred to as plane strain quad4 elements (PLSTRN QUAD4) or (PLSTRN QUAD8) for the linear and parabolic
elements respectively listed in Table 1-1. All elements are 1 mm thick in the out-of-plane direction.
The material properties are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio defined as:
$ Material Record : steel
MAT1 1 210000. .3
$ Material Record : aluminum
MAT1 2 70000. .3
The nonlinear procedure used is:
NLPARM 1 1 PFNT
Here the PFNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every iteration using the full Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy; the default convergence tolerance values (0.01) will be used. The convergence method and
tolerances may be specified explicitly as shown here since they will be discussed later.
Table 1-1 Applied Element Types in Numerical Solutions
SOL 400
linear PLSTRN QUAD4
parabolic PLSTRN QUAD8
X
Y
Z
Contact Body ID 5
Element IDs 1 to 1241
Contact Body ID 6
Element IDs 1242 to 2641
Steel Cylinder
Aluminium Block
Main Index
23
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
The obtained lengths of the contact zones are listed in Table 1-3. The exact length of the contact zone cannot be
determined due to the discrete character of contact detection algorithms (nodes are detected to be in contact with an
element edge for 2-D, element face for 3-D). It is clear, however, that the numerical solution is in good agreement with
the analytical one.
The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 1.0) is shown in Figure 1-2. A plot of the Hertzian contact solution
for the pressure along the contact surface is obtained with linear and parabolic elements as shown in Figure 1-3 and
Figure 1-4.
Figure 1-2 Deformed Structure Plot at Maximum Load Level (magnification factor = 1)
Table 1-2 Nonlinear Control Parameters
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
NLPARM 1 1 PFNT UP YES +pb1
+pb1 1.00E-2 1.00E-2
Table 1-3 Length of the Contact Zone and Pmax
a
min
(mm)
a
avg
(mm)
a
max
(mm)
Error
(%)
P
max

(N/mm
2
)
Error
(%)
linear 5.99 6.33 6.67 2.6 3285 -8.38
parabolic 5.88 6.08 6.28 -1.5 3583 -0.05
Contacted Nodes
Contacting Nodes
amin
amax
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CHAPTER 1
24
Figure 1-3 Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Solutions for Linear Elements without Friction
Figure 1-4 Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Solutions for Parabolic Elements without Friction
The contact pressure plotted for the contacting nodes shows, even with this mesh density, an oscillating type of
behavior. This is reduced for the parabolic elements. Generating the same plots along the contacted nodes produces a
smoother curve.
Numerical solutions have also been obtained with a friction coefficient of 0.1 (bilinear Coulomb). The contact normal
and tangential stress along the contacting nodes are shown in Figure 1-5.
All stresses show an oscillating type of behavior. This can be improved by refining the mesh in the contact zone.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
SOL 400 Contacted Surface
SOL 400 Contacting Surface
Analytical
Distance (mm)
Contact Pressure N/mm
2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
SOL 400 Contacted Surface
SOL 400 Contacting Surface
Analytical
Distance (mm)
Contact Pressure N/mm
2
Main Index
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Figure 1-5 Normal and Tangential Stress Along Contact Surface
Modeling Tips
About Convergence
Although the nonlinearity of the force-displacement relation in this problem is quite mild, looking more closely at the
convergence of this problem will be useful for subsequent problems in this manual, and worthy of mention here as a
matter of introduction. Table 1-4 controls the number of iterations in the Newton-Raphson process illustrated below
in Figure 1-6.
Table 1-4 Convergence Output
Load Step No. Inc IRT
Error Factors
Disp Load Work
1 1 1 1.00E+00 9.78E-01 9.78E-01
1 1 2 3.70E+00 8.83E-01 4.57E+00
1 1 3 2.80E+00 6.83E-01 3.98E+00
1 1 4 1.43E+00 3.81E-01 2.26E+00
1 1 5 4.96E-01 7.28E-02 8.84E-01
1 1 6 3.72E-04 1.51E-02 9.98E-04
1 1 7 6.00E-05 2.69E-05 8.69E-05
Distance (mm)
Contact Stress N/mm
2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
Tangential Parabolic
Tangential Linear
Pressure Parabolic
Pressure Linear
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CHAPTER 1
26
Figure 1-6 Newton - Raphson Path for Load-Displacement Curve
At the beginning of the analysis (Point A in Figure 1-6), the tangent modulus (slope of load-displacement curve) is
used to project to the applied load to Point B, which does not satisfy the convergence criteria. Then equilibrium is re-
established at Point C, and a new slope is computed. The Newton-Raphson iterative procedure continues until the
convergence tolerances are satisfied, Point D. The convergence criteria are based upon displacement, load or work
either individually or in some combination. The Newton-Raphson iterative scheme is recommended for all SOL 400
analyses because the degree of nonlinearity is typically significant. For the parameters in Table 1-3, the output
(Table 1-4) shows the following convergence characteristics. The percent sign helps to locate the line in the output
file. In this case, the criteria used is both the displacement, U, and load, P - specified through the UP keyword for the
convergence type on the NLPARM command - with a value of 0.01 for each. This means that both relative displacement
and load measures (error factors) must be below 0.01 for convergence to be permitted. This can be seen in Figure 1-7.
In this case, there is no checking on the work, even though it has a low tolerance.

Figure 1-7 Error Factors For Each Iteration
About the Order of Contact Bodies
The nug_01aw.dat input file changes the order of the contact body detection, in which the coarser mesh (block) is
the contacting surface. Although acceptable to the contact algorithm, the results are degraded since it is best to have
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Applied Load = 17500
Newton-Raphson Path
F , v
Displacement v (mm)
y
2
F (N) Load
y
Point A
Point B
Point C
Point D
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
Log(epsw)
Log(epsp = epsu)
Log(work)
Log(load)
Log(disp)
Main Index
27
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
the body with the most nodes as the contacting body. Run nug_01aw.dat to see the differences as shown in
Figure 1-8.
Figure 1-8 Deformed Mesh of Different Contact Body Ordering
Contacting Nodes
Contacted Nodes
Steel Cylinder
Aluminium Block
nug-01aw.dat
Contacting Nodes
Contacted Nodes
Steel Cylinder
Aluminium Block
nug-01am.dat
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MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 1
28
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
Units
All data imported or created in MSC SimXpert is assumed to be in a single consistent system of units, as specified in
the Unit Manager. It is important to specify the appropriate units prior to importing any unitless analysis files, such as
an MSC Nastran bulk data file, or creating materials, element properties, or loads. This is so that the MSC SimXpert
user is assisted in being consistent with the use of numerical quantities that have units. The system of units is specified
in a dialog accessed by selecting Tools: Units Manager.
For the illustration below, the geometry is created, meshed with linear elements using frictionless contact, and finished
by comparing results with the analytic solution.
a. Tools
b. Options
c. Units Manager
d. Basic Units
a
b
d
c
Main Index
29
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create a Part for the Block
Parts are the main components of a model and may be used to specify specific attributes (geometry, properties etc.).
For example, here the part/block, is created (bottom right) that will be later used by picking the part from the model
tree in the Model Browser (bottom left). We will find that in defining material properties picking parts from the model
tree is easier than trying to pick a group of elements. Later the last part, cylinder, is created.
a. Assemble
b. Create Part
c. block; click OK
a
b
c
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30
Create the Block Geometry
The geometry of the part/block, is created here and results in a simple rectangular shaped object. More geometry is
added to this part in subsequent steps.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. X, Y, Z Input enter 0,200,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 30,200,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 30,170,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 0,170,0; click OK
a
b
c
c
p ( p )
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create a Curve to Define a Surface Edge
Continuing to add geometry to the part/block, a curve (line) is created below the previous rectangle. This curve is used
to generate a surface between the rectangle and line.
a. Geometry
b. Curve
c. X, Y, Z Input enter 0,100,0; click OK
X, Y, Z Input enter 100,100,0; click OK
OK
a
b
c
c
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32
Create a Surface Between Two Curves
Now the surface is generated between the curve on the bottom of the rectangle and the previously created curve. The
part/block now contains two surfaces: a rectangle and quadrilateral.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. enter 2 Curves; click OK
a
b
c
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create a Surface by Defining Its Vertices
Another surface is added using one point and three vertices.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. Enter 1 point, 3 vertices; click OK
d. X, Y, Z Input enter 100,200,0; click OK
a
b
c
d
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34
Create a Surface by Sweeping a Curve
The final surface added to the part/block, is created by sweeping the bottom horizontal curve downward for 100 mm.
a. Geometry
b. Sweep
c. Vector, two point normal, pick Curve, Length of Sweep; click OK
a
b
c
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Stitch Surfaces
Finally, all of the surfaces that comprise the part/block, are stitched together. Stitching surfaces creates congruent
surfaces with aligned normals within a stitch tolerance. Unconnected or free edges are displayed in red whereas shared
edges are displayed in green as shown below.
a. Geometry
b. Stitch
c. 4 bodies; click OK
a
b
c
1
2
3
4
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CHAPTER 1
36
Create a Part: Cylinder
Now the cylinder part is created.
a. Assemble
b. Create Part
c. Cylinder; click OK
a
b
c
c. cylinder, OK
Main Index
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create an Arc
The cylindrical surface is generated by an arc and a line. The arc is defined below.
a. Geometry
b. Arc
c. Dir-Radius 0,250,0;0,250,-1
d. Arc.1, 40,0,180 VERTEX(indicated); click OK
a
b
c
d
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Create a Curve Along a Line of Symmetry
The cylindrical surface is generated by an arc and a line. The line is defined below.
a. Geometry
b. Curve
c. 2 Vertices; click OK
a
b
c
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Break Line and Arc into Two Curves for Two Surfaces
Before generating a surface from these two curves, each curve (line and arc) is broken into two equal pieces
respectively. This allows for generating two surfaces that ultimately generate different meshes.
a. Geometry
b. Edit Curve
c. Split
d. Parametric, 2 Curves; click OK
a
b
c
d
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CHAPTER 1
40
Create Surfaces from Curves
Two surfaces (composing half of the cylinder) are generated from the curves previously constructed and are
stitched together.
a. Geometry
b. Filler
c. 2 Curves, click OK (repeat for other 2 curves
d. Stitch, 2 surfaces; click OK
a
b
d
c
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create Mesh Seeds
With the parts completed, each curve of each surface is seeded prior to meshing. Here the curves that comprise the
surface of the lower portion of the cylinder are seeded with element sizes that include uniform and biased seeds.
a. Meshing
b. Seed: Arrows on curves indicate direction for nonuniform mesh seed
c. Curve (seed as indicated in the 3 curves); click OK
a
b
c
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42
Create Mesh
With the curves of this surface seeded, a quadrilateral dominate mesh is created by using the surface mesher.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface, Mesh type and Method (indicated)
d. Element Size 1
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK
a
b
c
yp ( )
d
e
f
Main Index
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create Mesh
The top cylindrical surface is meshed with a quadrilateral dominate mesh and the cylindrical part meshing is complete.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface
d. Element Size 2.5
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
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44
Create Mesh
The block part consists of four surfaces that are now to be meshed with the smallest rectangular surface being mesh
with uniform elements with the indicated size using a quadrilateral dominate mapped mesher.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface
d. Element Size 1.5
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
Main Index
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create Mesh Seeds
The upper quadrilateral surface curves are seeded appropriately, and the surface is meshed. A similar exercise is done
for the lower quadrilateral surface (not shown).
a. Meshing
b. Seed: Arrows on Curves indicate direction for nonuniform mesh seed
c. Surface
OK
a
b
b
b
c
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46
Create Mesh
Finally, the lower rectangular surface of the block is meshed using the mapped mesher with uniform element sizes.
a. Meshing
b. Surface
c. Pick Surface
d. Element Size 5
e. Quad Dominant
f. OK
g. Pick Surface
h. Element Size 5
i. Quad Dominant
j. OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Enforce Consistent Normals
Although the surfaces of the cylinder and block parts were stitched together, the surface mesher may create elements
with inconsistent outward normals. This is the case here, and elements need to be fixed such that their outward normals
all point in one direction (+z). This is done by showing the element normals, then fixing the normals using a reference
element to set the normal direction. Continue this process until all normals are consistent; namely, they all point in the
same direction.
a. Quality
b. Fix Elements
c. Normals
d. Show (Fix) Normals, click OK
a
b
c
d
d
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48
Define Material Data
Materials are defined by naming the material (steel and Al, respectively) while entering the properties. The problem
statement required that the cylinder be made of steel and the block made of aluminum (Al). Since the basic units
selected have derived units of pressure (stress or modulus) as , Youngs modulus for the steel is entered as
and for aluminum. Poissons ratio is dimensionless and entered as for both materials.
a. Materials and Properties
b. Isotropic
c. steel, (properties); click OK
d. Al, (properties as shown); click OK
N mm ( )
2

210x10
3
70x10
3
0.3
a
c
d
b
d. Al, (properties), OK
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Define Material Data
The properties defined are now applied to the parts accordingly along with the planar element properties. Parts and
materials are selected from the Model tree (not shown).
a. Materials and Properties
b. Plane
c. Plane Property (cylinder and block); click OK
a
b
c
c. Plane Property (cylinder and block), OK
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50
Contact Data for Cylinder
Since the cylinder will come into contact with the block, contact data needs to be specified. A contact body consists
of a set of elements and their associated nodes that are mutually exclusive from other elements. While we know that
only a small number of elements in the cylinder and block will ultimately come into contact, there is no need to specify
this information; the contact algorithm completely determines where and when contact happens. Hence, our choice is
simple. We will create two contact bodies, consisting of all elements in the two parts we have defined: the cylinder
and block.
Although one might be tempted to only pick those elements suspected of coming into contact, it is best (and less time
consuming) to just pick all the elements in the part as done here.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Deformable Body
c. Select cylinder; click OK
a
c
b
b. Deformable Body
c. Select cylinder, OK
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CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Contact Data for Block
Similar to the cylinder contact body, all elements in the block are selected to be in the next deformable contact body.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Deformable Body
c. Select block; click OK
Define a deformable contact body for the block
a
b
c
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52
Define Contact Tables
Although a contact table is not necessary for this particular problem (see BCONTACT = ALLBODY in the QRG), one is
used here for illustration. Here, the contact table indicates that all contact bodies touch each other, including
themselves.
In general, contact tables describe how contact is to take place between contact bodies (touching, glue, none) and may
change during the analysis by selecting different contact tables. A contact table allows one to define the coefficient of
friction between the two touching bodies and its nonzero value overrides any previous value.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Table
c. BCTABLE_INIT; click OK
a
b
c
c. BCTABLE_INIT
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2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Define Constraints
The horizontal component of displacement for all nodes on the symmetry plane is fixed to be zero by selecting the
associated curves.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. General
c. Symmetry (Tx = 0 only)
d. 5 Curves; click OK
a
b
d
c
y y ( y)
d. 5 Curves, OK
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Define Constraints
The horizontal and vertical displacement components of all nodes on the bottom of the block are fixed by selecting
the associated curve.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. General
c. Bottom (Tx, Ty = 0 only)
d. 1 Curve; click OK
a
b
d
c
c. Bottom (Tx, Ty 0 only)
d. 1 Curve, OK
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2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Define Point Load
The load of 35 kN is applied to the top node in the downward direction. However, since only half of the material is
being modeled because of the plane of symmetry, a load of 17.5 = 35/2 kN is applied to this half of the model.
a. Loads and Boundary Conditions (LBC)
b. Force
c. 1 Node
d. 17500, (direction); click OK
a
b
d
c
d. 17500, (direction), OK
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56
Create Nastran SOL 400 Job with Default Layout
An analysis job is set up using a general nonlinear analysis type (SOL 400) and the name of the solver input file
is specified.
a. Right click File Set
Create new Nastran job
b. Job Name
c. General Nonlinear Analysis (SOL 400)
d. Name input file; click OK
a
b
c
d
p
Main Index
57
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Create Nastran SOL 400 Job with Default Layout
The global loadcase is created and the initial contact table is selected.
a. Right click Load Cases
b. Create Global Loadcase
OK
c. Under Global Loadcase, Right click Loads/Boundary Conditions
d. Select Contact Table BCTABLE_INIT; click OK
a
b
c
d
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Select Contact Table BCTABLE_INIT for Loadcase DefaultLoadCase
The default loadcase is created using the same contact table.
a. Right click Loads/Boundaries under DefaultLoadCase
b. Select Contact Table
c. Select Contact Table BCTABLE_INIT
d. Click OK
a
b
c
d
Main Index
59
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Define Large Disp. and Contact in SOL 400 Nonlinear Parameters
Here, we are specifying some nonlinear parameters that allow forces to follow in a large displacement analysis and set
the bias factor used in contact detection.
a. Double click Solver Control
b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. Large Disp and Follower Force, Apply
d. Contact Control Parameters
e. Bias = 0.90
f. click Apply
g. click Close
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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60
Define Nonlinear Static Parameters
Finishing the selection of nonlinear parameters, we select the stiffness update method along with convergence criteria.
a. Loadcase Control
b. Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. Pure Full Newton, 1, 50
d. Check Displacement error, enter 1.0e-2
e. Check Force Error, enter 1.0e-2
f. Check Vector Component Method
a
b
c
d
e
f
Main Index
61
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Request Output
In order to visualize results, nodal and elemental output requests are made.
a. Output Request
b. Nodal Output Requests
c. Create Constraint Force output Request; click OK
d. Elemental Output
e. Create Nonlinear Stress Output,; click OK
a
b
c
d
e
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62
Run Analysis
The preprocessing is now complete and the job is submitted. Upon successful completion of the job, the results are
attached and visualized.
a. Right click job, cylinder_roller_contact, under Simulations
b. Run.
a
b
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63
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Results
The results are attached.
a. Attach Results
b. Select *_xdb file
a
b Select *.xdb file
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
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64
Results - Fringe Plot
A fringe plot of the Y-component of the Cauchy stress tensor is plotted below.
a. Results
b. Fringe
c. Cauchy Stress
d. Y Component
e. Update
a
b
c
d
e
b. Fringe
c. Cauchy Stress
d. Y Component
e. Update
Main Index
65
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Results - Chart Data
Since the contact area is very small, it is useful to plot the Y component of Cauchy stress along the X component of
the nodal positions, which is done by constructing the chart below.
a. Results
b. Chart
c. Stress, Y Comp., Nodes
d. Advanced Picking Tool
e. From Curve
f. Select Curve
g. X Global
h. Add Curves
b
c
g
f
d
e
a
h
a. Results
b. Chart
c. Stress, Y Comp., Nodes
d. Advanced Picking Tool
e. From Curve
f. Select Curve
g. X Global
h. Add Curves
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66
Chart Data - Exporting Chart to Excel
Ultimately, we wish to compare the data contained in the chart above with the analytical solution. The results in the
chart can be extracted to the clipboard by selecting the Table under XY Chart Properties; then right click the table,
Select All, and then copy. Once in the clipboard, the data can be pasted into Excel to be used in further comparisons.
a. XY Chart Properties, Check Table
b. Mouse on Table, Select All, Copy
c. Paste into Excel
a
b
c
Main Index
67
CHAPTER 1
2-D Cylindrical Roller Contact
Chart Data - Exporting Chart to Excel
The chart data in the clipboard one pasted into Excel is then compared to the analytical solution.
a. Plot with Analytical Solution in Excel
a
Chart Data - Exporting Chart to Excel
a. Plot with Analytical Solution in Excel
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68
Input File(s)
Snippets from the first four Nastran input files listed below are used to illustrate the simulation throughout various
sections of this chapter except the section, Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert. This later section illustrates the
simulation using the SimXpert workspace environment, instead of the Nastran input file(s). While both illustrations
ultimately lead to the same solution, viewing the simulation from these two different viewpoints facilitates a better
understanding of how to perform the simulation.
For example, nug_01am.dat, uses contact body IDs 5 and 6 as the set of elements for the block and cylinder,
respectively; whereas the input file, ch01.bdf, (derived from the SimXpert workspaces database, ch01.SimXpert)
uses contact body IDs 1 and 2 as the set of elements for the block and cylinder, respectively. It is important to
understand that while the contact bodies in these two input files are different (they use different IDs with a different
set of elements), they yield the same solution since the loads, boundary conditions, and material properties are
the same.
File Description
nug_01am.dat Linear Elements Without Friction
nug_01aw.dat Same as above but contact bodies are in wrong order
nug_01bm.dat Linear Elements With Friction
nug_01cm.dat Parabolic Elements Without Friction
nug_01dm.dat Parabolic Elements With Friction
ch01.SimXpert SimXpert Model
ch01.bdf Nastran input model (Linear Elements Without Friction)
Main Index
Chapter 2: 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact
2
3-D Punch (Rounded
Edges) Contact

Summary 70

Introduction 71

Requested Solutions 71

FEM Solutions 71

Results 74

General Analysis Tips 77

Input File(s) 78

Video 78
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70
Summary
Title Chapter 2: 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact
Contact features Axisymmetric/3-D contact
Analytical deformable body contact
Friction along deformable-deformable contact plane
Comparison of linear and parabolic elements
Geometry Axisymmetric and 3-D continuum elements (units: mm)
Punch Diameter = 100
Punch Height = 100
Foundation Diameter = 200
Foundation Height = 200
Fillet radius at edge of punch contact = 10
Material properties

Analysis type Linear elastic material
Geometric nonlinearity
Nonlinear boundary conditions
Boundary conditions Symmetry displacement constraints in 3-D model (quarter symmetry)
Noncontacting surface of the foundation is fixed
Applied loads A uniform pressure (distributed load) is applied to the punch in the axial direction,
Element type Axisymmetric
4-node linear elements
8-node parabolic elements
Contact properties
Coefficient of friction and
FE results 1. Plot of contact pressure versus radius
2. Plot of contact normal force and friction force versus radius
3. Plot of radial displacement and relative tangential slip versus radius
E
punch
210kN mm
2
= E
foundation
70kN mm
2
= v
punch
v
foundation
0.3 = =
u
x
u
y
u
z
0 = = =
P 100N mm
2
=
0.0 = 0.1 =
Friction NAFEMS No Friction
0 20 40 60 80 100
-0.020
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
Friction
No Friction
Radial Displacement (mm)
Radius (mm)
3-D continuum
8-node linear elements
Main Index
71
CHAPTER 2
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact
Introduction
An axisymmetric steel punch is compressed on an aluminium cylinder. It is assumed that the material behavior is linear
elastic. The punch is loaded by a uniform pressure with magnitude

in the axial direction. The effect of
friction is studied along the contact zone. Axisymmetric 2-D solutions are used to serve as a target solution for a 3-D
analysis. For the 3-D solutions, one quarter of the assembly is modeled, using symmetry conditions. (Ref: NAFEMS,
2006, Advanced Finite Element Contact Benchmarks, Benchmark 2, 3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact)
Requested Solutions
Both 2-D (axisymmetric) and 3-D solutions are requested. Two solutions, one frictionless and the other using a friction
coefficient of 0.1 between the punch and foundation, are requested. The displacement, force, and stress fields in the
contact zone (contacting surface of the punch and contacted surface of the foundation) are of interest and are obtained
with both linear and parabolic elements in the axisymmetric case and with linear elements in the 3-D case. The SOL
400 elements specified through suitable extensions to the PLPLANE or PSOLID entries are demonstrated. In the 3-D
case, solutions obtained with these elements are also compared to those obtained using existing HEX elements.
The solutions presented include:
Radial displacement of top contact surface of punch as function of coordinate.
Contact force, friction force, and contact pressure distributions as a function of coordinate.
FEM Solutions
Numerical solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 for multiple 2-D axisymmetric
and 3-D cases. The axisymmetric cases include linear and parabolic elements, with and without friction. The 3-D case
includes linear elements with and without friction.
The contact, material, geometry, convergence, and other parameters are explained below - primarily with respect to
the axisymmetric linear element case and are representative for both 2-D and 3-D cases.
Contact Parameters
The element mesh using axisymmetric linear elements is shown in Figure 2-1 and is further described as follows: Two
contact bodies, one identified as the punch and the other identified as the foundation, are used. Pressure is applied at
the top of the punch in the axial direction. The bottom of the punch, in turn, compresses the foundation. Typical
element length along the punch and foundation is 4 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively. Contact body ID 4 is used to identify
the punch and body ID 5 is used to identify the foundation.
BCBODY 4 2D DEFORM 4 0 .1 -1
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
........
BCBODY 5 2D DEFORM 5 0 .1
BSURF 5 229 230 231 232 233 234 235
..........
P 100N mm
2
=
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72
BCBODY with ID 4 is identified as a two-dimensional deformable body with BSURF ID 4 and friction coefficient of
0.1. Furthermore, -1 on the 8th field indicates that BCBODY 4 is described as an analytical body, wherein the discrete
facets associated with the element edges are internally enhanced by using cubic splines. Since the punch has rounded
edges in the contact zone, using an enhanced spline representation of the punch yields better accuracy. The minus sign
indicates that the nodal locations defining the spline discontinuities are automatically determined. Note that since the
foundation is a rectangular shape with sharp angles, using the spline option with this body is not necessary since it
would only increase the computational cost without an associated improvement in accuracy.
Figure 2-1 Element Mesh used for Axisymmetric Case in MSC Nastran (Benchmark 2)
The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below identify the touching conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 4 0. 0. .1 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 4 0. 0. .1 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. It should be noted that this is
a required option that is required in SOL 400 for contact analysis. It is flagged in the case control section through the
optional BCONTACT = 0 option. Note that BCTABLE 0 and other contact cards with ID 0 (e.g., BCPARA 0) would be
applied at the start of the analysis even without the BCONTACT = 0 option. For later increments in the analysis,
Main Index
73
CHAPTER 2
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact
BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section indicates that BCTABLE with ID 1 is to be used to define the touching
conditions between the punch and the foundation.
The BCPARA bulk data entry shown below for the frictional linear axisymmetric case defines the general contact
parameters to be used in the analysis:
BCPARA 0 NBODIES 2 MAXENT 84 MAXNOD 84
FTYPE 6 BIAS 9.0E-01 ISPLIT 3 RVCNST 1.0E-04
Note that ID 0 on the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the
analysis and are maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE
option. Important entries under BCPARA option include FTYPE - the friction type, RVCNST - the slip-threshold value
and the BIAS - the distance tolerance bias. As per general recommendation, BIAS is set to 0.9 (note that the default
value of BIAS is 0.9). For the frictional case, FTYPE is set to 6 (bilinear Coulomb model) and RVCNST is set to 1e-4
(this is a non-default value that is used in this particular problem - the need for a non-default value is discussed in more
detail later). Note that when other parameters on the BCPARA option like ERROR (distance tolerance), FNTOL
(separation force) are not specified, left as blank or specified as 0, program calculated defaults are used. It should also
be noted that while the BCPARA parameters generally apply to all the bodies throughout the analysis, some of the
parameters like ERROR, BIAS, FNTOL can be redefined via the BCTABLE option for specific body combinations and
for specific times through the analysis.
Material/Geometry Parameters
The two material properties used herein for the punch and foundation are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus
and Poissons ratio defined as
$ Material Record : steel
MAT1 1 210000. .3
$ Material Record : aluminum
MAT1 2 70000. .3
For the 2-D case, axisymmetric elements are chosen via the CQUADX option pointing to a PLPLANE entry which in
turn, points to an auxiliary PSHLN2 entry as shown below.
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1 +
+ C4 AXSOLID L +
+ C8 AXSOLID Q
where the C4 entries indicate that linear 4-noded full integration axisymmetric solid elements are to be used and the
C8 entries indicate that parabolic 8-noded full integration axisymmetric solid elements are to be used. Note that the
PSHLN2 entry enables SOL 400 to access a robust 2-D element library featuring linear and parabolic plane stress,
plane strain or axisymmetric elements. Multiple element topologies (4-noded, 6-noded, 8-noded) can be defined as
plane stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric through the PSHLN2 options. These elements which can be used for
isotropic/orthotropic/ anisotropic elastic/elasto-plastic applications augment previous SOL 400 hyperelastic element
technology that could be used in conjunction with the PLPLANE and MATHP options.
For the 3-D case, hex elements are chosen via the CHEXA option pointing to a PSOLID entry. For elastic or small strain
applications, the user has two choices: Use existing 3-D solid elements with just the PSOLID option or use 3-D solid
element technology accessed by the PSOLID entry pointing to an auxiliary PSLDN1 entry. For large strain elasto-
plastic applications, the user should always use the 3-D solid elements; i.e., the primary usage of the 3-D solid
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 2
74
elements is for large strain elasto-plasticity for which the PSLDN1 + NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 bulk data entry is
recommended. However, as in the current example, these elements can also be used for elastic applications when used
in conjunction with PSLDN1 and with NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED entry.
Convergence Parameters
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 10 PFNT 0 25 UP YES
where 10 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Full Newton-Raphson Technique, wherein the
stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines whether the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed
and the next load increment is commenced. The maximum number of allowed recycles is 25 for every increment and
if this were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. UP indicates that convergence
will be checked using both displacements (U) and residual criteria (P). YES indicates that intermediate output will be
produced after every increment (note that this has been turned to NO for the 3-D case due to voluminous output). The
second line of NLPARM is omitted here, which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U
and P. It should be noted that the PFNT iterative method used conducts checking over incremental displacements and
is generally more stringent than for the FNT iterative method which convergence is checked over weighted total
displacements.
Case Control Parameters
Some of the case control entries to conduct these analyses are highlighted as follows: SUBCASE 1 indicates the case
being considered. There are no STEP entries in this analysis since a single loading sequence is being considered. For
multiple loading sequences that follow one another, STEP entries can be used within a single SUBCASE to identify
each sequence. BCONTACT = 1 is used to indicate the contact parameters for SUBCASE 1. NLPARM = 1 is used to flag
the nonlinear procedure for SUBCASE 1. In addition to regular output requests like DISPLACEMENTS, STRESSES,
the option that is required for contact related output in the F06 file is BOUTPUT. It should be noted that with the
BOUTPUT option, one can obtain normal contact forces, frictional forces, contact normal stress magnitudes, and
contact status for the contact nodes.
Results
The radial displacements obtained for the frictionless and frictional cases for the linear axisymmetric element case are
compared in Figure 2-2. The results match very well with the corresponding NAFEMS results (Benchmark 2 of
NAFEMS 2006).
It is noteworthy to study the effect of the slip threshold value, RVCNST, on the friction results. The radial
displacements for two different values of RVCNST are compared in Figure 2-3. It is seen that RVCNST has a significant
influence on the radial displacements. It should be noted that the default value of RVCNST is calculated as 0.0025 times
the average edge length of all elements that can participate in contact. For the linear axisymmetric problem, the default
RVCNST is of the order of 0.015. Relative radial displacements which are smaller than this value imply a transition
Main Index
75
CHAPTER 2
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact
zone and the frictional force linearly increases from 0 to the peak value within this zone. In order to capture the
frictional force and the relative sliding more accurately, a smaller value of RVCNST (= 1e-4) is required in this
problem. In general, for friction problems, a good check to be made from the f06 file or by postprocessing is whether
the friction force is of the order of , where is the friction coefficient and is the nodal contact normal force.
Figure 2-2 Radial Displacement as Function of the Radial Coordinate (friction coefficient =0.0 and 0.1)
Obtained with Linear Axisymmetric Elements
Figure 2-3 Effect of slip threshold value, RVCNST, on Radial Displacement
The contact normal force and friction force along the punch for the linear axisymmetric element is plotted in
Figure 2-4. It is instructive to check that equilibrium is well-maintained (the sum of the contact forces transmitted via
the punch should be equal to the total force being applied to the punch). It can be shown that the sum of all contact
forces at the punch-foundation interface is within .03% of the total force applied on the punch
. Also, the friction forces are about 0.1 times the contact normal forces.
F
n
F
n
Friction NAFEMS No Friction
0 20 40 60 80 100
-0.020
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
Friction
No Friction
Radial Displacement (mm)
Radius (mm)
0 20 40 60 80 100
-0.020
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
= 0.1
RVCNST=default
= 0.1 RVCNST=1e-4
No Friction
Radial Displacement (mm)
Distance (mm)
=PtR
punch
2
100t50
2
7.85e5N = =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 2
76
The contact pressure is plotted for the contacting nodes for both the linear and parabolic axisymmetric elements of the
punch in Figure 2-5. The parabolic solution shows a rather oscillating type of behavior. Also, as may be expected, the
parabolic solution shows a more localized stress peak. These trends are consistent with the NAFEMS benchmark 2
results. The oscillatory behavior can be improved by refining the mesh in the contact zone (and the surrounding part
assuring connection with the remaining part of the structures).
Figure 2-4 Contact Normal Force and Friction Force at Punch as a Function of Radial Coordinate Along
Punch-Foundation Contact Interface
Figure 2-5 Variation of Contact Normal Stress Along Radial Coordinate of Punch for Linear and
Parabolic Axisymmetric Elements
The displacement contours in the punch for the 3-D frictional case are shown in Figure 2-6. The left-hand side shows
the solution for the 3-D solid elements identified through the PSOLID + PSLDN1 options. The right-hand side shows
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
Contact Friction
Force
Contact Normal
Force
Force (N)
Distance (mm)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Linear Elements
Parabolic Elements
Contact Normal Stress (N/mm )
Distance (mm)
2
Main Index
77
CHAPTER 2
3-D Punch (Rounded Edges) Contact
the solution for the existing 3-D solid elements identified through the PSOLID options only. As seen, the solutions are
very close to each other.
Figure 2-6 Comparison of Punch Displacement Contours in Two different Solid Elements Available in
SOL 400
General Analysis Tips
While the contact checking algorithm in SOL 400 provides a number of options for the searching order via the
ISEARCH parameter on the BCTABLE option, the user should be aware of a few recommendations regarding
the touching (slave) body and the touched (master) body: The touching body should be convex, generally be
less stiff, and be more finely meshed than the touched body. This allows for better conditioning of the
matrices and provides for better nodal contact. Note that these recommendations may not all be satisfied at the
same time; for example, in this benchmark, the punch which has been identified as the first body is convex
and smaller than the foundation but has a slightly coarser mesh and is somewhat stiffer than the foundation.
The accuracy of the friction solution should be judged by checking that the frictional forces at the nodes are
generally equal to . If this is violated, the slip-threshold value, RVCNST, may need to be adjusted. Note
also that to ensure a quality solution with friction, in general, the incremental displacements need to converge
well. This can be ensured by using PFNT on the NLPARM option and checking on U.
The PSHLN2 entry in conjunction with PLPLANE entries allows the users to flag 2-D elements for plane
stress, plane strain, or axisymmetric applications with isotropic/orthotropic/ anistropic elastic/elasto-plastic
materials. Similarly, PSLDN1 entries in conjunction with PSOLID entries allows the users to flag nonlinear
3-D solid continuum elements. The 2-D elements offer a range of abilities for small strain and large strain
elastic/elasto-plastic analysis. The fundamental application of the 3-D elements is for large strain elasto-
plastic applications, wherein use should be made of the NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 option to flag appropriate
element behavior. It should be noted that the 3-D elements can also be used in the elastic regime (as in this
current example - see nug_02em.dat). In such situations, it is highly recommended that one not use
NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 but use NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED to ensure better behavior in elastic bending.
Existing 3-D element technology for SOL 400 can be used for elastic applications too (see nug_02en.dat
for example). In this case, one simply uses PSOLID without the PSLDN1 addition.
F
n
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 2
78
For the axisymmetric case, the pressure load is applied through PLOADX1. It should be noted that the pressure
value to be specified on the PLOADX1 option is not the force per unit area but the pressure over a
circular ring of angle . Accordingly, on the LOAD bulk data entry, the pressure load is scaled by a value of
.
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 2-7 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_02am.dat Axisymmetric Linear Elements Without Friction
nug_02bm.dat Axisymmetric Linear Elements With Friction
nug_02cm.dat Axisymmetric Parabolic Elements Without Friction
nug_02dm.dat Axisymmetric Parabolic Elements With Friction
nug_02em.dat 3-D Linear Elements Without Friction - PSLDN1 used along with PSOLID to flag nonlinear
HEX elements
nug_02en.dat 3-D Linear Elements Without Friction - existing HEX element technology flagged through
PSOLID
nug_02fm.dat 3-D Linear Elements With Friction - PSLDN1 used along with PSOLID to flag nonlinear
HEX elements
nug_02fn.dat 3-D Linear Elements With Friction - existing HEX element technology flagged through
PSOLID
100N mm
2
( )
2t
2t
Friction NAFEMS No Friction
0 20 40 60 80 100
-0.020
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
Friction
No Friction
Radial Displacement (mm)
Radius (mm)
Main Index
Chapter 3: 3-D Sheet Metal Forming
3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming

Summary 80

Introduction 81

Solution Requirements 81

FEM Solutions 82

Modeling Tips 92

Input File(s) 93

Video 93
Main Index
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CHAPTER 3
80
Summary
Title Chapter 3: 3-D Sheet Metal Forming
Contact features Rigid and deformable bodies
Mesh dependency
Elasticity, plasticity and spring back
Sliding contact around circular surface
Geometry 2-D Plane strain elements or shell elements (units:
mm)
Punch radius = 23.5
Die radius R2 = 25.0
Die shoulder R3 = 4.0
Width of tools = 50.0
Length of sheet (initially) =120.0
Thickness of sheet = 1.0
Width of sheet = 30.0
Punch stroke = 28.5
Material properties
Youngs modulus:
Poissons ratio:
Initial yield stress:
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Elastic plastic material (isotropic hardening)
Geometric nonlinearity
Nonlinear boundary conditions
Displacement boundary
conditions
Symmetric displacement restraints (half symmetry).
Bottom surface fixed.
Prescribed vertical displacement for the punch.
Element type 2-D Plane strain - 4-node linear elements; 3-D Shell - 4-node shell elements
Contact properties Coefficient of friction
FE results 1. Forming angle and angle after release
2. Plot of punch force versus punch displacement compared to experimental values
Punch
Original
Position
Final
Position
Sheet
Die
W
R2
R3
Hollomon hardening:
o Kc
n
=
K 550.4N mm
2
=
n 0.223 =
E 70.5kN mm
2
=
v 0.342 =
o
0
194N mm
2
=
0.1342 =
Punch Force (N)
2D Plane Strain With Friction
Punch Displacement (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Experimental
Marc
SOL 400
Main Index
81
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
Introduction
This benchmark problem is an approximation of the Numisheet 2002 Benchmark B problem. Simulations are carried
out using MSC Nastran solution sequence 400 to find the angles before and after spring back. Experimental results are
available for this benchmark, but it is noted that the sheet is slightly anisotropic. The text setup and reference details
of these experimental results are given in Figure 3-1. The current problem uses an isotropic elastic-plastic hardening
behavior.
Figure 3-1 Test Setup for Numisheet 2002 - Benchmark B Problem
Solution Requirements
Two solutions: one using friction coefficient 0.1342 (bilinear Coulomb friction model) between the sheet and both
tools, and one frictionless solution are requested for:
Forming angle (the angle at the end of the punch stroke)
Angle after release (the angle after tool removal)
Punch force - punch displacement diagram
Figure 3-2 shows the definition of angle . The solutions, obtained with shell elements and plane strain elements,
include the following:
Element size (in particular near the curved zones)
Method used in discretization of the tools
Method for normal contact detection (hard/direct contact)
Method for stick slip approximation (bilinear Coulomb friction model)
SOURCE
FREE BENDING BENCHMARK TESTING OF 6111-T4 ALUMINUM ALLOY SAMPLE
John C. Brem*, Frederic Barlat**, Joseph M. Fridy** Alcoa Technical Center, Pennsylvania,
Numisheet 2002 Conference, Korea
u
u
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 3
82
Figure 3-2 Requested Angles for Benchmark 3
FEM Solutions
FEM solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 for the 2-D plane strain and 3-D shell
representations of the present sheet metal forming problem. The details of finite element models, contact simulations,
material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure of both the 2-D plane strain and 3-D shell approaches are
discussed.
Finite Element Models
The finite element model used for the 2-D plane strain approach is shown in Figure 3-3. The punch and die are
modeled in analytical form. The finite element mesh for the sheet contains 850 elements with 5 elements over the
thickness. Only half of the sheet is modeled. The applied element lengths can be determined from Table 3-1. MSC
Nastrans 2-D plane strain solid elements with material ID 1 are selected using the following PLPLANE and PSHLN2
entries. The 30 mm for the width of the sheet is specified in PSHLN2 option.
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1 30.0 +
+ C4 PLSTRN L

20
A
y
x
C
B D
C
D
20
20
Unit: mm
Main Index
83
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
Figure 3-3 FE Model for 2-D Plane Strain Approach
The finite element model used for the 3-D shell approach is presented in Figure 3-3. Also, in this case, only half of the
plate has been modeled with appropriate symmetry conditions at the middle of the plate. The sheet is modeled using
1020 thick shell elements with 6 elements across the width and 170 elements along the length (as in Table 3-2). MSC
Nastrans thick shell elements with material ID 1 are selected using the following PSHELL and PSHLN1 entries. The
thickness 1 mm for the sheet is specified in PSHELL option.
PSHELL 1 1 1. 1 1
PSHLN1 1 1 1 NO +
+ C4 DCT L
Figure 3-4 FE Model for 3-D Shell Approach
Table 3-1 Number of Elements in Length Direction (2-D Plane Strain Model)
Position Number of Elements
50
100
20
0 x 27mm s s
27 x 40.2mm s s
40.2 x 60mm s s
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84
Contact Models
In defining the contact model for the 2-D plane strain case, the sheet is modeled as a deformable body and the punch
and die are modeled as rigid bodies. Elements comprising the sheet are used to generate a deformable contact body
with ID 4 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. Contact body ID 5 is used to define the load controlled
rigid body with a control node ID 1 for the punch and contact body ID 6 is used to define the position controlled rigid
body for the die. The geometry profiles of these rigid bodies are defined using 2-D NURB curves that describe the true
surface geometry and most accurately represent the punch and die geometry. The friction factor of 0.1342 is defined
for all these contact bodies.
BCBODY 4 2D DEFORM 4 0 .1342
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
BCBODY 5 2D RIGID 0 .1342 1 1
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 1 4 CBODY2
NURBS2D -3 3 50
...
BCBODY 6 2D RIGID 0 .1342 1 -1
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 0 6 CBODY3
NURBS2D -2 2 50
...
The contact bodies for the 3-D shell models are also defined in similar way with the punch and die surfaces defined
using 3-D NURB surfaces. The following BCBODY entries are used to define contact bodies for 3-D shell model. The
control node ID 1198 is used in this case to define the load controlled rigid body for the punch.
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0 .1342
BSURF 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
BCBODY 2 3D RIGID 0 .1342 1 1198
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 1198 1 CBODY2
NURBS -19 4 4 4 50 50 14
...
BCBODY 3 3D RIGID 0 .1342 1 -1
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 0 5 CBODY3
NURBS -7 13 4 4 50 50 0
...
The following BCPARA bulk data entry defines the general contact parameters to be used in the analysis. The ID 0 on
the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the analysis and are
maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE option.
Important entries under BCPARA option include: FTYPE the friction type and the BIAS - the distance tolerance bias.
For all the models, the bias factor, BIAS, is set to 0.99. The bilinear Coulomb friction model is activated by setting
FTYPE to 6. For the models without friction, FTYPE is set as 0.
BCPARA 0
BIAS .99 FTYPE 6
Table 3-2 Number of Elements in Length Direction (Benchmark 3)
Position Number of Elements
160
10
0 x 40mm s s
40 x 60mm s s
Main Index
85
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
The following BCTABLE entries identify how the contact bodies can touch each other. The BCTABLE with ID 0 is used
to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for contact
analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. Similar BCTABLE
options with ID 1, 2 and 3 are used to define the touching conditions for later steps in the analysis, and it is flagged
using the option BCONTACT = n (where n is the step number 1, 2 or 3) in the case control section. Two contact pairs
are defined in the BCTABLE option: one between the sheet and punch and one between the sheet and die. Both the 2-
D plane strain and 3-D shell models have similar BCTABLE entries.
BCTABLE 0 2
SLAVE 4 0. 0. .1342 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 .99 0.
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 4 0. 0. .1342 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 .99 0.
MASTERS 6
Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic- plastic material properties of the sheet are defined using the following MAT1, MATEP,
and TABLES1 options. The Hollomon hardening behavior, with ,and is
represented in the form of stress-strain data defined in TABLES1 option.
MAT1 1 70500. .342 1.
MATEP 1 Table 1 Isotrop Addmean
TABLES1 1 2
0. 194. .02 230.043 .04 268.496 .06 293.904
.08 313.378 .1 329.365 .2 384.423 .3 420.802
.4 448.681 .5 471.573 .6 491.14 .7 508.317
.8 523.682 .9 537.619 1. 550.399 1.1 562.224
1.2 573.239 1.3 583.564 1.4 593.287 ENDT
The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1
Loading and Boundary Conditions
The following set of boundary conditions has been applied for both 2-D plane strain and 3-D shell models:
Symmetry conditions (i.e., no displacement in horizontal direction) have been applied to the left size of the
strip
For the position controlled rigid body used for the die surface, all degrees of freedom have been suppressed.
For the control node of the load controlled rigid body used for the punch surface, the displacement
components in horizontal directions are suppressed, while the displacement in vertical direction is specified as
a function of the time (refer to Table 3-3).
o Kc
n
= K 550.4N mm
2
= n 0.223 =
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MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 3
86
The following data in the case control section of the input file defines the load and boundary conditions at the four
different steps of the analysis. The bulk data entries SPCD, SPCR and SPC1 are used to define the loads in these steps.
The SPCD data presented here shows the application of the imposed downward displacement of 28.5 in vertical
direction in steps 1 and 2 at node 1 for the 2-D plane strain model. A similar imposed displacement is applied at node
1198 for the 3-D shell model. The SPCR data presented here shows the application of the imposed upward relative
displacement of 10.0 in vertical direction in step 3 and its fixation in step 4 at node 927 for the 2-D plane strain model.
A similar imposed relative displacement is applied at node 1167 for the 3-D shell model.
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
NLSTEP = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 1
STEP 2
NLSTEP = 2
BCONTACT = 2
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
STEP 3
NLSTEP = 3
BCONTACT = 3
SPC = 3
LOAD = 3
$ Loads for Load Case : step-1
SPCADD 2 7 9
SPCD 1 1 2 -28.5
SPC1 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SPC1 9 12 1
$ Loads for Load Case : step-2
SPCD 2 1 2 -28.5
$ Loads for Load Case : step-3
SPCADD 3 7 8 9
SPCD 3 1 2 -18.5
SPCR 3 927 2 10.
SPC1 8 2 927
Solution Procedure
The present analysis of metal forming and gradual spring back is carried out in four different steps on both the 2-D
plane strain and 3-D shell models. In each of these models, the analysis has been carried out for the cases with and
without friction using SOL 400 in MSC Nastran. The first step analyses the metal forming process, the second step is
used to achieve a more accurate solution before the spring back analysis starts in steps 3 and 4.
In the first step, the metal forming operation is simulated by applying a vertical downward displacement of punch. The
nonlinear procedure is defined through the following NLSTEP entry with ID 1. Here 100 indicates the total number
Table 3-3 Vertical Displacement of Punch as a Function of Time
Time Vertical Displacement
0.0 0
1.0 -28.5
2.0 -28.5
3.0 0
Main Index
87
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every
iteration; 500 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment. UP indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacement (U) and residuals (P). The 0.01 defined in the fourth line of NLSTEP indicates the
convergence tolerances of 0.01 for displacement and residual checking. The negative sign of displacement tolerance
indicates that iteration on displacements will be checked against the incremental displacement quantity instead of total
displacement.
The second step is considered to be a dummy one in which the load applied in the first step is maintained with very
fine convergence tolerances on displacement and residual. This step is used to ensure that the model reaches the good
equilibrium condition at the end of step 2 and before starting step 3 involving the more complex spring back operation.
It can be seen from the NLSTEP ID 3 that this spring back operation is done over 200 increments with a convergence
check only on displacement.
NLSTEP 1 1.
GENERAL 500 1 10
FIXED 100 1
MECH UP -0.01 0.01 PFNT -1
0 0
NLSTEP 2 1.
GENERAL 500 1 10
FIXED 10 1
MECH UP -0.0001 0.0001 PFNT -1
0 0
NLSTEP 3 1.
GENERAL 500 1 10
FIXED 200 1
MECH U -0.01 PFNT -1
0 0
To restrict rigid body movement during the springback step-3, a spring with very small stiffness (1e-5) is added at the
free end using the following CELAS1 and PELAS cards.
CELAS1 851 2 927 2
PELAS 2 1.E-5
Results
The characteristic deformed stages from the 2-D plane strain analysis without friction and with friction during the
forming step are shown in Figure 3-5. The deformed shapes during the release in various stages are shown in
Figure 3-6.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 3
88
Figure 3-5 Various Deformed Stages during Forming Step
Main Index
89
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
Figure 3-6 Various Deformed Stages during Spring Back Step
In the analysis without friction, contact is initially present between the sheet and the lower section of the punch. Near
the end of the deformation, the sheet separates at the lower section of the punch and gets in contact with the lower
section of the die. As soon as this contact is detected, the sheet is further bent into the final shape and the required force
in the force displacement history curve increases (Figure 3-5). In the analysis with friction, the deformation behavior
is different. The tangential forces due to friction result in a stretching of the sheet causing contact between the punch
and the sheet to be present during the complete forming history.
The characteristic load displacement curves for the analysis from SOL 400 without friction and with friction are shown
in Figure 3-7. The differences in the shape of the curves are caused by the different contact conditions at the end of
the forming stage.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 3
90
Figure 3-7 Load Displacement Diagram for 2-D Plane Strain Model
Observe that the unloading stage is analyzed in two steps. In the first unloading step the punch and the strip are moved
simultaneously in upward direction. This releases the strip from the die, while it remains in contact with the punch. In
the second unloading step the strip is fixed in vertical direction while the punch is moved further upward to its original
position. This gradually releases the strip from the punch and allows it to spring back to its final configuration. Note
that the fixation of the strip is such that there are no reaction forces after it has lost contact with both the die and the
punch. This, of course, is a requirement in order to capture the proper spring back behavior. The fixation primarily
serves to suppress rigid body motions of the model during the unloading stage.
The characteristic values of the angles at the end of the forming stage and after removal of the tool are listed in
Table 3-4.
A comparison of the results obtained with Marc and SOL 400 of MSC Nastran is shown in Figure 3-8 (no friction)
and Figure 3-9 (friction). In the last figure, a comparison is also made with the experimental result. The results from
SOL 400 are found to be on the higher side, particularly towards the end of forming. The results exhibit more
oscillations in the load displacement curve and this is caused by the use of hard contact approach in Marc and SOL
400. It should be noted that no experimental data points are reported for the unloading.
Table 3-4 Characteristic Angles during Forming and Release Process (2-D Plane Strain Model)
Friction Coefficient Forming Angle Angle After Release
0 20.42 46.24
0.1348 20.35 54.56
Punch Force (N)
Punch Displacement (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
With Friction
No Friction
2D Plane Strain MD Sol 400
Main Index
91
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
Figure 3-8 Load Displacement Curves from Marc and SOL 400 (without friction)
Figure 3-9 Load Displacement Curves from Marc and SOL 400 (with friction)
The results of analyses from 3-D shell models have been compared with the plane strain analysis for both the cases
with and without friction. The load displacement curves for these two models are shown in Figure 3-10 (no friction)
and Figure 3-11 (friction=0.1348).
Figure 3-10 Comparison of Plane Strain and Shell Analyses (no friction)
Punch Force (N)
2D Plane Strain No Friction
Punch Displacement (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
No Friction Marc
No Friction MD SOL 400
Punch Force (N)
2D Plane Strain With Friction
Punch Displacement (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Experimental
Marc
SOL 400
Punch Force (N)
2D & 3D No Friction
Punch Displacement (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
3D
2D
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 3
92
Figure 3-11 Comparison of Plane Strain and Shell Analyses (friction = 0.1348)
The resulting values of the characteristic angles are listed in Table 3-5 (no friction) and Table 3-6 (with friction). For
the case with friction, the results are compared with experimental predictions from Numisheet 2002. The predictions
of SOL 400 from both 2-D plane strain case and 3-D shell models are found to match well with the experiment.
Modeling Tips
One of the complicating characteristics in this benchmark problem is a very local contact between the plate and the
curved shoulders of the die. In fact, the contact is almost a point (2-D) or line (3-D) contact with a large amount of
sliding. Contact is only verified between the nodes of the plate and the rigid dies. Hence, in the discrete steps of the
displacement history, points can be identified where no contact is detected; especially, if large elements are used near
the shoulder of the die.
The following are some guidelines and tips for modeling this benchmark:
A fine mesh has to be used to describe the contact of the nodes of the sheet with the die properly
A smooth representation of the die has to be chosen, either in an analytical form or by a piecewise linear curve
using a high number of segments
Table 3-5 Comparison of Angles for Plane Strain and Shell Approach (no friction)
Forming Angle Angle After Release
Plane strain 20.42 46.24
Shell 20.38 46.67
Table 3-6 Comparison of Angles for Plane Strain and Shell Approach (Friction 0.1348)
Forming Angle Angle After Release
Plane strain 20.35 54.56
Shell 20.45 54.07
Numisheet 19.6 to 21.0 53.4 to 55.8
Punch Force (N)
2D & 3D With Friction
Punch Displacement (mm)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
3D
2D
Main Index
93
CHAPTER 3
3-D Sheet Metal Forming
The unloading behavior is characterized by removal of the tools and at the same time adding boundary
conditions preventing the possibility of rigid body movement.
The unloading behavior should preferably be done in a number of steps. Note that in these steps low values of
the normal and, consequently, the friction forces are present which makes it difficult to obtain a converged
solution
Numerical damping is often recommended to stabilize the solution, but it can be shown that this greatly
influences the accuracy of the solution.
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 25 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 3-12 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_03a.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 2-D plane strain model (without friction)
nug_03b.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 2-D plane strain model (with friction)
nug_03c.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 3-D shell model (without friction)
nug_03d.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for 3-D shell model (with friction)
Punch
Original
Position
Final
Position
Sheet
Die
W
R2
R3
Main Index
Chapter 4: 3-D Loaded Pin with Friction
4
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction

Summary 95

Introduction 96

Required Solution 96

FEM Solutions 96

General Analysis Tips 101

Input File(s) 101

Video 101
Main Index
95
CHAPTER 4
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction
Summary
Title Chapter 4: 3-D Loaded Pin with Friction
Contact features Receding contact area
Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable contact
Friction along the contact surface
Geometry 3-D continuum (units: mm)
L1 = 200
L2 = 20
R1 = 50
R2 = 100
H = 100
t = 10
Material properties
, ,
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Linear elastic material
Geometric nonlinearity
Displacement boundary
conditions and
applied loads
Symmetric displacement constraints (quarter symmetry).
Left side of sheet is fixed.
Two equal point forces, resulting in a total force on the pin of .
Element type 3-D Continuum - 8-node linear elements
Contact properties Deformable-to-deformable bodies contact
Coefficient of friction
FE results 1. Plot of contact pressure against angle
2. Plot of tangential stress against angle
3. Plot of relative tangential slip against angle .
L
t
L
2
t
F
F
L1
R2
R1
H

L1
R2
R1
H

E
pin
210kN mm
2
= E
sheet
70kN mm
2
= v
sheet
v
pin
0.3 = =
100kN
0.1 =
u
u
u
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
Strip_x
Pin_x
Displacement X (mm)
Angle (degrees)
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 4
96
Introduction
This application example evaluates the performance of contact algorithms at curved boundaries between deformable
bodies. A cylindrical pin is located in the cylindrical hole of a strip. The diameters of the hole and the pin are identical.
Two equal point forces are applied to the center of the end surfaces of the pin. It is assumed that the tangential contact
forces can be described with a Coulomb friction model using friction coefficient 0.1. Due to the symmetry condition,
a quarter of the assembly is sufficient for the finite element analysis.
Required Solution
The displacement components and contact normal and tangential forces are of interest. In addition, the relative
tangential slips along the contact surfaces of the two bodies as functions of angle (see Figure 4-1) are also worth
investigating. One analysis is conducted with MSC.Nastran SOL 400 with standard HEX elements and compared with
available advanced HEX elements. In the current version of MSC Nastran SOL 400, the advanced HEX elements are
defined by a PSOLID entry pointing to an auxiliary PSLDN1 entry.
Figure 4-1 Angle Definition in Requested Displacement Field
FEM Solutions
Numerical solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastran solution sequence 400 for the 3-D case. First, the advanced
3-D elements are used to conduct the analysis with contact and friction. In comparison, the same analysis is also
conducted with the standard 3-D solid elements.
The contact, material/geometry, solution/convergence schemes and other parameters are explained below.
Contact Parameters
The element mesh using the 3-D solid element is shown in Figure 4-2. The contact body named as cbody1 (shown
in pink) represents the pin. The contact body named as cbody2 defines the strip. A point load (black arrow) is applied
at the center point of top end of the pin. It should be noted that the symmetry has been taken into consideration.
u

Main Index
97
CHAPTER 4
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction
Figure 4-2 FE Model for the Numerical Solution
In the input data file, the contact bodies are defined as below:
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0 .1
BSURF 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
.
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2 0 .1 -1
BSURF 2 2296 2297 2298 2299 2300 2301 2302
.
The BCBODY with ID 1 defines the pin as a three-dimensional deformable body. The BCBODY with ID 2 defines the
sheet also as a three-dimensional deformable body. Furthermore, BCBODY 2 is described as an analytical body by set
value of 1 at the 8th field.
The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below define the touch conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .1 0. 0
1 1 0
FBSH 1.+20 .99 0.
MASTERS 2
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .1 0. 0
1 1 0
FBSH 1.+20 .99 0.
MASTERS 2
As shown above, BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the contact touching conditions at the start of the analysis. Zero
(0) identifies the case number. The BCTABLE entry is mandatory for the contact analysis with SOL 400. Also, the
options (BCONTACT with ID 0 and BCPARA with ID 0) are all applied at the start of the analysis. For the loading
analysis defined as load case 1 under the case control section, the contact touching conditions are redefined by options
of BCTABLE, BCPARA, and BCONTACT with ID 1. In this example, the BCPARA is only defined once because the
parameters specified herein are applied through the analysis from the beginning unless some of these parameters are
redefined by BCTABLE entry with ID 1. It should be mentioned is that the BIAS parameter is defined as 0.99 (the
default value is 0.9).
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 4
98
BCPARA 0
BIAS .99 FTYPE 6
Material/Geometry Parameters
The both bodies in this analysis are defined as isotropic elastic materials. The Youngs modulus and Poisson ratio are
defined as:
MAT1 1 210000. .3 1.
MAT1 2 70000. .3 1.
As shown above, the material IDs are given as 1 and 2 for the pin and the sheet, respectively.
Case Control Parameters
There is a single loading sequence in the analysis. The control parameters are defined by the NLPARM option. As
shown below, SUBCASE with ID 1 defines all necessary conditions applied to the analysis which includes bulk data
options: TITLE, NLPARM, BCONTACT, SPC, LOAD, and requested output information. Particularly, it is necessary to
note the analysis control options NLPARM, NLMOPTS, and the parameter LGDISP. For the FE analysis with SOL 400,
the advanced 8-node 3-D continuum elements are well designed for this type of analysis with large strain and large
displacement. In this example, the NLMOPTS option defines that assumed strain formulation is used. The LGDISP
parameter indicates that geometric nonlinearity includes the stiffness of follower forces. NLPARM defines the loading
schemes used for the analysis. Here, the full Newton-Raphson method is used. The total number of loading increments
is set to 10. The maximum iteration for each increment is set to 25. The default convergence scheme is used and NO
for output of analysis results for intermediate loading steps except for the results at the end of the last loading
increment.
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(PRINT)=ALL
BOUTPUT (PRINT)=ALL
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED
PARAM LGDISP 1
NLPARM 1 10 PFNT 25 NO
The element type is defined by the PSOLID and PSLDN1 bulk data options as shown below where (C8 SOLI L)
defines the 3-D continuum solid element with linear integration scheme.
PSOLID 1 1 0
PSLDN1 1 1 +
+ C8 SOLI L +
+ C20 SOLI Q
Main Index
99
CHAPTER 4
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction
Results
Numerical solutions have been done with current versions of MSC Nastran SOL 400 and Marc. As seen in Figure 4-3,
a relatively coarse mesh is used for the strip and a fine mesh is used for the pin. The nodes on the pin surface are defined
as slave nodes and the surfaces of the strip are specified as master contact surface in this analysis. In order to describe
the contact body more accurately, the contact surface of the strip is defined analytically. Therefore, a smoother surface
(Coons Patch) is used during the analysis for the strip.
Figure 4-3 Contact Normal Forces on the Contact Surfaces
The resulting contact normal nodal forces are shown in Figure 4-4. The peak value in the contact normal force is found
to be around 1933 N. The peak contact tangential force is found to be around 193 N, which equals to . That is
consistent with the coefficient of friction applied during the analysis.
Figure 4-4 Contact Friction Forces on the Contact Surfaces
The displacement in x and y directions along the circular edge of the pin (slave or contacting surface) are shown as
function of the angle in Figure 4-5 and Figure 4-6, respectively.

F
n

Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 4
100
Figure 4-5 Displacement (x) along the Circular Edge of the Pin and the Strip
Figure 4-6 The Displacement (y) along the Circular Edge of the Pin and the Strip
For the comparison, another solution is obtained by using the existing solid element available in SOL 400. This
element type is defined by PSOLID option only. The results are almost identical. Figure 4-7 compares of the
displacement contours obtained by MSC Nastran SOL 400 with the advanced 3-D solid elements and the standard 3-
D solid elements (without PSLDN1 option). It shows that both results are extremely close.
Figure 4-7 Displacement Contours Obtained by Two Different Solid Elements in SOL 400
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
Strip_x
Pin_x
Displacement X (mm)
Angle (degrees)
0 60 120 180 240 300 360
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
Strip_y
Pin_y
Displacement Y (mm)
Angle (degrees)

(a) (b)
Main Index
101
CHAPTER 4
3-D Loaded Pin with Friction
General Analysis Tips
Convergence control: While the nonlinearity is quite mild in this problem, it is suggested to use both
displacement and residual convergence check due to the nonlinearity introduced by contact. Also, the full
Newton-Raphson iteration scheme is recommended for all SOL 400 analyses because the degree of
nonlinearity may be significant.
In this example, the body surface of the pin is defined as slave nodes for the contact search against the master
contact surface. Generally speaking, the contact body with finer mesh should be defined as slave contact
surface because it is easy to be detected when the slave nodes touch the master surface. Also, caution must be
used when choosing the BIAS value. Smaller BIAS value may be used to give better contact accuracy, but
may increase computation cost significantly if too small a value is applied.
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 4-8 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_04am.dat 3-D loaded pin with friction advanced lower-order planar elements
nug_04an.dat 3-D loaded pin with friction lower-order planar elements
nug_04bm.dat 3-D loaded pin with friction advanced higher-order planar elements
nug_04bn.dat 3-D loaded pin with friction higher-order planar elements
nug_04cm.dat 3-D loaded pin with friction advanced higher-order hexahedral elements
nug_04cn.dat 3-D loaded pin with friction higher-order hexahedral elements
L
t
L
2
t
F
F
L1
R2
R1
H

L1
R2
R1
H

Main Index
Chapter 5: Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge
5
Bilinear Friction Model:
Sliding Wedge

Summary 103

Introduction 104

Analytical Solution 104

FEM Solutions 104

Modeling Tips 107

Input File(s) 107

Video 108
Main Index
103
CHAPTER 5
Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge
Summary
Title Chapter 5: Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge
Contact features Bilinear stick-slip friction behavior
Deformable-deformable contact
Friction along the contact surface
Comparison of linear and quadratic elements
Geometry
Material properties
, ,
, , ,
Linear elastic material
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions All displacement components of the nodes in the lower face of the lower wedge are
fixed; of two nodes on the upper wedge with contact between upper and lower
wedge
Applied loads Gravity load ; pressure load
Element type 3-D solid with 4 -node linear and 10-node parabolic tetrahedral elements
Contact properties Friction coefficient
FE results 1. Deformed configuration at the end of the second STEP
2. Plots of x-displacement of point A
X
Y
Z
4.0
6.0
1.3
0.7
1.0
1.2
g
p
1.0
A
x
y
E
up
2.06
7
10 Pa = v
up
0.3 =
up
1 kg m
3
=
E
low
2.06
11
10 Pa = v
low
0.3 =
low
1 kg m
3
= K
spring
119.5 N/m =
u
z
0 m =
g
y
764.5 N = p
x
1250 Pa and 693.375 Pa =
0.3 =
x-displacement (m)
% of load
0 50 100 150 200
-0.0006
-0.0004
-0.0002
0.0000
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.0010
0.0012
Quadratic Elements
Linear Elements
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 5
104
Introduction
This problem verifies and validates the behavior of the bilinear friction model. A more detailed description of the
bilinear friction model can be found in the Release Notes for MSC Nastran. The fundamental control parameter of this
friction model is the so-called relative sliding displacement below which (elastic) sticking is simulated. This parameter
can be user-defined by specifying RVCNST on the BCPARA option. Otherwise, MSC Nastran determines the default
value as a function of the average edge length of the elements in the contact bodies.
This example was originally proposed by NAFEMS as a 2-D large sliding contact and friction example. Here, we use
a modified version of the problem: namely 3-D instead of 2-D and an alternating load instead of a linearly increasing
load.
A large displacement is expected in this solution but the strains will be pretty small. Assuming the motion as rigid
body, it can be predicted analytically as shown in the NAFEMS documentation (NAFEMS Benchmark Tests for Finite
Element Modeling of Contact, Gapping and Sliding, 2001).
First, a gravity load is applied to the whole model. Then, a positive pressure is applied as such that point A will
have displacement . The next step, a negative pressure is applied as such that point A will have displacement
. The last step is again an application of positive pressure . The applied pressure will be determined
analytically.
The analysis results are presented with linear and parabolic elements.
Analytical Solution
Assuming a rigid body motion and neglecting the loss of energy due to friction, the relation among the total force on
the upper wedge in the x- and y-direction ( and ), the friction coefficient ( ), the wedge angle ( ), the total spring
stiffness ( ) and the positive displacement ( ) of the upper wedge is:
With , , , (based on ) and , the total spring stiffness
( ) is . Thus, the applied that correlates with is . This load is applied during the second step.
Alternatively, with the given value of , , and , results in a displacement of the upper wedge
( ). that correlates with this is . This pressure is applied in the third step. The fourth
step is again the introduction of .
FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 5-1. The
colored regions of the wedges have been identified as contact bodies. Contact body IDs 1 and 2 are identified as a set
of elements of upper and lower wedge, respectively as:
p
x
u
x
1 m =
u
x
1 m = p
x
p
x
F
x
F
y

K u
x
K
F
x
1 tan ( ) F
y
tan + ( ) +
u
x
1 tan ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- =
tan 0.1 = 0.3 = F
x
1500 N = F
y
3058 N = g
y
764.5 N = u
x
1 m =
K 239 N/m p
x
1250 Pa
K tan F
y
F
x
832.8 N =
u
x
1 m = p
x
F
y
F
x
693.375 N =
p
x
1250 Pa =
Main Index
105
CHAPTER 5
Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0 .3
BSURF 1 42 107 118 132 194 236 239
...
and
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2 0 .3
BSURF 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
Figure 5-1 Element Mesh applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 2
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 2
Thus, any deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes.
To activate contact with Coulomb friction, FTYPE must be set to 6 in BCPARA option (the only supported Coulomb
friction model). The contact separation option is based on relative stresses. It is done by setting IBSEP = 4.
BCPARA 0
FTYPE 6 IBSEP 4
3-D tetrahedral elements are used in this analysis.
PSOLID 1 1
PSOLID 2 2 +
The two material properties are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio defined as
MAT1 1 2.06+07 .3 1.
MAT1 2 2.06E+11 .3 1.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 5
106
The nonlinear procedure used for the analysis:
PARAM LRGDSIP 1
NLPARM 1 1 FNT UV
NLPARM 2 25 FNT UV
Here the FNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the Newton-Raphson iteration
strategy and the default convergence tolerance for displacement (relative to the incremental displacement) will be
used.
The simulation is eventually controlled by the case control section which consists of four STEPS.
STEP 1
LABEL = Gravity Load
...
STEP 2
LABEL = Px is 1250
...
STEP 3
LABEL = Px is -694
...
STEP 4
LABLE = Px is again 1250
...
The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 1.0) is shown in Figure 5-2. After the second step, as seen in
Figure 5-2, the upper wedge moves in the x-direction one meter as predicted analytically.
Figure 5-2 Deformed Structure at the End of the Second Step (magnification factor = 1)
The displacement plot of point A, for linear and parabolic elements, is shown in Figure 5-3. It is clearly seen that the
upper wedge moves alternately from to and then back to as expected using the analytical
solution. The result of the linear element is nearly the same as that of the parabolic elements. As clearly seen from this
figure, during (linear) sticking contact, the displacement of the upper wedge varies linearly.
deformed
undeformed
u
x 1.0 =
u
x
1 m = u
x
1 m = u
x
1 m =
Main Index
107
CHAPTER 5
Bilinear Friction Model: Sliding Wedge
Figure 5-3 Displacement Plot for Point A (Representing the Displacement of the Upper Wedge)
Modeling Tips
It is very important to have accurate coordinates for those points that are located on the both sides of the contact
interfaces. Failure in representing accurate smooth surfaces may lead to unexpected contact behavior. That is why the
coordinate of the grid points both for models with linear and parabolic elements are expressed in the extended format
of MSC Nastran.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_05a.dat Linear Elements
nug_05b.dat Quadratic Elements
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
-1.0
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
x-displacement (m)
% of load
x-displacement (m)
% of load
0 50 100 150 200
-0.0006
-0.0004
-0.0002
0.0000
0.0002
0.0004
0.0006
0.0008
0.0010
0.0012
Quadratic Elements
Linear Elements
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 5
108
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts about 47 minutes and explains
how the steps are performed.
Figure 5-4 Video of the Above Steps
X
Y
Z
4.0
6.0
1.3
0.7
1.0
1.2
g
p
1.0
A
x
y
Main Index
Chapter 6: Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending
6
Laminated Strip under
Three-point Bending

Summary 110

Introduction 111

Requested Solutions 111

FEM Solution 111

Modeling Tips 113

Input File(s) 113

Video 114
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 6
110
Summary
Title Chapter 6: Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending
Geometry 2-D Shell (units: mm)
Material properties

Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Three-point bending test
Applied loads
Line load of
Element type 2-D shell
3-D solid composite
FE results
Compared with NAFEMS solution
E
C
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
o
90
o
0
o
0
o
90
o
0
o
90
o
0.4
all dimensions in mm
0
o
fiber direction
10 N/mm
10 15 15
x
10
E
A B
C
y
z
x
10
1
D
E
1
100GPa = v
12
0.4 = G
12
3GPa =
E
2
5GPa = G
13
2GPa =
E
3
5GPa = G
23
2GPa =
10N m m
o
11
o
13
u
z
Quantity Units NAFEMS
CQUAD4
linear
CQUAD4
PSHLN1
CHEXA
PCOMPLS
-ASTN
CHEXA
PCOMPLS-L
at E
MPa 684 683 683 685 664
at D
MPa -4.1 -4.1 -4.1 -4.1 -4.2
at E
mm -1.06 -1.06 -1.06 -1.06 -1.02
o
11
o
13
u
z
Main Index
111
CHAPTER 6
Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to model composite laminated material both using shell and solid elements. A
laminated strip is subjected to a three-point bending test, due to symmetry only a quarter of the structure needs to be
modeled. Stresses and displacements are computed and compared to a reference solution.
Requested Solutions
The stresses and displacements of a composite laminated strip under three-point bending configuration are calculated
in MSC Nastran. This test is recommended by the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards (U.K.):
Test R0031/1 from NAFEMS publication R0031, Composites Benchmarks, February 1995.
FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400 for the configuration shown in
Figure 6-1. The composite strip comprises seven lamina, with lamina thicknesses and orientation as shown in the
figure. Only one quarter of the structure is modeled using symmetry conditions along the mid span and center of the
longitudinal direction. Each lamina is modeled as one layer is the composite. For the model using shell elements, this
is done using the PCOMP entry
PCOMP 1 0. 0.
1 .00001 0. YES 1 .09999 0. YES
1 .1 90. YES 1 .1 0. YES
1 .4 90. YES 1 .1 0. YES
1 .1 90. YES 1 .09999 0. YES
1 .00001 0. YES
Figure 6-1 Laminated Strip in a Three-point Bending Configuration
E
C
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
o
90
o
0
o
0
o
90
o
0
o
90
o
0.4
all dimensions in mm
0
o
fiber direction
10 N/mm
10 15 15
x
10
E
A B
C
y
z
x
10
1
D
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 6
112
For the model using composite brick elements, this is done using the PCOMPLS entry. Please note that the layer
orientation is defined relative to the coordinate system defined in the CORDM field of this entry.
PCOMPLS 1 1 1
C8 SLCOMP L
9 1 .00001 0.
8 1 .09999 0.
7 1 .1 90.
6 1 .1 0.
5 1 .4 90.
4 1 .1 0.
3 1 .1 90.
2 1 .09999 0.
1 1 .00001 0.
For the model using solid shell elements this is done using the PCOMPLS entry
PCOMPLS 1 1 1
C8 SLCOMP ASTN
9 1 .00001 0.
8 1 .09999 0.
7 1 .1 90.
6 1 .1 0.
5 1 .4 90.
4 1 .1 0.
3 1 .1 90.
2 1 .09999 0.
1 1 .00001 0.
Note that in these models two very thin extra layers are added, they have the same properties as the layer they are
connected to. These two layers are added to calculate the stress mentioned in the reference table (Table 6-1) at the
correct position.
The material is orthotropic, with the following properties:
For the model using the shell elements this is defined as
MAT8 1 100000. 5000. .4 3000. 3000. 2000. 1.-4
Table 6-1 Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending
Quantity Units NAFEMS
CQUAD4
linear
CQUAD4
PSHLN1
CHEXA
PCOMPLS
-ASTN
CHEXA
PCOMPLS
-L
at E
MPa 684 683 683 685 664
at D
MPa -4.1 -4.1 -4.1 -4.1 -4.2
at E
mm -1.06 -1.06 -1.06 -1.06 -1.02
o
11
o
13
u
z
E
1
100GPa = v
12
0.4 = G
12
3GPa =
E
2
5GPa = v
23
0.3 = G
13
2GPa =
E
3
5GPa = v
31
0.02 = G
23
2GPa =
Main Index
113
CHAPTER 6
Laminated Strip under Three-point Bending
And for the model using the solid composite elements this is defined as
MATORT 1 100000. 5000. 5000. .4 .3 .02 1.-4
3000. 2000. 2000.
-1
Two types of shell elements are analyzed. The default CQUAD4 and the CQUAD4 suitable for large deformations.
The latter is activated using the PSHLN1 entry
PSHLN1 1 NO +
+ C4 DCT L
For analysis of shell-like structure with composite material, the TSHEAR option on the NLMOPTS entry has to be given
to obtain a parabolic transverse shear distribution across the thickness of the element.
NLMOPTS TSHEAR TSHEAR
A line pressure of is applied, this pressure is translated to point loads on the finite element mesh.
Table 6-1 compares the results of the different models with the reference solution, the data is taken from the f06 file.
The stress at E is linearly interpolated from the centroid of the first two elements close to the symmetric line.
Modeling Tips
When modeling composite structures that support large deformation and nonlinear material behavior (activated with
the PSHLN1 or PCOMPLS entry) it is recommended to set the TSHEAR parameter on the NLMOPTS entry. This will
result in a more parabolic shear distribution through the thickness, and in the output of interlaminar stresses. When
using CHEXA elements for analysis of shell-like structure under bending deformation, it is recommended to use solid
shell elements instead of linear composite brick elements.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_06n.dat Linear Elements
nug_06m.dat Linear Elements using PSHLN1 entry
nug_06c.dat Linear Composite Elements
nug_06d.dat Solid Shell Elements
10N mm
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 6
114
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 6-2 Video of the Above Steps
E
C
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
o
90
o
0
o
0
o
90
o
0
o
90
o
0.4
all dimensions in mm
0
o
fiber direction
10 N/mm
10 15 15
x
10
E
A B
C
y
z
x
10
1
D
Main Index
Chapter7: Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
7
Wrapped Thick Cylinder under
Pressure and Thermal Loading

Summary 116

Introduction 117

Requested Solutions 117

FEM Solution 117

Input File(s) 118

Video 119
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 7
116
Summary
Title Chapter 7: Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
Geometry 2-D Shell (units: mm)
Cylinder length= 200
Cylinder radius:
inner side = 23
mid side = 25
outside = 27
Material properties Inner Cylinder
Outer Cylinder
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions
Axial displacement zero at .
Applied loads
Pressure of and temperature rise of
Element type 2-D shell
FE results Hoop stress compared with NAFEMS solution
27
25
23
200
2
1
all dimensions in mm
z = 0
z
y
x
o
rth
o
tro
p
ic
m
a
te
ria
l
o
rie
n
ta
tio
n
E 210GPa = v 0.3 = o 2.0 10
5
C =
E
1
130GPa =
E
2
5GPa =
E
3
5GPa =
v
12
0.25 =
v
13
0.25 =
v
23
0 =
G
12
10GPa =
G
13
10GPa =
G
23
5GPa =
o
11
3.0 10
6
C =
o
22
2.0 10
5
C =
o
33
2.0 10
5
C =
z 0 =
200MPa 130C
Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
CQUAD4 CQUAD4
Quantity Units NAFEMS linear PSHLN1
STEP 1
at r = 24 mm MPa 1483 1414 1414
at r = 26 mm MPa 822 875 875
STEP 2
at r = 24 mm MPa 1309 1236 1236
at r = 26 mm MPa 994 1053 1053
Main Index
117
CHAPTER 7
Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to model pressure and thermal loading for composite laminated material. A
thick cylinder is loaded with both pressure and a temperature increase. Stresses are calculated and compared to a
reference solution.
Requested Solutions
The Hoop stress at the inner and outer cylinders is calculated under pressure loading and under both pressure loading
and thermal loading in MSC Nastran. This test is recommended by the National Agency for Finite Element Methods
and Standards (U.K.): Test R0031/2 from NAFEMS publication R0031, Composites Benchmarks, February 1995
FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the configuration shown in Figure 7-1. The
cylinder consists of two layers with layer thickness and orientation as shown in Figure 7-1. The axial displacement is
set to zero at . Only one eighth of the model is analyzed with the appropriate symmetry boundary conditions.
The two layers are modeled using the PCOMP entry, where the thickness of both layers is 2 mm
PCOMP 1 0. 0.
1 2. 0. YES 2 2. 0. YES
Figure 7-1 Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
Each lamina is modeled as one layer in the composite. The inner cylinder (layer 1) is isotropic and the outer cylinder
(layer 2) is orthotropic. The material properties for the inner cylinder are
, ,
z 0 =
27
25
23
200
2
1
all dimensions in mm
z = 0
z
y
x
o
r
th
o
tr
o
p
ic
m
a
te
r
ia
l
o
r
ie
n
ta
tio
n
E 210GPA = v 0.3 = o 2.0 10
5
C =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 7
118
and for the outer cylinder are
and are entered using the MAT1 and MAT8 entry, respectively.
Two types of shell elements are analyzed: the CQUAD4 default and the CQUAD4 suitable for large deformations. The
latter is activated using the PSHLN1 entry.
PSHLN1 1 NO +
+ C4 DCT L
The analysis is performed in two analyses steps. In the first step, a uniform pressure of is applied on the
inside of the cylinder. In the second step, both this pressure and a temperature rise of is applied.
Table 7-1 compares the Hoop stress in the inner and outer cylinders for the two examples for the two analyses steps
with the reference solution at and . The NAFEMS Hoop stress at and
are averaged to compare at for the inner cylinder and similar for for the outer
cylinder.
Input File(s)
Table 7-1 Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
CQUAD4 CQUAD4
Quantity Hoop Stress Units NAFEMS Linear PSHLN1
STEP 1
at r = 24 mm MPa 1483 1414 1414
at r = 26 mm MPa 822 875 875
STEP 2
at r = 24 mm MPa 1309 1236 1236
at r = 26 mm MPa 994 1053 1053
File Description
nug_07n.dat Linear Elements
nug_07m.dat Linear Elements using PSHLN1 Entry
E
1
130GPa =
E
2
5GPa =
E
3
5GPa =
v
12
0.25 =
v
13
0.25 =
v
23
0 =
G
12
10GPa =
G
13
10GPa =
G
23
5GPa =
o
11
3.0 10
6
C =
o
22
2.0 10
5
C =
o
33
2.0 10
5
C =
200MPa
130C
r 24mm = r 26mm = r 23mm =
r 25mm = r 24mm = r 26mm =
Main Index
119
CHAPTER 7
Wrapped Thick Cylinder under Pressure and Thermal Loading
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 7-2 Video of the Above Steps
27
25
23
200
2
1
all dimensions in mm
z = 0
z
y
x
o
rth
o
tro
p
ic
m
a
te
ria
l
o
rie
n
ta
tio
n
Main Index
Chapter 8: Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading
8
Three-layer Sandwich Shell
under Normal
Pressure Loading

Summary 121

Introduction 122

Requested Solutions 122

FEM Solution 122

Modeling Tips 124

Input File(s) 125

Video 125
Main Index
121
CHAPTER 8
Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading
Summary
Title Chapter 8: Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading
Geometry 2-D Shell (units: in)
Length= 10
Width = 10
Thickness = 0.806
Material properties Face sheets
Core
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Plate is simply supported fixed at four corners
Applied loads
Pressure of applied to the top face (most positive in the z-axis)
Element type 2-D shell, 3-D solid shell
FE results Stresses and displacements compared with NAFEMS solution
uniform normal
pressure
C
E
A
10
10
y
x
simply supported
on all four edges
0.028
0.750
0.028
z
face sheet
face sheet
x
all dimensions in inches
core
E
A
E
1
10 10
6
Psi = v
12
0.3 = G
12
1.875 10
6
Psi = ( )
E
2
4 10
6
Psi = v
13
0 = ( ) G
13
1.875 10
6
Psi =
E
3
1 10
6
Psi = ( ) v
23
0 = ( ) G
23
1.875 10
6
Psi =
The values within
the parenthesis are
chosen to have a
complete 3-D
material model
necessary for the
solid elements.
E
1
10Psi = ( ) v
12
0 = ( ) G
12
10Psi = ( )
E
2
10Psi = ( ) v
13
0 = ( ) G
13
3 10
4
Psi =
E
3
10Psi = ( ) v
23
0 = ( ) G
23
1.2 10
4
Psi =
100Psi
Three-layer Sandwich Shell Results
CQUAD4 CQUAD4 CHEXA
Quantity Units NAFEMS Linear PSHLN1 PCOMPLS
at C in -0.123 -0.123 -0.122 -0.122
at C kpsi 34.45 34.029 34.212 33.932
at C kpsi 13.93 13.294 13.167 13.406
at E kpsi -5.07 -5.040 -5.006 -5.020
u
z
o
11
o
22
o
12
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 8
122
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to model pressure loading of a square composite three layer sandwich flat shell.
Stresses and displacements are calculated and compared to a reference solution.
Requested Solutions
Stresses and displacements are calculated at the surface of the composite three layer sandwich flat shell in MSC
Nastran. This test is recommended by the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards (NAFEMS):
Test R0031/3 from NAFEMS publication R0031, Composites Benchmarks, February 1995.
FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the configuration shown in Figure 8-1. The
plate consists of three layers, a core layer and two face sheets covering this layer. Thicknesses of the layers are shown
in Figure 8-1. Only one quarter of the part is analyzed with the appropriate symmetry boundary conditions, and the
two edges on the boundary of the plate are fixed. The three layers are modeled using the PCOMP entry, where the
thickness of both layers is 0.028 in.
PCOMP 1 0. 0.
1 .028 0. YES 2 .75 0. YES
1 .028 0. YES
Figure 8-1 Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading
Each lamina is modeled as one layer in the composite. The materials for the face sheets and core have the following
orthotropic properties:
uniform normal
pressure
C
E
A
10
10
y
x
simply supported
on all four edges
0.028
0.750
0.028
z
face sheet
face sheet
x
all dimensions in inches
core
E
A
Main Index
123
CHAPTER 8
Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading
Face sheets
and the core
These properties are entered using the MAT8 entry.
Two types of shell elements are analyzed: the CQUAD4 default and the CQUAD4 suitable for large deformations. The
latter is activated using the PSHLN1 entry
PSHLN1 1 NO +
+ C4 DCT L
For modelling with solid shell elements, the standard CHEXA elements are used to define the element connectivity.
To activate the solid shell elements, PCOMPLS entry has to be used for assigning the property of the CHEXA.
PCOMPLS 1 -1
C8 SLCOMP ASTN
1 1 .028 0.
2 2 .75 0.
3 1 .028 0.
For shell-like structure with composite materials, the TSHEAR option on the NLMOPTS entry has to be given to obtain
a parabolic shear distribution for composite layers in shells. This is particularly important for this structure because
the inner core resists deformation in shear.
NLMOPTS TSHEAR TSHEAR
A uniform pressure of is applied on the top surface of the shell.
Table 8-1 shows the comparison of the face sheet stresses and midspan displacement with the NAFEMS results.
E
1
10 10
6
Psi = v
12
0.3 = G
12
1.875 10
6
Psi = ( )
E
2
4 10
6
Psi = v
13
0 = ( ) G
13
1.875 10
6
Psi =
E
3
1 10
6
Psi = ( ) v
23
0 = ( ) G
23
1.875 10
6
Psi =
E
1
10Psi = ( ) v
12
0 = ( ) G
12
10Psi = ( )
E
2
10Psi = ( ) v
13
0 = ( ) G
13
3 10
4
Psi =
E
3
10Psi = ( ) v
23
0 = ( ) G
23
1.2 10
4
Psi =
100MPa
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 8
124
Figure 8-2 Deformed Shape of the Model with Solid Shell Elements
Modeling Tips
When modeling composite structures using shell elements that support large deformation and nonlinear material
behavior (activated with the PSHLN1 entry), it is recommended to set the TSHEAR parameter on the NLMOPTS entry.
This will result in a more parabolic shear distribution through the thickness, and in the output of interlaminar stresses.
Table 8-1 Three-layer Sandwich Shell Results
CQUAD4 CQUAD4 CHEXA
Quantity Units NAFEMS Linear PSHLN1 PCOMPLS
at C
in -0.123 -0.123 -0.122 -0.122
at C
kpsi 34.45 34.029 34.212 33.932
at C
kpsi 13.93 13.294 13.167 13.5406
at E
kpsi -5.07 -5.040 -5.006 -5.020
u
z
o
11
o
22
o
12
Main Index
125
CHAPTER 8
Three-layer Sandwich Shell under Normal Pressure Loading
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 8-3 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_08n.dat Linear Elements
nug_08m.dat Linear Elements using PSHLN1 Entry
nug_08d.dat Solid Shell Elements
Main Index
Chapter 9: Bird Strike On Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
9
Bird Strike on Prestressed
Rotating Fan Blades

Summary 127

Introduction 128

Requested Solutions 128

Model Details 128

FEM Solution 129

Results 132

Modeling Tip 133

Input File(s) 134


Main Index
127
CHAPTER 9
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
Summary
Title Chapter 9: Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
Features Bird Strike On Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
Geometry
Material properties Fan: Piecewise linear plastic material (MATD024)
Bird: Elastic-plastic hydrodynamic material (MATD010)
Boundary conditions Prestress analysis:
One end of blade is fully fixed.
1/3 and 1/2 span of rotor are fixed to x and y translational and rotational directions
Impact analysis:
One end of blade is fixed to x, y and z translational directions.
1/3 and 1/2 points of rotor are fixed to x and y translational directions
Details are explained in FEM solutions section.
Applied loads Prestress analysis:
Fan: 8000 rpm using RFORCE option (rotational static force)
Impact analysis:
Fan: 8000 rpm using TIC3 option (rotational initial speed) and SPCD2 option
(enforced motion)
Bird: Initial velocity of 7692 inch/s (437 m.p.h.) using TIC option.
Details are explained in FEM solutions section.
Element type Fan: 4-node shell element
Bird: 8-node hexahedral element (Impact analysis only)
FE results Prestress analysis:
Plot of final stage of implicit run nastin - ASCII result file
for initial state values are included.
Impact analysis:
Plot of each stage (t = 1.52 ms shown here)
44.22
6.24
44.22
D = 1.8
t = 0.2
Units: inches
D = 2.36
D = 27.2
0.0266 < t < 0.0403
t = 1.52 ms
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 9
128
Introduction
Aerospace companies have performed bird strike test simulation to predict the impact-resistance properties of the
aircraft structure. This is an example of a bird (made by solid elements) impacting against rotating fan blades using a
sequential implicit-explicit technique. First, using the implicit solver, the initial condition (stress and displacement) on
the blades and rotor was calculated followed by transient loading of bird impact, which was simulated using the
explicit solver.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis was performed to demonstrate the pre-stressed fan blade out method. The rotational inertia
effects were taken into account in implicit analysis and the resulting stress, strain and displacements were computed.
Next, the results were added to the explicit analysis as initial condition.
Model Details
Materials
Fan: Piecewise linear plastic material (MATD024)
= 4.14e-4 lbf/inch3-s2/inch, = 0.35, E = 1.60E+7 psi
y (yield stress) = 138000 psi, ET (Tangent modulus) = 100000 psi
Plastic strain failure limit = 0.2
Bird: Elastic-plastic hydrodynamic material (MATD010)
= 9E-5 lbf/inch3-s2/inch, G (Shear modulus) = 145 psi
y (yield stress) = 2.9 psi, ET (Tangent modulus) = 0.145 psi
Linear polynomial equation of state (EOSPOL
v

P a
1
a
2

2
a
3

3
b
0
b
1
b
2

2
b
3

3
+ + + ( )
0
E + + + =

0
1 =
overall material density =

0
reference density =
E specific internal energy pur unit mass =
a
1
a
2
b
1
b
2
b
3
0 = = = = =
a
1
4.25x10
6
psi =
Main Index
129
CHAPTER 9
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
FEM Solution
Boundary Condition and Applied Load
Prestress Analysis (Implicit)
The rotational velocity of blades and rotor is 8000 rpm which is applied using RFORCE option (rotational static force)
in the prestress run. The end of the rotor is fully fixed. In addition, the bearings located at 1/3 and 1/2 of distance from
the front of rotor are fixed in x, y translational as well as x, y rotational directions using SPC1 option. The applied
loading and boundary conditions of prestress analysis are shown in Figure 9-1(a).
RFORCE 1 299999 -133.3330.0 0.0 1.
TABLED1 321
0. 1. .001 1. ENDT
SPC1 1 123456 300425 THRU 300443
SPC1 1 1245 400058
SPC1 1 1245 400115
Impact Analysis (Explicit)
The initial rotational velocity of 8000 rpm is applied to fan blades using the TIC3 entry as well as end of rotor using
the SPC2 entry (enforced motion). The bird impact velocity of 7692 inch/s (437 m.p.h.) is applied on all the grid points
of the bird model. The boundary conditions at the end of rotor is changed to constrain x, y and z translational directions
and the bearing locations of rotor are constrained in x and y translational directions. The applied loading and boundary
conditions of impact analysis are shown in Figure 9-1 (b).
TIC 1 1000001 3 7692.
...
SPCD2 1 GRID 1 7 80 -1.
TABLED1 80 +
+ 0.0 837.758 1. 837.758 ENDT
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : Disp1
SPC1 1 3 21 THRU 31
...
...
$ Initial angular velocity for rotor +fan blade
TIC3 1 299999 1.
-837.758
1 THRU 6384 300000 THRU 300018 300020 THRU
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 9
130
Figure 9-1 Boundary Conditions and Applied Loads of the Fan And Bird

(a) Prestress model (implicit)

(b) Impact model (explicit)
8000 rpm
Fully fixed
Fixed (x,y direction)
(x,y rotation)
8000 rpm
(initial speed)
Fixed (x,y,z direction)
Fixed (x,y direction)
437 mph
8000 rpm
(enforced speed)
(b) Impact model (explicit)
8000 rp rr m
ully fi ff xed
8000 rpp rr
(iniitial
(x,y,z direction)
437 mph
(a) Prestress model (implicit)
Fu
Fixed (x,y direction)
(x,y rotation)
pp rr m
l speed)
Fixed
Fixed (x,y direction)
8000 rp rr m
(enfo ff rced speed))

(a) Prestress model (implicit)

(b) Impact model (explicit)
8000 rpm
Fully fixed
Fixed (x,y direction)
(x,y rotation)
8000 rpm
(initial speed)
Fixed (x,y,z direction)
Fixed (x,y direction)
437 mph
8000 rpm
(enforced speed)
Main Index
131
CHAPTER 9
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
FEM Model and Contact
The rotor, hub and fan blades are modeled by shell elements while the bird is modeled by solid elements.
Prestress Analysis (implicit)
By using the PRESTRS bulk data entry, a prestress analysis is carried out. The prestress simulation requires the
analysis to be run with double precision version of the implicit solver. Final deformations and stresses of elements are
written to a text file named input_file_name.dytr.nastin to provide initial conditions for rotor and fan blades
of the impact run. The definition of TSTEPNL is required in implicit run to determine the number of time steps and
their increment for higher fidelity of the solution.
TSTEPNL 1 5 1.-5 1 ADAPT 2 10
PRESTRS
Impact analysis (explicit):
The end time in transient run is defined by using 100 time steps at 0.4e-4 sec. for each increment. End time is the
product of these two entries. Notice here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by MSC Nastran solver during the analysis. The time
step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
The prestress results file is prestress_rotor.dytr.nastin. The name of this file was changed to
rotor.dytr.nastin due to the long file name. It includes the results for grid points, elements and is used as initial
condition for explicit transient run. The prestress file prestress_rotor.dytr.nastin includes all geometry
information such as grids, elements and the results. Therefore, the explicit model should include only the material
properties for the structure, the new boundary conditions as well as new data for the bird.
INCLUDE rotor.dytr.nastin
TSTEPNL 1 100 .4e-4 1 ADAPT 2 10
The file rotor.dytr.nastin contains an entry called ISTRSSH. This entry specifies the prestress condition of the
shell element as defined below (see the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide for more details). These result values of
the prestress run are to be carried over to the impact run. When other elements types other than shells are used,
ISTRSBE, ISTRSTS, and ISTRSSO entries must be included in the nastin file.
ISTRSSH* 2275 1 5 5*
* *
* 0.000E+00 6.916E+03 7.371E+03 1.480E+02*
* 7.084E+03 -3.908E+01 1.150E+02 0.000E+00*
...
In this analysis, adaptive contact is defined between the bird and the fan blades. The BCBODY and BCPROP entries
are used to define a symmetric (M-S, S-M) contact bodies.
BCTABLE 1 2
SLAVE 8001 0. 0. 0.1 0. 0
0 0 0
0.1 YES
+
+
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 9
132
+
MASTERS 1001
SLAVE 1001 0. 0. 0.1 0. 0
0 0 0
0.1 YES
+
+
+
MASTERS 8001
BCBODY 1001 3D DEFORM 1001 0
BCPROP 1001 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
Results
Prestress Run
The results of all increments are essentially the same which indicates that the implicit calculations are stable. The
results of the last increment were written to the file prestres_rotor.dytr.nastin.
Figure 9-2 Result Increment 5: written to the .nastin file
Main Index
133
CHAPTER 9
Bird Strike on Prestressed Rotating Fan Blades
Impact run
The prestress result variables have been initialized at the begin of the analysis (Time = 0)
Figure 9-3 Element Mesh Applied in the MSC Nastran Simulation
Modeling Tip
The default values for shell integration points in implicit and explicit analyses are different. There are three integration
points for implicit analysis and two integration points for explicit analysis. Therefore, the shell element type for the
implicit analysis has to be modified to be consistent with that of explicit simulation.
PSHELL1 1 1 BLT GAUSS 2
t = 0 ms t = 1.00 ms
t = 2.00 ms
t = 4.00 ms
t = 1.52 ms
t = 3.00 ms
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 9
134
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_9a.dat Impact analysis
nug_9b.dat Prestress model
nug_9c.dat Stresses and deformations of prestress model for input to
impact analysis
nug_9d.dat Data for bird
Main Index
Chapter 10: Engine Gasket
10
Engine Gasket

Summary 136

Introduction 137

Requested Solutions 137

Model Details 137

FEM Solution 138

Modeling Tip 143

Input File(s) 144

Video 144
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 10
136
Summary
Title Chapter 10: Engine Gasket
Features Glued contact, MPCs for bolt modeling, Gasket material
Geometry
Cylinder diameter: . Engine block width, breadth and height: , and
. Cylinder head thickness: . Bolt diameter: . Bolt head diameter:
. Gasket ring thickness: ; gasket body thickness:
Material properties Linear elastic material for the engine block, cylinder head and bolts,
Isotropic in-plane
behavior of the gasket: , , . Transverse
shear moduli of the gasket: , . Out-of-plane elastic-plastic
behavior of the gasket defined by loading and unloading curves.
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Symmetry conditions in ZX-plane: . Bottom of engine block fully clamped:
. Glued contact between gasket and cylinder head, gasket and engine
block, and bolts and cylinder head.
Applied loads
Prescribed shortening of the bolts .
Element type 3-D 8-node hexahedral and 3-D 6-node pentahedral solid elements
Contact properties Glued contact with extended tangential contact tolerance at sharp corners
FE results Bolt forces and stresses in the gasket
gasket ring
gasket body
24 mm 93.1 mm 70 mm
15 mm 3 mm 8 mm
14 mm 1 mm 0.9091 mm
E
engine
E
head
E
bolt
2.1
5
10 MPa = = = v
engine
v
head
v
bolt
0.3 = = =
E
body
120 MPa = E
ring
100 MPa = v
body
v
ring
0 = =
G
body
40 MPa = G
ring
35 MPa =
u
y
0 =
u
x
u
y
u
z
0 = = =
Al 0.175 mm =
Main Index
137
CHAPTER 10
Engine Gasket
Introduction
A gasket is assembled between an engine block and a cylinder head. The loading of the assembled structure consists
of pre-tensioning the bolts connecting the cylinder head and the engine block. Striking features in this analysis are the
MPCs used to load the bolts, the geometry and material description of the gasket, and the use of the contact algorithm
to establish contact constraints between the grids of the gasket and the cylinder head and the engine block and between
the grids of the bolts and the cylinder head.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the forces in the bolts and the response of the gasket in terms of gasket
closure versus gasket pressure.
Model Details
The gasket actually consists of two parts: the so-called gasket ring and the gasket body. These parts have different
material properties and thicknesses. Assigning different material properties is straightforward, but modeling different
thicknesses would require different finite element meshes for the ring and the body. Since this is inefficient from a
modeling perspective, it is allowed to include both parts in one connected set of finite elements and to define the
thickness difference as an initial gap. In the numerical analysis, this implies that as long as the thickness reduction of
gasket element integration points is smaller than the initial gap, there will be no stress in the thickness direction. In
Figure 10-1, a detailed view of the actual versus the modeled gasket geometry is shown.
Figure 10-1 True Gasket Geometry (left) and Modeled Geometry (right)
The material behavior of a gasket is generally rather complex to characterize using conventional material models.
Instead, a special gasket material model is adopted, which de-couples the in-plane and thickness behavior. The
in-plane behavior is assumed to be linear and defined by Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio. The behavior in
thickness direction is nonlinear and defined by experimentally determined loading and unloading curves, where the
gasket pressure is measured as a function of the gasket closure. This gasket closure is given by the change in distance
between the top and the bottom face of the gasket. The loading and unloading curves for the gasket ring and the gasket
body are shown in Figure 10-2.
initial gap
magnitude
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 10
138
Figure 10-2 Material Behavior in Thickness Direction for the Gasket Body and Ring
In order to apply pre-tensioning on the bolts, they are piece wise modeled by two parts, one upper and one lower part,
obtained by a fictitious cut. The grids of the lower and the upper part of this cross section are connected using MPCs
to a so-called control grid. Calling the displacement of a grid in the lower part , the displacement of a grid in the
upper part and the displacement of the control grid , then the MPC reads:
By assigning all the grids in the lower and upper part of the section of a bolt to the same control grid, one can easily
define the shortening of a bolt by prescribing . As a result, the total bolt force is found as the reaction force on
the control grid.
FEM Solution
The numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 10-3
using 3-D 8-node hexahedral and 6-node pentahedral elements. Based on symmetry, only half of the structure is
modeled.
Figure 10-3 Element Mesh applied in the MSC Nastran Simulation
u
lower
u
upper
u
control
u
control
u
lower
u
upper
=
u
control
bolt cross section
bolt cross section
Main Index
139
CHAPTER 10
Engine Gasket
In total, four deformable contact bodies are used. The first deformable body consists of all elements of the gasket
including the gasket body and ring. The cylinder head defines the second deformable body. The third deformable body
contains the elements of the engine block. Finally, the fourth deformable body consists of the upper and lower parts
of the bolts. The deformable contact bodies are identified as 3-D bodies referring to the BSURF IDs 1, 2, 3 and 4:
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1
BSURF 1 285 286 287 288 289 290 291
292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299
...
...
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2
BSURF 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
...
...
BCBODY 3 3D DEFORM 3
BSURF 3 670 671 672 673 674 675 676
677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684
...
...
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4
BSURF 4 967 968 969 970 971 972 973
974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981
...
...
In addition to the BCBODY option to define the deformable contact bodies, the BCTABLE option will be used to
indicate:
which grids are to be treated as slave grids and which as master grids in the multipoint constraints for
deformable-deformable contact;
glued contact between the gasket and the cylinder head;
glued contact between the gasket and the engine block;
glued contact between the bolts and the cylinder head.
Compared to the cylinder head and the engine block, the gasket has the finest mesh and is also relatively soft. In
general, it is recommended to use the grids of the contact body with the finest mesh as the slave grids in the MPCs
used to solve the contact problem. If the mesh density in the contact area is comparable, then the grids of the softest
body should be chosen as the slave grids. In the current simulation, grids of the gasket and the bolts are selected as
slave grids, which is done using the BCTABLE option. This option is also used to activate glued contact conditions, so
that both relative normal and tangential displacements in the contact areas are prohibited:
BCTABLE 1 3
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0.
1 2 0
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0.
1 0 0
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0.
1 0 0
MASTERS 2
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 10
140
Besides indicating the slave nodes and glued conditions, the first SLAVE MASTER combination also activates the
extended tangential contact tolerance. The reason to use this is motivated by the coarse mesh of the cylinder head (see
Figure 10-4) compared to the gasket. By activating the extended tangential contact tolerance, all grids at the top of the
gasket are found to be in contact with the cylinder head.
Figure 10-4 Detail of the FE mesh to illustrate the delayed slide off option
In order to activate the full nonlinear formulation of the 3-D isotropic elements (cylinder head, engine block and bolts),
the nonlinear property extension of the PSOLID entry is used:
PSOLID 3 5 0
PSLDN1 3 5 1 +
+ C8 SOLI L
MAT1 5 210000. .3 1. 1.5-5
Where the isotropic material definition is straightforward, the gasket behavior needs more attention. Here, the MATG
entry is used. For the gasket body, the definition is:
PSOLID 1 2 0
PSLDN1 1 1 1 NO +
+ C8 SLCOMP L
MAT1 2 120. 60. 1. 5.-5
MATG 1 2 0 1 2
52. 72.
35. .090909
TABLES1 1
0. 0. .027 2.08 .054 8.32 .081 18.72
.108 33.28 .135 52. .175 56. ENDT
TABLES1 2
.1 0. .1225 5.04 .1375 14. .1525 27.44
.16 35.84 .1675 45.36 .175 56. ENDT
The PSLDN1 entry refers to the PSOLID with ID number 1 and activates the solid continuum composite element
formulation via the SLCOMP option. The material ID number 2 of the MATG entry refers to MAT1 ID number 2 to
define the in-plane (membrane) behavior of the gasket material. The loading curve is defined by the table with ID
number 1, while the unloading curve is defined by the table with ID number 2. In general, up to ten unloading curves
can be referred to, but in this example only one unloading curve is used. The onset of irreversible behavior of the gasket
material is defined by a yield pressure of 52 MPa (see also Figure 10-2). As soon as the corresponding gasket closure
grid outside contact surface
Main Index
141
CHAPTER 10
Engine Gasket
has been exceeded, the unloading behavior will be interpolated between the loading and the unloading curve. The
tensile modulus (in case the gasket would be loaded in tension) is set to 72 MPa and the transverse shear modulus to
35 MPa. The initial thickness difference between the gasket ring and gasket body is reflected by the initial gap of
0.090909 mm.
The control grids for the bolt pre-tensioning, 4083 and 4095, are defined by:
GRID 4083 -36.04921.31545 20.515 5
GRID 4095 36.0492 1.31545 20.515 6
CORD2R 5 -36.04921.31545 20.515 -36.0492-40.183220.515
5.44948 1.31545 20.515
CORD2R 6 36.0492 1.31545 20.515 36.0492 -40.183220.515
77.5479 1.31545 20.515
Using these control grids, the MPC entries are:
MPC 22 4084 1 1. 3924 1 -1.
4083 1 -1.
MPC 22 4085 1 1. 3930 1 -1.
4083 1 -1.
MPC 22 4086 1 1. 3936 1 -1.
4083 1 -1.
...
...
MPC 22 4104 3 1. 1966 3 -1.
4095 3 -1.
MPC 22 4105 3 1. 1972 3 -1.
4095 3 -1.
MPC 22 4106 3 1. 1978 3 -1.
4095 3 -1.
Alternatively, the BOLT option can be used. Although the kinematic constraints involved are the same, the BOLT option
has the following advantages:
the input format is more concise;
the option is easier to use in a contact analysis.
When the MPC entries are used, the user defined MPC's may easily be conflicting with MPC's introduced by the
contact algorithm, thus causing the contact constraints to be skipped. On the other hand, when the elements at both
sides of the cross section are included in the same contact body, then the BOLT option causes the contact algorithm to
treat this cross section in a special way, Consequently, grid points at the boundary of the cross section can touch
another contact body, while grid points touching the body with the cross section can slide along this body, even when
the cross section has to be passed.
Using the same control grids as mentioned above, the input of the BOLT entries is:
BOLT 1 4083
TOP 3924 3930 3936 3942 3948 3954 3960
3966 3972 3978 3984
BOTTOM 4084 4085 4086 4087 4088 4089 4090
4091 4092 4093 4094
BOLT 2 4095
TOP 1918 1924 1930 1936 1942 1948 1954
1960 1966 1972 1978
BOTTOM 4096 4097 4098 4099 4100 4101 4102
4103 4104 4105 4106
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 10
142
The SPCDs defining the shortening of the bolts are:
SPCD 1 4083 2 .175
SPCD 1 4095 2 .175
The nonlinear procedure used is defined via the NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 10 FNT 1 25 UPW YES
10
Here the FNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the full Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy. Convergence checking is performed based on displacements, forces, and work. For all criteria, the
default error tolerance is used. In order to avoid bi-sections, the field MAXDIV is set to 10.
Figure 10-5 shows a plot of the displacement magnitudes in the structure corresponding to the maximum pre-
tensioning of the bolts. The expected symmetry in the solution is clearly present.
Figure 10-5 Displacement Contours at Maximum Bolt Pre-tensioning
The values of the bolt force as a function of the bolt shortening are depicted in Figure 10-6 and clearly show a
nonlinear response. The bolt force is found as the reaction force on grid 4083.
Main Index
143
CHAPTER 10
Engine Gasket
Figure 10-6 Bolt Force as a Function of the Bolt Shortening
Finally, Figure 10-7 displays the gasket pressure as a function of the gasket closure, both for the gasket ring and the
gasket body. As explained before, the gasket body has an initial gap which explains that the gasket pressure remains
zero until this gap is closed. The fact that the gasket pressure seems to already be nonzero for a gasket closer smaller
than the initial gap value (0.090909 mm) is due to the finite number of steps (10). Neither the gasket ring nor the gasket
body is loaded yet beyond the yield stress.
Figure 10-7 Gasket Pressure as a Function of the Gasket Closure
Modeling Tip
Contact Body Definition
Since the mesh of the engine block and the lower part of the bolts is a continuous mesh, the automated contact
algorithm will not be able to find a unique boundary description at the interface of the engine block and the bolts. This
is reflected by messages like:
warning: node 1407 belongs to bodies 3 4.
for the contact algorithm it will belong to body 3 only.
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
Bolt Force (N)
Bolt Shortening (mm)
Main Index
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CHAPTER 10
144
Although, in the current example, this will not affect the results (there will be no contact detection between the engine
block and the bolts), it is generally not recommended. Instead, one should either make sure that the lower part of the
bolts are separated from the engine block or include only the upper part of the bolts in the contact body definition.
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 47 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 10-8 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_10.dat Engine Gasket with MPC option
nug_10_bolt.dat Engine Gasket with BOLT option
bolt cross section
bolt cross section
Main Index
Chapter 11: Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading
11
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a
Cylindrical Pipe under External
Rigid Body Loading

Summary 146

Introduction 147

Requested Solutions 147

FEM Solutions 147

Modeling Tips 152

Input File(s) 153

Video 153
Main Index
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CHAPTER 11
146
Summary
Title Chapter 11: Elastic-Plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid
Body Loading
Contact features Rigid-deformable contact; Velocity controlled rigid bodies; Elastic perfectly plastic
material; Nonlinear shell elements with large strain plasticity
Geometry Pipe Length = 24; Pipe Diameter = 8; Pipe Thickness = 0.4
Material properties Elastic perfectly plastic material

Analysis type Quasi-static analysis using elastic perfectly plastic material, geometric nonlinearity, and
nonlinear boundary conditions
Boundary conditions Both ends of pipe are constrained in all degrees of freedom
Applied loads Both rigid bodies are moving towards the pipe in y-direction with a velocity of 2 in/sec.
for duration of 1 second.
Element type 4-node nonlinear thick shell element
FE results Plot of y-displacement and total plastic strain contours
+
R = 3
+
R = 4
Move Down
V = -2 in
Move Up
V = 2 in
Pipe
Rigid
Body 1
Rigid
Body 2
E 3.0
6
10 psi = v 0.3 = o
y
36000 psi =
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
Force Y Bottom
Force Y Top
Die Load [Lbf ]
Die Displacment [in]
Main Index
147
CHAPTER 11
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading
Introduction
A model of a cylindrical pipe is subjected to crushing as rigid bodies above and below the pipe move inward towards
each other. The model is created using 2-D nonlinear thick shell elements to model the pipe and rigid surfaces above
and below the pipe. The problem attempts to quantify whether the movement of the external structures cause the
plastic collapse of the pipe. Initial contact with the external structures is expected to cause elastic deformation of the
steel pipe. Additional incremental movement potentially subjects the structure to stresses beyond the proportional limit
of the material. The yield stress defines the onset of plastic strains that may initiate the collapse of the structure walls.
This exercise illustrates several SOL 400 capabilities including large displacement analysis, contact analysis between
rigid and deformable bodies, and large strain plasticity modeled with an elastic-perfectly plastic model.
Requested Solutions
The large displacement elastic-plastic contact analysis is carried out using MSC Nastran SOL 400 for this rigid to
deformable problem. The application of the nonlinear thick shell element is demonstrated by using the nonlinear
extension PSHLN1 option for the regular PSHELL option. The following results from SOL 400 model are compared
with the results obtained from the Marc model.
Contour plot for y-displacement
Contour plot for total equivalent plastic strain
FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for a 3-D representation of the deformable pipe
structure and two semi-circular sections of rigid pipes sections. The details of finite element model, contact simulation,
material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed in this chapter.
Finite Element and Contact Model
The finite element mesh for the pipe contains 18 elements around the circumference and 18 elements along the length
for a total of 324 elements. MSC Nastran CQUAD4 elements with material ID 1 and thickness 0.4 inches are selected
using the following PSHELL and PSHLN1 entries. The PSHLN1 entry enables SOL 400 to access the thick shell
elements with large strain capabilities. The finite element model used for this simulation is shown in Figure 11-1.
PSHELL 1 1 .4 1 1
PSHLN1 1 1 1 NO +
+ C4 DCT L
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148
Figure 11-1 Finite Element Model used with MSC Nastran Simulation
In defining the contact model, the primary pipe section is modeled as a deformable body and the two external pipe
structures are modeled as rigid bodies. Elements comprising the deformable pipe structure are used to generate a
deformable contact body with ID 4 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. Contact body IDs 5 and 6 are
used to define the velocity controlled rigid bodies for the two semicircular sections of rigid pipes. The geometry
profiles of the rigid surfaces are defined using 3-D NURB surfaces that describe the true surface geometry and most
accurately represent the curved surfaces.
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
BCBODY 5 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. -2. 0.
RIGID 0 1 CONTACT_TOP
NURBS -13 10 4 4 50 50 0
-2. 8.1 -5.5 -2. 8.1 -4.66667
...
BCBODY 6 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2. 0.
RIGID 0 1 CONTACT_BOTTOM
NURBS -13 10 4 4 50 50 8
0. -7.1 -5.5 0. -7.1 -4.66667
...
Furthermore, the following BCTABLE entries identify how these bodies can touch each other. BCTABLE with ID 0 is
used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for
contact analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE
with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and it is flagged using
BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section.
BCTABLE 0 2
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 6
Main Index
149
CHAPTER 11
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading
BCTABLE 1 2
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 6
Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the
following MAT1 and MATEP options.
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3
MATEP 1 Perfect36000. Isotrop Addmean
The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1
Loading and Boundary Conditions
Both ends of the pipe are constrained in all degrees of freedom using the following entries. In addition to this, the top
and bottom rigid surfaces are given velocity vectors of 2 inches per second, and +2 inches per second, respectively
in the y-direction. This causes the upper structure to be pushed down onto the top of the pipe section and the lower
structure to be pushed up into the bottom of the pipe section at a rate of 2 inches per second for a total time of 1 second.
The velocities of these rigid bodies are defined in the BCBODY section.
SPCADD 2 1
FORCE 1 1 0 1.-16 1. 0. 0.
SPC1 1 123456 1 THRU 18
SPC1 1 123456 343 THRU 360
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 100 PFNT 0 500 UPV NO
where 100 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein
the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 500 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment and if this
were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. UPV indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacements (U) and residuals (P) and V stands for vector component which will do a maximum
component check. NO indicates that intermediate output will not be produced after every increment. The second line
of NLPARM is omitted here which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U and P
checking.
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150
Results
The contour of displacement in y-direction and total equivalent plastic strain in the pipe section from SOL 400
simulations are shown in Figure 11-2 and Figure 11-3, respectively. Similar plots from the Marc simulations are
shown in Figure 11-4 and Figure 11-5, respectively. It is clear from these figures that the predictions from the SOL
400 matches closely with the prediction from Marc.
Figure 11-2 Y-Displacement Contours from SOL 400 Model
Figure 11-3 Total Equivalent Plastic Strain Contours from SOL 400 Model
Main Index
151
CHAPTER 11
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading
Figure 11-4 Y-Displacement Contours from Marc Model
Figure 11-5 Total Equivalent Plastic Strain Contours from Marc Model
Main Index
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CHAPTER 11
152
Modeling Tips
PSHLN1 entry in conjunction with regular PSHELL entry allows the users to make use of the thick shell
element which is capable of handling large strain elasto-plastic applications problems. Users should also make
use of the NLMOPTS,LRGS,1 option to flag the large strain behavior of these element.
Adding the parameter,
PARAM,CDBMSG05,5
after the BEGIN BULK option will output a num-11m.t19 file that has the contact information available for
postprocessing in either Mentat or Patran. With this information, you can plot the normal contact force on the
rigid bodies (Die Forces) versus the Die Displacement as shown in Figure 11-6. The step shaped response is
due to the local collapsing of the curvature of the pipe elements. Using more elements would require smaller
step sizes.
Figure 11-6 Die Load versus Die Displacement
It is possible to make use of load controlled rigid body in place of the velocity controlled rigid body for this
problem. In such case, you should apply necessary displacement boundary condition at the control node of
rigid bodies to simulate its movement in y-direction.
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
Force Y Bottom
Force Y Top
Die Load [Lbf ]
Die Displacment [in]
Main Index
153
CHAPTER 11
Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 11-7 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_11m.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input
ch11.SimXpert SimXpert input file
ch11.bdf Associated MSC Nastran SOL 400 input from SimXpert
Main Index
Chapter 12: Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders
12
Thermal/Pressure
Loaded Cylinders

Summary 155

Introduction 156

Required Solutions 156

FEM Solutions 156

Results 159

General Analysis Tips 162

Input File(s) 162


Main Index
155
CHAPTER 12
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders
Summary
Title Chapter 12: Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders
Contact features Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable contact
Geometry and
description
Two eccentric cylinders:
Material properties
Inner cylinder: Isotropic elasto-plastic; ; ,
, Initial yielding stress: 9900 Psi; Piece-wise
linear and isotropic work hardening rule.
Outer cylinder: Isotropic elastic, Youngs modulus is temperature dependent, initial
value ; , , no
plasticity.
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis; Material nonlinearity (softening by temperature and hardening by
plastic deformation); Geometric nonlinearity
Displacement Boundary
conditions and applied
loads
Symmetric displacement constraint over the horizontal plane with one end of the
cylinders are fixed in the z-direction. Step 1: Thermal loading 50
o
F temperature change.
Step 2: Internal pressure loading; internal cylinder.
Element type 8-node linear elements
Contact properties Deformable-to-deformable body contact without friction
FE results Plot of stress/strain and displacement distribution after each step.
R = 0.32
R = 0.25
0.09
t = 0.03
E
inner
2.2
7
10 psi = v
in
0.3 =
Thermal expansion coefficient 1.85
5
10 1 F =
E
outer
1.27
7
10 psi = v
out
0.3 = Thermal expansion coefficient 1.85
5
10 F =
Displacement Contours after Step 2
Main Index
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156
Introduction
This application example evaluates the performance of an adaptive load stepping scheme in the applications of MSC.
Nastran SOL 400 for the FE analysis. Due to the symmetry condition, half of the assembly is sufficient for the finite
element analysis. This example involves thermal load, contact, material, and geometrical nonlinearity under pressure
loading. The geometry and material descriptions are given in the above summary table. There are two load steps. The
first step is to apply the thermal load by specifying the temperature changes at each node of the two eccentric cylinders.
With the thermal loading along with the given boundary conditions, the stress and strain are generated due to uneven
thermal expansion of the two cylinders. In the second loading step, a pressure is applied at the inside of the inner
cylindrical surface. Due to this pressure, the smaller cylinder expands in diameter and eventually fills the gap between
the two cylinders when the outer surface of the small cylinder progressively touches the inner surface of the outside
cylinder.
Due to the strong nonlinearity, adaptive time stepping scheme is used. By the adaptive time stepping scheme, the step
size of each increment is adjusted at the end of step that just converged.
Required Solutions
SOL 400 is used for the FE analysis of this problem. The advanced HEX element defined by PSOLID entry pointing
to an auxiliary PSLDN1 entry is used. For the first loading step, the thermal strains and stresses of the two cylinders
are of the interests. For the second load step, the deformation and contact between two cylinders under pressure
loading are investigated. Due to the nonlinearity introduced by nonlinear material properties and contact, convergence
speed varies with the nonlinear deformation and changes of contact condition. In order to achieve fast and stable
analysis, the time step size is automatically adjusted according to the convergence condition. In the current version of
MSC Nastran SOL 400, this is done by adding the NLAUTO option into the input data file. For comparison purposes,
one analysis with Marc with the solid element of the same formulation as the element in SOL 400 and auto step scheme
is also conducted.
FEM Solutions
The element, contact, material/geometry, solution algorithm, and convergence schemes parameters are explained in
this chapter.
The Advanced HEX Element
The FE model is shown in Figure 12-1. As mentioned earlier, two solutions are obtained. The first solution was
obtained by using the MSC Nastran SOL 400 with the advanced HEX element, which is defined by the PSOLID and
PSLDN1 bulk data options as shown below, where (C8 SOLI L) defines the 3-D continuum solid element with linear
integration scheme.
PSOLID 1 1 0
PSLDN1 1 1 +
+ C8 SOLI L
Main Index
157
CHAPTER 12
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders
Figure 12-1 The FE Model for the Numerical Solution
Contact Parameters
As shown in Figure 12-1, the contact body named as cbody1 (shown in pink) represents the inner cylinder. The
contact body named as cbody2 defines the outside cylinder. The black arrows represent the pressure applied on the
inner surface of the small cylinder (cbody1). It should be noted that only half of the whole assembly is modeled due
to the symmetry condition.
In the input data file, the contact bodies are defined deformable contact bodies as below:
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0
BSURF 1 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817 1818 1819
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2 0
BSURF 2 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019
The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below define the touch conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 2
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 2
BCTABLE 2 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 2
As shown above, BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the touch conditions at the start of the analysis. 0 identifies the
case number. This BCTABLE is mandatory for the contact analysis with SOL 400. Also, the options BCONTACT with
Main Index
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158
ID 0 and BCPARA with ID 0 are all applied at the start of the analysis. For each load step, the touch condition can be
defined by BCTABLE, BCPARA, and BCONTACT option.
Material/Geometry Parameters
Both bodies in this analysis are isotropic in terms of thermal and mechanical properties. Body one represents the inner
cylinder, which is also elasto-plastic. The Youngs modulus, Poisson ratio, and thermal expansion coefficient are
defined by MAT1 bulk data option. The plasticity properties are defined by MATEP with TABLES1 option. Here,
TABLES1 is associated with MATEP to defined the strain hardening rule of the material with ID 1.
MATEP 1 Table 1 Isotrop Addmean
MAT1 1 2.2+7 .3 1. 1.85-5
TABLES1 1 2
0. 9900. 3.9-4 12500. 9.5-4 15200. .00295 17500.
.00615 20000. .05 25000. .1 28000. ENDT
Body two represents the outside cylinder. As shown below, this body has a temperature dependent Youngs modulus
(see TABLEM1).
MAT1 2 2.2+7 .3 1. 1.85-5
MATT1 2 2
TABLEM1 2
0. 2.2+7 50. 1.76+7 100. 1.54+7 ENDT
The thermal expansion coefficient of the two cylinder are the same which is 0.0000185 1/
o
F.
Case Control Parameters
There are two loading sequences (or loading steps) in the analysis. In each loading sequence, the control parameters
are defined by the NLPARM and the NLAUTO option. The ID of the NLAUTO option is linked with the identification
number of the NLPARM option. This option must be used in conjunction with NLPARM. The NLAUTO options are
specified in the bulk data area. As shown below, load STEP ID 1 of SUBCASE ID 1 defines all necessary conditions
applied to the analysis for the first load step which includes bulk data options (TITLE, NLPARM, BCONTACT, SPC,
LOAD) and the requested output information. Particularly, it is necessary to note the analysis control options of
NLMOPTS and the LGDISP parameter. In this example, the NLMOPTS option defines LRGS to 1. It means that LARGE
STRAIN formulation is used. The LGDISP parameter indicates that geometric nonlinearity includes the stiffness of
follower forces.
NLPARM defines the parameters to control the time step and convergence schemes. In this example, PFNT means that
full Newton-Raphson method is adopted. The attempted total number of loading increments is set to 20. The maximum
iteration for each increment is set to 25. UP means the convergence scheme is set to check both the convergence of
displacements and residuals. In this loading sequence, both tolerances are set as 0.01. It is worth to note that a negative
value is set for the displacement check. The negative sign means the convergence check will be based on the
incremental displacement. And NO in the NLPARM option means that it is not required to output the analysis results
for intermediate loading steps, except the results at the end of the loading sequence. However, the total number of
loading increment may be changed according to the parameters set in NLAUTO option. In the first load step, the
deformation is relatively small. The desired number of iterations (1st field of the second line of NLAUTO option) is set
as 5. In the second load step, due to contact and large deformation, the desired number of iteration is set as 7. To set a
proper desired number of iterations is critical to achieve the solution with minimum computation time and adequate
Main Index
159
CHAPTER 12
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders
accuracy. Too large numbers may cause significant change of time step size between increments, which may cause the
solution to converge slowly or even diverging. If this happens, SOL 400 cuts the time step size back. As one of the
consequences, the analysis may need even longer computation time. To avoid this, it is recommended to set a
reasonably small value for the maximum ratio of incremental step size change between incremental steps (the 6th field
of the first line of the NLAUTO option). This parameter is set as 10 with desired number of iteration as 5 for load step
1. For the second load step, with consideration of the fact that contact and large deformation may occur, this parameter
is set as 1.2 with desired number of iterations as 7. This is particularly important in order to avoid penetration and also
to control the time step size with good balance of efficiency and accuracy.
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
ANALYSIS = NLSTATICS
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 3
TEMPERATURE(LOAD) = 4
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
BOUTPUT (PRINT)=ALL
STEP 2
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
ANALYSIS = NLSTATICS
NLPARM = 2
BCONTACT = 2
SPC = 2
LOAD = 6
TEMPERATURE(LOAD) = 8
DISPLACEMENT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
NLMOPTS LRGS 1
PARAM LGDISP 1
NLPARM 1 20 PFNT 1 25 UP NO
-0.01 0.01 0 0
NLAUTO 1 0.05 1.0 0.1 10. 1.0e-5 0.2 999999
5 1 0 0 10 0 0 0.0
$
NLAUTO 2 0.05 1.0 0.1 1.2 1.0e-5 0.2 999999
7 1 0 0 10 0 0 0.0
NLPARM 2 20 PFNT 1 25 UP NO
-0.01 0.01
Results
Load Step One
The initial temperature of the whole assembly is set as zero (0). In the first load step, a temperature load is applied to
the inner cylinder and part of the outside cylinder (see Figure 12-2 - yellow color). Due to the thermal expansion
caused by the temperature load and the corresponding changes of the material properties, thermal strain and stress are
generated. Figure 12-3 shows the distribution of major principal stress and the equivalent stress at the end of this load
step. It is seen that the distribution of stress is uneven through the wall thickness of the outside cylinder. However, the
stress in the inner cylinder is quite uniformly distributed (see Figure 12-3(b)). This is because the inner cylinder has a
Main Index
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CHAPTER 12
160
uniform temperature load with minimum displacement boundary constraints. Therefore, it has nearly stress-free
thermal expansion. With the adaptive loading step scheme, the analysis of this loading sequence is completed in eight
incremental steps.
Figure 12-2 Temperature Loading
Figure 12-3 Distributions
Load Step Two
This load step is to apply the pressure inside the inner cylinder. Due to the pressure loading, the inner cylinder expands
in diameter. At some point of loading, the gap between the two cylinders is closed. Figure 12-4 (a) shows the gap
between two cylinders at the beginning of this load step. Figure 12-4 (b) shows that the gap is completely closed after
the pressure is fully applied. Using the adaptive load step control, this load step is completed in 19 incremental steps.
So the total number of incremental steps for the analysis is 27 steps. The distribution of equivalent stress in the
deformed cylinders is shown in Figure 12-5. It is seen that the level of stress is higher in the inner cylinder. The lowest
stress occurs on the outside cylinder along its inner surface which is in contact with the outside surface of


(a) Major Principal Thermal Stress (b) Equivalent Stress
Main Index
161
CHAPTER 12
Thermal/Pressure Loaded Cylinders
the inner cylinder. The lower level of stress is mainly because of the softening of material due to increased
temperature.
Figure 12-4 Change of Contact Status Between the Two Cylinders
Figure 12-5 Equivalent Stress of the Deformed Cylinders After Pressure Loading
In addition to the analysis with MSC Nastran SOL 400, Marc is also used to conduct the analysis with the same type
of element and material and boundary condition definition. The results are quite close as shown in Figure 12-6(a) and
Figure 12-6(b). The analysis by Marc takes 16 incremental steps for the first load step and another 27 incremental steps
for the pressure loading step.
(a) (b)
Main Index
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162
Figure 12-6 Displacement Contours of the Cylinders After Pressure Loading
General Analysis Tips
Convergence control: While the nonlinearity is quite strong in the second load step, it is suggested to use both
displacement and residual convergence check due to the nonlinearity introduced by contact. Also, the full Newton-
Raphson iteration scheme is recommended for all SOL 400 analyses because the degree of nonlinearity is typically
significant.
Adaptive step size control: The NLAUTO option with NLPARM option provides the convenient interface for user to
control the analysis procedure. Proper setting of the control parameters is very important to obtain accurate results
without losing computational efficiency. A useful tip is to use loose control over the desired number of iteration but
use tighter control over the maximum ratio of time step change allowed after each converged step.
Contact control: In this example, the FE nodes of inner cylinder part are defined as slave contact nodes. This is due
to the consideration that, during the pressure loading process, the inner cylinder will expand and intend to touch the
inner surface of the outside cylinder. In this case, the nodes on the inner cylinder surface usually have much larger
incremental displacements at each increment.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_12bm.dat Input data for MSC Nastran SOL 400
mdug_12b3d.dat Input data for Marc
(a) MSC Nastran SOL 400 (b) MSC.Marc
Main Index
Chapter 13: Ball Joint Rubber Boot
13
Ball Joint Rubber Boot

Summary 164

Introduction 165

Solution Requirements 165

FEM Solution 166

Results 169

Modeling Tips 171

Input File(s) 171

Video 172
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 13
164
Summary
Title Chapter 13: Ball Joint Rubber Boot
Contact features Load controlled rigid bodies and friction with viscoelastic relaxation
Geometry
Material properties Shear Modulus, G = 2.0 MPa - using time dependent and independent Mooney and
Ogden elastomeric material models
Boundary conditions Housing moves to seat clamp 1; stud and knuckle move to seat clamp 2.
Element types Axisymmetric 4-node quad element
FE results Verify the equivalence of the two elastomeric models and underscore the importance of
time effects of material properties in elastomers. Verify the deformed shape with actual
installation.
C
L
R
Housing
Knuckle
Stud
Clamp 2
Clamp 1
Original Shape of Boot
Deformed Shape of Boot
r = 0.017557 m
r = 0 m
+ +
C
L
R
Main Index
165
CHAPTER 13
Ball Joint Rubber Boot
Introduction
In the design of ball joints for automotive applications, the major design concern is to prevent sealing boots from
leaking. Because most ball joint failures occur as a result of corrosion, contamination or dirt ingress, causing excessive
wear. Figure 13-1 shows some typical ball joint failure modes. In practice the stud of a ball joint is subjected to axial,
oscillatory and rotational loads. Currently, most designs of sealing boots are based on design engineer's experience,
experimental tests, and/or much more simplified FEA models. In this example, we will install the boot using a 2-D
axisymmetric FEA model whereby the boot is fitted onto the housing under the large clamp, and then the stud and
knuckle moved to fit the boot onto the shaft. The deformed profile of the boot is then compared to the actual boot.
Figure 13-1 Ball Joint Sealing Boot Failure: Excessive Wear in Labyrinth
Solution Requirements
MSC Nastran is used to model the assembly process of the boot onto the housing and stud. Since the stiffness of the
housing, ball stud, knuckle and clamping rings is much higher than the rubber sealing boot, they are modeled with
rigid bodies. The simulation is performed as three different cases as explained below:
Cases A and B: The rubber-sealing boot material is modeled using Mooney-Rivlin (Case A) and Ogden (Case B)
material models and equivalent performance of both is studied.
Case C: Viscoelastic Relaxation follows the installation with Mooney as the material mode. A time
dependence of hyperelastic properties is taken into account where the viscoelasticity is represented
as linear perturbations over hyperelastic material capable of representing large strains. The
viscoelastic relaxation will drop the strain energy density by about 50% in a two hour time period.
Contamination at the
parting line.
Contamination in the
grease
Wear in labyrinth from
corrosion on the pin
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 13
166
FEM Solution
The numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastran's solution sequence 400. The details of finite element
models, contact simulations, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed next.
Finite Element Models
An axisymmetric model of the Ball Joint rubber boot is used in the simulation. The rubber boot is meshed with 845
lower-order axisymmetric solid elements.
The bulk data file entries defining the axisymmetric properties of the CQUADX elements are as follows:
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2,1,1
,C4,AXSOLID,L
Contact Models
The model has six contact bodies. The rubber boot is the deformable contact body while the housing, ball stud,
knuckle, ring small and ring large are represented as the rigid contact bodies. Each of the contact bodies is defined
through the BCBODY bulk data entry. Each rigid body is defined to contact the deformable rubber boot, and hence, six
contact pairs are defined through BCTABLE. In each contact pair, the contacting rigid body is defined as MASTER and
the deformable rubber boot is defined as SLAVE. The contact tolerance is zero and the bias factor is globally defined
for all contact pairs as 0.95. For simplicity, no friction has been included in the analysis. The BCPARA bulk data entry
is used to define the global bias factor.
Figure 13-2 Original Axisymmetric Model
Main Index
167
CHAPTER 13
Ball Joint Rubber Boot
Material
Cases A and B:
The experimental data is fitted with a one term Mooney (commonly known as neo-Hookean) model. To demonstrate
the equivalence and accuracy of the implemented elastomer models in sol 400, both Mooney (Case A) and Ogden
(Case B) models have been used for the rubber boot. The models are made equivalent by ensuring that the bulk
modulus is the same for both models and taking care of the following:

1
= 2C
10
and o
1
= 2 and
2
= 2C
01
and o
2
= -2
It is important to note that this equivalence relation holds only one way i.e. any neo-Hookean or Mooney model can
be represented by the Ogden model in general but not vice-versa. The bulk data entry used to define the material
properties in Case A is MATHE for both Mooney and Ogden models. The properties of Mooney and Ogden materials
have been input as follows:
MATHE 1 Mooney 0. 1.
1. 0.
0. 0.
0.
MATHE 1 Ogden 1. 0. 0. 0.
2. 2.
0. -2.
Case C:
In this case, along with the Mooney properties of Case A, a MATVE bulk data file entry is used to define the viscoelastic
properties. Here, Wdi (multiplier or scale factor for deviatoric behavior in Prony series) and Tdi (time constant for
deviatoric behavior in Prony series) need to be entered in the MATVE entry. They have been included in the input file
as follows:
MATHE 1 Mooney 0. 1.
1. 0.
0. 0.
0.
MATVE,1,Mooney,,,0.111188,0.205057,,
,0.130683,1.71947,0.0967089,23.7532,0.0822848,273.121,0.0965449,3107.79
Loading and Boundary Conditions
All the rigid bodies are load controlled and are assembled using displacement boundary conditions.
Cases A and B:
The control node 977 of the housing is given an x-displacement of 0.00273451 in the first load case. The control node
976 of the stud is held fixed in the y-direction in the first load case and given a y-displacement of 0.0031074 in the
second load case. The control node 978 of knuckle is held stationary in the first load case and given a displacement -
0.0105098 in the second load case. The clamping rings, ring large with control node 974, ring small with control node
975 are held stationary in the y-direction throughout the analysis but are allowed to translate in the x-direction.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 13
168
Case C:
All the control node displacements are applied together in the first load step (as explained in the above case) which is
followed by a step of visco-elastic relaxation.
Solution Procedure
The assembly process for the different cases has been done as follows:
Cases A and B:
In the first step, the housing is brought into place with the ball stud and knuckle held unassembled. A fixed
time stepping procedure using NLSTEP with 50 increments is used to assemble the knuckle. UPV residual
checking is used with KSTEP = -1 and the solution algorithm utilizes the full Newton-Raphson (PFNT) with
convergence check using the infinity norm (as opposed to the L-2 norm):
NLSTEP 1 1.0
general 25 1 10
fixed 50 0
mech UPV .01 .01
NLSTEP 2 1.0
general 25 1 10
fixed 50 0
mech UPV .01 .01
In the second step, both the stud and the knuckle are brought into position with the housing held in place.
Again, a fixed time stepping procedure using NLSTEP with 50 increments is used to assemble the Knuckle.
UPV convergence checking is used with KSTEP = -1.
Large displacement (PARAM, LGDISP, 2)
Large Strain analysis with updated Lagrangian approach with multiplicative decomposition of deformation
gradient (NLMOPTS,LRGS,2)
Case C:
In this case, all three housing, knuckle, and stud are brought into place in the first load step. Here, the entire analysis
is done in real time. The first load step is of 2 seconds.Again, a fixed time stepping is used with 100 increments with
each increment representing a real time of 0.02 seconds. Again the convergence technique is PFNT and UPV
convergence checking is used with KSTEP = -1. The NLSTEP entry is as follows
NLSTEP 1 2.0
general 25 1 10
fixed 100 0
mech UPV .01 .01
In the second load step, there are no additional loads or boundary conditions applied and the system is held in place
through the contact conditions. The assembled system thus relaxes for the next 7200 seconds. This is easily
accomplished with the adaptive time stepping scheme activated using the NLSTEP entry. The ADAPT field is employed
Main Index
169
CHAPTER 13
Ball Joint Rubber Boot
in the NLSTEP entry to achieve this. While options like PV convergence test method and PFNT technique with
KSTEP=-1 and convergence tolerance of 0.100 are specified in the MECH option of the NLSTEP entry, the ADAPT
option is used which specifies the following:
Initial time step (=1.0e-3)
Minimum time step as a fraction of total load step time (=1.0E-5)
Maximum time step as a fraction of total load step time (=.10)
Desired number of iterations (=10)
Factor for increasing the time steps (=1.20)
Output flag (=-1)
Maximum number of increments in the current load case (=999999)
Flag for damping (=0)
Damping co-efficient (=.100E-03)
The NLSTEP entry is as follows:
NLSTEP 2 72000.0
GENERAL 25 0 10
ADAPT 1.0E-03 1.0E-5 .10 10 1.20 -1 999999
0 .100E-03 0 0 1 .100 1.2
MECH PV 0.00 .100 0.00 PFNT -1
Results
The installation of the boot onto the housing and stud is shown in Figure 13-3. The deformed shape is overlaid onto
the actual deformed boot geometry to validate the modeling techniques.
Figure 13-3 Undeformed and Deformed Rubber Boot
Undeformed Deformed
C
L
R
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 13
170
As expected, the knuckle force is identical for both the models as shown in Figure 13-4. In addition, the results agree
with Marc's results which have been taken as reference. Figure 13-5 shows the fall of the knuckle force due to the
subsequent relaxation associated with the viscoelastic effects. The fall is quite dramatic and consistent with the
material data. Also, it can be noticed that the SOL 400 solution is very close to the Marc reference results.
Figure 13-4 Comparison of Knuckle Force during Assembly
Figure 13-5 Insertion Force History
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Ogden (MD Sol 400)
Mooney (MD Sol 400)
Mooney (Marc)
Axial Force (N)
Axial Displacement (m)
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Mooney (MD Sol 400)
Mooney (Marc)
Axial Force (N)
Time (sec)
Install
Relax
Main Index
171
CHAPTER 13
Ball Joint Rubber Boot
Modeling Tips
Use of NLMOPTS,LRGS,2 and PARAM,LGDISP,2 must be included in the analysis. The KSTEP field in the NLSTEP
entry should be set to -1,especially for these kind of problems. Finally, for an efficient solution using the adaptive time
stepping scheme, the ADAPT option is used in the NLSTEP entry.
It must be noticed that additional laboratory tests (and corresponding curve fitting to get the Prony coefficients) would
need to be carried out to get the time dependence of the material properties. The need for the addition of time
dependent effects in an analysis requires judgment. In analyses involving both rolling resistance (important for
designing for fuel efficiency) or standing waves (tire blowout) in tires, viscous effects are important,; however, a
simple static loading to capture load-deflection curves does not require modeling of any time dependent effects. This
can save time and money to do the additional tests.
In general, adaptive load stepping is recommended to provide robust automatic control of the applied load even in the
presence of strong nonlinearities. In this case, however, the large amount of contact throughout loadcase one together
with the time-dependent aspects of loadcase two made fixed stepping the better option.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_13a.dat Mooney model
nug_13b.dat Ogden model
nug_13c.dat Mooney model with viscoelastic properties
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 13
172
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 13-6 Video of the Above Steps
C
L
R
Housing
Knuckle
Stud
Clamp 2
Clamp 1
Original Shape of Boot
Deformed Shape of Boot
r = 0.017557 m
r = 0 m
+ +
Main Index
Chapter 14: Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example
14
Time NVH Analysis
Chassis Example

Summary 174

Introduction 175

Requested Solutions 175

Model Details Time NVH scheme 175

FEM Solution 176

Results 178

Modeling Tips 180

Input File(s) 181


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 14
174
Summary
Title Chapter 14: Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example
Features A potentially nonlinear periodic transient dynamic response of a chassis sub-frame
analysis is followed by a fast Fourier transform to extract the modes and frequencies that
characterize the dynamic solution which is compared to traditional linear modal
analysis.
Geometry
Material properties
, ,
Analysis type TIMNVH analysis (SOL 700)
Boundary conditions Free
Applied loads
Vertical impulse load applied at point
Element type 4-node shell element
FE results Transient response, FFT, mode shapes and frequencies

L4
W1
W2
L1
L2 L3
W1= 993
W2= 1,182
L1= 1,518
L2= 865
L3= 927
L4= 361
Size of rectangular hollow beam: 53x111 to 53x191 depending on locations.
Thickness of shell: 3.5
Units: mm
A
F
G
L
E 2.10x10
5
N mm
2
= v 0.3 = 7.89x10
9
t on mm
3
=
A
A
C
B
H
D
E
F
G
I
J
K
L
1.00E-06
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.00E-03
1.00E-02
1.00E-01
0.00E+00 2.00E+01 4.00E+01 6.00E+01 8.00E+01 1.00E+02 1.20E+02 1.40E+02 1.60E+02
A
m
p
lit
u
d
e
Frequency (Hz)
901581
901641
901697
901865
902061
902097
902580
902595
902609
902797
902996
903063
Main Index
175
CHAPTER 14
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example
Introduction
This is an example of a virtual dynamic test. A chassis of a car was modeled and a vertical impulse loading was applied
at one of front corner points. Time histories were obtained at select chassis locations and they were translated to
frequency domain by applying Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to extract mode shapes and frequencies for 12 sampling
points.
Requested Solutions
Acceleration time histories are obtained at 12 points and they are translated to a frequency domain. Dynamic properties
such as modal natural frequencies and mode shapes are then computed. The results are then compared with those of
Nastran SOL 103 for validation purposes.
Model Details Time NVH scheme
Figure 14-1 Flow Chart of TIMNVH Scheme
MD Nastran bdf Model (impulse loading)
Obtain Time-history Results
- Displacement
- Velocity
- Acceleration (default)
Time domain results -> Frequency domain results
Extract dynamic properties:
Natural frequencies and Mode shapes
(f06 and modes.out files)
SOL 700

FFT
Find and compare peaks
Add PARAM, S700NVH1 , TIMNAT and TIMSML cards
Re-run MD Nastran SOL 700
Use primary time history or FFT results
No
Final dynamic properties Is acceptable?
Yes
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 14
176
FEM Solution
There are two models. The first model is the initial run to determine the rough dynamic properties of the structure and
second model is a re-run of the first job to find the accurate and final results using the previous time history results.
Applied Load and Selected Location for Time History
To compute the dynamic responses of the chassis, a vertical impulse load is applied at the front corner as shown in
Figure 14-2. Using FORCE and TABLED entries as shown below, a maximum of 0.01 tons impulse point loading is
applied to node 902517.
FORCE 3 902517 0 .01 0. 0. -1.
TABLED1 1
-10. 0. 0. 0. .001 1. .002 0.
10. 0. ENDT
The acceleration time histories at 12 points on the chassis are computed (see Figure 14-2) to obtain the modal
responses.
Figure 14-2 Applied Impulse Loading and Nodes Selected for Getting the Acceleration Responses
Primary Job
The end time in transient run is defined by using 100 time steps at 0.4e-4 sec. for each increment. The end time is the
product of these two entries. Notice here, the time increment is only for the first step. The actual number of time
increments and the exact value of the time steps are determined by MSC Nastran solver during the analysis. The time
step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
TSTEPNL 1 100 .01 1 ADAPT 2 10
TIMNVH defines the Time NVH analysis as explained below.
TIMNVH, 1, , , 1.0, 1000., 3, 0.0005, 2,+
+, 0, 3, 1, 0.015, 0, 3, 13, .0030,+
0 2 4 6 8 10
0.000
0.005
0.010
Time (ms)
Load (ton)
A
C
B
H
D
E
F
G
I
J
K
L
Main Index
177
CHAPTER 14
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example
The range of natural frequencies to obtain is from 1.0 Hz to 1000 Hz and translational degrees of freedom for z-
direction is only considered (3). The sampling rate is 0.0005 seconds. The peaking criterion is two, which means that
a peak is selected if the amplitude of the number of increasing and decreasing points around a peak is equal or greater
than 2.
Acceleration is selected for the response (0) and translational eigenvectors are only requested as ASCII format (3).
Eigenvalues are normalized by 1.0 (1) and 0.015 is selected as CLOSE value which means if there are two modes which
distance is smaller than 0.015 Hz, it is assumed to be the same mode. ACII file format of natural frequencies and
eigenvalues are asked (0) and translational time histories of z-direction are requested (3). Frequency-amplitude data
of z-direction are requested (13) and a peak whose amplitude is less than 0.0030 times the maximum amplitude is
ignored (.0030)
+, 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, , ,+
+, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996, 903063
The grid points 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996 and
903063 are selected to obtain time history responses for Time NVH analysis.
TIMNVH,1, , , 1.0, 1000., 3,.0005, 2,+
+, 0, 3, 1, 0.015, 0, 3, 13, .0030,+
+, 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, , ,+
+, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996, 903063
Re-running Job
To find the accurate modal properties, a re-run is required using the previous time history data. Only three entries are
different from the initial job;
PARAM, S700NVH,
TIMNVH and
TIMNAT
The value of PARAM, S700NVH is assigned to 1 for using the previous time history binary data (binout0000). In
TIMNVH entry, the PEAK option (in the first line) is changed from 2 to 2, which will require defining the TIMNAT entry.
TIMNAT is used to specify the natural frequencies selected from amplitude-frequency plot from the initial run. The
natural frequencies close to 35, 43, 49, 101, and 108 Hzs are obtained as the natural frequencies.
PARAM,S700NVH1,1
TIMNVH,1, , , 1.0, 1000., 3,.0005, -2,+
+, 0, 3, 1, 0.015, 0, 3, 13, .0030,+
+, 901581, 901641, 901697, 901865, 902061, 902097, , ,+
+, 902580, 902595, 902609, 902797, 902996, 903063
TIMNAT,1,35.,43.,49.,101.,108.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 14
178
Results
There are three result files from Time Domain NVH analysis.
mode.out: Results for the natural frequencies and eigenvalues.
ampl-freq- 00901865-3.txt: amplitude-frequency output of degree of freedom =3 at grid point 901865.
time-hist- 00901865-3.txt: time history output of degree of freedom =3 at grid point 901865.
From the ampl-freq-*** files, the frequency-amplitude plots are shown in Figure 14-3. Using the plot, the modal
frequencies are specified in TIMNAT option to refine the dynamic property results.
Figure 14-3 Frequency-Amplitude Plots At 12 Nodes
1.00E-06
1.00E-05
1.00E-04
1.00E-03
1.00E-02
1.00E-01
0.00E+00 2.00E+01 4.00E+01 6.00E+01 8.00E+01 1.00E+02 1.20E+02 1.40E+02 1.60E+02
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Frequency (Hz)
901581
901641
901697
901865
902061
902097
902580
902595
902609
902797
902996
903063
A
C
B
H
D
E
F
G
I
J
K
L
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
Main Index
179
CHAPTER 14
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example
Figure 14-4 Comparison of Mode Shapes and Frequencies for SOL 103 and SOL 700
The small peaks for modes 4 and 5 are barely observable in Figure 14-3 and arise because of the selection of the type
of impulse loading. These lateral modes exhibit a low participation when the impulse loading is vertical. For a certain
set of impulse loads, certain modes may not be excited and the FFT only picks up the excited modes that significantly
participate in the transient response.
Mode SOL103 SOL 700 Diff(%) Comparison
1 36.0170 35.0002 2.82% Vertical motion dominant
2 43.9523 43.0002 2.17% Vertical motion dominant
3 52.5065 49.0003 6.68% Lateral motion dominant
4 67.4281 Small peak - Lateral motion dominant
5 84.7220 Small peak - Lateral motion dominant
6 101.9688 101.0005 0.95% Vertical motion dominant
7 111.0159 108.0005 2.72% Vertical motion dominant
36.017
35.000
43.952
43.000
52.506
49.000
67.428
-
84.722
-
111.016
108.001
101.969
101.001
SOL 103 Frequency Hz
SOL 700 Frequency Hz
1 2 3
4
Mode #
5 6
7
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 14
180
Results show that even though the vertical mode shapes of modes 2 and 3 are similar, their amplitude and lateral modes
are quite different. The results are compared in Figure 14-5.
Figure 14-5 Comparison of Vertical Mode Shapes Between Mode 2 and 3
Sample Output
The final response from the FFT steps for the 12 sampling points are contained in a file called modes.out which
contains the eigenvalues (frequencies) and eigenvectors (mode shapes) in the form:
Modeling Tips
To get more accurate data, options of TIMNVH and TSTEPNL entry could be changed. For example, increasing the end
time (defined as 1 second in this analysis) can result in higher resolution (the frequency increment in the frequency-
amplitude plot). The resolution is determined as:
Vertical mode shape of mode 2 Vertical mode shape of mode 3
02'(6
(,*9(
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
(((
} Frequency
x-component y-component
eigenvector
z-component
Sample
Grid IDS
1 mode {
st
1
sample end time - sample start time ( )
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1
1 sec 0 sec ( )
------------------------------------- 1 Hz = =
Main Index
181
CHAPTER 14
Time NVH Analysis Chassis Example
To increase the maximum frequency in the frequency-amplitude plots, the sampling rate which is defined as 0.015
seconds in this example decreases. The maximum frequency of this example is computed as:
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_14a.dat Initial run to find rough dynamic properties
nug_14b.dat Re-run to compute accurate dynamic properties
nug_14c.dat SOL 103 model
1
1
2
--- sampling rate ( )
------------------------------------------
1
1
2
--- 0.015 sec ( )
-------------------------------- 133.33 Hz = =
Main Index
Chapter 15: Tube Flaring
15
Tube Flaring

Summary 183

Introduction 184

Requested Solutions 184

FEM Solutions 184

Input File(s) 188


Main Index
183
CHAPTER 15
Tube Flaring
Summary
Title Chapter 15: Tube Flaring
Features Deformable-deformable contact
Large elastic-plastic deformation
Geometry Axisymmetric
Tube diameter = 8 inches
Tube thickness = 0.3 inches
Tube length = 8 inches
Tool apex angle = 30
Tool wall thickness = 0.6 inches
Tool length = sufficient to mode
the process
Material properties Tube: Youngs modulus = 3.0e7 psi, initial yield stress = 3.6e4 psi, yield
stress at 0.1 equivalent plastic strain = 1.8e5 psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3
Tool: Youngs modulus = 4.0e7 psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3, no yielding
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions The left end of the tube is prevented from moving in the axial direction but
is free to move in the radial direction.
Applied loads An edge load is applied to the right end of the tool (the end with a larger
diameter) to push the tool into the steel tube, then released
Element type 4-node axisymmetric elements
Contact properties Friction between the tool and the tube is ignored in the analysis
FE results 1. Plot of tube tip versus time.
2. Contours of von Mises stress at maximum load on deformed mesh
3. Contours of plastic strain on deformed mesh after load removal
C
L
C
L
x = r
y
x = r
y
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Radial Displacement Point A (in)
Time (s)
A
C
L
x = r
y
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 15
184
Introduction
A cone-shaped flaring tool is pushed into a cylindrical tube to permanently increase the diameter of the tube end. The
goal of the analysis is to determine whether the final shape of the tube, after the entire process, meets the objective.
The nonlinear nature of the problem, along with the irreversible characteristics, makes it impossible to know in
advance the load required to drive the tool into the tube. As a result, multiple runs through the analysis cycle may be
necessary to achieve the final objective of the analysis.
This problem demonstrates the use of MSC Nastran SOL 400 to analyze a contact problem involving deformable-
deformable contact and large elastic-plastic deformations.
Requested Solutions
The requested solutions include the curve of the tube diameter at the right end as a function of loads and the deformed
shape of the tube and the tool along with the distributions of von Mises stresses and plastic strains.
FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh (shown in Figure 15-1)
using axisymmetric elements.
Figure 15-1 Finite Element Mesh
There are two contact bodies. One is the tube and one is the tool. The two contact bodies with ID 3 and 4 are identified
as selected elements of the tube and the tools respectively as:
BCBODY 3 2D DEFORM 3 0
BSURF 3 109 110 111 112 113 114
115 116 117 118 119 120
...
and
BCBODY 4 2D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
...
x = r
y
Main Index
185
CHAPTER 15
Tube Flaring
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.
BCTABLE 0 2
SLAVE 3 0.05 100. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
fbsh 0.8
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 4 0.05 100. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
fbsh 0.8
MASTERS 3
BCTABLE 1 2
SLAVE 3 0.05 100. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
fbsh 0.8
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 4 0.05 100. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
fbsh 0.8
MASTERS 3
Axisymmetric elements are defined with CQUADX along with PLPLANE and PSHLN2 entries:
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1 +
+ C3 AXSOLID L +
+ C4 AXSOLID L +
+ C5 IPS L +
+ C6 AXSOLID Q +
+ C8 AXSOLID Q
$ Pset: "pshell.1" will be imported as: "plplane.1"
CQUADX 109 1 10 144 145 1
CQUADX 110 1 144 146 147 145

The Youngs modulus and Poissons ratios for the tube and the tool are defined as:
MAT1* 1 3.+7 1.15385+7 .3
* 1.
MAT1* 2 4.+7 1.53846+7 .3
* 1.
The yield stresses along with the hardening are defined respectively as:
MATEP 1 Table 36000. 1 Isotrop Addmean
TABLES1,1,2,,,,,,,+,
+,0.,36000.,0.1,180000.,ENDT,
The NLPARM entry is used to define the nonlinear analysis iteration strategy. There are two load steps: loading and
unloading. One hundred (100) uniform time increments are used to solve each load steps. The stiffness matrix will be
updated at each iteration (full Newton-Raphson iteration strategy).
NLPARM 1 100 PFNT 1 25 U YES
NLPARM 2 100 PFNT 1 25 U YES
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 15
186
The tube diameter at the right end of the tube gradually increases during the analysis as the load increases and reaches
the maximum of 0.4316 inches. The final tube radial displacement after unloading is settled at 0.4093 inches. See
Figure 15-2 for the curve of tube diameter as a function of time (load). The entire analysis procedure can be repeated
with various load levels to achieve the desired final tube diameter. The curve is not smooth at the loading path because
of the discrete finite elements. It can be improved by refining the finite element meshes.
Figure 15-2 Curve of Tube Diameter as a Function of Time
The deformed mesh and the distribution of von Mises stress at the time the applied load reaches maximum are shown
in Figure 15-3. It can be observed that the stresses are concentrated in two areas: the tip of deflection where the tube
made contact with the tool and in the area where the tube is deformed.
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Radial Displacement Point A (in)
Time (s)
A
C
L
x = r
y
Main Index
187
CHAPTER 15
Tube Flaring
Figure 15-3 Deformed Mesh and Distribution of von Mises Stress at Maximum Load
The deformed shape of the tube and the tool along with the distribution of plastic strains at the end of the analysis are
shown in Figure 15-4.
Figure 15-4 Deformed Mesh and Distribution of Equivalent Plastic Strains at the End of Analysis
x = r
y
x = r
y
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 15
188
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_15.dat Tube flaring input file.
Main Index
Chapter 16: Cup Forming Simulation
16
Cup Forming Simulation

Summary 190

Introduction 191

Requested Solutions 191

FEM Solutions 191

General Analysis Tips 197

Input File(s) 198

Video 198
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 16
190
Summary
Title Chapter 16: Cup Forming Simulation
Contact features 3-D Shell-Rigid contact
Velocity-Controlled Rigid bodies modeled using NURBS
Friction along deformable-rigid interfaces
Geometry 3-D shell elements (units: mm)
Blank Radius= 90
Shell Thickness = 1
Three Rigid Tools
Punch
Die
Holder
Material properties Aluminium alloy with isotropic properties
, , N/mm
2
Analysis type Quasi static analysis using
elasto-plastic material with isotropic work-hardening
reduced integration shell elements
nonlinear boundary conditions
Displacement boundary
conditions
Symmetry displacement constraints (quarter symmetry)
Element type 3-D shell
4-noded reduced integration elements
Contact Data Rigid punch moved up by 40 mm into the workpiece
Stationary die and holder with uniform gap of 1 mm between them
coefficient of friction
FE results 1. History plots of contact body forces for punch, die, and holder
2. Plot of equivalent plastic strains and equivalent stresses in the workpiece
3. Distribution of contact normal and friction forces on workpiece
E
sheet
70000N mm
2
= v
sheet
0.3 = o
yo
191.1 =
0.05 =
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
-20000
-15000
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Holder Force
Die Force
Punch Force
Force (N)
Time (s)
Main Index
191
CHAPTER 16
Cup Forming Simulation
Introduction
A cylindrical cup drawing test is simulated with a circular punch and blank. The test is simulated for a 1 mm thick
aluminium sheet modeled by one-point shell elements and using an isotropic elasto-plastic material with work-
hardening. Only a quarter section of the cup is analyzed. A schematic view of the cup drawing process is shown in
Figure 16-1. The simulation demonstrates various capabilities available in MSC Nastran SOL 400 to simulate large
strain processes including robust and efficient shell elements, large strain material and geometric nonlinearity, and
automated contact algorithms that can handle large amounts of sliding and friction.
Figure 16-1 Schematic for Cylindrical Cup Drawing Process
Requested Solutions
The contact forces on the rigid tools, workpiece, and the stress/plastic strain contours in the workpiece are of interest.
The availability of the large-strain shell elements in SOL 400 (by using suitable PSHLN1 extensions to the PSHELL
entry) are demonstrated. Analytical rigid tools that capture curved geometries accurately are modeled and friction
between the workpiece and these rigid tools is simulated. The solutions presented include:
History plot of the contact forces acting on the rigid punch, die, and holder
Contact normal forces and friction forces acting on the workpiece
Plastic strain and equivalent stress contours in the workpiece
FEM Solutions
The contact, material/geometry, convergence and other parameters used for the cup drawing simulated herein are as
follows.
Contact Parameters
The contact bodies are shown in Figure 16-2. The first body is the deformable workpiece; the second, third and fourth
bodies are the rigid punch, rigid die, and rigid holder, respectively. The gap between the holder and die is 1 mm. All
R4
R0
t
0

PUNCH
HOLDER
DIE
R
2

R
3

R
1

R
1
=50.0, R
2
=51.25, R
3
=9.53, R
4
=7.14
(Unit: mm) (Blank size: R
o
= 90.0, t
o
= 1.0)
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192
the rigid bodies are defined with analytical surfaces using the NURBS option. Friction coefficient is taken as 0.05 for
all surfaces.
BCBODY 7 3D DEFORM 7 0
BSURF 7 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
BCBODY 1 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 40.
RIGID 0 27 PUNCH
BCBODY 2 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 0 27 DIE
BCBODY 3 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 0 9 HOLDER
BCBODY with user ID 7 is identified as a three-dimensional deformable body with associated BSURF ID 7. BCBODY
with ID 1 is identified as the rigid punch. It is specified as a velocity controlled body and is moved with a Z velocity
of +40 mm per unit time (identified in red on the BCBODY definition above). BCBODY with ID 2 is identified as the
die and BCBODY with ID 3 is identified as the holder. These are specified as zero velocity bodies and are held
stationary through the analysis.
Figure 16-2 Contact Bodies used For Cup Drawing Simulation
The BCTABLE bulk data entries shown below identify the touching conditions between the bodies:
BCTABLE 1 3
SLAVE 7 0.0 50. 0.05 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 0.95
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 7 0.0 50. 0.05 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 0.95
Main Index
193
CHAPTER 16
Cup Forming Simulation
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 7 0.0 50. 0.05 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 0.95
MASTERS 1
BCTABLE with ID 1 is used in conjunction with the BCONTACT = 1 case control option to define the touching
conditions between the bodies in the forming step. Three sets of contact parameters are defined in the above table: the
first set for the workpiece-holder, the second set for the workpiece die, and the third set for the workpiece punch. The
contact parameters for all sets are identical in this problem though they can be varied for each set if needed. The
friction coefficient is defined as 0.05, the bias factor as 0.95, and the separation force as 50 N. The definition of a non-
default separation force bears more explanation - during the sheet forming process, especially at the early stages, nodes
tend to chatter (contact, separate, back into contact, etc.). Using the default separation force (maximum residual force
in the solution) allows a significant amount of chattering and leads to increased iterations and smaller steps. Specifying
a larger separation force reduces this chattering and reduces the number of iterations for the solution. It should be noted
that care should be taken in specifying the non-default separation force; it should not be so large that it prevents
physical phenomena like earing, etc.
The BCPARA bulk data entry defines the general contact parameters to be used in the analysis:
BCPARA 0
FTYPE 6 BIAS 9.5E-01
NLGLUE 1 FNTOL 5.E1
Note that ID 0 on the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the
analysis and are maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE
option. Important entries under BCPARA option include FTYPE = 6 (bilinear Coulomb friction), BIAS = 0.95
(distance tolerance bias), FNTOL = 50 (separation force). A program calculated default (1/4 of the shell thickness)
is used for the distance tolerance (ERROR) is not defined on the BCPARA option.
Material/Geometry Parameters
An isotropic elasto-plastic material with work-hardening is used for the workpiece. MAT1 is used to define the elastic
properties and MATEP in conjunction with TABLES1 is used to define the initial yield stress and work-hardening
properties:
MAT1 1 70000. .3 1.
MATEP 1 Table 1 Isotrop Addmean
$ Stress/Strain Curve : plas
TABLES1 1 2
0. 191.1 .0333333249.772 .0666667293.962 .1 327.244
......
It should be observed that a 2 is used in the third field of the TABLES1 option to indicate that the data corresponds to
stress vs. plastic strain (as opposed to stress vs. total strain). Only the first line of the work-hardening data is indicated
here. The plastic strains are specified up to 1.0 in the actual table. The following should be noted: For the large strain
problem being simulated herein, TABLES1 data is interpreted by the program as Cauchy stress versus true plastic
strain. Also, if the actual plastic strains in the analysis exceed the maximum value in the table, the work-hardening
slope calculated using the last two values of plastic strain is used for extrapolating.
Main Index
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194
Reduced integration shell elements are used herein. They are identified by the PSHELL option in conjunction with the
PSHLN1 option.
$ Elements and Element Properties for region : shell
PSHELL 1 1 1. 1 1
PSHLN1,1,1
,c4,dct,lrih
where the MAT1 primary material is pointed to by MID1/MID2/MID3 entries of the PSHELL option, a shell thickness
of 1.0 is specified on the PSHELL option, the C4 field DCT of the PSHLN1 option indicates that thick 4 noded shell
elements are to be used and LRIH of the PSHLN1 option indicates that reduced integration elements are to be used.
These elements have three global displacements and three rotations as the nodal degrees of freedom. Bilinear
interpolation is used for the coordinates, displacements, and rotations. MITC4 shell geometry with the ANS (assumed
natural strain) method in conjunction with a physical stabilization scheme in used in the formulation of the reduced
integration element. These elements with a one-point quadrature scheme are able to undergo large rotations without
any artificial correction for warping. The large strain formulation for the element is flagged through the
PARAM,LGDISP,1 in conjunction with the NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 bulk data entries. The former option indicates that
a large displacement analysis with follower force effects is to be conducted. The latter option indicates that additional
large strain parameters are to be flagged for the shell elements. Note that for large strain elasto-plastic applications
using elements pointed by the PSHLN1, PSLDN1, PSHLN2 entries, NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 is a mandatory option.
As is customary for all Nastran shell elements, a material coordinate system is defined herein for each of the shell
elements. This orientation is defined through the THETA/MCID option on the CQUAD4 option:
CQUAD4 19 1 40 22 3 4 0
CQUAD4 20 1 41 23 22 40 0
In the current example, the basic coordinate system (ID 0 indicated in red on the CQUAD4 options above) is projected
onto the plane of the element. The resulting axes define the X-Y-Z orientation of the material coordinate system in the
elemental plane.
Convergence Parameters
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 100 PFNT 0 30 U NO
where 100 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein the
stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 30 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment and. if this
were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. U indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacements (U). NO indicates that no intermediate output will be produced after every increment. The
second line of NLPARM is omitted here, which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U
checking. It should be noted that, by default, the PFNT checking used herein conducts displacement checking over
incremental displacements and is generally more stringent than FNT checking which conducts displacement checking
over weighted total displacements.
Main Index
195
CHAPTER 16
Cup Forming Simulation
Note that P checking (checking on residuals) has not been conducted in this example. The normal P check in SOL 400
compares the weighted residuals with the weighted external loads and checks that the tolerance (default = 0.01) is
satisfied. In this problem, external loads are absent since the punch imposes displacement boundary conditions on the
workpiece. Under these circumstances, SOL 400 normally checks residuals in the current iteration versus residuals in
previous iterations. However, due to frequent separations, residuals and displacements oscillate significantly and the
check of current weighted residuals versus previous weighted residuals causes a large number of unnecessary recycles.
Due to these reasons, displacement checking alone is conducted in this problem.
Case Control Parameters
Some of the case control entries to conduct these analyses are highlighted as follows: SUBCASE 1 indicates the case
being considered and STEP 1 indicates the step being considered within the case. BCONTACT = 1 is used to indicate
the contact parameters for SUBCASE 1. NLPARM = 1 is used to flag the nonlinear procedure for SUBCASE 1. In
addition to regular output requests like DISPLACEMENTS, STRESSES, the option that is required for contact related
output in the F06 file is BOUTPUT. It should be noted that with the BOUTPUT option, one can obtain normal contact
forces, frictional forces, contact normal stress magnitudes and contact status for the contact nodes.
Results
The history plot of the rigid tool contact forces in the Z direction are presented in Figure 16-3. Two trends are
noteworthy: The contact forces are in equilibrium; i.e., the contact force exerted by the punch on the workpiece is in
equilibrium with the contact forces transferred by the workpiece to the holder and die. Note also that as the punch
pushes the blank upwards (+Z direction), the predominant tendency is for the sheet to contact the die. However,
portions of the sheet separate from the die and make intermittent contact with the holder.
In order to verify the accuracy of the SOL 400 solution, the total punch force obtained from SOL 400 is compared with
the corresponding solution obtained from MSC.Marc in Figure 16-4. It is seen that the history of the forces match quite
well and are within about 2% of each other.
Figure 16-3 History Plot of Contact Tool Forces in Z Direction during Cup Drawing Process
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
-20000
-15000
-10000
-5000
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Holder Force
Die Force
Punch Force
Force (N)
Time (s)
Main Index
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CHAPTER 16
196
Figure 16-4 Comparison of Total Punch Force vs. Time for MSC.MARC and SOL 400
The equivalent plastic strain contours at the outermost fiber of the workpiece and the corresponding equivalent stress
contours at the end of the cup forming process are plotted in Figure 16-5. It is noted that maximum plastic strains are
of the order of 45% and the peak values occur along the die radius. The portion of the workpiece held between the die
and the holder is the most highly stressed. Also, the circumferential variation of the quantities is negligible, thereby
confirming the axisymmetric nature of the problem being simulated.
Figure 16-5 Equivalent Plastic Strains and Equivalent Stresses in Workpiece at End of Cup Forming
Process
The contact normal force and friction force from the center to the outer edge of the workpiece along a radial line of
nodes is plotted in Figure 16-6. It can be noted that the peak contact normal forces occur at the punch radius and the
next peak is at the die radius. Friction force are of the order of , where is the friction coefficient = 0.05.
Figure 16-6 Contact Normal Force and Friction Force as a function of Radial Coordinate for Workpiece
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
SOL 400
Marc
Total Punch Force (N)
Time (s)
F
n

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
SOL 400
Marc
Total Punch Force (N)
Time (s)
Main Index
197
CHAPTER 16
Cup Forming Simulation
F06 Output
A number of case control options (DISPLACEMENTS, SPCFORCES, STRESS, NLSTRESS, BOUTPUT) are used (see
nug_16is.dat). This, in conjunction with the YES or NO option for INTOUT on the NLPARM entry, allows
extensive output of relevant quantities in the F06 file:
Contact normal forces, normal stresses and frictional forces at the contact nodes of the Workpiece are
produced via the BOUTPUT option. BOUTPUT = ALL produces output for all contact nodes. BOUTPUT
= N where N is a set number would restrict output to only those contact nodes that belong to set N.
BOUTPUT = NONE suppresses all contact related output in the F06 file.
For the nonlinear output format (requested by NLSTRES), average values of the stress components, strain
components, equivalent stress, and equivalent plastic strain are produced for the top and bottom fibers. For
each layer, the integration point values are averaged over the number of integration points and presented in
the F06 file. For the one-point elements used herein, the average is the same as the gauss point value. It
should be noted that for the large-strain elasto-plastic problem simulated herein using the
NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 option, the output stresses are the Cauchy stresses and the output strains are the
logarithmic strains.
General Analysis Tips
The PSHLN1 option in conjunction with the PSHELL option allows the users to flag the 3-D shell elements.
These elements perform well for large-displacement/large rotation/large strain applications. 3-noded or
4-noded shell topologies and thin-shell or thick-shell formulations can be chosen. 4-noded shell elements
flagged through the C4 field of PSHLN1 offer options of thick-shell full integration, thick-shell reduced
integration, and thin-shell full integration. Reduced integration 4-noded elements are chosen in the present
problem for efficiency and robustness purposes.
For large strain elasto-plastic applications, use should be made of the NLMOPTS,LRGSTRN,1 option to flag
appropriate element behavior.
In the present problem, the shell is supported between a die and holder. The uniform gap between the die and
holder matches the original thickness of the workpiece. Any increase in this thickness is prevented by the
rigid tools and normal stresses through the thickness would be introduced. This violates the plane stress
assumption for the shell element. For such double-sided applications, an alternate element to use is the solid
shell element. This element uses continuum element topology while offering the benefits of shell bending. It
can be flagged through the PSOLID option in conjunction with the C8, BEH=SLCOMP, INT=ASTN field on
the PSLDN1 option.
For deformable-rigid body contact, an important consideration is the definition of the interior and exterior
sides of the rigid body. The rigid body should be aligned such that its exterior side is facing the contacting
deformable body. The interior side is the one formed by applying the right-hand rule along a rigid patch. If the
rigid body is incorrectly aligned, it needs to be flipped before running the analysis.
Main Index
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CHAPTER 16
198
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 27 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 16-7 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_16is.dat 3-D Shell Elements - PSHLN1 used along with PSHELL to flag nonlinear
reduced integration elements. Isotropic elasto-plastic material properties
Main Index
Chapter 17: Double-sided Contact
17
Double-sided Contact

Summary 200

Introduction 201

Requested Solutions 201

FEM Solutions 201

Results 205

Modeling Tips 205

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 209

Input File(s) 247


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 17
200
Summary
Title Chapter 17: Double Sided Contact
Contact features Deformable-deformable contact with bilinear friction, large strain plasticity, and work
hardening
Geometry 2-D Plane Strain assumptions
Material properties Elastic-plastic material with isotropic strain hardening. The stress-strain curve is defined
in the materials section. The material properties are:

Analysis type Quasi-static analysis using: elastic plastic material, geometric nonlinearity, and
nonlinear boundary conditions
Boundary conditions Nodes on left-hand side are constrained in x-direction and nodes on bottom side are
constrained in y-direction
Applied loads Nodes on the top side are given the imposed displacement of -0.6 inch in y-direction
Element type 4-node nonlinear plane strain element
FE results Deformed shapes at several steps, contours of von Mises stress, and total equivalent
plastic strain
Five at
1.0 each
1.5
1.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
E 31.75
6
10 psi = v 0.268 psi = o
y
80730 psi =
Stress Contours Last Increment
Main Index
201
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Introduction
This problem demonstrates MSC Nastrans ability to perform multibody contact analysis, incorporating automated
double-sided contact with friction between the contact surfaces for linear plane strain elements. For these types of
contact problems, it is not necessary to assign either body as a master or slave.
Requested Solutions
The large displacement elastic-plastic contact analysis is carried out using MSC Nastran for a deformable-to-
deformable contact problem with friction. The application of the nonlinear plane strain element is demonstrated by
using the nonlinear extension PSHLN2 option along with the PLPLANE option. The following results from the MSC
Nastran model are compared with the results obtained from the Marc model.
Deformed shapes at steps 10, 20 and 30
Contour plot for equivalent plastic strain
FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for a 2-D representation of the contact
simulation between two deformable bodies. The details of finite element model, contact simulation, material, load,
boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed below.
Finite Element and Contact Model
The finite element mesh for each of the two deformable bodies contains 60 elements and 79 nodes. MSC Nastrans
2-D plane strain solid elements with material ID 1 are selected using the following PLPLANE and PSHLN2 entries.
The second line of the PSHLN2 option enables SOL 400 to access the 4-node plane strain elements using the regular
CQUAD4 elements. This element can be used for both linear and nonlinear applications. When used for linear
applications, the assumed strain formulation should be activated for this element using the
NLMOPTS,ASSM,ASSUMED bulk data entry to get good bending behavior. This assumed strain option should not be
used for the applications involving large strain plasticity as in the case of the present problem. The finite element
model used for this simulation is shown in Figure 17-1.
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1
C4 PLSTRN L
Main Index
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202
Figure 17-1 Finite Element Model used with MSC Nastran Simulation
In defining the contact model, the elements comprising the deformable bodies are used to generate a deformable
contact bodies with ID 1 and 2 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. The friction factor of 0.07 is defined
for both these contact bodies.
BCBODY 1 2D DEFORM 1 0 .07
BSURF 1 61 62 63 64 65 66 67
...
BCBODY 2 2D DEFORM 2 0 .07
BSURF 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
Furthermore, the following BCTABLE entries identify how these bodies can touch each other. BCTABLE with ID 0 is
used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for
contact analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE
with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis and is flagged using
BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section. The 0 defined for the first field (ISEARCH) of third data line of BCTABLE
indicates that double-sided contact will be used for this contact pair. With this double contact option, SOL 400 will
consider another contact pair for the analysis with body 1 as master and body 2 as slave in addition to the contact pair
defined in the BCTABLE option.
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .07 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0.9
MASTERS 2
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .07 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0.9
MASTERS 2
Main Index
203
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
The BCPARA bulk data entry shown defines the general contact parameters to be used in the analysis.
BCPARA 0
FTYPE 6 BIAS 0.9
The ID 0 on the BCPARA option indicates that the parameters specified herein are applied right at the start of the
analysis and are maintained through the analysis unless some of these parameters are redefined through the BCTABLE
option. Important entries under BCPARA option include FTYPE the friction type and the BIAS - the distance
tolerance bias. As a general recommendation, BIAS is set to 0.9 (note that the default value of BIAS is 0.9). For the
frictional case, FTYPE is set to 6 (bilinear Coulomb model).
Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic-plastic material properties of the deformable bodies are defined using the following
MAT1 and MATEP options. The stress-strain curve for this material is defined in TABLES1 which is referred in MATEP
option. Figure 17-2 shows the stress-strain diagram defined in TABLES1.
MAT1 1 3.175+7 .268 7.4-4 5.13-6
MATEP 1 TABLE 1
TABLES1 1 2
* 0.000000000e+0 8.073000000e+4 1.000000000e-5 8.096400000e+4
...
* 7.000000000e-2 1.595880000e+5 2.200000000e-1 1.753830000e+5
* ENDT
Figure 17-2 Stress-Plastic Strain Curve of the Material
The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
50000
100000
150000
200000
Stress (Psi)
Plastic Strain (1)
Main Index
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CHAPTER 17
204
Loading and Boundary Conditions
The loads and boundary conditions are applied using the following SPCD and SPC1 options. SPCD options are used
to impose the displacement of -0.6 inch for the nodes on the top side. The nodes on the left-hand side are constrained
in x-direction and nodes on the bottom side are constrained in y-direction. These constraints are defined using the
SPC1 options. Figure 17-3 shows the loads and boundary condition applied on the model.
SPCADD 2 3 4 5
$ Enforced Displacements for Load Set : yu0
SPCD 1 104 2 -.6 105 2 -.6
SPCD 1 106 2 -.6 107 2 -.6
SPCD 1 108 2 -.6 109 2 -.6
SPCD 1 130 2 -.6 131 2 -.6
SPCD 1 132 2 -.6 133 2 -.6
SPCD 1 134 2 -.6
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : x0
SPC1 5 1 35 40 45 50 55 61
67 73 79 80 86 92 98 104
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : y0
SPC1 3 2 25 26 27 28 29 30
51 52 53 54 55
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : yu0 (just to trigger s-set)
SPC1 4 2 104 105 106 107 108 109
130 131 132 133 134
Figure 17-3 Load and Boundary Conditions Shown on FE Mesh
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 30 PFNT 25 P YES
0.01
Main Index
205
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
where 30 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein
the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 25 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment. P indicates
that convergence will be checked on residuals (P). YES indicates that intermediate output will be produced after every
increment. The 0.01 defined in the second line of NLPARM indicates the convergence tolerances of 0.01 for
residual checking.
Results
The deformed shape at steps 10, 20, and 30 observed from both Marc and SOL 400 models are compared in
Figure 17-4. The equivalent plastic strain contours observed at step 30 from Marc and SOL 400 runs are presented in
Figure 17-5 and Figure 17-6. It is clearly observed from these pictures that, the predictions from SOL 400 matches
closely with the predictions from Marc.
Modeling Tips
PSHLN2 entry in conjunction with regular PLPLANE entry allows the users to make use of the plane strain
elements using regular Nastran elements CQUAD4, CQUAD8, and CTRIA6. Users should make use of the
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1 option to flag the large strain behavior of these elements.
The value of 0 for ISEARCH parameter in BCTABLE defines the double sided contact for this problem.
Assigning the value of 1 for ISEARCH parameter will define single sided contact for this problem, and this
will not work properly in this case. The nug_17w.dat input file shows this wrong way of contact definition
for this problem and Figure 17-7 shows how SOL 400 works in such situations.
Main Index
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206
Figure 17-4 Deformed Shape Plots at Steps 10, 20, and 30
Marc - Step 10
SOL 400 - Step 10
Marc - Step 20 SOL 400 - Step 20
Marc - Step 30
SOL 400 - Step 30
Main Index
207
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Figure 17-5 Plastic Strain Contour from Marc
Figure 17-6 Plastic Strain Contour from MSC-Nastran SOL 400
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 17
208
Figure 17-7 Penetration with Wrong Contact Definition
Main Index
209
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units:
e. Length = m, Mass = kg, Time = s, Temperature = Kelvin, and Force = N
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
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210
Create a Part for the body_lower
a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, enter body_lower
d. Click OK:
e. Observe body_lower in the Model Browser Tree
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
211
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create Mesh for the body_lower
a. Meshing tab: 3-4 Point Mesh
b. Points: X,Y, Z Input: 0,-1.5,0;2,-1.5,0;2,0,0;0,0,0, click OK
X,Y, Z Input: 2,-1.5,0;5,-1.5,0;5,0,0;2,0,0, click OK
X,Y, Z Input: 0,0,0;2,0.0,0;1,1.5,0;0,1,0, click OK
c. For n1, enter 5
d. For n2, enter 4
e. For n3, enter 5
f. For n4, enter 4
g. Click OK
g
f
e
d
c
b
b
a
b
b
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212
Merge Equivalent Nodes in the body_lower
a. Nodes/Elements tab: Equivalence
b. Entities: Select All
c. Click OK
d. Click OK
d
c
b
a
a
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Create a Part for the body_upper
a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, enter body_upper
d. Click OK:
e. Observe body_lower in the Model Browser Tree
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 17
214
Copy Mesh from body_lower to body_upper
a. Tools: Transform
b. Select Create Part
c. Select Reorient
c
b
a
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215
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Copy Mesh from body_lower to body_upper (continued)
a. Pick: check Make Copy
b. Select Elements
c. Click All
d. Select Create Source LCS
e. Select XYZ
f. For X,Y,Z Coordinate: enter 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0; click OK
g. Select Create Target LCS
h. Select XYZ
i. For X,Y,Z Coordinate: enter 5 1.5 0 4 1.5 0 5 0.5 0; click OK
j. Click Done
k. Click Exit
k j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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216
Create Stress-strain Curve from Excel File
a. Copy stress-strain data from Excel file mat_nug17.xls
a
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217
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create Stress-strain Curve from Excel File (continued)
a. Materials and Properties tab: Isotropic
b. Click Plastic Strain
c. Right click Row 1 Column 1
d. Select Paste Table
e. Click OK
e
d
c
b
a
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218
Create Material Properties
a. Fields/Tables tab: NastranBDF TABLES1
b. For Name enter Iso_1
c. For Youngs Modulus enter 3.175e7
d. For Poissons Ratio enter 0.268
e. For Density enter 0.00074
f. Click Advanced
f
e
d
c
b
a
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219
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create Material Properties (continued)
a. Right click Add Constitutive Model
b. Select Elasto Plastic
c. Click Stress-Strain Data
d. For Stress-Strain Data, select TABLE_1
e. Click OK
e
d
c
b
a
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220
Define Property Data for lower_body
a. Materials and Properties tab: Plane
b. For Name enter prop_body_lower
c. For Entities, select body_lower from Model Browser tree
d. Click Advanced
e. For Corner Element Keyword, select C4
f. Click OK
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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221
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Define Property Data for upper_body
a. Materials and Properties tab: Plane
b. For Name enter prop_body_upper
c. For Entities, select body_upper from Model Browser tree
d. Click Advanced
e. For Corner Element Keyword, select C4
f. Click OK
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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222
Define Contact Body for lower_body
a. LBCs tab: Deformable Body
b. For Name enter def_body_lower
c. For Type, select Deformable Surface
d. For Entities, select body_lower from Model Browser tree
e. For Friction Coefficient, enter 0.07
f. Click OK
g. Observe def_body_lower in the Model Browser Tree
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
b
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223
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Define Contact Body for upper_body
a. LBCs tab: Deformable Body
b. For Name enter def_body_upper
c. For Type, select Deformable Surface
d. For Entities, select body_upper from Model Browser tree
e. For Friction Coefficient, enter 0.07
f. Click OK
g. Observe def_body_upper in the Model Browser Tree
g
f
e
d
c
b
b
a
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224
Define Contact Table
a. LBCs tab: Table
b. Select Deactivate All
c. Set Touching Condition for body 1 to 2
d. For Distance Tolerance, enter 0
e. For Friction Coefficient, enter 0.07
f. For Individual Contact Detection, select Double Sided
g. For Bias Factor, enter 0.9
h. Click OK
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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225
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Define Boundary Conditions
a. LBCs tab: LBC
b. Select Pin
c. For Name, enter fix-x
d. For Entities, select nodes at left edges of the model
e. Draw box about nodes at left edges of the model
f. For Translation, select Tx
g. Click OK
e
g
d
f
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 17
226
Define Boundary Conditions (continued)
a. LBCs tab: LBC
b. Select Pin
c. For Name, enter fix-y
d. For Entities, select nodes at left edges of the model
e. Draw box about nodes at left edges of the model
f. For Translation, select Ty
g. Click OK
g
d
e
f
c
b
a
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227
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Define Boundary Conditions
a. LBCs tab: LBC
b. Select General
c. For Name, enter disp-y
d. For Entities, select nodes at top edge of the model
e. Draw box about nodes at top edge of the model
f. For Translation, select Ty
g. For Ty, enter -0.6
h. Click OK
h
e
d
f
g
c
b
a
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228
Create SimXpert Analysis File
a. Right click FileSet
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Job Name, enter nug-17
d. For Solution Type, select SOL 400
e. For Solver Input File, specify the fine name and its path
f. Unselect Create Default Layout
g. Click OK
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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229
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Right click on Load Cases
b. Select Create Global Loadcase
c. Click OK
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 17
230
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
Select Contact Table for Loads in Global Loadcase
a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries
b. Select Select Contact Table
c. For Selected BCTable, select BCTABLE_1
d. Click OK
d
c
b
a
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231
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Right click on Loadcase Control
b. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. For Stiffness Update Method: select Pure Full Newton (PFNT)
d. Unselect Use Default Tolerance Setting
e.Click Load Error and for Load Tolerance, enter 0.01
f. For Intermediate Output Control, select Every computed load increment
(YES)
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
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232
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Double click on Loadcase Control
b. Select Stepping Procedure Parameters
c. For Number of Steps: enter 30
d. Click Apply
e.Click Close
e
d
c
b
a
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233
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries
b. Select Select Lbcs
c. For Selected Lbcs: using the Control Key and the Mouse, select fix-x, fix-y, disp-y
from the Model Browser tree
d. Click OK
d
c c
b
a
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CHAPTER 17
234
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries
b. Select Select Contact Tables
c. For Selected BC Table: select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser tree
d. Click OK
d
c
c
b
a
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235
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Right click on Output Request
b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Displacement Output Request
d. Check Suppress Print
e. Click OK
e
d
c
b
a
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236
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Right click on Output Request
b. Select Elemental Output Requests
c. Select Create Nonlinear Stress Output Request
d. Check Suppress Print
e. Click OK
e
d
c
b
a
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237
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Double click on Solver Control
b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. For Large Displacement: select Large Disp. and Follower Force
d. Click Apply
e. For Large Strain Formulation: select Hypoelasticy and Additive Plasticity for
Large Strain Formulation
f. Click Apply
g. Click Close (not shown)
f
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 17
238
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Double click on Solver Control
b. Select Contact Detection Parameters
c. For Bias on Distance Tolerance, enter 0.9
d. Click Apply
e. Select Contact Friction Parameters
f. For Type: select Bilinear Coulomb
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close (not shown)
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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239
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Double click on Solver Control
b. Select Output File Properties
c. For Nastran DB Options: select Master/DBALL
d. For Binary Output: select OP2
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close (not shown)
e
d
c
b
a
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240
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. File: Save
b. Right click on nug-17
c. Select Run
d. After completion of job, select Save
e. File: New
e
d
c
b
a
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241
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File
a. Results tab: Deformations
b. For Deformed display scaling., select True
c. Plot Data: Plot type, select Deformation
d. For Results cases, select the last increment
e. For Results Type, select Displacements, Translational
f. Click Update
f
e
d
c
b
a
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242
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)
a. Click Animate
b. Results cases: select SC1:Step 1 (selects all increments)
c. Results entities: Results type: select Displacements, Translational
d. Click Update
d
c
b
a
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243
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)
a. Animation tab
b. Click Pause icon to stop animation
a
b
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CHAPTER 17
244
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)
a. Results: Fringe
b. Click Animate
c. Results entities: Results cases: select SC1:Step 1 (selects all increments)
d. Results entities: Results type: select Contact Status
e. Fringe tab: Display settings tab: Element edge display,
Display, select Element edges
f. Label attributes, select color of labels
g. Click Update
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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245
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)
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CHAPTER 17
246
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)
a. Results: Fringe
b. Click Pause icon to stop animation
c. Plot Data tab: Results type: select Logarithmic Strains
d. Derivation: select von Mises
e. Click Update
e
d
c
b
a
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247
CHAPTER 17
Double-sided Contact
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_17.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input
nug_17w.dat Same as nug_17.dat, but the contact is defined in a wrong way in BCTABLE
ch17.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for SimXpert
ch17.SimXpert Corresponding SimXpert input file
Main Index
Chapter 18: Demonstration of Springback
18
Demonstration of Springback

Summary 249

Introduction 250

Reference Solution 250

FEM Solutions 250

Modeling Tips 253

Input File(s) 253

Video 254
Main Index
249
CHAPTER 18
Demonstration of Springback
Summary
Title Chapter 18: Demonstration of Springback
Contact features Rigid-deformable contact, velocity driven rigid cylinder, load controlled rigid cylinder,
and release of a contact bodies
Geometry Rigid cylinder, D = 0.4375 in
Material properties

Elastic plastic material with work-hardening
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Left side is constrained with
A spring is used to constrain the motion in the y-degree of freedom
Contact between rigid cylinder and the deformable body
Applied loads Two types of load introduction will be used:
Constant velocity v
x
= 0.1125 applied on the rigid body
Control node u
x
= 0.1125 applied on the load controlled rigid body
Element type 2-D 4-node plane strain elements
Contact properties Friction coefficient =0.2
FE results Contour of equivalent stress at the end of forming, equivalent stress after the springback;
displacement history of point A.
D
A
E 10.6
6
10 psi = v 0.33 = o
y
4.29
4
10 psi =
u
x
0 =
0 50 100 150 200
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
MD Nastran Sol400
MSC.Marc
X-Displacement (in) Point A
% of Load
forming springback
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250
Introduction
Significant permanent deformation and large strains occur during the forming step by moving a cylindrical rigid body
into the metal structure. The metal structure springs back upon removal of the cylindrical rigid body using the contact
table definition.
Reference Solution
MSC.Marc 2005r3 will be used to create a reference solution.
FEM Solutions
The finite element model is shown in Figure 18-1. There are two contact bodies: one deformable and one rigid body.
BCBODY 1 2D DEFORM 1 0
BSURF 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
BCBODY 4 2D RIGID 1 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0.1125 0. 0.
RIGID 0 72 CYL
NURBS2D -7 4 50
.85875 .51775 .85875 .95525
...
The deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes. The
rigid cylindrical body is defined using 2-D NURBS line.
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other. Since the master body
is a rigid one, this actually means that the deformable body is the slave one.
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .2 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .2 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 4
During the springback analysis, the contact forces on the deformable body due to the contact with the rigid body are
removed immediately. It is done using BCMOVE option. To prevent the two bodies cylinder reclaims contact, a new
BCTABLE has to be defined that does not include the cylinder.
BCMOVE 2 RELEASE 0
4
BCTABLE 2 1 1
The geometric nonlinear analysis is requested using the following LGDISP parameter. The large strain option is also
set in this model
PARAM LGDSIP 1
NLMOPTS LRGSTR 1
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CHAPTER 18
Demonstration of Springback
To activate the friction behavior, the user should use the BCPARA option as follows:
BCPARA 0
FTYPE 6
Figure 18-1 Finite Element Mesh
Plane strain elements for large strain elastic-plastic analyses are chosen by the PSHLN2 entry referring to the
PLPLANE entry on the CQUAD4 option as shown below.
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1
The material property is isotropic and elastic-plastic with hardening. The Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and
plasticity parameters are defined as follows:
MAT1 1 1.06+7 .33
MATEP 1 TABLE 1 ISOTROP ADDMEAN
TABLES1 1 2
* 0. 42900. 0.001733 43110.2

The nonlinear procedure used during the forming and springback are set using the following options:
NLPARM 1 30 PFNT U
NLPARM 2 1 PFNT U
Here the PFNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy, and the default displacement convergence tolerances will be used.
The simulation process is controlled by the case control section. The first step is the forming process and the second
one is the springback analysis:
BCONTACT=0
SPC = 2
STEP 1
TITLE=Forming Step
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
LOAD = 1
A
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252
STEP 2
TITLE=Springback Step
NLPARM = 2
BCONTACT = 2
BCONTACT=0 is meant to bring both bodies just in contact. Since there is no explicit external load applied in this
analysis, a dummy LOAD is introduced in the case control parameters.
The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 1.0) is shown in Figure 18-2 along with the von Misses stress
contour. The maximum stresses are located at the expected location.
Figure 18-2 Deformed Configuration with von Misses Stress Contour at the End of the Forming Step
The deformation after the springback analysis is shown in Figure 18-3. There is significant permanent deformation
during the forming process as obviously seen from this figure. The von Misses stresses of the residual stresses are also
plotted.
Figure 18-3 Deformed Configuration with von Misses Stress Contour After the Springback
UNDEFORMED
DEFORMED
UNDEFORMED
DEFORMED
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CHAPTER 18
Demonstration of Springback
The displacement of point A is plotted versus time (percentage of load) in Figure 18-4 illustrating the elastic
springback upon unloading the structure. This behavior is compared with a reference plot obtained with MSC.Marc
2005r3. The result of MSC Nastran matches the referenced one very nicely.
Figure 18-4 Displacement Plot for Point A During Forming and Springback Step
Modeling Tips
Force control applied via a control node associated with the rigid cylinder may be used instead of displacement (or
equivalently velocity) control. Using this technique, the release of the load requires less difficulty with the contact
table (please see nug_18b.dat). In terms of CPU time, removing the rigid body from contact table is more efficient
since there is no need to do contact manipulation (please see nug_18c.dat).
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_18a.dat Velocity driven rigid body
nug_18b.dat Load controlled rigid body without BCMOVE
nug_18c.dat Load controlled rigid body with BCMOVE
0 50 100 150 200
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
MD Nastran Sol400
MSC.Marc
X-Displacement (in) Point A
% of Load
forming springback
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CHAPTER 18
254
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 18 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 18-5 Video of the Above Steps
UNDEFORMED
DEFORMED
Main Index
Chapter 19: 3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
19
3-D Indentation and Rolling
without Friction

Summary 256

Introduction 257

Requested Solutions 257

FEM Solution 257

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 261

Input File(s) 306


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CHAPTER 19
256
Summary
Title Chapter 19: 3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
Contact features Deformable, and two rigids
Load controlled motion
Geometry 3-D Solid (units: in)
Block length = 20
Block height = 12
Block width = 10
Cylinder diameter =10
Cylinder width = 18
Material properties

Elastic-plastic material
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis; two analyses steps are preformed
Boundary conditions Displacement constraints to prevent rigid body modes
Contact between block, cylinder and surface
Applied loads Load controlled motion of cylinder
Step 1
Step 2
Element type 3-D solid
FE results Deformed structure plot comparing MSC Nastran results with Marc
Body_1
Body_2
Body_3
E
block
17.5Mpsi = v
block
0.3 = o
yi el d
35kpsi =
u
z
6.25i n =
u
z
6.25i n = u
x
5i n = r
y
0.5rad =
Total Eq. Plastic Strain
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CHAPTER 19
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability to perform metal forming analyses. A rigid cylinder is pressed into an elastic-
plastic material and, in the second loading stage, it is rolled. Large plastic deformation is anticipated in this analysis.
Requested Solutions
To model this large plastic deformation, additive plasticity with mean normal return is used. This is activated in MSC
Nastran using the NLMOPTS bulk data entry, nonlinear material options, and then choosing LRGSTRN,1. Together
with this option, nonlinear property extensions for the PSOLID entry should be used. This can be done by activating
the PSLDN1 bulk data entry and selecting the required properties.
FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh (Figure 19-1) using solid
elements (contact body ID 1). The dimensions of the workpiece are 20 x 10 x 12 inches. The radius of the cylinder is
10 inches, the width 18 inches, and the cylinder is placed on top of the workpiece at its center. The cylinder (contact
body ID 2) is modeled as a rigid using NURBS to define the surface. The plane which supports the workpiece is also
defined as a rigid (contact body ID 3).
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0
BSURF 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
and
BCBODY 2 3D RIGID 0 .1 1 227
226 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 227 1 BODY_2
...
and
BCBODY 3 3D RIGID 0 .1 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 0 1 BODY_3
...
Thus, a deformable contact body is simply a collection of mutually exclusive elements and their associated nodes.
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258
Figure 19-1 Element Mesh applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.
BCTABLE 0 3
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. .1 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE 3 0. 0. .1 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
BCTABLE 1 3
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. .1 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE 3 0. 0. .1 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
BCTABLE 2 3
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
SLAVE 3 0. 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
Solid elements suitable for large deformation analyses are chosen by the PSLDN1 entry referring to the PSOLID entry
on the CHEXA option as shown below.
PSOLID 1 1 0
PSLDN1 1 1 1 +
+ C8 SOLI L
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259
CHAPTER 19
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
The material property for all the elements is elastic-plastic, with Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and initial yield
stress defined as
MATEP 1 Perfect35000. Isotrop Addmean
MAT1 1 1.75+7 .3
The rigid cylinder (contact body 2) is load controlled. This means that two nodes define the motion of the rigid. One
node defines the translational degrees of freedom and one node defines the rotational degrees of freedom. The motion
of the cylinder is first in the -z-direction, and, after this, it rolls around its y-axis in the x-direction. This motion is
prescribed by defining two analyses steps. Node 227 is for the translational motion, and node 226 for the rotational
motion. Note that in step 2, the cylinder rotates both around the y-axis and moves in the x-direction, making a rolling
movement.
SPCD 1 227 3 -6.25
SPCD 2 227 3 -6.25
SPCD 2 227 1 5.
SPCD 2 226 2 .5
The nonlinear procedure used is:
NLPARM 1 25 PFNT 1 200 UP YES
0.01 0.01 0.01 10
NLPARM 2 25 PFNT 1 200 UP YES
0.01 0.01 0.01 10
Here PFNT is selected to update the stiffness matrix every recycle using the full Newton-Raphson iteration procedure.
Convergence checking is on displacements and forces. Note that MAXITER is set to 200 and MAXDIV is set to 10 to
avoid that bisections occur, since too many bisections may increase the overall solution time.
Two stages of the deformation are shown in Figure 19-2 and Figure 19-3. Figure 19-2 shows the deformation after the
first step where the cylinder has moved in the -z-direction. Figure 19-3 shows the deformation after the second step
when the cylinder also has rolled in the x-direction.
Figure 19-2 Deformed Structure Plot after the First Load Step.
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260
Figure 19-3 Deformed Structure Plot after the Second Load Step.
A comparison with MSC.Marc is made. Figure 19-4 shows a superposition of the deformed mesh of Nastran (black)
and the deformed mesh of Marc (purple).
Figure 19-4 Comparison of Deformed Structure Plot Of MSC Nastran (black) and Marc (purple) after the
Second Load Step.
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CHAPTER 19
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
Specify the Model Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. For Basic Units, specify the model units
Length = in; Mass = lb; Time = s; Temperature = rankin, Force = N
d. Click OK
d
a
b c
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262
Create Parts
a. Assemble tab
b. Parts, select Create Part
c. For Name, type Solid_Block
d. Click Apply
e For Name, type Rigid_Body1
f. Click Apply
g. For Name, type Rigid_Body2
h. Click OK
i. Right click Solid_Block; select Set Current
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
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CHAPTER 19
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
Create Surface
a. Geometry tab
b. Surface, select Filler
c. For Method, select Points
d. For Points, enter 0,0,0;20,0,0;20,10,0;0,10,0 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
e Click Apply
f. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
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264
Create Mesh
a. Meshing tab
b. Automesh, select Surface
c. For Surface to mesh, select the surface
d. For Size, enter 2.5
e Click Apply
f. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
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CHAPTER 19
3-D Indentation and Rolling without Friction
Create 3-D Mesh
a. Meshing tab
b. FEM based, select Normal
c. For Shell Elements, select all elements created (draw a box around graphic)
d. For Distance, enter 12
e For Layers, enter 4
f. Click Apply
g. Click Cancel
h. Select FE Shaded with Edges
a
b
c
d
e
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c
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Delete Quads
a. Hide 3-D elements
b. Edit, select Delete
c. Pick window, select Elements
d. Select the quads displayed with a window (draw a box around graphic)
e Pick window, click Done
f. In Delete? window, click Yes
g. Pick window click Exit
h. Show 3-D elements
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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h
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Create Surface
a. Right click Rigid_Body1; select Set Current
b. Geometry tab
c. Curve: select From Points
d. Create, select Polyline
e. Method, select 2 Points
f. For Points, enter -30,-30,0;50,-30,0 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
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Create Circle
a. Geometry tab: Surface: select Normal
b. Width, enter 80 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
c. Check Reverse direction
d. Select the curve
e. Click Apply
f. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
d
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Create Surface
a. Right click Rigid_Body2; select Set Current
b. Geometry tab: Curve: select Arc
c. Method, select Direction-Radius
d. Radius: enter 10 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
e. Select Axis Y
f. Check Create Circle
g. Enter Center Point: 10,14,22 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
h. Enter Start Point: 0,0,0 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
i. Click Apply
j. Click Cancel
To rotate your graphic to match the one shown below, click on the Rotate Icon, put the cursor
on the graphic, hold the left mouse button, and rotate the graphic for different views.
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
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Create Cylinder
a. Geometry tab: Multi: select Sweep
b. Along, select Axis
c. Select Axis Y
d. Length Of Sweep, enter 18 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
e. Entities: select the curve
f. Check Delete Entities to Sweep
g. Check Reverse Direction
h. Click Apply
i. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h i
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Create Control Nodes
a. Nodes/Elements tab
b. Create, select Node
c. Locations: enter 20,-1,15;10,9,22 (Hit the Enter key on the keyboard)
d. Click Apply
e. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d e
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Create Material
a. Materials and Properties tab
b. Material, select Isotropic
c. Name: enter Mat_1
d. Young Modulus: enter 1.75e7
e. Poissons Ratio, enter 0.3
f. Click Advanced and Add Constitutive Model
g. Click Elasto Plastic
h. Select Perfectly Plastic
i. Initial Yield Stress, enter 35000
j. Click Apply
k. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
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f
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Create Properties
a. Materials and Properties tab
b. 3D Properties, select Solid
c. Entities: select Solid_Block
d. Material: select Mat_1
e. Click Advanced
f. Select Non Linear
g. Corner elements keyword: HEXA, select C8
h. Element structural behaviour: HEXA, select SOLID
i. Integration scheme: HEXA, select L
j. Click Apply
k. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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j k
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Define Contact Bodies
a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Deformable Contact Body icon
c. Name: enter Solid_Block
d. Type: select Deformable Solid
e. Pick Entities: select Solid_Block
f. Click Apply
g. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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Define Contact Bodies (continued)
a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Rigid Contact Body icon
c. Name: enter Rigid_1
d. Type: select Rigid Surface
e. Pick Entities: select SURFACE/2
f. Click Body
g. Contact Condition: select No Symmetry Condition
h. Click Apply
i. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
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Define Contact Bodies
a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Rigid Contact Body icon
c. Name: enter Rigid_2
d. Type: select Rigid Surface
e. Pick Entities: select SURFACE/3
f. Click Body
g. Contact Condition: select No Symmetry Condition
h. Click Motion
i. Motion Control: select Load
j. First Control Node: select Node/227
Second Control Node: select Node/226
k. Click Apply
l. Click Cancel
227
226
a
b
c
d
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Define Contact Table
a. LBCs tab
b. Contact, click Contact Table icon
c. Click Apply
d. Click Cancel
a
b
c d
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Create Constraints
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click Pin
c. Name: enter spc1
d. Uncheck Ty and Tz
e. Entities: activate pick nodes
f. On the left edge of the block, select 25 nodes with a window
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
e
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Create Constraints (continued)
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click Pin
c. Name: enter spc2
d. Uncheck Tx and Tz
e. Entities: activate pick nodes
f. On the left front corner of the block, select 5 nodes
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
f
g h
e
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Create Constraints (continued)
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click Pin
c. Name: enter spc3
d. Entities: activate pick nodes
e. On the left edge of the block, select 2 (226 and 227) control nodes
f. Click Apply
g. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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Create Enforced Displacement
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click General
c. Name: enter spcd1
d. Entities: select NODE/227
e. Uncheck Tx, Ty, Rx, Ry, and Rz
f. Tz: enter -6.5
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g h
d
e
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Create Enforced Displacement (continued)
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click General
c. Name: enter spcd2
d. Entities: select NODE/227
e. Uncheck Ty, Rx, Ry, and Rz
f. Tx: enter 5
g. Tz: enter -6.5
h. Click Apply
i. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h i
e
d
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Create Enforced Displacement (continued)
a. LBCs tab
b. Constraints, click General
c. Name: enter spcd3
d. Entities: select NODE/226
e. Uncheck Tx, Tz, Rx, Ry, and Rz
f. Ty: enter .5
g. Click Apply
h. Click Cancel
a
b
c
d
e
f
g h
d
e
e
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Analysis Setup
a. Model Browser, right click FileSet
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. Solution Type: select SOL400
d. Solver Input File: select NewJob.bdf
e. Uncheck Create Default Layout
f. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Model Browser, New Job, right click Load Cases
b. Select Create Loadcase
c. Uncheck Auto Select LBCs Set
d. Click OK
e. Model Browser: New Job, right click Load Steps
f. Select Create Loadstep
g. Name: enter Step1
h. Uncheck Auto Select LBCs Set
i. Click OK
j. Repeat the above procedure to create Step2
a
b
c
d
e
g
h
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j
f
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Model Browser, New Job, double click Solver Control
b. Click Analysis Options
c. Large Strain Formulation: select Large Strain and Additive Plasticity w/Mean
Normal Return
d. Click Apply
e. Click Output File Properties
f. Nastran DB Options: select Master/DBALL
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
Large Strain
b
c
D
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Step1, double click Load Step Control
b. Analysis Control, click Generic Control
c. Check Locally Define Generic Control Parameters
d. Maximum Iterations for each Increment, enter 200
e. Click Apply
f. Click Convergence Criteria for Mechanical Analysis
g. Check Locally Define Convergence Criteria Parameters
h. Check Displacement Criteria; Tolerance for Displacement Criteria,
enter 0.01
i. Check Load Criteria; Tolerance for Load Criteria, enter 0.01
j. Click Apply
a
b c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Analysis Control, click Stepping Control Parameters
b. Check Locally Define Stepping Control Parameters
c. Stepping Type: select Fixed
d. Number of Increments: enter 25
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close
b
c
d
e
f
a
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Step2, double click Load Step Control
b. Analysis Control, click Generic Control
c. Check Locally Define Generic Control Parameters
d. Maximum Iterations for each Increment, enter 200
e. Click Apply
f. Click Convergence Criteria for Mechanical Analysis
g. Check Locally Define Convergence Criteria Parameters
h. Check Displacement Criteria; Tolerance for Displacement Criteria,
enter 0.01
i. Check Load Criteria; Tolerance for Load Criteria, enter 0.01
j. Click Apply
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
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j
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Analysis Control, click Stepping Control Parameters
b. Check Locally Define Stepping Control Parameters
c. Stepping Type: select Fixed
d. Number of Increments: enter 25
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close
a
b
c
d
e
f
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Step1, right click LBCContainer
b. Select Lbcs
c. From the Model Browser, select spc1, spc2, spc3, and spcd1
d. Click OK
e. Right click LBCContainer, select Contact Table
f. Selected BC Table: select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser
g. Click OK
a
b
d
c
e
f
g
c
e
f
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Analysis Setup (continued)
a. Step2, right click LBCContainer
b. Select Lbcs
c. From the Model Browser, select spc1, spc2, spc3, spcd2, and spcd3
d. Click OK
e. Right click LBCContainer, select Contact Table
f. Selected BC Table: select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser
g. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
c
c
e
f
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Requesting Output Parameters
a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Displacement Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK
b
c
d
e
a
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Requesting Output Parameters (continued)
a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Contact Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
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Requesting Output Parameters (continued)
a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Elemental Output Request
c. Select Create Element Stress Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
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Requesting Output Parameters (continued)
For Step2, repeat the Step1 procedure for Requesting Output Parameters.
a. Step1, right click Output Requests
b. Select Elemental Output Request
c. Select Create Nonlinear Stress Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
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Run the Deck
a. Right click NewJob
b. Click Run
a
b
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Postprocessing
a. File: Attach Results
b. File Path: select MASTER
c. Attach Options: Results
d. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
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Postprocessing (continued)
a. Results tab
b. Click Deformation
c. Plot Data tab
d. For Plot Type, select Fringe
e. Result cases, select Step1
f. Result type, select Displacements, Translational
g. Derivation, select Magnitude
h. Click Update
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
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Postprocessing (continued)
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Postprocessing (continued)
a. For Plot Type, select Deformation
b. Result cases, select Step 1
c. Result types, select Displacements,Translational
d. Click Update
a
b
c
d
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Postprocessing (continued)
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Postprocessing (continued)
a. Results tab
b. Click Deformation
c. Plot Data tab
d. For Plot Type, select Fringe
e. Result cases, select Step2
f. Result type, select Displacements, Translational
g. Derivation, select Magnitude
h. Click Update
i. Model Browser, uncheck Deform 01
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
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Postprocessing (continued)
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Postprocessing (continued)
a. For Plot Type, select Deformation
b. Result cases, select Step 2
c. Result type, select Displacements,Translational
d. Click Update
a
b
c
d
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Postprocessing (continued)
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_19.dat Linear Elements using PSLDN1 Entry
Main Index
Chapter 20: Composite Fracture and Delamination
20
Composite Fracture and
Delamination

Summary 308

Introduction 309

Requested Solution 311

FEM Solutions 311

Modeling Tips 313

Input File(s) 315

Video 315
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CHAPTER 20
308
Summary
Title Chapter 20: Composite Fracture and Delamination
Features VCCT based crack propagation
Cohesive zone modeling
Geometry
Material properties Isotropic elastic material:
E = 5000 ksi, = 0.3
Cohesive material for interface elements: Exponential model used
Cohesive energy = 4.409 lb/in; critical opening displacement = 0.005 in
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Simply supported as shown in the diagram above
Applied loads Prescribed vertical displacement
Element type 4-node plane strain; 4-node interface
VCCT properties Direct crack propagation by releasing glued contact.
Crack growth resistance = 4.409 lb/in
FE results 1. Plot of deformed shape for VCCT model.
2. Plot of deformed shape for interface element model
3. Force-displacement curve at applied load.
6
Initial Crack
0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9
R = 0.5
1.1
0.078
v
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Vertical displacement
0
50
100
150
200
250
R
e
a
c
t
i
o
n

f
o
r
c
e
Cohesive zone
VCCT
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CHAPTER 20
Composite Fracture and Delamination
Introduction
This example models a honeycomb (core) structure with a face sheet between which exists an initial delamination. A
hole is drilled in the core part, where a prescribed displacement is applied to the face sheet in order to study the effect
of delamination of the face from the core.
A plane strain assumption has been used and, for simplicity, the same isotropic material is used for the two parts.
The delamination is modeled in two ways:
With glued contact and crack growth using the VCCT option.
With interface elements using a cohesive zone model.
Figure 20-1 illustrates the VCCT model. The face sheet is glued to the core. The center part of the face sheet is omitted
from the contact body and thus defines the initial cracks. The grid IDs defining the crack tips are shown in Figure 20-2.
Figure 20-1 Definition of Contact Bodies for the VCCT Model
The model using interface elements is shown in Figure 20-3. Here, we do not use contact; instead, there are interface
elements between the core and the face which share the grids from the existing meshes. The interface elements have
zero thickness, but they are shown with finite thickness in Figure 20-3 (the face part has been moved downwards for
better illustration).
For the VCCT model, a crack growth resistance is specified. The energy release rate is calculated for each crack at
each load level. When this energy release rate is larger than the crack growth resistance, the crack will grow. The
growth is accomplished by releasing the glued contact at the crack tip. The next grid along the interface is
automatically identified and a new calculation of the energy release rate is performed, and the check for growth
repeated. This continues at constant load until either the crack reaches a free boundary or the energy release rate is
below the crack growth resistance.
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Figure 20-2 Grids for VCCT definition.
Figure 20-3 Delamination Model with Bottom Part moved Downwards to Show the Location of the
Delamination Elements
grid 1136 grid 2381
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With the interface elements and the cohesive material model, the growth of the delamination occurs by increased
damage in the interface elements. Damage could occur at any point along the interface, but in this case, the largest
stresses occur where the initial delamination ends, so the largest damage will happen here. When the interface elements
have sustained full damage at all integration points, they no longer contribute to the stiffness of the structure.
Requested Solution
Requested results are the force-displacement curve of the point where the prescribed displacement is applied and the
amount of growth of the initial delamination.
FEM Solutions
MSC Nastrans SOL 400 has been used in the analysis.
The VCCT option is specified in the bulk data as:
VCCT 1 1 2 4.409 0 2381
VCCT 1 2 2 4.409 0 1136
The grid IDs 2381 and 1136 are located as shown in Figure 20-2
Plane strain elements are chosen by the PLPLANE entry on the CQUAD4 option as shown below.
PLPLANE 1 1
PSHLN2 1 1 1 +
+ C4 PLSTRN L +
The delamination elements are defined with the CIFQUAD entry, and the corresponding cohesive property and material
are defined as:
MCOHE 2 2
+ 4.409 .500E-02
PCOHE 2 2
where the exponential option is used for the cohesive material model.
The nonlinear iterative control is specified as:
NLSTEP 2 1. +
+ GENERAL 30 0 +
+ FIXED 100 1 +
+ MECH PV 0.01 PFNT
Fixed time stepping procedure with total time of 1 is used. Maximum 30 iterations are allowed for each increment.
Total 100 numbers of increments are used for fixed time stepping. Output for every single increment is written to the
result file. For convergence criterion load equilibrium error with vector component method (PV) is used. Convergence
tolerance of 0.01 is used. Pure Full Newton-Raphson Method is used (PFNT) as an iteration method.
The deformed shape at the final load for the two cases is shown in Figure 20-4. It can be seen that the amount of growth
of the delamination is the same for the two models. The cohesive zone variant shows the stretched interface
elements. They are, at this point, fully damaged and do not contribute to the structural stiffness.
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Figure 20-5 shows a plot of the reaction force versus the prescribed displacement. Here, we clearly see the difference
between the two approaches. For VCCT, the interface is rigid until crack growth occurs. The jumps in the reaction
force indicate when a new node is released. With a finer mesh, the curve would be smoother. The cohesive zone model
shows a different behavior. The initial stiffness is lower as a result of the properties of the cohesive material. Here the
interface layer is relatively soft, and the growth of the delamination is smooth. By adjusting the properties of the
cohesive material one can adjust the initial stiffness of the interface layer. Thus, the VCCT approach models the
interface as rigid while the interface element approach models an elastic interface with initially zero thickness.
The values used for the crack growth resistance and the cohesive energy are the same in the two model. This makes
sense since these quantities are related both correspond to the energy needed to break the connection.
Figure 20-4 Deformed Shape at Final Load for the Two Models
b) Cohesive Zone
a) VCCT
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Figure 20-5 Reaction Force vs. Vertical Displacement
Modeling Tips
Both models could be done with higher-order elements for increased accuracy. When glued contact is released in the
VCCT model, the midside grid is released whenever a corner grid is released. Hence, although this would give an
increased general accuracy of the solution, it would not improve the jagged nature of the force-displacement curve.
Some notes on mesh design. In the VCCT model, the meshes on both sides of the glued interface have matching nodes.
One of the two grids at the crack tip is identified in the VCCT input. It does not matter which one of the two that is
used. It is allowed to use nonmatching meshes for VCCT based crack growth. Figure 20-6 shows an example. Here,
the bottom part is glued to the top part (the bottom part is the touching side and the top part the touched side). In this
case, it is important that the grid of the touching part is chosen for the VCCT input. This is the grid that would be
released in case of crack growth. The touching part should be the part with a finer mesh density.
The current interface element model does not use contact. The interface elements and the other elements share nodes.
In order to allow a model with independent meshes, one can also use glued contact here. See Figure 20-7 for an
example. The interface elements are shown with finite thickness for clarity. The top part of the interface elements are
glued to the top part of the model and the bottom part of the interface elements to the bottom part. This way, all three
parts can be modeled independently. Similar to the VCCT example above, the touching body (in this case the interface
elements) should have a finer mesh density.
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
Vertical displacement
0
50
100
150
200
250
R
e
a
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t
i
o
n

f
o
r
c
e
Cohesive zone
VCCT
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Figure 20-6 Example of Mesh for VCCT with Nonmatching Mesh Densities
Figure 20-7 Example of Mesh for Cohesive Zone Model with Nonmatching Mesh Densities
crack tip grid
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Composite Fracture and Delamination
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts about 47 minutes and explains
how the steps are performed.
Figure 20-8 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_20v.dat Model using the VCCT option
nug_20d.dat Model using delamination elements
nug_20d.bdf Model using delamination elements for video
nug_20d_start.SimXpert Starting model for SimXpert video
6
Initial Crack
0.6 0.6 0.9 0.9
R = 0.5
1.1
0.078
Main Index
Chapter 21: Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment
21
Occupant Safety and
Airbag Deployment

Summary 317

Introduction 318

Requested Solutions 318

FEM Solution 318

Results 321

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 322

Input File(s) 360

Animation 360
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317
CHAPTER 21
Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment
Summary
Title Chapter 21: Occupant Safety and Airbag Deployment
Features Airbag Deployment with Occupant
Geometry Unit dimensions: mm, kg, ms, KN,
GPa, K, J
Material properties Car frame: Rigid
Airbag: Fabric (MATD034)
Density = 8.76E-07
Ea = 0.3; Eb = 0.2
nab= 0.2; Gab = 0.04
CSE = 1; EL = 0.06; PRL = 0.35
LRATIO = 0.1; DAMP = 0.4
Initial airbag gas: Density = 1.2E-9; Pressure = 0.000101; Temperature = 294.34
Gamma gas constant = 1.4; R gas = 286.98; CP gas = 1004
Inflator: Rigid
R gas inflator = 353.78; CP gas inflator = 1191
The Inflator Mass Flow Rate and the Temperature of the gas as a
function of time are defined by tables.
Dummy: Hybrid 3 - 50 (LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_Rigid.50th
Seatbelt: fabric (MATD034) and seatbelt material (MATDB01)
Analysis type Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)
Boundary conditions Fixed except an airbag and a dummy
Applied loads Initial velocity 15 mm/ms to a dummy.
Prescribed Mass Flow Rate and Temperature of Inflator Gas
Element type 1-D beam element, 2-D shell element, 3-D solid element
FE results Plots of deformed shapes at various steps.
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Introduction
Automotive companies perform crash simulations including airbags and dummies to predict the forces that would be
exerted on the passenger. For people of average size, the airbag can be simulated using a uniform gas bag method
where a pre-determined pressure profile is applied inside the airbag surface. In some crash scenarios, such as Out-of-
Position (OOP), the passenger is already leaning forward at the time of airbag deployment, in which case the flow is
not uniform and the pressure method is not accurate. Instead, Full Gas Dynamic approach (CFD method) is used to
accurately simulate the gas jet, and its pressure distribution inside the bag. This crash example is based on the full gas
dynamic approach where an occupant dummy impacts the airbag.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to predict the behavior of an airbag and an occupant dummy during crash
simulation.
FEM Solution
The units of this model are mm, kg, msec, KN, GPa, K, and J.TSTEPNL describes the number of time steps (20) and
time increment (2 msec) of the simulation. End time is the product of the two entries. Notice here that the time
increment is only for the first step, and in this analysis, it is overruled by the addition of an initial time step parameter:
PARAM, DYINISTEP, 1.E-7.
The actual number of time increments and the exact value of the time steps are determined by SOL 700 during the
analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
TSTEPNL 1 20 2.
AIRBAG instructs SOL 700 to create an airbag using either the full gas dynamic (CFD) method or using a uniform gas
bag method. Here, the CFD method will be used. Inflow of gas into the airbag is defined by the entries following the
INFLATOR key word.
AIRBAG 3 7 ON
+ CFD 1 1.2E-9 20. 20. 20.
+ NONE
+ INITIAL0.000101 294.34 286.98 1004.
+ INFLATOR 9 1 2 1.
+ 353.78 1191.
+ GAS 2
+ 0.0 0.02897CONSTANT 1004.
+ GAS 4
+ 0.0 0.0235CONSTANT 1191.
MATD034 represents SOL 700 Material #34. It is used to model fabric material.
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For the airbag and the Seatbelt the following fabric materials are used respectively:
MATD034 2 8.76E-7 0.3 0.2
0.2
+ 0.04
1. 0.06 0.35 0.1 0.4
+ 3.
0.0 0.0 0.0
+
0.0 0.0 0.0
+ 1. 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
MATD034 292 1.E-6 2.9 2.9
+
+
+
The ends of the Seatbelt are modeled with Seatbelt elements (CBELT), Seatbelt property (PBELTD), and Seatbelt
material (MATDB01). The loading and unloading curves (force vs. strain) are defined in the following tables:
MATDB01 293 1.E-6 61 62 3.
TABLED1 61
+ 0.0 0.0 0.05 1.7
0.1 4.2 0.45 6.7
+ 0.5 7.6 1.00 8.2
ENDT
TABLED1 62
+ 0.0 0.0 1.00 8.2
ENDT
The dummy is modeled by using many element types and joints: CPENTA, CHEXA, RBJOINT, RBJSTIFF, CBAR,
CBEAM, HGSUPPR, CSPR, PSPRMAT, MAT1, MATRIG, and several of MATD0**.
EOSGAM defines the ideal gas inside the airbag.
EOSGAM 1 1.4 286.98
Bulk Data Entries that Define Contact Relations and Contact Bodies
BCTABLE defines Master-Slave as well as self contact.
BCTABLE 1 1
+ SLAVE 1 0.5
+
+ +
+ 2 3 5
+
+ 0.5 YES+
+ MASTERS 1
+ SLAVE 5 0.3
+
+ 0.3 SS2WAY
+
+ 2
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+ 20.
+ 1. 1. YES+
+ MASTERS 6
..
BCBODY is a bulk data entry that defines a flexible or rigid contact body in 2-D or 3-D. It could be specified with a
BSURF, BCBOX, BCPROP, or BCMATL entry.
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 2
BCBODY 5 3D DEFORM 13
..
Two types of entries are used to define 3-D contact bodies.
BPROP and BSURF define 3-D contact regions by element properties and a contact surface or body by element IDs,
respectively.
BCPROP 2 1 2 3 4 7
..
BSURF 6 1 THRU 2516
2527 THRU 10922
..
Using the BCTABLE and several BCBODY, BCSEG, and BCSURF entries, the following contacts are defined as:
Boundary conditions are specified for the car frame, and chair. Because the car frame is rigid, enforced motion entry
(SPCD2) is used.
$ Constraint for Frame chair floor
SPCD2 6 RIGID MR289 1 0 555 1.
SPCD2 6 RIGID MR289 2 0 555 1.
SPCD2 6 RIGID MR289 3 0 555 1.
SPCD2 6 RIGID MR289 5 0 555 1.
Contact
Number Slave Master
1 Airbag Airbag
2 Pelvis Connection bones to legs
3 Neck ring Neck
4 Ribs Torso
5 Ribs Breast
6 Airbag Dummy upper parts
7 Seatbelt Torso - lower body - neck
8 Lower body Chair
9 Feet - hands Frame
10 Airbag Frame
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SPCD2 6 RIGID MR289 6 0 555 1.
SPCD2 6 RIGID MR289 7 0 555 1.
TABLED1 555
+ 0. 0. 1000. 0. ENDT
Results
Figure 21-1 Occupant and Airbag at Various Positions
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Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
In this example, a folded airbag and its interaction with a dummy with a seat belt are shown. Also, an animation of the
deformation of the airbag and the displacement of the dummy is shown.
To enter the MSC Explicit Workspace:
a. Click MSC Explicit
b. File: Save As
c. File name: airbag
d. Click Save
d c
b
a
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Specify the Model Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. Click Standard Units
d. Select the line with mm, kg, ms, ...
e. Click OK
f. Return to User Options screen and click OK
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Specify Input/Output
a. Tools: Options
b. Select Input/Output
c. Click Nastran Structures
d. Unselect Reduce Parts
e. Click Apply
f. Click GUI Options
g. Click Solver Card
h. Click OK
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Import the Airbag Model
a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Look in: AIRBAG
d. Select airbagconstant_new_spiral_simx.bdf
e. Click Open
e
d
c
b
a
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Import the Airbag Model
a. Tools: Transform
b. Select Rotate
c. R.Axis: For X, enter 0; for Y, enter 1; for Z, enter 0
d. For Angle, enter 90
e. Select Elements
f. Click All
g. Click Done
h. Click Exit
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Check the Airbag Data
To rotate the airbag Rigid Wall.
a. Right click Rigidwall Planar_2
b. Click Properties
c. Modify WALL: For XP, enter -1.5; for ZP, enter 0; for NX, enter 1; for NZ, enter 0
d. Click Modify
d
c c c c
b
a
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Check the Airbag Data (continued)
To Change Damping Coefficient Fabric Material
a. Right click Material MATDO34
b. Click Properties
c. For DAMP, enter 0.4
d. Click Modify
d
c
b
a
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Import Dummy Model
a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Select LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RigidFE.50th.dat
d. Click Open
d
c
b
a
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Import Car Frame Model
a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Select Body_Final.bdf
d. Click Open
e. Right click Model Views, select Right
e
d
d
c
b
a
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Import Car Frame Model (continued)
a. View: Entity Display
b. Select Coordinate Frames Shown
c. Select Rigid Elements
d. Select Unreferenced Nodes Shown
a
b
c
d
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Dummy Positioning
a. Safety: Positioner Panel
b. Select Parts by clicking Torso
c. Dummy Positioning: select Dummy H-Point
d. For H Point Location, change X to 560; change Y to -279.90; change Z to 55
e. For Rotation, change Y to 10; change Z to 180
a
b
b
c
d e
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Dummy Positioning (continued)
a. Component Positioning: For FullArm_UpDown_, change X to -10.00 (do once for each arm)
b. For lower_arm_right, change Z to -90.0
c. For lower_arm_left, change Z to -90.0
d. For neck_head, change Y to 7.0
a
b
c
d
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Dummy Positioning (continued)
a. Component Positioning: For Upper_leg_left, Curr. X = 5.00
b.For lower_leg_left, change to -21.0
c. For upper_leg_right, Curr. X = 10.00
d. For lower_leg_right, Curr. X = -32.00
e. For foot_right, change to 15.0
f. Click Exit
g. Right click Render, select FE Shaded
g
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Create Seat Belt
Plot dummy and chair only:
a. Right click LSTC.H3.022908_..., select Show Only
b.Right click PSHELL_2468_..., select Show
c. Tools: Options, Window
d. Color: Entity, select Edge Color, Gray
e. Click OK
f. Shift Right mouse, Screen Rotate
f
e
d
c
b
b
a
a
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Create Seat Belt (continued)
Create seat belt:
a. Safety: Route Seat Belt
b.Click Torso
c. Click Pelvis
d. Click Upper Leg Left
e. Click Done
f. Click Node 1
g. Click Node 2
h. Click Node 3
i. Click Done
j. Click Exit
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
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Check Seat Belt: Shell Property
Create seat belt:
a. Right click SeatBeltShellMaterial
b.Click Exit
c. Right click SeatBeltShellProperty
d. Double click MID
e. Select SeatBeltShellMaterial 290
f. Click OK
g. Click Modify
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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Check Seat Belt: 1D Element Property
Create tables for seat belt load and unloading curves (Force vs. Strain):
a. Field/Tables: TABLED1
b. Click ADD six times to make six rows
c. Fill in X-Y values
d. Click Update
e. Click Create
f. Click Exit
g. Repeat a. through d. for the second table except for step b.
For step b., click ADD two times to make two rows
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Check Seat Belt: 1D Element Property (continued)
Add tables for seat belt load and unloading curves (Force vs. Strain) to SeatBeltMaterial:
a. Right click SeatBeltMaterial
b.Double click LLCID
c. Select TABLED1_60_60
d. Click OK
e. Double click ULCID
f. Select TABLED1_61_601
g. Click OK; then click Modify
h. Right click SeatBeltProperty
i. Double click MID1
j. Select SeatBeltMateriaL 291
k. Click OK; then click Modify
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k
k
j
i
h
g
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Delete Imported Simulation Data and Some Incorrect
Contact Definitions
a. Under LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RidigFE.50th.dat tree, right click Simulation; select Delete
b. Under LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RidigFE.50th.dat tree, select DEFORM_5 through
BCTABLE (click and Shift click); right click and select Delete
c. Under eulerbagconstant new spiral simx.bdf tree, select BCPROP_1 through BCPROP
(click and Shift click); right click and select Delete
a
b
c
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Check Duplicate IDs
a. Tools: ID Management
b.Select Duplicate ID Manager
c. Click OK
a
b
c
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Create Contact Bodies
a. LBCs tab: Deformable Body
b. Name: Deform_2; click PSOLIDD_72_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_79_...; click Apply
c. Name: Deform_3; click PSOLIDD_49_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_50_...; click Apply
d. Name: Deform_4; click PSOLIDD_25_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_26_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_28_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_29_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_86_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_262_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_263_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_264_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_265_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_267_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_268_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_269_...;
Click Apply
e. Name: Deform_5; click PSOLIDD_10_...; click Apply
Pelvis b
c Axes
d Ribs
e Ring Neck
a
b
c
d
e
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Create Contact Bodies (continued)
a. Name: Deform_6; click PSOLIDD_25_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_26_...;
click PSOLIDD_28_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_29_...;
click PSOLIDD_268_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_269_...; click Apply
b. Name: Deform_7; click PSOLIDD_65_...; click Apply
c. Name: Deform_8; click PSOLIDD_98_...; click Apply
d. Name: Deform_9; click PSOLIDD_263_...; click Apply
e. Name: Deform_10; click PSOLIDD_18_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_65_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_72_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_93_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_68_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_69_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_70_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_71_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_267_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_268_...
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_269_...; click Apply
f. Name: Deform_11; click SeatBelt_Shell; click Apply
a Ribs Shoulder
b Torso
c Plate Neck
d Breast
e Dummy
f Seatbelt
f
e
d c
b a
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Create Contact Bodies (continued)
a. Name: Deform_12; click PSHELL_22468_...; click Apply
b. Name: Deform_13; click PSOLIDD_73_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_74_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_75_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_76_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_79_...; click Apply
c. Name: Deform_14; click PSHELL_2376_...; Ctrl click PSHELL_2377_...; click Apply
d. Name: Deform_15; click PSOLIDD_80_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_87_;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_70_; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_71_; click Apply
e. Name: Deform_16; click PSOLIDD_65_...; Ctrl click PSOLIDD_72_...;
Ctrl click PSOLIDD_93_...; click Apply
a Chair b Lower Body
c Frame
d Hands Feet
e Body
b
a
c d
e
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Modify BCTABLE
a. Right click: BCTABLE_1; select Properties
b. # NGROUP = 10
c. Click # NGROUP
Group 0 : Airbag - Airbag (Imported) (not shown)
Group 1 : Pelvis - Leg Bones
d. Double click +c19 IDSLAV,1
e. Click and select Deform2_2; click OK
f. Click +c19 FRIC,1, enter 0.3
g. Click +c25 METHOD,1, select SS2WAY
h. Click +c27 SOFT,1, select 2
i. Click +c29 SFS,1, enter 1; click +c29 SFM,1, enter 1;
click +c29 AUTO,1, select Yes
j. Double click +c36 IDMA,1
k. Click and select Deform3_3; click OK
Continue with Groups 2 through 9 (see the following page)
l. Click Modify
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a
b c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j k
l
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Modify BCTABLE (continued)
Contact: Contact Table -> BCTABLE
Contact GROUP IDSLAVE
FRIC
Method
SOFT SFS SFM AUTO IDMA
airbag 0 1 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 1
Pelvis
bones
1 2 0.3 ss2way 2 5 5 yes 3
Ring plate
neck
2 5 0.45 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 8
Ribs torso 3 4 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 7
Ribs
breast
4 6 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 9
Airbag
dummy
5 1 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 10
seatbelt
dummy
6 11 0.3 blanks 2 1 1 yes 16
Dummy
chair
7 13 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 12
Dummy
frame
8 15 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 14
Airbag
Frame
9 1 0.3 ss2way 2 1 1 yes 14
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Define SPCD2 for Chair-ground-frame
a. Fields/Tables: Tabled: TABLED1
b. Click Add twice to make two rows
c. In Row 1, for X, enter 0.; for Y, enter 0.0; in Row 2, for X, enter 1000.; for Y, enter 0.0
d. Click Create
e. Click Exit
a
b
c
d
e
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Define SPCD2 for Chair-ground-frame (continued)
a. Click LBC, select Part BC, select B Presc Motion Rigid
b. Right click Part, select Material
c. Click [020] MAT_RIGID
d. Ctrl click PSHELL_2468_Body_Final.bdf,
PSHELL_2377_Body_Final.bdf,
PSHELL_2376_Body_Final.bdf
e. Click Done
f. Click D1, D2, D3, D5, D6, D7
g. Click SPCD2
h. Double click LCID
i. Click TABLED_62 62; click OK
j. Click Store
k. Click Exit
l. Click Exit
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
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Initial Dummy Velocity
a. Right click LSTC.H3..., click Show Only
b. Click LBC, select Nodal BC, click Initial Transient Condition
c. Click Define App Region
d. Using the mouse, select the complete dummy in the window
e. Click XVEL, enter -15
f. Click Create
g. Click Exit2
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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Create SimXpert Analysis File
a. In the Model Browser, right click eulerbagconsta.......
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. Click Solver Input File
d. For File name:, enter Chapter21
e. Click Save
f. Click OK
g. Observe that there is a Newjob in the Model Browser tree
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
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Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Displacement Output Request
and click Delete
b. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Element Output Request
and click Delete
c. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Loadcase Control
and click Properties
d. For Ending Time:, enter 40
e. For Number of Time Steps:, enter 20
f. Click Apply
a
b
c
d
e
f
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Export the SimXpert Analysis File
a. In the Model Browser under Newjob, right click Newjob
b.Click Export
Analysis Deck Corrections
This step becomes obsolete as soon as the following CRs are solved:
CR 1-136647181 : BCTABLE issues Airbag-Dummy
CR 1-192117741 : Incorrect numbering Seatbelt elements
Edit Chapter21.bdf and modify the following values:
Row 12 : BCONTACT = 1
1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$1234567$
Row 39833 : CBELT 50001 2470 79297 80456 0 0.0
Row 39834 : CBELT 50002 2470 79267 80457 0 0.0
a
b
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Run MSC Nastran Solver
a. Double click the desktop icon
b. For the input file, select Chapter21.bdf
c. Click Open
d. Click Run
d
c
b
a
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Access the MSC Nastran Analysis Results File
Access the results by attaching the d3plot file.
a. File: Attach Results
b. Click File Path icon
c. Select Chapter21.dytr.d3plot
d. Click Open
e. Click OK
Note: If SimX cant access the results, do the following:
File -> Save
File -> New
File > Attach Results
Attach Options: BOTH
OK
a
b
c
d
e
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Access the MSC Nastran Analysis Results File (continued)
Change the model visualization.
a. Right click Model Views; click Right
b. Right click on the vertical line (wall); click Hide
c. Right click Render; click FE Shaded with Edges
d. Click Hide Unreferenced nodes
a
b
c
d
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Animate a Deformed Plot
Create a deformed plot with animation
a. Results: Deformation
b. To select all Result Cases, click ch21a.dytr
c. Result type: select Displacement Components
d. Click Deformation
e. For Deformed display scaling, select True
f. For Deformed shape, Render style, select Shaded
g. For Deformed shape, Edge color, select cyan
h. Click Plot Data
i. Click Animate
j. Click Update
Original
Updated (Deformed)
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
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Animate a Deformed Plot (continued)
Animation
a b
c d
e
f
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Input File(s)
Animation
Click on the figure below to play the animation, Esc to stop.
Figure 21-2 Deployment of Airbag Animation
File Description
Chapter21.dat MSC Nastran input file for airbag FSI
example
Body_Final.bdf Frame model
eulerbagconstant_new_spiral_simx.bdf Airbag model
LSTC.H3.022908_Beta_RigidFE.50th.dat Dummy model
Main Index
Chapter 22: Multi-Compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment
22
Multi-compartment Side
Curtain Airbag Deployment

Summary 362

Introduction 363

Requested Solutions 363

Airbag Analysis Scheme 363

FEM Solution 363

Results 365

Input File(s) 366


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Summary
Title Chapter 22: Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment
Features Deploy Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag
Geometry
Material properties See Summary of Materials.
Analysis type Transient explicit dynamic analysis
Boundary conditions Fixed at brackets
Applied loads Prescribed pressure and temperature of inflator gas
Element type Airbag: 2-D triangular shell element
Airbag gas: 3-D solid element (automatically generated)
FE results
L
e
n
g
th
=
0
.7
5
2
m

Fix
Gas supply bag
Inflator
Compartment
H
e
i
g
h
t

=

0
.
3
6
0

m
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Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment
Introduction
.The purpose of this example is to demonstrate the simulation of a multi-compartment airbag; a capability is introduced
in MSC Nastran SOL 700 (SOL 700). AIRBAG, GRIA, and EOSGAM are added in Bulk Data entries to support the
capability.
Requested Solutions
The airbag has five compartments. These compartments are folded, and each compartment is connected to the gas
supply bag through a large hole. An inflator is modeled next to the gas supply bag. The gas jet is initiated from the
inflator and running into the gas supply bag. Fixed boundary conditions are applied to the brackets attached to the gas
supply bag. The simulation time is 0.04 seconds.
Airbag Analysis Scheme
FEM Solution
The units of this model are kg for weight, meter for length, second for time, and Kelvin for temperature.
TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time Increment (0.0004 seconds) of the simulation. End time
is the product of the two entries. Notice here, the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL 1 100 .0004 1 ADAPT 2 10

MD Nastran SOL 700 Airbag Model (bdf)
SOL 700
Obtain Binary Results
- Deformation (AIRBAG)
- CFD result (GAS)
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One inflator and five compartment AIRBAG entries are defined. An AIRBAG entry instructs SOL 700 to create an
airbag using either the CFD method (full gas dynamics) or using a uniform gasbag method. Here, the full gas dynamic
method is used for all airbag definitions. Inflow of gas into the airbag is defined by the entries following the INFLATOR
key word. Outflow is defined by adding LARGHOLE to the inflator which is connected to the five different compartment
airbag. Details of an AIRBAG entry are described below:
Airbag 1 is the definition of the inflator airbag.
The CFD option defines CFD related data. Gamma law equation of state is defined referring the EOSGAM 3 field.
AIRBAG 1 25 +
+ CFD 3 1.527 0.009 0.009 0.009 +
Using the INITIAL option, initial conditions of gas property inside an airbag are defined. Initial pressure is 101,325
N/m2, initial temperature is 293 K, initial gamma gas constant is 1.4 and initial R gas constant is 294 Nm2/s2/K.
+ INITIAL 101325. 293. 1.4 294. +
The INFLATOR option is used to define gas property from an inflator. Mass flow rate is defined referring a table data
(TABLED1). Temperature of inflowing gas is 350 K, a scale factor of available inflow area is 0.7, the gamma gas
constant of the inflator gas is 1.557, and the R gas constant of the inflator gas is 243 Nm2/s2/K.
+ INFLATOR1001 1 350. 0.7 +
+ 1.557 243. +
The LARGEHOLE option defines the compartment location where gas flows into. In the example below, the first field,
LARGHOLE 301 indicates that gas flows through surface 301 into the compartment with ID 2. A scale factor of inflow
area is 1.0, meaning that 100% of the gas flows in. Five LARGEHOLEs definitions are used to model the gas flow inside
the five airbag compartments.
+ LARGHOLE301 2 1.0 +
+ LARGHOLE302 3 1.0 +
+ LARGHOLE303 4 1.0 +
+ LARGHOLE304 5 1.0 +
+ LARGHOLE305 6 1.0
AIRBAG entries from 2 to 6 define the compartments in the airbag.
AIRBAG 2 35 +
+ CFD 3 1.527 0.011 0.011 0.011 +
+ INITIAL 101325. 293. 1.4 294.
EOSGAM defines the ideal gas inside the airbag. This entry is used for each airbag definition. The gamma law gas
equation of state is defined by EOSGAM. The pressure p is defined as:
where is a constant, is specific internal energy per unit mass, is overall material density. A constant of 1.517
and R gas constant of 226.4 m
2
/s
2
/K are used in this model.
T 1 ( ) e =
T e T
Main Index
365
CHAPTER 22
Multi-compartment Side Curtain Airbag Deployment
EOSGAM 3 1.517 226.4
The GRIA entry defines the final unstretched configuration of a deployed bag. All IDs of GRIA entries must be the
same as the IDs of GRID entries.
GRIA 1 .0009375-.626128 .230000
...
Summary of Materials
Inflator airbag: fabric material (MATD034):
(density) = 783 kg/m
3
(Youngs Modulus - longitudinal direction) = 2.6e+08
(Youngs Modulus - transverse direction) = 2.6e+08
(Poissons ratio - longitudinal direction) = .3

(Poissons ratio transverse direction) = .3
Compartment airbag: null material (MATD009):
(density) = 783 kg/m
3
(Youngs Modulus) = 2.6e+08
(Poissons ratio) = .3
Initial condition of airbag gas:
(density) = 1.527 kg/m
3
Initial temperature = 293 K
Initial pressure = 101,325 N/m
2
Initial gamma gas constant = 1.4
Initial R gas constant = 294 Nm
2
/s
2
/K
Results
There are two types of results files: ARC and d3plot. The ARC file is the original MSC.Dytran binary result file and
includes the results for the Euler elements (fluid). d3plot is the native LS-DYNA result file format.

E
a
E
b
u
a
u
b

E
u

Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 22
366
Figure 22-1 Deformed Shape Airbag and Adaptive Euler Mesh
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_22.dat MSC Nastran input file for multi-compartment airbag FSI example
Airbag
Deformed Shape
Euler
Adaptive Mesh
Time (ms)
t = 0 t = 2
t = 4 t = 6
t = 8 t = 10
t = 20 t = 30
t = 40
Main Index
Chapter 23: Bolted Plates
23
Bolted Plates

Summary 368

Introduction 369

Solution Requirements 369

FEM Solutions 371

Modeling Tips 378

Input File(s) 378

Video 379
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 23
368
Summary
Title Chapter 23: Bolted Plates
Contact features Deformable-deformable contact
No friction
Geometry
Material properties
, , , , Linear
elastic material
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Small plate is supported at one side. Normal contact conditions applied between the two
plates and between the large plate and the bolt, glued contact between the small plate and
the nut. Rigid rotation and translation of the plates is suppressed
Applied loads
Load step 1: Bolt is fastened by pre-tension force .
Load steps 2-4: Cyclic loading of plates. Two different cases:
uniform pressure
thermal load, temperature increase
Element type 3-D solid 8-node linear elements
FE results 1. Deformed shape and von Mises stress distribution
2. Plot of bolt forces
X
Y
Z
1
X Y
Z
4
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX YYYYYYYYY
ZZZZZZZZZZ
44
Units: mm
Large plate 60x20x6
Small plate 20x20x2
Bolt hole radius = 5
Bolt shaft radius = 4
Bolt head radius = 6
Bolt head thickness = 2
Nut thickness = 2
Nut outer radius = 6
E
pl at es
210kN mm
2
= E
bol t
21kN mm
2
= v
pl at es
v
bol t
0.3 = = o
pl at es
10
5
C
1
=
F 200N =
P 0.125MPa =
AT 50C =
Main Index
369
CHAPTER 23
Bolted Plates
Introduction
A small and a large steel plate are bolted together. Initially, the smaller plate is in full contact on one side with the
larger plate. The opposite side of the smaller plate is supported. Furthermore, the bolt head is touching the larger plate
and the nut is glued to the smaller plate. It is assumed that the material behavior for both the plates and the bolt is linear
elastic.
In the first load step, the bolt is fastened by applying a pre-tension force ( ) to the bolt in the basic Z-direction.
In three subsequent load steps, the bolt is locked (that is, further shortening of the bolt is suppressed) and the plates
are subjected to cyclic loads. Two types of loads will be presented: a mechanical load that consists of a uniform
pressure equal to applied to the larger plate and a thermal load in which temperature of the plates is
increased by .
Solution Requirements
Two solutions, one involving a uniform pressure equal to applied to the larger plate and one involving
a temperature increase by of the two plates, are:
Bolt shortening during fastening in the first load step
Bolt forces during the loading cycle
Bolt stresses
These solutions demonstrate:
Bolt modelling
That the bolt force is largely unaffected by the applied pressure to the larger plate
That the bolt force increases with increasing temperature of the plates, due to thermal expansion
The analysis results are presented with linear elements.
Bolt Modeling
In various engineering applications, it is necessary to define a pre-stress in, for example, bolts or rivets before applying
any other structural loading. A convenient way do this is via multi-point constraints. The idea is to split the element
mesh of the bolt across the shaft in two disjoint parts, such that duplicate grid points appear at the cut, and to connect
the duplicate nodes again by multi-point constraints (see Figure 23-1). The constraints are chosen such that an overlap
or a gap can be created between the two parts in a controllable way. If the motion of the parts is somehow constrained
in the direction in which the gap or overlap is created, then an overlap (a shortening of the bolt) will introduce a
tensile (pre-)stress in each of the parts and a gap (an enlongation of the bolt) will result in a compressive stress.
The multi-point constraints have one slave and two master grid points. The slaves are the grid points at the cut from
the bottom part of the bolt (see Figure 23-1). The first master grids are the corresponding grid points from the top part
of the bolt on the other side of the cut. The second master in the constraints is a unique third grid point, called the
control grid point of the bolt. This is often a free grid point (that is, not part of the element mesh) and is shared by all
multi-point constraints on the cut.
F 200N =
P 0.125MPa =
AT 50C =
P 0.125MPa =
AT 50C =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 23
370
Figure 23-1 Pre-stressing a Structure by Creating an Overlap Between the Top and the Bottom Part
Using Multi-Point Constraints.
The multi-point constraints impose the following constraint equations on the model:
.
in which , and are the displacement degrees of freedom of a grid point from the bottom part, its
corresponding grid from the top part and the control grid point, respectively. It immediately follows from this equation
that is the displacement difference of the bottom and top grids and is equal to the size of the overlap or gap
between the parts. Hence, by enforcing the displacements of the control grid point, an overlap or gap of a particular
size can be created between the two parts.
It can be shown (see, for instance, MSC.Marc 2010 Volume A: Theory and User Information, Chapter 9, Section
Overclosure Tying), that if the multi-point constraints are set up as outlined above, the force on the control grid
point equals the sum of the forces on the grid points from the bottom part as well as minus the sum of the forces on
the grid points from the top part:
.
Hence, the force on the control grid point is the total force on the cross-section of the bolt. By applying a (pre-tension)
force to that grid point, the total force on the cross-section can be prescribed. Moreover, if the shortening of the bolt
is prescribed via an enforced displacement on the control grid point, then the reaction force on that grid point is equal
to the total force on the cross-section of the bolt.
Note that both types of boundary conditions on the control grid point can be combined in a single analysis as
demonstrated in this example. In the first load step, the pre-tension force will be applied to the control grid point of
the bolt. This results in a certain amount of shortening of the bolt. At the end of the first load step, the amount of
shortening is recorded and is kept constant in subsequent load steps, via a single point constraint on the control grid
point.
control grid
bottom part
MPCs
(slave)
(first master)
top grids
top part
mesh split
bottom grids
(second master)
undeformed
F
1,bot
F
2,bot
F
2,top
F
control
top part
bottom part
F
1,top
u
1,top
u
2,top
u
2,bot
u
1,bot
u
control
(overlap) u
control
deformed
u
bot
u
t op
u
cont rol
0 =
u
bot
u
t op
u
cont rol
u
cont rol
F
cont rol
F
bot
F
t op
= =
Main Index
371
CHAPTER 23
Bolted Plates
Figure 23-2 Element Mesh and Multi-Point Constraints applied in Target Solution with MSC Nastran
There are two ways to define the multi-point constraints for bolt modeling in the bulk data: each constraint can be
defined explicitly via the MPC option or the entire set of constraints can be defined via the BOLT option. The latter has
been designed specially for bolt modeling and has several advantages over explicit MPCs:
Provides a much more concise input than explicit MPCs;
Generates all the required multi-point constraints on all displacement and rotational degrees of freedom
automatically;
Ensures continuity of the temperature field across the cut in the thermal passes of coupled analyses;
Requires no special provisions in a contact analysis (see below).
FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 23-2
using 3-D solid linear elements. The bolt and the nut are assumed to be rigidly connected and are modeled as a single
physical body. To fasten the bolt, the element mesh of the bolt is split into two parts across the shaft and the 41 grid
point pairs on both sides of the cut are connected by multi-point constraints of the form discussed in the preceding
section. Grid ID 1903 acts as the control grid of the bolt.
Two versions of the input are considered. In the first version, the BOLT option is used to generate the multi-point
constraints on the cut. In the second version, the constraints are defined explicitly via the MPC option.
The BOLT option requires a bolt ID (5000), the ID of the control grid of the bolt (1903) and the grids at the cut from
the top and bottom parts of the bolt. The latter must be entered pair-wise in the TOP and BOTTOM section of the option:
the i-th TOP grid should correspond to the i-th BOTTOM grid.
BOLT 5000 1903
Note: The gap between the top and bottom parts of the bolt in the picture on the right is purely for visualization
purposes. In reality, the gap is closed although the duplicate grids remain.
Bolt
Small plate
Nut
Large Plate
Grid 1903
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 23
372
TOP 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868
1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875
1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882
1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889
1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896
1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902
BOTTOM 341 353 365 377 389 401 413
425 437 449 461 473 485 497
1394 1406 1418 1430 1442 1454 1466
1478 1490 1502 1572 1584 1596 1608
1620 1632 1644 1656 1668 1680 1747
1759 1771 1783 1795 1807 1819
The equivalent input using explicit MPCs reads:
MPC 1 341 1 1.0 1862 1 -1.0
1903 1 -1.0
MPC 1 341 2 1.0 1862 2 -1.0
1903 2 -1.0
MPC 1 341 3 1.0 1862 3 -1.0
1903 3 -1.0
MPC 2 353 1 1.0 1863 1 -1.0
1903 1 -1.0
MPC 2 353 2 1.0 1863 2 -1.0
1903 2 -1.0
MPC 2 353 3 1.0 1863 3 -1.0
1903 3 -1.0
...
$
MPCADD 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41
Contact
The main problem with the use of explicit MPCs is that in a contact analysis, the constraints may conflict with the
multi-point constraints due to contact. Special provisions have to be made in the contact setup to avoid that the slave
grids of the MPCs can come in contact with other contact bodies. Furthermore, due to the cut in the mesh, it is difficult
for grid points of other contact bodies that touch the bolt surface, to slide across the cut from the bottom part of the
bolt to the top part or vice versa. The BOLT option addresses both issues, provided that the two parts of the bolt are in
the same contact body. Conflicts with contact constraints are avoided and grid points that touch the surface of the bolt
can slide without difficulties across the cut.
For the present model, the two methods are compared. To avoid problems in the MPC version between the explicit
MPCs and the contact constraints, the radius of the bolt shaft is slightly smaller than the radius of the holes in the plates,
such that contact between the shaft and plates will not occur.
The three physical components of the model (the two plates and the bolt with the nut) have been selected as contact
bodies. The contact bodies are identified as the set of elements in the respective components:
$ contact body: bolt and nut
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1
BSURF 1 167 168 169 170 171 172 173
...
$ contact body: small plate
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2
Main Index
373
CHAPTER 23
Bolted Plates
BSURF 2 139 140 141 142 143 144 145
...
$ contact body: large plate
BCBODY 3 3D DEFORM 3
BSURF 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
The two parts of the bolt are in same contact body (ID=1).
The BCTABLE entries shown below identify the admissible contact combinations, select the slave and master body for
each combination, and set associated parameters. It is important to note that:
The first contact body (bolt and nut) must be selected as the slave (or contacting) body. Since the contact
algorithm detects contact between the grid points at the surface of the slave (or contacting) body and the faces
of the elements at the surface of the master (or contacted) body, the body with the finer element mesh in the
contact region generally should be selected as the slave body and the body with the coarser mesh as the
master, as this results in more points in contact and thus a better description of the contact conditions than
with the opposite definition. The ISEARCH entry is set to 1 to force search order from the slave body to the
master.
The bolt can touch the plates and the plates can touch each other.
The IGLUE entry is set to 1 for contact between the nut and the smaller plate to activate glued contact
conditions (that is, no sliding and no separation) between these two contact bodies.
BCTABLE 0 3
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 1
1 0 0
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0
1 0 0
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0. 0
1 0 0
MASTERS 3
BCTABLE 1 3
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 1
1 0 0
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0
1 0 0
MASTERS 3
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0. 0
1 0 0
MASTERS 3
Materials and Properties
The 3-D solid elements with large strain capability available on MSC Nastran SOL 400 are chosen by the PSOLID and
PSLDN1 entries on the CHEXA option as shown below.
$ plates
PSOLID* 1 1
PSLDN1* 1 1
$
$ bolt and nut
PSOLID* 2 2
PSLDN1* 2 2
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 23
374
The large strain capability and assumed strain formulation (for improved bending behavior) for these elements are
activated via the NLMOPTS option.
NLMOPTS ASSM ASSUMED
LRGSTRN 1
The two materials are isotropic and elastic with Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio and thermal expansion defined as:
$ plates
MAT1* 1 2.100000E+05 3.000000E-01
* 1.000000E+00 1.000000E-05
$ bolt and nut
MAT1* 2 2.100000E+04 3.000000E-01
Loads, Boundary Conditions and Load Steps
The loading sequence consists of four load steps. In the first load step. The pre-tension force in the basic Z direction
is applied to the control grid point of the bolt via a FORCE option, as follows:
$ bolt-force
FORCE 1 1903 0 200. 0. 0. 1.
At the end of the load step, the shortening of the bolt due to the applied pre-tension force is recorded and kept constant
in subsequent load steps by a single-point constraint on the displacement of the control grid in the basic Z direction:
$ bolt-lock
SPC1 5 3 1903
Throughout the analysis, the displacements of the control grid in the basic X and Y directions are suppressed by a
single-point constraint:
$ bolt-xy
SPC1 4 12 1903
In all four load steps, the full load is applied in a single increment. The nonlinear procedure used in the load steps is:
NLPARM 1 1 PFNT 1 50 UP NO
+ .01 .01
+ 0
Here, the PFNT option is selected to activate the pure Newton-Raphson iteration strategy. Convergence of the non-
linear iteration process is checked on both displacements and forces, using tolerances equal to 0.01.
Results
The shortening of the bolt due to the pre-tension force applied in the first load step is listed in Table 23-1. The solution
obtained with an equivalent Marc 2005 model is included for reference. This shortening is recorded at the end of the
first load step and kept fixed in the subsequent load steps. It is apparent from this table that the MPC version and the
BOLT version produce identical results.
Main Index
375
CHAPTER 23
Bolted Plates
Pressure Load
The pressure load is applied in a cyclic fashion to the large plate in the final three load steps. The plate is loaded in
load steps 2 and 4 and unloaded in load step 3. The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 500) as well as the
equivalent von Mises stress distribution at the end of the final load step are shown in Figure 23-3. A plot of the bolt
force in the basic Z direction is depicted in Figure 23-4. Note that in the first load step, the bolt load is the externally
applied pre-tension force; whereas in subsequent load steps, the bolt load is the reaction force on the control grid point.
Figure 23-3 Deformed Structure Plot and von Mises Stress Distribution at Maximum Load Level Due to
the Pressure Load (magnification factor = 500)
Table 23-1 Bolt Shortening During Fastening in the First Load Step
MSC Nastran
(MPC)
MSC Nastran
(BOLT) Marc 2005r3
bolt shortening 0.0054 0.0054 0.0054
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 23
376
Figure 23-4 Bolt Forces During Loading Cycle by Pressure Load.
In Figure 23-4, the MSC Nastran solution (blue dots) is compared with the solution obtained by MSC.Marc 2005 r3
(the solid line). The good agreement between the two solutions is apparent.
This plot demonstrates the well-known fact that the bolt force is unaffected by the pressure applied to the plate. Due
to a slight bending of the larger plate under the pressure load, however, the bolt force is not exactly constant.
0
50
100
150
200
1 2 3 4
Load Step
MSC.Marc 2005 r3
MSC Nastran
n
n
n
n
n
B
o
l
t

F
o
r
c
e

[
N
]
Main Index
377
CHAPTER 23
Bolted Plates
Thermal Load
The thermal load is applied in a cyclic fashion to both plates. The plates are heated in load steps 2 and 4 and cooled
down in load step 3. The deformed structure plot (magnification factor 100) as well as the equivalent von Mises stress
distribution at the end of the final load step are shown in Figure 23-5. A plot of the bolt force in the basic Z direction
is shown in Figure 23-6. Again, the MSC Nastran solution (blue dots) is compared with the solution obtained by
MSC.Marc 2005 r3 (the solid line) and the agreement of the two solutions is apparent.
Figure 23-5 Deformed Structure Plot and von Mises Stress Distribution at Maximum Load Level Due to
the Thermal Load (magnification factor = 100)
Figure 23-6 Bolt Forces During Loading Cycle by Thermal Load.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1 2 3 4
B
o
l
t

F
o
r
c
e

[
N
]
Load Step
MSC.Marc 2005 r3
MSC Nastran
n
n
n
n
n
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 23
378
In this load case, the bolt force increases with increasing temperature due to thermal expansion of the plates. It
decreases again to the pre-stress force after cooling down.
Modeling Tips
Multi-point constraints provide a convenient way to fasten bolts. Either the shortening of the bolt or the total force in
the cross-section of the bolt can be controlled via enforced displacements or forces on the control grid point of the bolt.
These two types of boundary conditions can be combined in one simulation in which the bolt is first pre-stressed and
then loaded by other mechanical or thermal loads.
The BOLT option provides a convenient way to generate the required multi-point constraints. It can be used
conveniently in a contact analysis, provided that the two parts of the bolt are in the same contact body.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_23p_bolt.dat Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic pressure load (BOLT version)
nug_23p.dat Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic pressure load (MPC version)
nug_23t_bolt.dat Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic thermal load (BOLT version)
nug_23t.dat Bolt pre-tension followed by cyclic thermal load (MPC version)
Main Index
379
CHAPTER 23
Bolted Plates
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 58 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 23-7 Video of the Above Steps
X
Y
Z
1
X Y
Z
4
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX YYYYYYYYY
ZZZZZZZZ
44
Units: mm
Large plate 60x20x6
Small plate 20x20x2
Bolt hole radius = 5
Bolt shaft radius = 4
Bolt head radius = 6
Bolt head thickness = 2
Nut thickness = 2
Nut outer radius = 6
Main Index
Chapter 24: Friction Between Belt and Pulley
24
Friction Between Belt
and Pulley

Summary 381

Introduction 382

Requested Solutions 382

Analytical Solution 382

FEM Solutions 383

Modeling Tip 386

Input File(s) 388

Video 388
Main Index
381
CHAPTER 24
Friction Between Belt and Pulley
Summary
Title Chapter 24: Friction Between Belt and Pulley
Contact features (Slightly) changing contact area
Curved contact surfaces
Deformable-deformable and deformable-rigid contact
Friction between deformable bodies
Geometry 3-D (units: mm)
Pulley outer radius = 0.55
Pulley inner radius = 0.25
Out of plane pulley thickness = 0.3
In plane belt thickness = 0.05
Out of plane belt thickness = 0.2
Initial angle spanned = t/2 rad
Material properties

Linear elastic material
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions
An 180
o
section of the pulley is modeled, which is clamped along the inner radius using
glued contact conditions. On both ends of the belt, load-controlled rigid bodies are
defined and connected to the belt using glued contact conditions. The forces and
are external and reaction forces on the control nodes. On the loaded control node we have
, while on the other control node .
Applied loads
Point load
Element type 3-D 20-node hexahedral solid elements
Contact properties
Different coefficients of friction between belt and pulley: , and
FE results Reaction force for each value of the friction coefficient
r
1
r
2
F
R

t
x
y
z
E
pulley
1.0
13
10 Pa = E
belt
1.0
10
10 Pa = v
pulley
v
belt
0.3 = =
F R
u
x
u
y
0 = = u
x
u
y
u
z
0 = = =
F
y
1.0
5
10 N =
0.05 = 0.15 =
0.25 =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 24
382
Introduction
A belt is positioned around a pulley such that a 90
o
section of the pulley is contacted. One end of the belt is fixed; the
other end is loaded by a tensile force with magnitude . It is assumed that the material behavior for both the
belt and the pulley is linear elastic. Although this problem can be solved by a 2-D approximation, a full 3-D model is
chosen here in order to show the characteristic behavior of 3-D parabolic hexahedral elements in a contact analysis
involving friction. An analytical solution for the case with Coulomb friction is known.
Requested Solutions
Analyses will be carried out for three different values of the friction coefficient: , , and .
With a constant value of the applied load, the reaction force will decrease for increasing values of the friction
coefficient. This reaction force is the primary requested quantity, as this can be easily compared with an analytical
solution.
Analytical Solution
Assuming Coulomb friction between the belt and the pulley, the principle of rope friction according to the Euler-
Eytelwein formula provides a relation between the magnitude of the applied force, the magnitude of the reaction
force, the angle spanned by the belt and the friction coefficient between the belt and the pulley:
With and , the theoretical value of the magnitude of the reaction force is listed in Table 24-1 for
various values of the friction coefficient .
Table 24-1 Reaction Force for Various Values of the Friction Coefficient (Theory)
Friction Coefficient Reaction Force R
0.05
9.2447x10
4
0.15
7.9008x10
4
0.25
6.7523x10
4
F 1.0
5
10 =
0.05 = 0.15 = 0.25 =
F R

R
F
e

-------- =
F 1.0
5
10 =
t
2
--- = R

Main Index
383
CHAPTER 24
Friction Between Belt and Pulley
FEM Solutions
Numerical solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for the element mesh shown in Figure 24-1
using 3-D 20-node hexahedral elements. Assuming that the deformations of the pulley are small and localized around
the contact area, only an 180
o
section has been modeled. In total, there are five contact bodies: two deformable and
three rigid. The rigid bodies will be used to easily apply the boundary conditions (single point constraints and forces).
Figure 24-1 Element Mesh applied in MSC Nastran Simulation
The first deformable body consists of all elements of the belt, where the second deformable body consists of all
elements of the pulley. The body number IDs of the belt and the pulley are 1 and 2, respectively. These deformable
contact bodies are identified as 3-D bodies referring to the BSURF IDs 1 and 2:
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1
BSURF 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55
56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
72 73 74
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2
BSURF 2 75 76 77 78 79 80 81
82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105
106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113
114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121
122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129
130 131 132 133 134
load controlled
rigid body
load controlled
rigid body
fixed rigid body;
glued contact
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 24
384
The first rigid body is a half cylinder described as a NURBS surface and will be used to clamp the grids on the inner
radius of the pulley. Its body ID number is 3 and it is identified as:
BCBODY 3 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 0 1 RIG-INNER
NURBS -7 13 4 4 50 50 0
.176777 -.176777 0. .324015 -.029538 0.
.237263 .222631 0. .0306021.24812 0.
...
The second and the third rigid bodies are load controlled rigid bodies. A load controlled rigid body is associated with
a control grid, which can be used to apply forces and/or single point constraints. In the current analysis, two flat load
controlled rigid bodies are used. They will be glued to both ends of the belt and their control grids will be used to
prevent a rigid body motion in the basic z-direction, to apply the external force on the belt and to transfer the belt load
to the fixed control grid. The load controlled rigid bodies are identified as:
BCBODY 4 3D RIGID 0 1 526
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 526 1 RIG-R
NURBS -2 2 2 2 50 50 4
-.2 .6 .05 -.2 .55 .05
-.2 .6 .25 -.2 .55 .25
...
BCBODY 5 3D RIGID 0 1 527
0 0. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0.
RIGID 527 1 RIG-F
NURBS -2 2 2 2 50 50 4
.55 -.2 .05 .6 -.2 .05
.55 -.2 .25 .6 -.2 .25
...
Note that the control grids have the IDs 526 and 527.
The BCTABLE option will be used to indicate:
which grids are to be treated as slave nodes and which as master grids in the multipoint constraints for
deformable-deformable contact;
the friction coefficient between the belt and the pulley;
glued contact between the pulley and the half cylinder;
glued contact between the load controlled rigid bodies and the belt.
The entries of the BCTABLE option are defined as:
BCTABLE 1 4
SLAVE 1 0. 0. .05 0. 0 0.
1 0
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0.
0 1 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 1 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0.
0 1 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0. 0. 1 0.
0 1 0
MASTERS 3
Main Index
385
CHAPTER 24
Friction Between Belt and Pulley
The first SLAVE MASTERS combination indicates that the grids of deformable body 1 are treated as slave grids when
contact is established with body 2. The friction coefficient is set to 0.05.
The other SLAVE MASTERS combinations activate glued contact between the bodies with body ID numbers 1 and 5,
1 and 4, and 2 and 3, respectively.
The bilinear Coulomb friction model will be activated using the BCPARA option (FTYPE = 6); this option is also used
to indicate that the separation behavior is based on stresses (IBSEP = 4), which is necessary in a contact analysis
involving quadratic elements:
BCPARA 0 NBODIES 5 IBSEP 4 FTYPE 6
In order to activate the full nonlinear formulation of the 20 node hexahedral elements, the nonlinear property extension
of the PSOLID entry is used. For the materials defining the belt (material ID number 1) and the pulley (material ID
number 2), this results in:
MAT1 1 1.+9 .3 1.
MAT1 2 1.+13 .3 1.
PSOLID 1 1 0
PSLDN1 1
PSOLID 2 2 0
PSLDN1 2
The nonlinear procedure used is:
NLPARM 1 1 FNT 1 25 UPW YES
1.e-4 1.e-4 1.e-4 10
Here the FNT option is selected to update the stiffness matrix during every recycle using the full Newton-Raphson
iteration strategy. Convergence checking is performed based on displacements, forces and work. The error tolerance
is set to 10
-4
for all criteria. Note that the MAXDIV field is set to 10 to avoid that bisections occur, since too many
bisections may increase the overall solution time.
The obtained values of the reaction forces are listed in Table 24-2, together with the relative error compared to the
analytical solution. The numerical and analytical solutions turn out to be in good agreement.
Table 24-2 Numerical Solutions and Relative Errors
Friction Coefficient Reaction Force R Error (%)
0.05
9.2314x10
4
0.14
0.15
7.9476x10
4
0.59
0.25
6.8448x10
4
1.37
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 24
386
Modeling Tip
Convergence Behavior
A nonlinear analysis involving contact and friction may need several iterations to fulfil the convergence requirements.
In such inherently nonlinear analyses, it may be advantageous to increase the number of criteria needed to force a
bisection. As discussed above, this number (MAXDIV on the NLPARM option) has been set to 10 instead of the default
value 3. The tables below show the convergence behavior with the increased value (Table 24-3) and the default value
(Table 24-4). The increased value clearly reduces the overall number of Newton-Raphson iterations and thus the
analysis wall time. When looking at Table 24-3, iteration 9 reaches displacement, load and work errors which are
within the required tolerances. The extra iterations needed are caused by the fact that some grids of the belt which are
initially in contact with the pulley, separate because of tensile contact stresses. After separation of these grids, a new
solution with a smaller number of contact constraints has to be found.
Table 24-3 Convergence Behavior with MAXDIV=10 ( = 0.25)
Load Factor Step Iteration Disp. Error Load Error Work Error
1.000 1 1 1.00E+00 1.70E-01 1.70E-01
1.000 1 2 7.76E+00 3.54E-01 1.58E+00
1.000 1 3 6.61E+02 2.31E+01 6.17E+02
1.000 1 4 2.12E+02 1.80E+02 1.30E+04
1.000 1 5 8.61E-02 2.78E+01 7.33E+00
1.000 1 6 3.12E-03 1.70E-01 4.67E-02
1.000 1 7 2.60E-04 4.31E-03 3.50E-03
1.000 1 8 7.87E-06 4.09E-05 1.34E-04
1.000 1 9 3.92E-06 9.30E-07 5.09E-05
1.000 1 10 3.39E+00 1.41E-02 4.30E+00
1.000 1 11 4.26E-02 2.05E-03 6.67E-01
1.000 1 12 2.42E-03 3.31E-02 3.33E-02
1.000 1 13 8.19E-06 2.26E-05 1.30E-04
1.000 1 14 4.93E-06 1.61E-06 6.57E-05
Main Index
387
CHAPTER 24
Friction Between Belt and Pulley
Table 24-4 Convergence Behavior with MAXDIV=3 ( = 0.25)
Load Factor Step Iteration Disp. Error Load Error Work Error
1.0000 1 1 1.00E+00 1.70E-01 1.70E-01
1.0000 1 2 7.76E+00 3.54E-01 1.58E+00
1.0000 1 3 6.61E+02 2.31E+01 6.17E+02
1.0000 1 4 2.12E+02 1.80E+02 1.30E+04
0.5000 1 1 1.00E+00 9.36E-02 9.36E-02
0.5000 1 2 8.06E+02 2.96E-01 3.12E+02
0.5000 1 3 5.62E+02 3.36E+01 6.19E+02
0.5000 1 4 8.37E+01 8.70E+01 1.92E+02
0.5000 1 5 3.27E-02 1.91E+00 8.84E-02
0.5000 1 6 8.88E-04 2.22E-02 2.19E-03
0.5000 1 7 1.27E-04 2.24E-04 2.84E-04
0.5000 1 8 2.93E-06 6.83E-06 8.15E-06
0.5000 1 9 1.94E+00 1.02E-02 2.71E-01
0.5000 1 10 2.89E-02 1.31E-03 6.47E-02
0.5000 1 11 3.25E-04 7.79E-03 5.95E-04
0.5000 1 12 2.44E-05 8.00E-06 5.31E-05
1.0000 2 1 5.60E-01 2.26E-01 1.27E-01
1.0000 2 2 1.25E+02 2.32E+02 7.04E+03
0.7500 2 1 1.25E+02 2.32E+02 7.04E+03
0.6250 2 1 1.25E+02 2.32E+02 7.04E+03
0.5625 2 1 1.25E+02 2.32E+02 7.04E+03
0.5312 2 1 3.86E-01 6.06E-01 3.32E-01
... ... ... ... ... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
0.9688 16 3 4.10E-03 1.92E-02 6.62E-03
0.9688 16 4 7.84E-05 4.16E-04 1.37E-04
0.9688 16 5 9.70E-06 4.13E-06 1.67E-05
1.0000 17 1 3.58E-02 5.91E-03 2.16E-04
1.0000 17 2 4.49E+00 7.24E-01 6.56E+00
1.0000 17 3 3.37E-03 1.27E-02 5.40E-03
1.0000 17 4 6.27E-05 2.93E-04 1.08E-04
1.0000 17 5 7.94E-06 2.83E-06 1.34E-05
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 24
388
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts about 25 minutes and explains
how the steps are performed.
Figure 24-2 Video of the steps above
File Description
nug_24_1.dat Friction coefficient 0.05
nug_24_2.dat Friction coefficient 0.15
nug_24_3.dat Friction coefficient 0.25
Main Index
Chapter 25: Modal Analysis with Glued Contact
25
Modal Analysis with
Glued Contact

Summary 390

Introduction 391

Requested Solutions 391

FEM Solutions 391

Modeling Tips 396

Input File(s) 396

Video 396
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 25
390
Summary
Title Chapter 25: Modal Analysis with Glued Contact
Contact features Glued Contact between two bodies with dissimilar meshes
Stress Free Projection
Contact tolerance bias factor = 0.0
Geometry Shroud outside diameter = 0.46 m
Hub diameter = 0.26 m
Width = 0.12 m
Shroud thickness = 0.02 m
Material properties
, ,
Linear elastic material
Analysis type Modal analysis using SOL 103
Boundary conditions Free-Free
Glued contact between vanes and shroud
Applied loads None
Element type 8-node hexahedral elements
10-node tetrahedral elements
FE results Natural frequencies and mode shapes


w
d1
t
d2
E 210
9
10 Pa = u 0.3 = 7850kg m
3
=
Mode Shape 7 @ 1,130 Hz
Mode Shape 9 @ 1,168 Hz
Mode Shape 8 @ 1,131 Hz
Mode Shape 10 @1,774 Hz
Main Index
391
CHAPTER 25
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact
Introduction
The shrouded vanes shown in Figure 25-1, consisting of twelve vanes with a central hub and an outer shroud, uses
contact to join dissimilar meshes during a modal analysis. The hub and vanes contain higher-order tetrahedral elements
while the shroud has linear hexahedral elements. The glued contact parameters preclude separation after initial contact
and change the original coordinates of the nodes in contact to insure stress free contact between the dissimilar meshes.
Figure 25-1 Shrouded Vanes Model
Requested Solutions
The modal analysis assumes free-free boundary conditions and returns ten natural frequencies and their associated
mode shapes of which the lowest six correspond to rigid body motion.
FEM Solutions
An eigenvalue analysis has been performed with MSC Nastrans SOL 103 for the element mesh shown in Figure 25-2.
The vanes and the hub are modeled using higher order tetrahedral elements while the shroud is modeled using linear
hexahedral elements. Contact body ID 1 is identified as all the elements making the vanes and hub whereas contact
body ID 2 is identified as the elements making the shroud respectively as:
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0
BSURF 1 10000 10001 10002 10003 10004 10005 10006
...
and
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2 0
BSURF 2 100000 100001 100002 100003 100004 100005 100006
...
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 25
392
Figure 25-2 FEA Mesh for the Shrouded Vanes Model
The BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies are glued to each other:
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0. 0. 1
1 1 0
MASTERS 1
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. 0. 0. 1
1 1 0
MASTERS 1
The BCTABLE option shows that contact body ID 2, the shroud, has been selected as the touching body, the SLAVE,
whereas contact body ID 1, the vanes, has been selected as the touched body, the MASTERS. This selection is due to
the fact the average element size for the vanes in the contact area is slightly larger than that of the shroud as shown in
Figure 25-3. The IGLUE parameter of the BCTABLE option activates the glue option. The JGLUE parameter is turned
off to ensure that no nodes separate once in contact. Additionally, the ICOORD parameter is turned on to modify the
coordinates of the nodes in contact to ensure stress-free initial contact.
The BCPARA entries activate the quadratic contact option and indicate that a bias factor of 0 (actually a small nonzero
number of 1 x 10
-16
) has been selected:
BCPARA 0 NBODIES 2 MAXENT 13824 MAXNOD 18348
IBSEP 2 BIAS 1.-16
Main Index
393
CHAPTER 25
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact
Figure 25-3 Relative Element Size Between the Shroud and Vanes in the Contact Area
The vanes and the shroud are both modeled using the same material. The material properties are isotropic and elastic
with Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio, and density defined as
$ Referenced Material Records
$ Material Record : inner_mat
$ Description of Material :
MAT1 1 2.1+11 .3 7.85+3
$ Material Record : outer_mat
$ Description of Material :
MAT1 2 2.1+11 .3 7.85+3
The Lanczos procedure is selected for the real eigenvalue problem using the METHOD and EIGRL entries in which ten
modes are desired:
METHOD=13
...
EIGRL,13,,,10
The obtained modes are listed in Table 25-1. The first six modes are rigid body modes. Mode shapes 7 to 10 are shown
in Figure 25-4.
Table 25-1 Obtained Modes and Frequencies
Mode Frequency (Hz)
1 6.911939E-04
2 6.290693E-04
3 4.908829E-04
4 4.434468E-04
5 2.943299E-04
6 7.051053E-05
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 25
394
Figure 25-4 Mode Shapes and Corresponding Frequencies
7 1.130332E+03
8 1.131441E+03
9 1.168441E+03
10 1.774218E+03
Table 25-1 Obtained Modes and Frequencies (continued)
Mode Frequency (Hz)
Mode Shape 7 @ 1,130 Hz
Mode Shape 9 @ 1,168 Hz
Mode Shape 8 @ 1,131 Hz
Mode Shape 10 @1,774 Hz
Main Index
395
CHAPTER 25
Modal Analysis with Glued Contact
To check the efficacy of gluing dissimilar messes on natural frequencies, Test 53 (Selected Benchmarks for Natural
Frequency Analysis, Abbassian, F, Dawswell, D J, and Knowles, N C, NAFEMS Ref R0015, 1987) was performed on
glued mesh below.
Title Simply-Supported Solid Annular Plate, Axisymmetric Vibration
Contact features Glued Contact between two bodies with dissimilar meshes
Stress Free Projection
Geometry and Mesh
Material properties
, ,
Linear elastic material
Analysis type Modal analysis using SOL 103
Boundary conditions for all nodes on axial planes of symmetry. along section AA
Element type 10-node tetrahedral elements, 20-node hexahedral elements
FE results
Mesh
Gluing
Surface
= 10 Z
R
A
A

4.2 m
1.6 m
0.6 m
o
Geometry
E 200
9
10 Pa = u 0.3 = 8000kg m
3
=
u
u
0 = u
z
0 =
z
R
z
R
z
R
z
R
r
R
f = 18.583 Hz
ref
f = 140.15 Hz
ref
f = 224.16 Hz
ref
f = 18.666 Hz
MD
f = 140.03 Hz
MD
f = 224.56 Hz
MD
f = 358.29 Hz
ref
f = 629.19 Hz
ref
f = 362.71 Hz
MD
f = 658.97 Hz
MD
Flexural
Mode 1
Flexural
Mode 2
Extensional
Mode 3
Flexural
Mode 4
Flexural
Mode 5
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 25
396
Modeling Tips
Glued contact with no separation ensures that nodes do not separate once in contact. Stress-free initial contact modifies
the coordinates of the nodes in contact to close any gaps between the two bodies. Quadratic contact allows midside
nodes to participate in the glued contact. Insuring that the dissimilar meshes join properly requires there are no
artificial stresses induced by nodes slightly off the contact surface, and the displacement field is completely continuous
across the contact surface.
This technique of gluing dissimilar meshes together facilitates faster model building by not requiring the meshes to
be contiguous across all nodes. Furthermore, as in this application example, joining different element types assists
modeling flexibility.
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately two minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 25-5 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_25_1.dat Linear Hexahedral and Parabolic Tetrahedral Elements
nug_25_2.dat Glued Annular Plates NAFEMS Test #53
Main Index
Chapter 26: Interference Fit Contact
26
Interference Fit Contact

Summary 398

Introduction 399

Solution Requirements 399

Analytical Solution 399

FEM Solution 400

Modeling Tips 402

Input File(s) 402

Video 403
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 26
398
Summary
Title Chapter 26: Interference Fit Contact
Contact features Deformable-deformable contact
Contact interference
Geometry Valve insert inside radius, a = 15.5 mm
Valve insert outside radius, b + h = 20 + 0.05 mm
Cylinder head valve insert opening radius, b = 20 mm
Material properties
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Some nodes on the periphery of the cylinder head are fixed
Contact between cylinder head and valve insert includes an initial interference fit
Applied loads None
Element type 10-node tetrahedron elements
Contact properties
Coefficient of friction with an interference shrink of 0.050 mm.
FE results Plots of radial and hoop stresses versus radial distance from valve center
C
L
b
a
b+h
E
head
224 kN/mm
2
= E
seat
125 kN/mm
2
=
v
head
0.26 = v
seat
0.25 =
0.15 =
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
Radial Stress FEA
Hoop Stress FEA
Hoop Stress
Radial Stress
Radius (mm)
Stress (MPa)
248019
246821
248830
246622
248815
246823
247999
246621
249166
246815
247587
246615
249221
246816
248604
246617
248039 246820
246619
248024
X Y, r
Z
A
A B B
Main Index
399
CHAPTER 26
Interference Fit Contact
Introduction
The interference fitting of a valve insert into a cylinder head recess is to be simulated. The general arrangement is
shown in Figure 26-1. The compressive interference between the valve insert external radius and the cylinder head
valve recess opening is 0.05 mm. Only a portion of the relatively stiff cylinder head is modeled. An approximate
analytical solution for the stress in the valve insert can be found from a deformation analysis of thick-walled cylinders
subject to symmetric external loading.
Figure 26-1 Valve Insert Fitted into Cylinder Head
Solution Requirements
A single solution is sought and the average hoop and radial stresses in the valve insert are compared to a thick cylinder
solution assuming the cylinder head is rigid. Comparison plots include average hoop and radial stresses plotted along
the radial distance from the value center for the predicted and analytic solutions.
Analytical Solution
An estimate for the hoop and radial stresses in the valve insert can be obtained from the analytical solution of a two-
dimensional plane stress (axial stress assumed to be zero) thick walled cylinder with prescribed displacement on its
external radius. The analytical solution assumes the cylinder head is rigid and the radial displacement of the insert at
its external radius is equal to the interference fit.
The thick walled cylinder solution only varies with radius, , where the radial displacement, , becomes the solution
of or . The stresses are then determined from the radial displacement as,
subjected to the boundary conditions, and .
r u
r d
d 1
r
---
r d
d
ur ( )
\ .
| |
0 = u r ( ) C
1
r
C
2
r
------ + =
o
rr
E
1 v
2
( )
-------------------- 1 v + ( )C
1
1 v ( )
C
2
r
------ =
o
uu
E
1 v
2
( )
-------------------- 1 v + ( )C
1
1 v ( )
C
2
r
------ + =
u b ( ) h 0.05 mm = = o
rr
a ( ) 0 =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 26
400
This yields the analytic solutions of
FEM Solution
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastran's SOL 400 for the element mesh (shown in Figure 26-2)
using higher order tetrahedron elements. The contours show the two contact bodies defined in this analysis.
Figure 26-2 FEA Model for Interference Fit
Contact body id 1 is identified by the element property IDs 1 and 3 for the cylinder head while contact body ID 4 is
identified by the element property ID 2 for the valve insert as:
BCPROP 1 1 3
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 1 0
...
and
BCPROP 4 2
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
...
Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other:
BBCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 4 0.3 0. .0 0. 0 0.
1 1 0
MASTERS 1
u r ( )
bh
r
---------
1 v + ( )a
2
1 v ( )r
2
+
1 v + ( )a
2
1 v ( )b
2
+
------------------------------------------------------- =
o
rr
Ebh
1 v + ( )a
2
1 v ( )b
2
+ | |
----------------------------------------------------------- 1
a
2
r
2
----- =
o
uu
Ebh
1 v + ( )a
2
1 v ( )b
2
+ | |
----------------------------------------------------------- 1
a
2
r
2
----- + =
Main Index
401
CHAPTER 26
Interference Fit Contact
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 4 0. 0. .15 0.050 0 0.
1 0 0
MASTERS 1
Additionally, BCTABLE ID 1 shows the coefficient of friction to be 0.15 and the interference closure to be 0.05 mm.
BCTABLE ID 1 is referenced in the BCONTACT entry of the STEP case control command:
STEP 1
BCONTACT=1
SUBTITLE=FRETTAGE
NLPARM = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 10
Although there are no forces applied in this problem, a dummy LOAD = n case control is required for SOL 400.
Figure 26-3 plots the FEA and analytical solutions for the hoop and radial stresses in the valve insert against the radius
from the valve center. An arbitrary cross-section (high noon position of Figure 26-1) of the valve insert along the free
surface was chosen to pick the FEA stresses. The results of the analytical and FEA solutions are in general agreement.
Figure 26-3 Hoop and Radius Stress versus Radius From Valve Center
Several factors may have contributed to the difference in results. The analytical solution assumes a perfectly shaped
insert with prescribed displacements on the outside radius. On the other hand, the portion of the cylinder head that is
modeled using FEA is a nonsymmetric deformable body, which makes the FEA results slightly nonuniform across the
circumference as shown in Figure 26-4. The valve insert is in contact with the cylinder head not only across the insert's
cylindrical surface but across its bottom surface as well. In addition, the shape of the cross-section of the valve seat
disc has a slant edge on its top free surface.
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
-500
-400
-300
-200
-100
0
Radial Stress FEA
Hoop Stress FEA
Hoop Stress
Radial Stress
Radius (mm)
Stress (MPa)
248019
246821
248830
246622
248815
246823
247999
246621
249166
246815
247587
246615
249221
246816
248604
246617
248039 246820
246619
248024
X Y, r
Z
A
A B B
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 26
402
Figure 26-4 Slightly Nonuniform Hoop Stress in Valve Insert
Modeling Tips
This application example holds the insert in position by contact and friction. Take out friction, and the insert may (or
may not) pop out - in which case, the best thing is to add some soft springs, or a very small amount of friction to hold
it in place in the axial direction. Using the parabolic tetrahedral elements allows for good contact detection of the
cylindrical surface which yields a very smooth contact condition between the two bodies.
If the interference distance is small compared to the element size, the default contact tolerances will probably be ok;
however, it is possible that the interference fit will end up larger than the contact distance tolerance and contact will
be missed (one reason for a spotty stress plot). The remedy is to specify a distance tolerance equal to the interference
fit for the contact pair in the table, as well as a bias of 0.99 in general.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_26s4.dat Parabolic Tetrahedral Elements With Friction
Main Index
403
CHAPTER 26
Interference Fit Contact
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 26-5 Video of the Above Steps
C
L
b
a
b+h
Main Index
Chapter 27: Large Sliding Analysis of a Buckle
27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis
of a Buckle

Summary 405

Introduction 406

Modeling Details 406

Solution Procedure 409

Results 411

Modeling Tips 414

Input File(s) 415

Video 415
Main Index
405
CHAPTER 27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
Summary
Title Chapter 27: Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
Features Deformable-deformable contact, bilinear, Coulomb friction model, Hookean, isotropic
elastic material, adaptive time stepping, solid elements with assumed strain formulation
Geometry

Material properties ,
Analysis characteristics Quasi-static analysis using: adaptive time stepping and geometric nonlinearity due to
large displacement
Boundary conditions Sliding, frictional contact with: ends fixed for second contact body and contact between
the two deformable bodies with
Applied loads Prescribed displacements for the end nodes of the first contact body with two load cases:
insertion (clipping) and removal of the buckle
Element type 8-node solid element with assumed strain formulation
FE results 1. History plot of y-displacements for specific nodes
2. Normal and frictional contact force comparison of Nastran and Marc
3. Load displacement curves comparison between the frictional and frictionless cases
H
a
lf S
ym
m
e
try
X
Y
Z
2
4
7
m
m
168 mm
E 10GPa = v 0.4 =
0.1 =
0.5 1.0 1.5
-2000
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
Frictional
Frictionless
Time (s)
F (N)
x
F
x
F
x
F
x
F
x
Insert Remove
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 27
406
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of MSC Nastran SOL 400 to do a frictional contact problem. An ostensibly
simple geometry poses a substantial challenge for the contact algorithm due to the large sliding involved between the
two deformable bodies. Sudden changes in the motion path pose a challenge to the ability of the contact algorithm to
correctly place the node on the contact surface while respecting the various geometric details in the problem.
Due to large bending stresses in the deformed configuration, assumed strain formulation is used with the 8-node
hexahedral elements. The material is elastic and the original geometry without residual stresses is recovered upon the
complete removal of the loading.
From elementary strength of materials analysis, the tip deflection for beam bending can be written as:
where is the applied load, is the length of the beam, is the moment of inertia and is the Youngs modulus.
The normal stress along the beam cross section varies in the thickness direction as:
where is the moment and is the thickness coordinate. It must be noted that the above solution only holds for small
displacements and uniform cross section.
Modeling Details
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans SOL 400 for a 3-D representation of a belt buckle with
a deformable-to-deformable contact between the two pieces of the buckle. The details of finite element model, contact
simulation, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed below.
The case control section of the input contains the following options for nonlinear analysis:
SUBCASE 1
STEP 1
TITLE=Insertion (Clipping)
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 1
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 1
DISPLACEMENT(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(PLOT,SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(PLOT,SORT1)=ALL
STEP 2
TITLE=Removal
ANALYSIS = NLSTATIC
NLPARM = 2
BCONTACT = 2
SPC = 6
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
SPCFORCES(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(PLOT,SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
NLSTRESS(PLOT,SORT1)=ALL
o PL
3
3EI ( ) =
P L I E
o
xx
M,
t
I =
M ,
t
Main Index
407
CHAPTER 27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
The analysis contains a single subcase with two steps. The two steps comprise of individual load sequences consisting
of insertion (clipping) and removal of the belt buckle. Each step has a definition of convergence control option via
NLPARM, contact table and parameters via BCONTACT, applied displacements (or single point constraints) via SPC
and the displacements and stress results for the .f06 (output) file. A zoomed-in view of the cross section of the model
shown in Figure 27-1 consists of an outer piece modeled as body 2, the buckle, while the inner piece is modeled as
body 1, the insert.
Figure 27-1 Geometry and a Zoomed-in View of a Belt Buckle
Large displacement effects are included in the nonlinear analysis using the option:
PARAM LGDISP 1
While the assumed strain formulation is flagged using the option:
NLMOPTS,ASSM,assumed
The NLMOPTS field triggers the assumed strain formulation which provides a better bending behavior of the
continuum elements. This alleviates the difficulty associated with spuriously large shear stresses induced due to
bending moment. The LGDISP field indicated the use of large displacement, large rotation kinematics of the element.
This is adequate when the analysis consists of Hookean elastic material; however, incase of large deformation
plasticity or other inelastic models, the LRGSTRN parameter should be used in the NLMOPTS option (for more details
on its usage, please refer to : Chapter 3: 3-D Sheet Metal Forming of this manual).
Element Modeling
Besides the standard options to define the element connectivity and grid coordinate location, the bulk data section
contains various options which are especially important to do nonlinear analysis. The nonlinear extensions to
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 27
408
lower-order solid element, CHEXA can be activated by using the PSLDN1 property option to the regular PSOLID
property option in the manner shown below:
PSOLID 1 1 0
PSLDN1 1 1 1 +
+ C4 SOLI L +
The PLSLDN1 option allows the element to be used in both large displacement and large strain analysis and has no
restrictions on the kinematics of deformation unlike the regular CHEXA elements with only PSOLID property entry.
The standard CHEXA elements are more suitable for large rotations but small strain analysis due to their linear
formulation in co-rotational system. While the difference may be small or even negligible in elastic analysis, use of
any inelastic material model would certainly require the use of these options.
Modeling Contact
The BCPARA defines the number of bodies in contact with maximum number of contact entities (e.g., patches), nodes
on the periphery of the contact surfaces and contact parameters like friction type (in this case node based, bilinear
Coulomb model), friction coefficient, bias factor, and type of contact procedure used.
BCPARA 0ERROR 0.005BIAS 0.99FTYPE 6
It must be mentioned that the contact procedure being used (flagged via ISPLIT flag) is iterative penetration checking
procedure and must always be used for robustness in a quasi-static analysis.
Friction has been flagged via the FTYPE field where a 6 denotes the bilinear, Coulomb model. The friction coefficient
is 0.1 and is included in contact body definition with BCBODY option or the contact tables using the BCTABLE option.
Another significant point is the use of BIAS in frictional problems. The bias factor measures the non-dimensionalized
distance on both sides of the contact surface which is used to make a decision if the node is in contact or not, based on
whether the node falls within this band defined by contact zone tolerance. Ideally, it should be 1.0 or as close to it.
However, due to the possibility of excessive iterations in case of even very slight penetration, the bias is kept as zero
or, in other words, a slight penetration is accepted. While a bias of zero works well for nonfrictional problems, it can
be a detriment for frictional problems which require the bias to be set as close to one as possible in order to avoid a
fictitious tangential force on the node which can cause non convergence of the solution. Finally, the ERROR parameter
denotes the contact zone tolerance. The default value is about 1/20th of the smallest element size for a solid element.
In this case, it has been chosen to be an even smaller value of 0.005.
To identify how the contact bodies can touch each other, the BCTABLE option is used. BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to
define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for contact
analysis and it is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE with
ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and it is flagged using BCONTACT
= 1 in the case control section. Also, the SLAVE-MASTER combination defines that the nodes for body 1 are nodes
belonging to the slave body. This, in literature, is referred by various terminologies as either contacting body nodes or
tied nodes (imagining the situation of multi-point constraints). The nodes belonging to body 2 are said to belong to the
master body which are also referred to as the contacted body nodes or the retained nodes (imagining the situation of
multi-point constraints)
BCTABLE 0 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. .1 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
Main Index
409
CHAPTER 27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
BCTABLE 1 1
SLAVE 2 0. 0. .1 0. 0
0 0 0
MASTERS 1
The definition of the contact bodies (defined as body 1 and 2 in Figure 27-1) consists of the bulk data entries. The
BCBODY option defines the deformable body including the body ID, dimensionality, type of body, type of contact
constraints and friction etc. while the BSURF identifies the elements forming a part of the deformable body as:
BCBODY 2 3D DEFORM 2 2
BSURF 2 50000 50001 50002 50003 50004 50005 50006
50007 50008 50009 50010 50011 50012 50013 50014
50015 50016 50017 50018 50019 50020 50021 50022
50023 50024 50025 50026 50027 50028 50029 50030
(list of element forming this body)
Material Modeling
The isotropic, Hookean elastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the following MAT1
option as follows:
MAT1 1 10000. 0.4 Isotropi
The Youngs modulus is taken to be 10 GPa with a Poissons ratio of 0.4.
Loading and Boundary Conditions
The displacements for body 2 are fixed at the end in the following manner:
$ Displacement Constraints of Load Set : right_fixed_xyz
SPC1 5 123 100056 THRU 100074
SPC1 5 123 100446 THRU 100464
The loading involves application of displacement controlled boundary conditions as follows:
SPCADD 2 1 8 5
$ Enforced Displacements for Load Set : case1_left_xyz
$ Dummy Force Required to Activate the Following Enforced Displacements
FORCE 1 50084 0. .57735 .57735 .57735
SPCD 1 50084 1 85. 50085 1 85.
A total X displacement of 85 mm is applied to body 1. The application of the loads or displacements is such that the
total load applied at the end of the loading sequence is given in the input.
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 20 FNT 50 UV ALL
0.01
NLAUTO 1 .01 1. .1 1.2 1.-5 .5 0
10 0
FNT represents Full Newton-Raphson technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP (field
after FNT) is left blank and in conjunction with FNT, it indicates that the program will determine if the stiffness needs
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 27
410
to be reformed between the end of the load step and the start of next load increment. Fifty (50) is the maximum number
of allowed recycles for every increment and, if this were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the
increment repeated. UV indicates that the maximum norm of vector component of the incremental displacements will
be checked for convergence. ALL indicates that intermediate output will be produced after every increment. The
second line of NLPARM indicates that a tolerance of 0.01 will be used for displacement based convergence checking.
NLAUTO defines the parameters in the adaptive load stepping scheme. The initial load step is 1% of the total load. It
must be noted that, for many problems including plasticity of complicated contact conditions in the early stages of the
analysis, this must be a very small percentage (typically 0.5%). The smallest and largest ratio between the steps is 0.1
and 1.2, respectively, while the minimum value of the step is . Finally, the desired number of recycles is kept at
ten which is the default in SOL 400. If this number is chosen to be very small, then the step size is cut to a smaller size
for convergence to be achieved and there will be larger number of steps. If this number is very large, then the load step
will allow more iterations for convergence in the same step.
The number of increments is provided in the third field of the NLPARM option. It is also worth noting that removing
the NLAUTO option results in a constant load step procedure with a total of 20 load increments per step (thus, a total
of 40 for the analysis).
Alternately another nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLSTEP entry like:
NLSTEP 1 1. +
+ ADAPT 1.00E-2 1.E-5 0.10 1.2 0 999999 +
+ 0 0.0002 +
+ MECH PV 0.1 PFNT
Adaptive time procedure with total time of 1 is used. Initial time step of 0.01 is used as fraction of total time. It means
the initial load step is 1% of the total load. It must be noted that, for many problems including plasticity of complicated
contact conditions in the early stages of the analysis, this must be a very small percentage (typically 0.5%). The
maximum number of recycles allowed for each increment are 10 and minimum is 1. The desired number of recycles
per increment is 4. If this number is chosen to be very small, then the step size is cut to a smaller size for convergence
to be achieved and there will be larger number of steps. If this number is very large, then the load step will allow more
iterations for convergence in the same step.The smallest and largest ratio between the steps is 0.1 and 1.2, respectively,
while the minimum value of the step is 1E-5. Output is written to result file for every single increment.
10
5
Main Index
411
CHAPTER 27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
Results
Figure 27-2 shows the sequence of the analysis with a close-up view of the buckle. It can be seen that the clip slides
on top of the protrusion of the static frame without any penetration. It is quite remarkable that even with the large
motion as well as large sliding contact per load increment between the two deformable contact bodies, the analysis
shows a robust behavior.
A vector plot of the comparison of normal and frictional contact forces with the Marc results is presented in
Figure 27-3 and Figure 27-4, respectively. The contact forces for SOL 400 and Marc agree very well in both
magnitude and direction.
Figure 27-2 Various Stages of Insertion of the Clip
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 27
412
Figure 27-3 Comparison of Contact Normal Forces
Figure 27-4 Comparison of Contact Frictional Forces
Next, the load displacement for the frictional and frictionless cases are compared in Figure 27-5. Only the X direction
forces are plotted versus time. It is always recommended to perform a frictionless analysis (nug_27f.dat)
whenever possible to aid in the understanding of the affect of adding friction. As expected, for the frictionless case,
the load displacement curve is symmetric about the center line (between the insertion and removal steps). Deformed
geometry is shown at various peaks of the curve and, as intuition would suggest, the peak forces correspond to the
point of maximum bending. Addition of the non-conservative friction forces destroys the symmetry and the peak
insertion force increases compared to the peak force in removal. The removal of the clip generates less pull-out force
compared to the push-in force. Also, the insertion force starts reducing due to frictional forces aiding the motion as
opposed to resisting the motion as the sliding switches from the convex part to the concave part of the contact surface.
(a) SOL 400 (b) Marc
(a) SOL 400 (b) Marc
Main Index
413
CHAPTER 27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
Figure 27-5 Load Displacement Curve for the Frictional and Frictionless Cases
Checking the finite element analysis with a hand calculation assists both in understanding the FEM as well as the
physics of the simulation. Solving elementary equations mentioned earlier for the bending stress yields,
where is the tip displacement shown in Figure 27-6 during the insertion of the clip.
Figure 27-6 Verify FEM with Simple Calculation
Performing the calculation of the bending stress at the outer fibers of the thinnest section gives,
. The value of
agrees closely to the corresponding bending stresses in Figure 27-6 of . As expected, the linear solution
presents an upper-bound to the actual stresses.
0.5 1.0 1.5
-2000
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
Frictional
Frictionless
Time (s)
F (N)
x
F
x
F
x
F
x
F
x
Insert Remove
o
3
2
---
Eo,
t
L
2
------------ =
o
lcase1
Comp 11 of Stress
X
Y
Z
-4.232e+002
-3.388e+002
-2.543e+002
-1.699e+002
-8.542e+001
-9.664e-001
8.349e+001
1.679e+002
2.524e+002
3.368e+002
4.213e+002
Inc: 17
Time: 4.250e-001
1
L = 80 m
m
= 20 mm
2 = 6 mm
t
o
3
2
---
Eo 2,
t
( )
L
2
--------------------
3
2
---
10x10
9
N m
2
( ) ( ) 20mm ( ) 6mm ( )
80mm ( )
2
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4.69 x10
8
N
m
2
------
m
10
3
mm
------------------
\ .
| |
2
469
N
mm
2
----------- = = = = 469N mm
2
( )
423N mm
2
( )
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 27
414
Modeling Tips
The two most important aspects in the analysis comprise of the inclusion of assumed strain enhancements to the
standard element formulation and the choice of contact and time stepping scheme parameters use of adaptive load
stepping scheme, and its associated parameters. The former is important due to presence of bending stresses in the
structure which can manifest themselves as (sometimes large) spurious shear stresses. This is a purely numerical
artifact due to the standard, displacement based finite element chosen which can be ameliorated by the use of an
assumed strain enhancement to the standard element.
Among the numerical parameters affecting the convergence of the job, the two most important parameters for this kind
of analysis are the contact bias and maximum number of recycles for the adaptive stepping scheme.
In contact analysis with friction, it is important to use a high bias (preferably 0.99) for frictional problems for improved
convergent results. In many cases (although, not in this problem, nug_27b.dat), it can decrease the number of
iterations as well.
Next is the contact zone tolerance. Typically, a default value is 1/20th the smallest length of solid element. If the
contact zone is too big, then there could be a loss of accuracy due to acceptance of penetrated nodes or large amount
of recycling due to contact nodes separating. However, reducing the contact zone tolerance may not always yield the
reduction in the number of iterations. In fact, in certain problems where there are not many separations expected,
reducing to a very small number can even increase the number of iterations due to contact detection and scaling of
incremental displacements in the iterative penetration checking algorithm in contact.
It is also worth noting that the adaptive load stepping improves the speed and accuracy of the analysis quite
significantly for this problem due to its intelligent choice of time steps based on the convergence parameters. This
adequately demonstrates the strength of the adaptive stepping in tough problems where the smart algorithm adjusts the
increment size based on the kinematics of deformation, contact constraints, and convergence rates rather than the fixed
time stepping where the only alternative is to cut down the existing increment size in case of non convergence in the
specified number of recycles.
It is also noted that a very high or very low number of desired number of recycles can either invoke an excessive
number of iterations or induce cutbacks during the analysis. For example, decreasing the desired number of recycles
to may increase the number of increments. Due to a large amount of sliding and significant contact nonlinearity, a large
number of recycles, in general, are expected for most increments. Therefore, a high number of desired recycles proved
to be useful in this particular example. However, in problems with milder material and/or contact nonlinearities where
only a few iterations per increment are expected, a smaller number of desired recycles can yield faster results. This
difference can result in notable savings of the computing time for large jobs.
Flat rigid surfaces can be glued to the ends of the buckle and insert to control the insertion and extraction of the insert
in and out of the buckle. The advantage of this modeling technique is that the total insertion and extraction force
component, F
x
, can be easily determined as shown in Figure 27-5, since all of the forces acting on rigid bodies are
resolved to a single force and moment vector acting at the position of the rigid bodies.
Finally, since the buckle has a plane of symmetry, it is cost effective to only model the half of the model say above this
plane of symmetry.
Note: For contact problems, artificial damping can improve the speed of convergence and stability of the
analysis as seen in nug_27c.dat.
Main Index
415
CHAPTER 27
Large Sliding Contact Analysis of a Buckle
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 47 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 27-7 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
mug_27.dat Marc input for fixed time
nug_27.dat MSC Nastran input for fixed time stepping
nug_27a.dat
MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping with bias = 0.99, contact zone tolerance = 0.0
(default), desired number of recycles = 20 (default = 10)
nug_27b.dat
MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping bias = 0.0 (default), contact zone tolerance =
0.005, desired number of recycles = 20 (default = 10)
nug_27c.dat
MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping bias = 0.99, contact zone tolerance = 0.005,
desired number of recycles = 20
nug_27b.bdf Input file similar to nug_27b.dat above with half symmetry use in the video
nug_27_star
t.SimXpert
MSC Nastran input with adaptive time stepping bias = 0.99, contact zone tolerance = 0.005,
desired number of recycles = 20
H
a
lf S
ym
m
e
try
X
Y
Z
2
4
7
m
m
168 mm
Main Index
Chapter 28: Model Airplane Analysis
28
Model Airplane
Engine Analysis

Summary 417

Introduction 418

Required Solution 418

FEM Solution 418

Input File(s) 426

Video 427
Main Index
417
CHAPTER 28
Model Airplane Engine Analysis
Summary
Title Chapter 28: Model Airplane Engine Analysis
Contact features Deformable-deformable contact - glue contact; Segment - Segment Contact
Gasket material
Bolt modeling with BOLT entry
Geometry
Material properties Linear elastic material (Steel) for the engine block, plug, and bolts:
,
Linear elastic material (aluminium) for the cylinder head:
,
Isotropic in-plane behavior or the gasket body:
,
Isotropic in-plane behavior of the gasket body:
,
Out-of-plane pressure-over closure curves are used for the gasket body and gasket ring
using loading and unloading curves.
Analysis type Quasi-static analysis
Boundary conditions Some nodes on the outer boundaries on the engine block are constrained in all directions
Applied loads Step 1: Enforces displacement of 0.25 mm on the bolts using BOLT.
Step 2: Pressure load of 16 MPa
Element type 4-node tetrahedron elements
8-node CHEXA to model the gasket
Contact properties Glue contact, segment to segment contact
Extended tangential contact tolerance at sharp corners
FE results Displacement of the engine model, Load history chart for bolt
Contact pressure and forces on the gasket
66
33
82
Units: mm
Eq. Stress At Pressure
E 2.1 10
5
MPa = v 0.3 =
E 7.0 10
4
MPa = v 0.3 =
E 120MPa = G 60MPs =
E 100MPa = G 50MPa =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 28
418
Introduction
The model airplane engine analysis consists of a cylinder head, a engine block, a gasket, bolts, and a plug. The gasket
is assembled between the head and the block. The problems demonstrates how the solution sequence 400 of MSC
Nastran can be used for a typical analysis for engine involving the nonlinear pressure-over closure relationship of the
gasket material and bolt pre-tension load. Glued contact is used to establish contact between the different parts of this
engine model.
Required Solution
The nonlinear analysis involving large displacement and gasket nonlinearity is carried for the model airplane engine
to find the forces in the bolts and contact forces in the gasket.
FEM Solution
MSC Nastrans nonlinear solution sequence SOL 400 is used to analyze the engine model under the bolt and pressure
loads in two steps. The details of finite element models, contact simulations, material, load, boundary conditions, and
solution procedure are discussed in the following sections.
Finite Element Model
The finite element model used for the 3-D solid approach is shown in Figure 28-1. The model consists of 88293
CTETRA element and 468 CHEXA elements. MSC Nastrans 4-node tetrahedral elements are used for block using
the following PSOLID and PSLDN1 options. Head, bolts, and plug are also models with 4-node tetrahedral elements.
PSOLID 1 1 0
PSLDN1 1 1
Figure 28-1 Finite Element Model for Model Airplane Engine
Main Index
419
CHAPTER 28
Model Airplane Engine Analysis
Using the following PSOLID and PSLDN1 options, the gasket body is modeled using MSC Nastrans 8-node
hexahedral gasket elements. Here, the gasket material is referred to by the material ID 5.
PSOLID 5 3 0
PSLDN1 5 3 1
C8 SLCOMP L
The gasket ring is also modeled in a similar way using the different material ID 6.
PSOLID 5 6 0
PSLDN1 5 6 1
C8 SLCOMP L
Contact Model
For the contact definition, various parts of the model airplane engine are defined as deformable contact bodies. the
following BCBODY and BSURF entries show the contact body definition for the gasket.
BCBODY 1 3D DEFORM 4 0 0
BSURF 4 70172 THRU 70639
The contact bodies for other parts of the model as also defined in a similar way. Figure 28-2 presents the details of
different contact bodies defined for the model airplane engine.
Figure 28-2 Details of the Different Contact Bodies
The following BCTABLE entries identify how the contact bodies can touch each other. The BCTABLE with ID 1 is used
to define contact conditions at the first step of the analysis. Since there is no difference in the contacts in Second Step
the same BCTABLE with ID 1 is used to define the contact conditions for second step in the analysis, and it is flagged
using the option BCONTACT = 2 in the case control section. Glued contact is used for all the six contact pairs defined
Zoomed view of contact parts
without head and block
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 28
420
in the BCTABLE option. Delayed sliding is enabled for the contact pairs involving gasket by choosing the value 2 for
the field ICOORD.
BCTABLE 1 6
SLAVE 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1
1 2 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1
1 2 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1
1 0 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1
1 0 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1
1 0 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1
1 0 0
MASTERS 5
Material
The linear isotropic elastic properties of the steel and aluminium materials are defined using the following MAT entries.
Steel properties are used for block, bolts and plug and aluminium properties are used for cylinder head.
MAT1 1 210000. .3 7.86-6 1.-5
MAT1 2 70000. .3 2.7-6 2.4-5
The in-plane membrane properties of gasket body (ID 3) and gasket ring (ID 4) materials are defined using the
following MAT1 entries. The nonlinear pressure-over closure relation for the gasket body (ID 3) and gasket ring (ID
5) are defined using the following MATG entries.
MAT1 3 120. 60. 9.99E-7 5.E-5
MAT1 4 100. 50. 1.99E-6 0.0001
MATG 5 3 0 1 2
52. 72.
35. 0.05
MATG 6 4 0 3 4
42. 64.
35. 0.0
Figure 28-3 shows the pressure-over closure properties for the gasket materials. The following TABLES1 entries
(referred in the MATG entries) are used to define these nonlinear gasket properties.
$ Displacement Dependent Table : body_loading
TABLES1 1 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.027 2.08 0.054 8.32 0.081 18.72+
+ 0.108 33.28 0.135 52. 0.175 56. ENDT
$ Displacement Dependent Table : body_unloading
TABLES1 2 +
+ 0.1 0.0 0.1225 5.04 0.1375 14. 0.1525 27.44+
+ 0.16 35.84 0.1675 45.36 0.175 56. ENDT
$ Displacement Dependent Table : ring_loading
TABLES1 3 +
+ 0.0 0.0 0.026 1.68 0.052 6.72 0.078 15.12+
+ 0.104 26.88 0.13 42. 0.18 48. ENDT
$ Displacement Dependent Table : ring_unloading
TABLES1 4 +
+ 0.12 0.0 0.138 4.32 0.15 12. 0.162 23.52+
+ 0.168 30.72 0.174 38.88 0.18 48. ENDT
Main Index
421
CHAPTER 28
Model Airplane Engine Analysis
Figure 28-3 Pressure-over Closure Relations for Gasket Materials
Loading and Boundary Conditions
The analysis for the model airplane engine is carried out in two steps. In the first step, a pre-tension load is applied on
bolts. In the second step, a pressure load is applied in the part of head and gasket. Some nodes on the outer boundaries
on the block are constrained in all directions. Figure 28-4 shows these boundary conditions applied in both Steps 1
and 2.
Figure 28-4 Constraints used in Steps 1 and 2
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Unloading Curve Ring
Loading Curve Ring
Unloading Curve Body
Loading Curve Body
Ring
Body
Gasket Pressure (MPa)
Gasket Closure (mm)
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 28
422
The following data in case control section of the input file defines the load and boundary conditions at the two different
steps of the analysis. The bulk data entries SPCD, SPC1, and PLOAD4 are used to define the boundary condition and
loads in these steps. Bolt pretension loading is simulated using BOLT.
In order to define Pre-Stress in Bolts, Bolt modeling is carried out using BOLT entry. BOLT
consists of combination of two pairs, TOP and BOTTOM nodes set. The key idea is to split the
element mesh of the bolt across the shaft in two disjoint parts, such that duplicate grid points
appear at the cut, and to create an overlap or gap between the two parts via multi-point
constraints. If the motion of these parts is somehow constrained in the direction in which the
gap or overlap is created, then an overlap (shortening) will introduce a tensile (pre-) stress
in each of the parts and a gap (elongation) will result in a compressive stress. This technique
is more elaborated in Chapter 23: Bolted Plates.
However the internal MPC equations are generated between the TOP and BOTTOM nodes to
a free node which is also called as Control node. The BOLT entry for Bolt_1 is defined as
follows:
BOLT 89847 38083
TOP 38271 38272 38273 38274 38275 38276 38277+
+ 38278 38279 38280 38281 38282 38283 38284+
+ 38285 38286 38287 38288 38289 38290 38291+
+ 38292 38293 38294 38295 38296 38297 38298+
+ 38299 38300 38301 38302 38303 38304 38305+
+ 38306 38307
BOTTOM 22467 22459 22466 22470 22481 22817 22460+
+ 22463 22461 22814 22813 22478 22474 22462+
+ 22341 22816 22480 22458 22477 22473 22464+
+ 22475 22465 22472 22471 22275 21642 22476+
+ 22482 21643 22469 22479 22468 21644 22815+
+ 21641 21640
Here 89847 indicates the BOLT ID; 38083 indicates the Control node ID; TOP indicates the set of node IDs and BOTTOM
indicates the bottom node IDs. Similarly the remaining 3 bolts are defined as follows:
BOLT 89848 38007
TOP 38308 38309 38310 38311 38312 38313 38314+
+ 38315 38316 38317 38318 38319 38320 38321+
+ 38322 38323 38324 38325 38326 38327 38328+
+ 38329 38330 38331 38332 38333 38334 38335+
+ 38336 38337 38338 38339 38340 38341 38342+
+ 38343 38344
BOTTOM 20192 20191 20194 21827 20202 22544 20195+
+ 21825 21828 20184 20186 20187 20838 20207+
+ 21826 20185 20196 20188 20189 20183 21829+
+ 20205 19867 20199 20197 20201 19870 19869+
+ 20193 20190 19868 20203 20198 20200 20204+
+ 19871 20206
BOLT 89849 38084
TOP 38345 38346 38347 38348 38349 38350 38351+
+ 38352 38353 38354 38355 38356 38357 38358+
+ 38359 38360 38361 38362 38363 38364 38365+
+ 38366 38367 38368 38369 38370 38371 38372+
+ 38373 38374 38375 38376 38377 38378 38379+
+ 38380 38381
BOTTOM 20324 20318 20320 20321 20309 20310 20307+
+ 20322 19721 20311 20325 20304 22009 21808+
+ 20308 20305 20312 20313 20315 20316 20319+
+ 20327 20317 22008 20328 20326 20306 20323+
Main Index
423
CHAPTER 28
Model Airplane Engine Analysis
+ 22451 19722 22007 19723 22006 22005 19720+
+ 20314 19719
BOLT 89850 38085
TOP 38382 38383 38384 38385 38386 38387 38388+
+ 38389 38390 38391 38392 38393 38394 38395+
+ 38396 38397 38398 38399 38400 38401 38402+
+ 38403 38404 38405 38406 38407 38408 38409+
+ 38410 38411 38412 38413 38414 38415 38416+
+ 38417 38418
BOTTOM 21071 21069 21068 21080 21078 21076 21077+
+ 21089 21074 21066 21073 21086 21401 21400+
+ 21065 21067 21398 21075 21087 22540 21088+
+ 22539 21070 22541 21072 21395 21082 21079+
+ 22542 21083 21399 21081 21085 21084 21326+
+ 22543 21397
The SPCD data is used for applying the imposed displacement of 0.25 mm in the vertical direction in Steps 1 and 2 at
the controlled nodes for bolts. The lateral displacements at these four control nodes are constrained.
STEP 1
$! Step name : Bolt_Preload
SPC = 30
LOAD = 31
BCONTACT = 1
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT
NLSTEP = 2
STEP 2
$! Step name : Static_Pressure
SPC = 31
LOAD = 32
BCONTACT = 1
ANALYSIS = NLSTAT
NLSTEP = 3
...
SPCD 31 38083 3 0.25
SPC1 31 3 38083
SPCD 31 38007 3 0.25
SPC1 31 3 38007
SPCD 31 38084 3 0.25
SPC1 31 3 38084
SPCD 31 38085 3 0.25
SPC1 31 3 38085
...
SPC1 9 123 987
SPC1 9 123 2453 THRU 2465
...
PLOAD4 1 85127 16. 24238 23579
...
PLOAD4 2 55616 16. 15870 15071
...
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure for the Step 1 is defined through the following NLSTEP entry with ID 2.
NLSTEP specifies the convergence criteria, step size control between coupled loops and step/iteration control for each
physics loop in MSC Nastran SOL 400. NLSTEP entry is represented as follows:
NLSTEP 2 1.
GENERAL 50
FIXED 10 1
MECH P 0.01 PFNT
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 28
424
Here, 1. Indicate the total Time for the Load case; GENERAL indicates the keyword for parameters used for overall
analysis; 50 indicates the maximum number of iterations per increment; FIXED indicates the fixed stepping is to be
used; 10 indicate the number of increments for fixed stepping; 1 indicates interval for output. Every increment will be
saved for output; MECH indicate the keyword for parameters for mechanical analysis; P indicates the load convergence
criteria; 0.01 indicates convergence tolerance for load; PFNT indicates the Modified Full Newton Raphson Technique
for updating stiffness matrix. The fields MAXQN, MAXLS, and MAXBIS are set to zero to disable the Quasi Newton, line
search, and bisection techniques in the iterative process.
Similar NLSTEP option with ID 3 is used for Step 2.
NLSTEP 3 1.
GENERAL 50
FIXED 10 1
MECH P 0.01 PFNT
Segment to Segment Contact method is activated using BCPARA. Here METHOD indicates the Global Contact type;
SEGSMALL indicates the Small Segment-to-Segment Contact. If, in BCTABLE, there are multiple GLUE with different
SLAVE entries, then NLGLUE, 1 must be used.
BCPARA 0 METHOD SEGSMALL NLGLUE 1
Results
The variation of the bolt forces at grid points 38007,38083,38084 and 38085 as a function of the bolt shortening is
shown in Figure 28-5. This clearly shows a nonlinear response. The normal contact forces in gasket are shown in
Figure 28-6.
Figure 28-5 Bolt Force as a Function of Bolt Shortening
Main Index
425
CHAPTER 28
Model Airplane Engine Analysis
Figure 28-6 Normal Contact Forces in Gasket
The displacement contours of the engine model in y-direction at Steps 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 28-7 and
Figure 28-8.
The pressure-closure output for the gasket element 70582 is presented here from the f06 output file at the end of Step
2. It is observed that the pressure for this gasket element exceeded the yield pressure of 52 MPa and this result in a
plastic closure of 0.12 mm.
ELEMENT ID PLY ID INT. PT. ID PRESSURE CLOSURE PLASTIC CLOSURE
70582 1 1 7.805712E+01 1.997745E-01 1.200000E-01
2 8.207688E+01 2.024191E-01 1.200000E-01
3 7.722001E+01 1.992237E-01 1.200000E-01
4 8.107123E+01 2.017574E-01 1.200000E-01
Figure 28-7 Displacement Contours in y-direction at Step 1
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 28
426
Figure 28-8 Displacement Contours in y-direction at Step 2
Figure 28-9 Von Mises Stress Contours for Node-Segment and Seg-Seg method
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_28m.bdf MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for model airplane engine
Main Index
427
CHAPTER 28
Model Airplane Engine Analysis
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 44 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 28-10 Video of the Above Steps
66
33
82
Units: mm
Eq. Stress At Pressure
Main Index
Chapter 29: Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
Optimization
29
Rapid Road Response
Optimization of a Camaro
Model using Automatic
External Superelement
Optimization

Summary 429

Introduction 430

Requested Solutions 431

Optimization Solutions 432

Modeling Tip 437

Input File(s) 438


Main Index
429
CHAPTER 29
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
Summary
Title Chapter 29: Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic
External Superelement Optimization, AESO
Features Grids 23K
Total degrees of freedom 137K
Degrees of freedom in residual 7K
Elements 37K
Subcases 2
Frequencies 3
Geometry
Material properties
Mild Steel (E = 2x10
7
Psi, nu = 0.28, rho = 7.835x10
-5
lbf-s
2
/in
4
)
Analysis type Modal/Direct Frequency Analysis
Boundary conditions See the asm file, aeso9.asm, containing boundary connection data
Element type CQUAD4, CTRI3, CROD
Loads Random inputs applied on left and right suspension, including cross-correlation (see
Figure 29-2)
FE results

0.0E+00
1.0E-03
2.0E-03
3.0E-03
4.0E-03
5.0E-03
4 6 8 10 12 14
Frequency (Hz )
S
u
m
m
e
d

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
SUM Ini t
Sum fi nal
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 29
430
Introduction
The purpose of the example is to illustrate how to run an Automatic External Superelement Optimization, AESO, job
and to demonstrate significant performance gain can be achieved with AESO. Learn more about the capability, consult
MSC Nastran Design Sensitifity and Optimization Users Guide. It is assumed that the reader is experienced in
performing modal frequency analysis. The discussion of the analysis modeling is kept to minimum.
The Camaro model is provided by General Motor Corp (Figure 29-1). Random inputs are applied on left and right
suspension, including cross-correlation (Figure 29-2). The road response optimization task is solved by varying spring
constants of the engine mount to achieve maximum ride comfort. Both a regular (or a single shot) optimization run
and an AESO run are performed. The efficiency and accuracy of the solutions are compared between two approaches.
Figure 29-1 Camaro Model
Figure 29-2 Input Load Power Spectra
-4.00E-03
0.00E+00
4.00E-03
8.00E-03
1.20E-02
1.60E-02
4 6 8 10 12 14
Frequency
I
n
p
u
t

S
p
e
c
t
r
a

LEFT SUSP
RIGHT SUSP
REAL L/R
IMAG L/R
Main Index
431
CHAPTER 29
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
Requested Solutions
The task will be solved in three design scenarios that are described in detail in the Optimization Solution section. Each
of three cases is solved by a single run approach and the AESO run approach. Then, the results and performance data
are compared between two approaches. It has been observed that the single shot run may fail with signal = 11 message
in the log file when design cycle is greater than 1 due to some modeling issue. However, this behavior does not show
up in the AESO runs. In this document, the results from good single shot runs will be presented but the input file is
not included.
The AESO approach should demonstrate that
accurate and very efficient solution can be obtained
the reduced model allows to perform re-analyses and/or optimization tasks many times rapidly
much larger performance gain is achieved with Analysis=DFREQ
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 29
432
Optimization Solutions
Case A
This design case is to minimize the sum of RMS acceleration at drivers seat and passengers seat while limiting the
PSD response at steering column by varying nine spring constants of the engine mount. Listing 1 shows the required
design model set up for Case A.
Listing 1 Design model set up for Case A
Each AESO job requires two separate runs: an AESO creation run and an AESO assembly run.
To activate an AESO creation run, you need to add the following user input to a regular optimization job (bold face in
Listing 2): 1) an FMS ASSIGN statement that specifies the file name for the assembly run that will be generated from
the AESO creation run and 2) a keyword on DOPTPRM entry, autose = 1 that activates an AESO creation run.
...
DESOBJ = 1020
DESSUB = 101
...
BEGIN BULK
$ design model set up
DESVAR 11 K5307 1.0 0.01 3.0
......
DESVAR 24 K5018 1.0 0.01 3.0
DVCREL1 5307 CELAS2 5307 K
11 1246.3
......
DVCREL1 5018 CELAS2 5018 K
24 1120.
FREQ1 4 6.0 0.1 60
$ LHS - Acceleration at Driver's seat
DRESP1 1033 ACC1033 RMSaccl 3 620 1033
$ RHS - Acceleration at Passenger's seat
DRESP1 2033 ACC2033 RMSaccl 3 620 2033
$
$ sum of RMS accelerations at Driver's and Passenger's seats
DRESP2 1020 sumrms 1020
dresp1 1033 2033
DEQATN 1020 object(driver,pass) = driver + pass
$
DRESP1 9105 ACC9005 PSDACCL 620 3 MAX 9005
DCONSTR 101 9105 2.5e-3
DOPTPRM DESMAX 20 P1 1 P2 15 conv1 5.e-3
Main Index
433
CHAPTER 29
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
Listing 2 Required user inputs for activating AESO creation run
After the creation run is complete, search for the user information message 9181 in the f06 file that indicates a
successful run.
The input file for the assembly run (aeso9_2.dat) is automatically generated from the creation run. Its Bulk Data
section contains the residual model (or the design model) while the Control Section is the identical copy from the
original optimization job. Some special contents in an assembly run are shown in bold face in Listing 3. The FMS
ASSIGN statement references the Nastran Master database file and the DBLOCATE statement identifies the data block
that contains various boundary matrices. The INCLUDE statement includes an assembly file that include boundary
connection data. Notice that the AUTOSE = 1 request on the DOPTPRM entry added for the creation run has been
changed to AUTOSE = 0.
Listing 3 Special contents in an assembly file
Figure 29-3 shows that the sum of RMS is reduced from the initial value of 0.154 to the final of 0.130 by the road
response optimization. Table 29-1 compares the accuracy of the results and performance in terms of Clock time
between the regular approach and the AESO approach and clearly shows that the AESO is able to obtain the same final
design but with one fifth of the time spent by a single shot run.
assign aeso='test9_2.dat'
.....
begin bulk
doptprm desmax 5 p1 1 P2 15
delx 0.2 delp 0.8 autose 1
^^^
^^^ USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 9181 (FEA)
^^^ THE JOB IS TERMINATED FOR AN AUTO EXTERNAL CREATION RUN
^^^
nastran buffsize= 65537
nastran rseqcont=1
assign se1= './test9.MASTER'
dblocate datablk(EXTDB) logical=se1, CONVERT(SEID=1)
SOL 200
CEND
......
BEGIN BULK
include './test9.asm'
DOPTPRM DESMAX 5 P1 1 P2 15
DELX 0.2 DELP 0.8
AUTOSE 0
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 29
434
Figure 29-3 Sum of RMS Reduced from 0.154 to 0.130
Table 29-1 Results and Performance Data for Case A
Case A
Initial
OBJ
Final
OBJ
Init. Max
Const
Init. Max
Const
# Design
Cycle
Clock Time
(Minute)
Single Shot Run 0.1534 0.0639 0.1329 -0.2102 9 37
AESO Creation
Run
5
AESO Assembly
Run
0.1534 0.0639 0.1319 -0.2102 9 1
ASEO Total 6
Performance
Ratio
6

0.0E+00
1.0E-03
2.0E-03
3.0E-03
4.0E-03
5.0E-03
4 6 8 10 12 14
Frequency (Hz )
S
u
m
m
e
d

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
SUM Ini t
Sum fi nal
Main Index
435
CHAPTER 29
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
Case B
This case minimizes the RMS acceleration at Drivers seat and maintains frequency dependent limits on PSD
acceleration at drivers seat by varying nine spring constants of the engine mount. Listing 4 shows the required design
model set up for Case B.
Listing 4 Design Model Set up for Case B
Notice that in Case B, the design objective now is to minimize an RMS acceleration at Driver's seat while limiting
maintaining the frequency dependent limits on the PSD acceleration at Driver seat. The rest of the analysis model is
kept the same. Therefore, the outputs from the creation run for Case A can be reused here except replacing the
objective and constraints for Case A (Listing 1) with that for Case B formulation (Listing 4).
Figure 29-4 shows that the RMS acceleration at Driver's seat is reduced from the initial of 0.071 to the final of 0.058.
Table 29-2 compares the accuracy of the results and performance dat between the regular approach and the AESO
approach. Again, AESO achieves the same final design as the single shot run. Since no creation run is required because
it can reuse the results from the Case A's creation run, the speed up by the AESO run vs. a single shot run for Case B
is a factor of 33.
...
DESPBJ = 1033
DESSUB = 101
...
BEGIN BULK
$ design model set up
$ Desin model set up
$
DESVAR 11 K5307 1.0 0.01 3.0
......
DESVAR 24 K5018 1.0 0.01 3.0
DVCREL1 5307 CELAS2 5307 K
11 1246.3
......
DVCREL1 5018 CELAS2 5018 K
24 1120.
$ LHS - Driver's seat to floor (Response for Objective to be minimized)
DRESP1 1033 ACC1033 RMSaccl 3 620 1033
DRESP1 1133 ACC1033 PSDACCL 620 3 1033
DCONSTR 101 1133 1133
DOPTPRM DESMAX 20 P1 1 P2 15 conv1 5.e-3
TABLED1 1133
0.0 1.0e03 6.0 1.0e-3 7.0 1.7e-3 8.0 1.7e-3
12.0 2.0e-4 endt
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 29
436
Figure 29-4 RMS Reduced from 0.071 to 0.058
Case C
This case is exactly the same as Case A except the frequency response is solved by the Direct Frequency Analysis
Solver. Specifically, the ANALYSIS=MFREQ Case Control command in Case A is replaces by ANALYSIS=DFREQ
command in Case C.
Therefore, the same discussions presented for Case A can be directly applied here. Table 3 compares the results and
performance data between a single shot run and shows the relationship to Case C. Again, the final design from AESO
agrees well with that from a single shot run. However, the performance gain by AESO is a factor of 40.
Table 29-2 Results and Performance Data for Case B
Case B
Initial
OBJ
Final
OBJ
Init. Max
Const
Final Max
Const
# Design
Cycle
Clock Time
(Minute)
Single Shot Run 0.0713 0.0586 0.2855 -0.0025 14 33
AESO Creation
Run
0
AESO Assembly
Run
0.0713 0.0584 0.2855 -0.0201 9 1
ASEO Total 1
Performance
Ratio
33
0.0E+00
5.0E-04
1.0E-03
1.5E-03
2.0E-03
2.5E-03
3.0E-03
4 6 8 10 12 14
Frequency (Hz)
P
a
s
s
e
n
g
e
r

A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
2033 Init
2033 Final
Main Index
437
CHAPTER 29
Rapid Road Response Optimization of a Camaro Model using Automatic External Superelement
In fact, the assembly run could be run directly by assessing the database file and asm file and the assembly run file
generated from the creation run for Case A since these files are identical if ANALYSIS=MFREQ or ANALYSIS=DFREQ.
Therefore, the performance gain would be a factor of 244 (i.e. 244=244/1) assuming the time spent by the assembly
run for Case B is still five minutes.
Modeling Tip
This section provides some guideline or modeling tips for performing AESO tasks:
Only database option is supported in AESO. No op2 or punch option is supported.
The nondesigned part is treated as a single part component and can not be further partitioned.
The performance gain achieved by an AESO job depends on the size of the analysis model, the ratio of the
design model size vs. the analysis model size and number of boundary points shared by designed part and
nondesigned part. A general rule of thumb is that the relative ratio should be less than 10%. The smaller the
ratio, the more performance gain can be achieved.
The UIM 7824 from the creation run lists the size of your analysis model and design model (in terms of
number of the grid points). DRATIO may be adjusted for a larger or smaller residual model.
Submit the AESO creation run with SCR=NO option to store the Nastran database. An assembly run does not
require that option.
It is recommended to use Matrix domain based domain decomposition (domain solver acms(partopt=dof) for
large scale normal modes or model frequency tasks, say the total number of degrees of freedom is half million
or higher.
Table 29-3 Results and Performance Data for Case C
Case A
Initial
OBJ
Final
OBJ
Init. Max
Const
Init. Max
Const
# Design
Cycle
Clock Time
(Minute)
Single Shot Run 0.1535 0.1327 -0.0631 -0.2073 9 244
AESO Creation
Run
5
AESO Assembly
Run
0.1534 0.1327 -0.0636 -0.2062 9 1
ASEO Total 6
Performance
Ratio
40
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 29
438
ASSIGN AESO=fn is required in the creation to define a file name of the assembly file. Directly assigning
the original job name to filename should be avoided. A good practice is to add some suffix to the original file
name such as myjob_2nd.dat where myjob is the original file name.
General guidelines or limitations to the manual External Superelement analysis also apply to AESO.
Refer to the MSC Release Guide for more guidelines and limitations.
Input File(s)
Case A
Case B
Case C
File Description
nug_29.dat BDF for an AESO run of Road Response Optimization
File Description
nug_29b.dat BDF for an AESO run of Road Response Optimization.
File Description
nug_29c.dat BDF for an AESO run of Road Response Optimization
Main Index
Chapter 30: Paper Feeding Example
30
Paper Feeding Example

Summary 440

Introduction 441

Requested Solutions 441

FEM Solution 441

Results 445

Input File(s) 445


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 30
440
Summary
Title Chapter 30: Paper Feeding Example
Geometry
Material properties See Summary of Materials
Analysis type Transient explicit dynamic analysis
Boundary conditions Fixed at each pinch and drive.
Fixed at the center point of each guide.
Applied loads 1. Angular velocity to each pinch.
2. Translational force to each pinch for deleting a gap between a pinch and driver.
3. Gravitational acceleration.
Element type 0-D concentrated mass element
1-D spring and damper element
2-D shell element
3-D solid element
Contact properties
FE results
t = 0 sec t = 0.1 sec
t = 0.2 sec t = 0.3 sec
t = 0.4 sec
Main Index
441
CHAPTER 30
Paper Feeding Example
Introduction
The paper feeding analysis is done to predict the paper jamming and capacity of the printer. In this example, angular
velocities are applied on five rollers to feed the paper in the printer. There are 31 contact body definitions to simulate
the paper feeding process. Total time of simulation is 0.4 seconds.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the printer behavior. The angular velocity of each drive and pinch is
defined such that a 1500 mm/s circumferential velocity is created. The rotational velocities are applied sequentially at
center node of the drive starting from drive 1 through drive 5 by defining Tables and SPCD. Gravity is also taken into
account. To push a drive to the paper, a load is applied at the center of each driver.
FEM Solution
The printer consists of 21 parts as shown in Figure 30-1.
Figure 30-1 Analysis Model
Using the BCTABLE and several CBODY and BCSUFT entries, the following 31 contacts are defined.
Contact
Number Slave Master
Contact
Number Slave Master
1 (self contact) paper paper 17 paper entrance
2 paper drive_1 18 paper lower guide_1
3 drive_1 pinch_1 19 paper upper guide_1
paper
drive_2
drive_3
drive_4
drive_5
drive_1
lower guide_1
upper guide_1
entrance
guide_2
lower guide_3
upper guide_3
lower guide_4
upper guide_4
upper guide_5

lower guide_5
pinch_1
pinch_2
pinch_5
pinch_3
pinch_4
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 30
442
TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time Increment (0.004 sec.) of the simulation. End time is
the product of the two entries. Notice here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL 1 100 .004 1 ADAPT 2 10
The enforced angular velocities are applied to all pinches and drivers. The nodes, located on the circumference of each
drive and pinch, are rigidly connected to the center node using RBE2 entry. Each enforced angular velocity is defined
to have the same circumferential velocity (1500 mm/sec.) at the tip of drivers and pinches using SPCD2. The angular
velocities vary depending on the diameter of drivers and pinches. The boundary conditions are applied only to pinches.
A combination of spring and damper elements, CDAMP1D and CELAS1D, connect the fixed node and the center node
of pinches. To close the gap between all the drives and the pinches, two vertical forces are applied, in opposite
directions by using a combination of FORCE and Table entries. The magnitude of the load is predefined at each drive
location. The boundary condition and enforced motion at each pinch are shown as Figure 30-2.
In the cases of the drive_1 and dirver_5, their diameters are 25 and 15 mm, respectively. The angular velocity of
drive_1 is applied as 120 radian/sec. (25/2120 = 1500 mm/sec.). And 225 radian/sec. is applied to driver_5.
The example below shows how to define the boundary conditions and the enforced angular velocity of pinch_1.
4 pinch_1 drive_1 20 paper guide_2
5 paper drive_2 21 paper lower guide_3
6 drive_2 pinch_2 22 paper upper guide_3
7 pinch_2 drive_2 23 paper lower guide_4
8 paper drive_3 24 paper upper guide_4
9 drive_3 pinch_3 25 paper lower guide_5
10 pinch_3 drive_3 26 paper upper guide_5
11 paper drive_4 27 paper pinch_1
12 drive_4 pinch_4 28 paper pinch_2
13 pinch_4 drive_4 29 paper pinch_3
14 paper drive_5 30 paper pinch_4
15 drive_5 pinch_5 31 paper pinch_5
16 pinch_5 drive_5
Contact
Number Slave Master
Contact
Number Slave Master
Main Index
443
CHAPTER 30
Paper Feeding Example
Figure 30-2 Boundary Condition And Enforced Angular Velocity At Pinch
Node 21002 is fully fixed and connected to the center node 21001 using CELAS1D and CDAMP1D. The coefficients
of the spring and damper are 4.9 N/mm and 196 Nsec /mm, respectively. Node 21001, the center node of the pinch_1,
is fixed except in the y-direction to which a spring and a damper are connected.
PELAS 18 4.9
CELAS1D 21001 18 21001 2 21002 2
PDAMP 19 196.
CDAMP1D 21002 19 21001 2 21002 2
$
SPC1 8 13456 21001
SPC1 1 123456 21002
The circumference nodes are connected to the center node 21001 rigidly using RBE2.
RBE2 55003 21001 123456 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005
1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013
...
At the center node, angular velocity 120 is applied to negative z angular direction. And, at the same node, translational
force is applied as well.
TLOAD1 19 20 VELO 1
LSEQ 1 20 21
SPCD 21 21001 6 -120.
FORCE 4 21001 0 9800. 0. 1. 0.
Summary of Materials
Paper - Linear elastic material:
(Youngs Modulus) = 3e+6 N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .3
(density) = 8.4e-7 kg/m
3

RBE2
Damper
Spring
Various angular velocities are
applied to get 1500 mm/sec
circumferential velocity.
Translational force is applied
E
u

Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 30
444
Rubber 1 - Linear elastic material:
(Youngs Modulus) = 1e+4. N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .49
(density) = 1.5e-6 kg/m
3
Rubber 2 - Linear elastic material:
(Youngs Modulus) = 3e+4. N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .49
(density) = 1.5e-6 kg/m
3
Pinch and driver - Linear elastic material:
(Youngs Modulus) = 7e+5. N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .3
(density) = 2.7e-6 kg/m
3
Entrance and guide - Linear elastic material:
(Youngs Modulus) = 3.e+5. N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .3
(density) = 7.86e-6 kg/m
3
E
u

E
u

E
u

E
u

Main Index
445
CHAPTER 30
Paper Feeding Example
Results
Figure 30-3 Paper at Various Positions
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_30.dat MSC Nastran input file for printer feeding
example
t = 0 sec t = 0.1 sec
t = 0.2 sec t = 0.3 sec
t = 0.4 sec
Main Index
Chapter 31: Wheel Drop Test
31
Wheel Drop Test

Summary 447

Introduction 448

Requested Solutions 448

FEM Solution 448

Results 452

Input File(s) 452


Main Index
447
CHAPTER 31
Wheel Drop Test
Summary
Title Chapter 31: Wheel Drop Test
Geometry
Material properties See Summary of Materials
Analysis type Transient explicit dynamic analysis
Boundary conditions Fixed condition at the center of wheel.
Constraining to y- and z-direction
Applied loads Translational velocity applied to the impact block
Element type 2-D shell element
3-D solid element
Contact properties
FE results
Impact block: 375 mm 125 mm 100 mm
Tire: Outer diameter = 635 mm
Width = 260 mm
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 31
448
Introduction
This is an example of a wheel drop test as required in automotive industry to comply with government regulations. In
this test a rigid block of 540 Kg is dropped at 13 on a wheel. The drop velocity is 2052.8 mm/seconds. Several
contacts are defined to predict the interaction between wheel, tire and the rigid block.
The 13 impact test is one of the requirements mandated by JWL (Japan Light Wheel Alloy). JWL is a set of standards
defined by the Japanese Government to ensure the vehicle's safety for aluminum road wheels. Every wheel must pass
the 13 drop test to meet government regulations before it is introduced in the market. These standards are generally
accepted worldwide for most road conditions.
The main purpose of test is to predict the stability of the vehicle when the tire hits a curb. The joint or the interface
area of the spoke and the rim is an important structural area where it usually experiences high stress concentration. An
acceptable wheel design is when there are no separation of tire and wheel (air leak) and acceptable range of stress and
strain values during the droptest.
This test has become even more important due to the recent trend of a larger and wider wheel with low profile tire
combination. The reason is that there is lower air volume than the standard OE (Original Equipment) and therefore the
inner rim section is subjected to higher stress levels.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the behavior of a wheel and tire. The rigid block drops from 15 mm
above the tire and wheel at 13 degrees. The impact velocity of the block is 2052.8 mm/seconds.
FEM Solution
The original test setup uses a 540 kg rigid block that is dropped at 230 mm height. However, in order to reduce the
analysis time, a small gap of 15 mm is used between the wheel and the block while the initial velocity of the block is
adjusted to 2052.8 mm/sec. The original test set up and analysis model are compared in Figure 31-1.
Four Contacts are defined between:
1. Rigid block and tire
2. Rigid block and wheel
3. Tire and wheel
4. Self contact of tire
Total time of simulation is 0.04 seconds.
Main Index
449
CHAPTER 31
Wheel Drop Test
Figure 31-1 13
o
Impact Test and Analysis Model
TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (100) and Time Increment (4.e-4 sec) of the simulation. End time is the
product of the two entries. Notice here the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL 1 100 4.-4 1 ADAPT 2 10
Two different boundary conditions are applied. First, the fixed boundary condition is applied at the center of the wheel
as shown in Figure 31-2. Second, the impact block is restrained in translation directions except to move vertically in
the x-direction. The two boundary conditions are defined below.
SPC1 1 123456 864 874 875 876 882 883
...
SPC1 3 23 60001 THRU 60108
...
Figure 31-2 Boundary Condition of Wheel
230 mm
13
15 mm
2052.8 mm/sec
(a) 13 degree impact test (b) Analysis model
Red part is fixed
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 31
450
The initial velocity applied to the impact block is defined by TIC option.
TIC 2 60001 1 -2052.8
...
The material of the tire is rubber composite and its definition needs special attention. The tire consists of seven shell
and seven solid properties as shown in Figure 31-3. Each shell property is defined by PCOMP entry that describes a
composite material laminates. The shell composite properties use orthotropic materials defined by MAT8 and the solid
properties use a rubber material model defined by MATD027. The examples are described as below.
PCOMP 310 0. 0.
301 .5 90. YES
...
PSOLID 250 250 0
...
MATD027 250 1.1-9 .49 4167. .1938
0.
...
MAT8 301 199700. 4400. .148 4400. 1.1-9
...
To model the internal pressure of the tire, the PLOAD4 entry is used to apply 1 N/mm
2
. The pressure at the cross section
of tire is shown in Figure 31-3.
PLOAD4 4 232401 1. 200105 210101
...
Figure 31-3 Tire Cross Section and Internal Pressure
The Hourglass Suppression Method is used to prevent hourglass behavior of the tire by using HGSUPPR entries.
HGSUPPR, 200, SOLID, 200, 1, , , , 0.040
, , , 0
...
Main Index
451
CHAPTER 31
Wheel Drop Test
Summary of Materials
Impact block - Rigid material:
(Youngs Modulus) = 2.1e+5 N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .3
(density) = 1.152e-7 tonne/mm
3
Wheel: Elasto-Plastic material
(Youngs Modulus) = 7.e+4. N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .27
(density) = 2.7e-9 tonne/mm
3
(yield stress) =250 N/mm
2
(tangent plastic modulus) = 200 N/mm
2
(ultimate plastic strain) = .15
Tire: Composite materials
Details are explained in FEM solution section
E
u

E
u

o
y
E
T
c
pu
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 31
452
Results
The results show plastic strains only on the wheel.
Figure 31-4 Equivalent Stress Contours in Wheel
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_31.dat MSC Nastran input file for wheel impact test example
Main Index
Chapter 32: Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash
32
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash

Summary 454

Introduction 455

Requested Solutions 455

FEM Solution 455

Results 457

Input File(s) 457


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 32
454
Summary
Title Chapter 32: Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash
Geometry
Material properties Three different material types are used:
Elastic material: MAT1
Elasto-plastic material: MATD024
Rigid material: MATD020
Almost all structures are made by elasto-plastic material
(Youngs modulus) = 2.1e+5. N/mm
2
(Poissons ratio) = .3
(density) = 7.89e-9 tonne/mm
3
(ultimate plastic strain) = .9
Analysis type Transient explicit dynamic analysis
Boundary conditions Fixed condition of the rigid wall
Applied loads Initial velocity of 5000 mm/sec. defined for the pick-up truck
Element type 1-D beam element
2-D shell element
3-D solid element
FE results
Width= 1,954 mm
Length= 5,454 mm
Height= 1,841 mm
E
u

c
pu
t = 90 ms
Main Index
455
CHAPTER 32
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash
Introduction
Auto companies perform crash tests simulation to increase safety of the vehicles and comply with government
regulations such as those of FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards). This is an example of a pick-up truck
frontal crash at 15 m/s (34 m.p.h.) against a rigid wall. To model the simulation, contact was defined between the truck
and the rigid wall to predict the stress and deformations of the structure.
Requested Solutions
A numerical analysis will be performed to find the behavior of a pick-up truck during crash simulation.
FEM Solution
Three contacts are defined in the simulation:
1. The truck and rigid wall surface
2. The truck tires and the ground surface
3. Self contact for the truck to avoid penetration among various components
SET is an executive control entry in SOL 700 that defines a set that contains some grid points. The set will later be
referred by the CSPOT entry in the bulk entry section.
SET 990009 = 105843 105655
..
TSTEPNL describes the number of Time Steps (10) and Time Increment (9.e-3 sec.) of the simulation. End time is the
product of the two entries. Notice here, the Time Increment is only for the first step. The actual number of Time
Increments and the exact value of the Time Steps are determined by SOL 700 during the analysis. The step size of the
output files is determined by the Time Increment as well.
TSTEPNL 20 10 9e-3 1 5
To define a 3-D contact region, BCPROP and PSURF are used. BCPROP and PSURF specify a contact body by
element properties and element IDs, respectively.
BCPROP 1 1 2 3 4 10 11 12
..
BSURF 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
..
Concentrated masses are defined by CONM2 entry.
CONM2 1990624 91344 1e-06
Rigid nodes which are attached to a reference node are defined by RBE2 entry.
RBE2 5 104247 123456 104272 104614 104615 105038 105039
..
Applied forces and motions in the model are gravitational force and the initial velocity on the truck.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 32
456
GRAV defines acceleration vectors for gravity or other acceleration loading.
GRAV 3 0 9806. 0. 0. -1.
Initial velocity of the pick-up truck is given. All nodes of the truck have an initial velocity specified by the TIC entry.
TIC defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient analysis. Both displacement and
velocity values may be specified at independent degrees of freedom.
TIC 1 1 1 15000.
Boundary conditions are limited to the rigid wall and ground. All nodes of the rigid wall and the ground have been
constrained in all the degree of freedom.
SPC1 1 123456 990803 THRU 991384
Spot weld definition is used at several points. CSPOT is used to define spot-weld with several types of failure criteria.
Normal force criterion at failure (1.e+8 N) is applied to the spot weld entry. The number of a specific SET defined in
the executive control section is referred in the entry.
CSPOT 990009 990009
1e+08
..
MATD20M is used to merge MATD020 rigid bodies into one assembly for SOL 700 only.
MATD20M 181 180 221 182 183
..
RBJOINT defines a Joint between two rigid bodies. This entry supports 14 different types of rigid joint. This analysis
has two different types of rigid joint. REVOLUTE type describes the revolute joint type which allows only axial rotation
with other degrees of freedom fixed. UNIVERS type describes the universal joint type which allows all rotational
degrees of freedom with all translational degrees of freedom fixed.
Main Index
457
CHAPTER 32
Pick-up Truck Frontal Crash
Results
Figure 32-1 Deformation History
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_32a.dat MSC Nastran main analysis input file
nug_32b.dat Pick-up truck model file
nug_32c.dat Definition of rigid connection file
t = 0 ms t = 25 ms
t = 50 ms t = 75 ms
t = 90 ms
Main Index
Chapter 33: Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections
33
Beams: Composite Materials
and Open Cross Sections

Summary - Composite Beam 459

Introduction 460

Solution Requirements 460

FEM Solution 461

Modeling Tips 462

Input File(s) 463

Summary - VKI and VAM Beam Formulations 464

Introduction 465

Solution Requirements 465

FEM Solution 466

Input File(s) 467


Main Index
459
CHAPTER 33
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections
Summary - Composite Beam
Title Chapter 33: Composite Beam
Geometry
Material properties Linear elastic orthotropic material using MAT8
Assumptions: E33 = 0.8E22; 13= 23= 12
Theta on PCOMP/PCOMPG specifies the angle between X-axis of material coordinate
and X-axis of element coordinate.
Analysis type Linear static analysis
Boundary conditions Cantilever configuration
Applied loads Bending
Element type CBEAM3
FE results Converted PBEAM3 from PBMSECT
Stress recovery - screened based on max failure index
bdf file for FE mesh of cross section shown here
Fy
Fz

X, Xe
Y, Ye
Z, Ze

Straight Cantilever Beam with load (Fy or Fz) applied at Free-End
Element coordinate (Xe, Ye, Ze) coincides with Basic Coordinate (X,Y,Z)
Z
Y X
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 33
460
Introduction
Composite materials have found increasing applications in many applications and slender structures like rotor blades
or high-aspect-ratio wings may be modeled in one-dimension as a 1-D beam provided the complex cross sectional
properties (ultimately represented as a 2-D finite element mesh) can be captured properly. Here, a new way for
composite beam analysis is introduced. The Variational Asymptotic Method (VAM) computes the properties of a
beams arbitrary cross section containing composite materials. VAM, the mathematical basis of VABS, splits a general
3-D nonlinear elasticity problem for a beam-like structure into a two-dimensional (2-D) linear cross-sectional analysis
and a 1-D nonlinear beam analysis. For details on VAM, refer to Yu, W., Volovoi, V., Hodges, D. and Hong, X.
Validation of the Variational Asymptotic Beam Sectional Analysis (VABS), AIAA Journal, Vol. 40, No. 10, 2002
(available at http://www.ae.gatech.edu/people/dhodges/papers/AIAAJ2002.pdf). VAMs key benefit lies in the ability
to model a beam made of composite material with only 1-D elements, namely CBEAM3.
Solution Requirements
In general, the solution requires the layup of composite material and the description of this general or arbitrary cross
section. PCOMP entries are used to provide the composite layup and PBMSECT entry is utilized to describe the profile
of cross section and the link to the composite layup via PCOMP. An example is shown as follows:
The theta field on PCOMP is utilized to specify the angle between the X-axis of the material coordinate and the X-axis
of the element coordinate. A cutout of the FEM mesh at the intersect of OUTP=101 and BRP=103 illustrates the ply
layup shown in Figure 33-1.
$
$ Composite case
PBMSECT 32 1 OP 0.015
OUTP=101,C=101,brp=103,c(1)=[201,pt=(15,34)]
pcomp 101 -0.1 5000. hill 0.0
501 0.05 0.0 501 0.05 90.0
501 0.05 -45.0 501 0.05 45.0
501 0.05 0.0
pcomp 201 5000. tsai 0.0 SYM
501 0.05 -45.0 501 0.05 45.0
501 0.05 0.0
$MAT1 501 3.6 .3
mat8,501,2.0e7,2.0e6,.35,1.0e6,1.0e6,1.0e6,0.0,+
+,0.0,0.0,0.0,2.3e5, 1.95e5, 13000., 32000., 12000.
Main Index
461
CHAPTER 33
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections
Figure 33-1 Intersection of Ply Layups 101 and 201
FEM Solution
The converted PBEAM3 for PBMSECT,32 is as follows:
Note that the MID field of above PBEAM3 has value of 0 which is a flag for using the Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix stored
from the seventh line of PBEAM3. Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix includes cross sectional and material properties. The
cross-sectional shape and the FE mesh is shown in Figure 33-2. The coordinate shown in the figure matches with
element coordinate.
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9B)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM3 ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - .
PBEAM3 32 0 4.7202E+00 8.3059E+01 2.9578E+01 -1.5664E+01 3.2316E+01 0.0000E+00
1.8014E+01 4.2136E+00 1.7100E+01 -2.7858E+00 3.8881E+00 -3.5404E+00 4.7202E+00 2.6994E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
1.2253E+08 -2.1160E+05 8.1193E+04 -2.4761E+06 -3.7193E+06 7.9049E+06 -2.1160E+05 2.1792E+06
-1.7859E+06 1.9780E+07 5,4643E+05 -3.5845E+05 8.1193E+04 -1.7859E+06 2.7228E+07 1.7190E+07
2.9835E+04 2.1407E+06 -2.4761E+06 1.9780E+07 1.7190E+07 2.2332E+08 5.8182E+06 -1.2186E+06
-3.7193E+06 5.4643E+05 2.9835E+04 5.8182E+06 2.1349E+09 -4.0706E+08 8.9040E+06 -3.5845E+05
2.1407E+06 -1.2186E+06 -4.0706E+08 7.5602E+08

Z
Y X
-45, PCOMP 201 -45 45, 45, 0, 0,
0
45
-45
90
0 0
45
-45
90
0
P
C
O
M
P
1
0
1
P
C
O
M
P
1
0
1
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 33
462
Figure 33-2 Cross-sectional Shape and the Corresponding FE Mesh
Full cross sectional stress recovery can be performed with PARAM,ARBMSS,YES in bulk data and FORCE=setid in
case control. The stresses screened based on maximum failure index is shown as follows:
Modeling Tips
CBEAM3 is considered a straight beam if PID points to PBMSECT ID. The third point is ignored during the formation
of element matrices. During data recovery, the stresses for the third point are computed based on the forces recovered
which may not be correct.
PARAM,ARBMSTYP,TIMOSHEN must be present to access VAM for composite beam.
1 VAB ALGORITHM USING CORE OF PBMSECT MARCH 6, 2007 MSC Nastran 3/ 6/07 PAGE 14
TRANSVERSE TIP LOAD
0 SUBCASE 1
S T R E S S E S I N L A Y E R E D C O M P O S I T E E L E M E N T S ( BEAM3 )
ELEMENT GRID PLY D I R E C T S T R E S S E S FAILURE MAXIMUM STRENGTH
ID ID ID NORMAL-1 NORMAL-2 NORMAL-3 SHEAR-12 SHEAR-23 SHEAR-13 THEORY FAIL. INDEX RATIO
FLAG
2 302 2 2.468E+01 1.601E+01 2.670E+00 2.323E+01 4.991E-01 3.724E+00 TSIA-WU 7.161E-04 4.035E+02
102 2 1.685E+01 1.619E+01 -7.230E-01 1.993E+01 -1.377E-01 -5.572E-01 TSAI-WU 7.258E-04 4.470E+02
1301 2 1.588E+01 1.594E+01 -7.167E-01 1.938e+-1 -1.162e-01 -5.280e-01 TSAI-WU 7.193E-04 4.569E+02
Z
Y X
Main Index
463
CHAPTER 33
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections
Input File(s)
File Description
Vabcore1.dat Composite beam with MAT1.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 33
464
Summary - VKI and VAM Beam Formulations
Title Chapter 33: VKI and VAM Beam Formulations
Geometry
Material properties Linear elastic isotropic material
Analysis type Linear static analysis
Boundary conditions Cantilever configuration
Applied loads Bending load with forces applied at free end
Element type CBEAM, CBEAM3
FE results Converted PBEAM/PBEAM3 from PBMSECT
bdf file for FE mesh of cross section
Stress recovery - screened based on max failure index
Fy
Fz

X, Xe
Y, Ye
Z, Ze

Straight Cantilever Beam with load (Fy or Fz) applied at Free-End
Element coordinate (Xe, Ye, Ze) coincides with Basic Coordinate (X,Y,Z)

0.5
0.04
1.0

Z
Y X
Z
Y X
Results Isotropic with VKI Isotropic with
VAM
Composite with
MAT1 using VAM
Disp at free end 49.987 49.974 49.977
Smax at fixed end 74974 74956 75351
Main Index
465
CHAPTER 33
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections
Introduction
In MSC Nastran, there are two formulations to compute sectional properties. Both formulations use the finite element
method. The first one is named after its third party vender, VKI, which solves a series of equations (see documentation
of PBMSECT in Quick Look Guide) to obtain sectional properties. The other formulation is Variational Asymptotic
Method (VAM), see attached for details on VAM Theory. While VKI formulation is for isotropic material only, VAM
is capable to compute beam sectional properties for isotropic and composite material.
Solution Requirements
PBMSECT bulk data entry is utilized to describe the shape of I section and PARAM,ARBMSTYP is used to control the
selection of formulation. Note that default value for PARAM,ARBMSTYP select VKI formulation to compute sectional
properties of arbitrary cross section with isotropic material. However, PARAM,ARBMSTYP,TIMISHEN must be present
in the bulk data section if PBMSECT entry with Core and/or Layer keywords exists in the file.
$ to select VAM
PARAM,ARBMSTYPE,TIMOSHEN
.
$.......2.......3.......4.......5.......6.......7.......8.......9.......10.....
$ Section profile
$
$ 1 -- 2 -- 3
|
|
$ 4 -- 5 -- 5
$
point 1 -0.50 0.23
point 2 0.00 0.23
point 3 0.50 0.23
point 4 -0.50 -0.23
point 5 0.00 -0.23
point 6 0.50 -0.23
$
$.......2.......3.......4.......5.......6.......7.......8.......9.......10.....
SET1 101 1 2 5 6
SET1 201 2 3
SET1 102 5 4
$
$ Ply properties
$.......2.......3.......4.......5.......6.......7.......8.......9.......10.....
$MAT8 501 20.59e6 1.42e6 0.42 0.89e6 0.89e6 0.89e6
$MAT1 501 1.+7 .3
$
$ isotropic case using T keyword
PBMSECT 31 1 OP +
OUTP=101,t=0.04,BRP(1)=201,BRP(3)=102
$
$ isotropic case using C and MAT1
PBMSECT 32 OP +
OUTP=101,CORE=301,CORE(1)=[101,PT=(1,2)],CORE(2)=[202,PT=(5,6)],+
BRP(1)=201,CORE(3)=[201,PT=(2,3)], +
BRP(3)=102,CORE(3)=[102,PT=(5,4)]
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 33
466
FEM Solution
The converted BEAM for PBMSECT,31 from VKI is as follows:
The converted BEAM/PBEAM3 for PBMSECT,31 and 32 from VAM is as follows:
Note that the MID field of above PBEAM3 has value of 0 which is a flag for using the Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix stored
from the seventh line of PBEAM3. Timoshenko 6 x 6 matrix includes cross-sectional and material properties. The
cross-sectional shape and the FE mesh is shown in Figure 33-3.
Figure 33-3 Cross sectional Shape and the Corresponding FE Mesh
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9A)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBEAML/PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - FINITE ELEMENT METHOD.
PBEAM3 31 1 9.6800E-02 4.4896E-03 6.6689E-03 -8.0299E-19 5.2448E-05 0.0000E+00
2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01 2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01
1.5197E-01 6.9769E-01 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 3.6170E-04 3.6170E-04
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 4.1043E-11 7.5134E-10 4.1043E-11 7.5134E-10
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9A)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBEAML/PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - FINITE ELEMENT METHOD.
PBEAM3 31 1 9.6800E-02 4.4902E-03 6.6696E-03 0.0000E+00 5.5566E-05 0.0000E+00
2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01 2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01
1.5346E-01 7.0201E-01 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 3.5121E-04 3.4121E-04
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
*** USER INFORMATION MESSAGE 4379 (IFP9B)
THE USER SUPPLIED PBMSECT BULK DATA ENTRIES ARE REPLACED BY THE FOLLOWING PBEAM3 ENTRIES.
CONVERSION METHOD FOR PBARL/PBEAML - .
PBEAM3 32 0 9.6800E-02 4.4902E-03 6.6696E-03 0.0000E+00 5.5566E-05 0.0000E+00
2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01 2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 -5.0000E-01 -2.5000E-01 5.0000E-01
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
9.6800E+05 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 2.6041E+05
-5.9944E-04 1.5708E-04 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 -5.9944E-04 5.6910E+04 -7.1497E-05
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 4.4898E+04 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00 6.6693E+04
Z
Y X
Main Index
467
CHAPTER 33
Beams: Composite Materials and Open Cross Sections
Regular beam stresses at extreme point from different formulation is shown in following table.
Input File(s)
Results Isotropic with VKI Isotropic with VAM
Composite with
MAT1 using VAM
Disp at free end 49.987 49.974 49.977
Smax at fixed end 74974 74956 75351
File Description
nug_33a.dat Isotropic and Composite beam with MAT1 using VAM
nug_33b.dat Isotropic beam using VKI
Main Index
Chapter 34: Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
34
Topology Optimization MBB
Beam and Torsion

Summary - Beam 469

Introduction 470

Solution Requirements 470

Modeling Tips 473

Summary - Torsion 475

Introduction 476

Solution Requirements 476

Modeling Tips 481

Input File(s) 482


Main Index
469
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Summary - Beam
Title Chapter 34: Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Topology optimization
features
Compliance minimization
Mass target
Checkerboard free
Minimum member size control
Mirror symmetry constraints
Geometry
Material properties
Youngs Modulus = 2x10
5
MPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3
Analysis type Static analysis
Boundary conditions Supported on rollers at one point and fixed support at another point.
Applied loads A concentrated force = 100.0 N (half model)
Element type 4-node liner QUAD elements
Topology result Material distribution
)
(Symmetry) (Mesh 4800 Elements)
Units: m
12 x 2 x 0.01 Plate
P = 200.0 N
P = 200.0 N
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
470
Introduction
An MBB beam example (a half model shown in Figure 34-1) is used to demonstrate (a) basic MSC Nastran topology
optimization capabilities without manufacturing constraints, (b) minimum member size control, and (c) mirror
symmetry constraints. The structural compliance (i.e., total strain energy) is minimized with a mass target 0.5 (i.e.,
50% material savings). The loading and boundary conditions are shown in Figure 34-1. The structure is modeled with
4800 CQUAD4 elements.
Figure 34-1 MBB Beam
Solution Requirements
This MBB beam is well accepted by academic and industry for topology optimization validation.
Design Model Description
These solutions demonstrate:
A distinct design can be obtained by MSC Nastran topology optimization with checkerboard free algorithm
(as default)
The minimum member size is mainly used to control the size of members in topology optimal designs.
Preventing thin members enhances the simplicity of the design and, hence, its manufacturability. Minimum
member size is more like quality control than quantity control.
By using symmetry constraints in topology optimization, a symmetric design can be obtained regardless of
the boundary conditions or loads.
Objective: Minimize compliance
Topology design region: PSHELL
Constraints: Mass target = 0.5 (i.e., mass savings 50%)
(a) Minimum member size control and/or
(b) Mirror symmetry constraints
P = 100.0 N
Main Index
471
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Optimization Solution
Basic compliance minimization
The input data for this example related to topology optimization model is given in Listing 1. A TOPVAR =1 Bulk Data
entry is used to define a topological design region. XINIT=0.5 on the TOPVAR entry matches the mass target
constraint so that the initial design is feasible. The rest values on the TOPVAR entry are default values that are
recommended for general topology optimization applications. Type one design responses DRESP1 = 1 and 2 identify
compliance and fractional mass, respectively. DCONSTR= 1 specifies the mass target. DESOBJ=1 in Case Control
Command selects DRESP1=1 entry to be used as a design objective (minimization as default) and DESGLB selects the
design constraint DCONSTR= 1 to be applied in this topology optimization task.
Listing 1 Input File for MBB Beam
DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
ANALYSIS = STATICS
BEGIN BULK
DCONSTR 1 2 .5
TOPVAR, 1 , Tshel, Pshell, , , , , 1
DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP
DRESP1 2 FRMASS FRMASS
Figure 34-2 shows the topology optimized result that is smoothed and remeshed by using Patran. This optimal design
is very clear without any checkerboard effect. It is noticed that there are some small members.
Figure 34-2 MBB Beam Topology Design
Minimum Member Size Control
The MBB beam (shown in Figure 34-1) is used here to demonstrate the minimum member size control capability.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
472
The input data for this example related to topology optimization with minimum member size is given in Listing 2.
The minimum member size value is defined by the TDMIN = 0.5 parameter on the DOPTPRM entry and corresponds
to the length of 10 elements.
Listing 2 Input File for MBB Beam with Minimum Member Size
DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
ANALYSIS = STATICS
BEGIN BULK
DOPTPRM, TDMIN, 0.5
DCONSTR 1 2 .5
TOPVAR, 1 , Tshel, Pshell, , , , , 1
DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP
DRESP1 2 FRMASS FRMASS
The Figure 34-3shows the topology optimized result with minimum member size TDMIN=0.5. Compared the design
shown in Figure 34-2, this design with minimum member size is obviously much simpler and there are no tiny
members at all.
Figure 34-3 MBB Beam Topology Design with Minimum Member Size
Mirror Symmetric Constraints
Since the loads applied on the MBB beam are not symmetric, the topology optimized designs Figures 34-2 and 34-3
are not symmetric. The MBB beam is employed again to demonstrate the mirror symmetric constraint capability that
enforces the design to be symmetric about a given plane.
To apply symmetric constraints on designed properties, users need to create a reference coordinate system using a
rectangular coordinate system CORD1R or CORD2R. In this example, grid 10001 (location x=3, y=1, and z=0) is
defined as the origin. Grid 10002 (x=3, y=1, and z=1) lies on the z-axis, and grid 1003 (x=4, y=1, and z=0) lies in the
x-z plane. CORD1R CID=1 defines a reference coordinate system. A continuation line SYM enforces the property
PSHELL=1 to be symmetric about the planes YZ and ZX in the reference coordinate system CID=1. In addition, a
minimum member size TDMIN=0.15 is applied. The input data for this example is given in Listing 3.
Main Index
473
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Listing 3 Input File for MBB Beam with Mirror Symmetry Constraints
DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
ANALYSIS = STATICS
BEGIN BULK
CORD1R 1 10001 10002 10003
GRID 10001 3. 1. 0.0
GRID 10002 3. 1. 1.0
GRID 10003 4. 1. 0.0
TOPVAR, 1 , Tshel, Pshell, , , , , 1
, SYM , 1 , YZ , ZX
, TDMIN, 0.15
DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP
DRESP1 2 FRMASS FRMASS
DCONSTR 1 2 .5
Figure 34-3 shows the topology optimal result with symmetric constraints and minimum member size.
Figure 34-4 MBB Beam with Symmetric Constraints and Minimum Member Size
Modeling Tips
The quality of the results of a topology optimization task is a strong function of how the problem is posed in MSC
Nastran. This section contains a number of tips:
A DRESP1=COMP is introduced to define the compliance of structures for topology optimizations. The
response is usually used as an objective to maximize structural stiffness in static analysis problems.
A DRESP1=FRMASS is introduced to define the mass fraction of topology designed elements. The
DRESP1=WEIGHT is the total weight of all structural and nonstructural mass. For topology optimization tasks,
a DRESP1=FRMASS response is recommended to define a mass reduction target in a design constraint.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
474
The POWER field on the TOPVAR entry has a large influence on the solution of topology optimization
problems. A lower POWER often produces a solution that contains large grey areas (area with intermediate
densities 0.3 0.7). A higher value produces more distinct black and white (solid and void) designs. However,
near singularities often occur when a high POWER is selected.
A TCHECK parameter on DOPTPRM is used to turn on/off the checkerboard free algorithm. This default
normally results in a better design for general finite element mesh. However, if high order elements and/or a
coarser mesh is used, turning off the filtering algorithm may produce a better result.
The TDMIN parameter is mainly used to control the degree of simplicity in terms of manufacturing
considerations. It is common to see some members with smaller size than TDMIN at the final design since the
small members have contributions to the objective. Minimum member size is more like quality control than
quantity control. It is in general recommended that TDMIN should not be less than the length of 3 elements.
Maximum design cycle DESMAX=30 (as default) is often required to produce a reasonable result. More design
cycles may be required to achieve a clear 0/1 material distribution, particularly when manufacturability
constraints are used.
There are many solutions to a topology optimization: one global and many local minimization. It is not
unusual to see different solutions to the same problem with the same discretization by using different
optimization solvers or the same optimization solver with different starting values of design variables.
In a multiple subcase problem, a DRSPAN Case Control Command can be used to construct a weighting
function via a DRESP2 or DRESP3. For example, a static and normal mode combined problem, the objective
can be defined as
where and are two weighting factors. is the calculated compliance and 1 is the calculated
eigenvalue via DRESP1 definition. and 0 are the initial value of these responses.
To obtain a rib pattern by topology optimization, a core non-designable shell element thickness must be
defined together with two designable above and below the core thicknesses. That is, add two designable
elements for each regular element.
If some elements are disconnected on the final topology design proposal, the mass target may be too small to
fill the design space.
obj wei ght 1
-
c
1
c
0
-----
\ .
| |
wei ght 2
-

0

1
-----
\ .
| |
+ =
wei ght 1 wei ght 2 c
1
c
0
Main Index
475
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Summary - Torsion
Title Chapter 34: A Torsion Beam
Topology optimization
features
Compliance minimization
Mass target
Checkerboard free
Minimum member size control
Mirror symmetry constraints
Geometry
Material properties
Youngs Modulus = 2.1x10
5
MPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3, density = 1.0
Analysis type Static analysis
Boundary conditions Cantilever
Applied loads A pair of twisting forces = 1000.0 N at the free end
Element type 8-node HEXA elements
Topology result Material distribution
)
Units: m
Length = 16 and width = 4 and height = 4
+
+
P = 1000
P = 1000
Z
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
476
Introduction
A torsion beam is used here to demonstrate the extrusion and casting constraints. Figure 34-5 shows the FEM model
of the torsion beam. A pair of twisting forces is applied on one end while the other end is fixed. 2048 CHEXA elements
are used for this model. The objective is to minimize the structural compliance with mass target of 0.3 (i.e., 70%
material savings).
Figure 34-5 Torsion Beam
Solution Requirements
This torsion beam is utilized to show MSC Nastran topology optimization extrusion and casting
constraint capabilities.
Design Model Description
Three solutions demonstrate:
By using extrusion constraints in topology optimization, a constant cross-section design along the given
extrusion direction can be obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.
The use of casting constraints can prevent hollow profiles in topology optimization so that the die can slide in
a given direction. One or two die options are available for selection.
Some combined manufacturing constraints are allowed in topology optimization to achieve design goal.
Objective: Minimize compliance
Topology design region: PSOLID
Constraints: Mass target = 0.3 (i.e., mass savings 70%)
(a) Extrusion constraints
(b) Casting constraints with one or two dies
Units: m
Length = 16 and width = 4 and height = 4
+
+
P = 1000
P = 1000
Z
Main Index
477
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Optimization Solution
Extrusion Constraints With One Die
If is often to see some topology optimized designs can contain cavities that are not achievable or require a high cost
manufacturing process. For example, the result from the torsion beam without manufacturing constraints is shown in
Figure 34-6. Clearly, this topology design proposal is not achievable by casting.
Figure 34-6 Torsion Beam without Manufacturing Constraints
The extrusion constraints enforce a constant cross-section design along the given extrusion direction. The input data
related to imposing an extrusion constraint along the z-axis in the basic coordinate system (as the default option) is
given in Listing 4.
Listing 4 Input File for Torsion Beam with Extrusion
DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
DRESP1 2 Frmass FRMASS
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
478
DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP
DCONSTR 1 2 .3
TOPVAR, 1 , TSOLID, PSOLID, .3, , , , 1
, EXT , , Z
PSOLID 1 1 0
Figure 34-7 shows the topology optimized result with extrusion constraints. It is obvious that the design has a constant
cross-section along the z-axis.
Figure 34-7 Torsion Beam with Extrusion Constraints in Z-Axis
Casting Constraints with One Die
A torsion beam (shown in Figure 34-5 is used here to demonstrate the combination of one die casting
manufacturability constraints and mirror symmetric constraints.
The casting constraints with one die option enforce that the material can only be added to the region by filling up in
the given draw direction from the bottom (or, stated another way, that voids extend from the top surface and do not
reappear in the die direction). To apply casting constraints and symmetric constraints on designed properties, a
reference coordinate system CID=1 is defined by using a rectangular coordinate system CORD1R. A CAST
continuation line defines casting constraints in the Y direction and one die is a default option. Another SYM
continuation line defines symmetric constraints about the YZ plane. The input data related to the topology
optimization model is given in Listing 5.
Main Index
479
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Listing 5 Input File for Torsion with One Die
DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
DRESP1 2 Frmass FRMASS
DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP
DCONSTR 1 2 .3
CORD1R 1 5 167 7
PSOLID 1 1 0
TOPVAR, 1 , TSOLID, PSOLID, .3, , , , 1
, CAST, 1 , Y, , YES
, SYM, 1 , YZ
Figure 34-8 shows the topology optimized result with one die casting constraints. It is observed that the design
material is added by filling up in the Y direction from the bottom. In addition, the design is symmetric about the YZ
plane in the reference coordinate system CID=1.
Figure 34-8 Torsion Beam with One Die Casting Constraints in Y Direction
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
480
Casting Constraints with Two Dies
A torsion beam (shown in Figure 34-5 is also used here to demonstrate two die casting manufacturability constraints.
The input for two die casting constraints is similar to the one die option in Example 5. Here, the difference is that 2
are selected for the DIE field on the TOPVAR entry. The input data related to imposing two die casting constraints is
given in Listing 6.
Listing 6 Input File for Torsion with Two Dies
DESOBJ = 1
DESGLB = 1
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name : Default
SUBTITLE=Default
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
$ Direct Text Input for this Subcase
BEGIN BULK
DRESP1 2 Frmass FRMASS
DRESP1 1 COMPL COMP
DCONSTR 1 2 .3
CORD1R 1 5 167 7
PSOLID 1 1 0
TOPVAR, 1 , TSOLID, PSOLID, , , , , 1
, CAST, 1 , Y, 2, YES
, SYM , 1 , YZ
PSOLID 1 1 0
Figure 34-9 shows the topology optimized result with two die casting constraints. It is observed that the design
material grows from the splitting plane in opposite directions along the y-axis specified in the reference coordinate
system CID=1. The splitting plane is determined by optimization and in this case corresponds to the
Main Index
481
CHAPTER 34
Topology Optimization MBB Beam and Torsion
Figure 34-9 Torsion Beam with Two Die Casting Constraints in Y-Axis
Modeling Tips
It is recommended that a base line topology optimization job (without any manufacturability constraints) be
carried out before a topology optimization solution with manufacturability constraints. Benefits are:
a. a topology optimization without restriction may result in a better design
b. the design proposal from the no restriction run may give some hints for imposing manufacturability
constraints.
Topology optimization with manufacturability constraints often needs more material to fill the design space.
Therefore, the design with manufacturability constraints usually requires a relatively bigger mass target (less
material savings) than the one without manufacturability constraints.
The casting constraints may have difficulty dealing with a design model that has one or more non-smoothed
boundary surfaces to be designed. It is recommended to use smooth surfaces for topology designed boundary
surfaces.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 34
482
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_34a.dat Basic compliance minimization
nug_34b.dat Minimum member size
nug_34c.dat Mirror symmetry constraints
nug_34d.dat Extrusion constraints
nug_34e.dat One die casting constraints
nug_34f.dat Casting constraints with two dies
Main Index
Chapter 35: Engine Mount Topology Optimization
35
Engine Mount Topology
Optimization

Summary 484

Introduction 485

Solution Requirements 486

Optimization Solution 486

Modeling Tips 489

Input File(s) 489


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 35
484
Summary
Title Chapter 35: Engine Mount Topology Optimization
Topology optimization
features
Averaged compliance minimization
Multiple TOPVAR entries
Multiple load cases
Displacement constraints
Geometry
Material properties
Youngs Modulus = 2.05x10
5
MPa, Poissons ratio = 0.3
Boundary conditions Supported on rollers at one point and fixed support at another point.
Applied loads 14 load cases (forces)
Element type HEXA, PENTA, TETRA, and RBE3
Topology result Material distribution
)
Front Mount Ring
Link
Front Mount Beam
Trunnion
Thrust Strut
Front Mount Beam
Main Index
485
CHAPTER 35
Engine Mount Topology Optimization
Introduction
The main goal is to minimize the compliance of the engine-front-mount-beam (shown in Figure 35-1) with mass target
0.3 (material savings 70%) and displacements within a range (-0.6, 0.6) at selected 5 grids. The analysis model has 14
load cases. The finite element model is shown in Figure 35-2. There are 62306 HEXA elements, 703 PENTA elements,
31 TETRA elements, and 5 RBE3 elements.
Figure 35-1 Front-Mount-Beam
Figure 35-2 Front-Mount-Beam FE Model
Front Mount Ring
Link
Front Mount Beam
Trunnion
Thrust Strut
Front Mount Beam
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 35
486
Solution Requirements
Design Model Description
This solutions demonstrates:
The averaged compliance can be used for topology optimization problems with multiple load case to achieve
an efficient design concept.
Multiple topological design parts are allowed.
Displacement constrains can be well treated in topology optimization.
Optimization Solution
The input data related to the topology optimization model is given in Listing 7.
The TOPVAR entries define five topological design parts with XINIT (initial design)=0.3 that matches the mass target
so the initial design is feasible (reduce CPU time spent on optimizer).
In order for a structural response to be used either as an objective or a constraint, it first must be identified on a DRESPi
Bulk Data entry. The DRESP1 entries 200-213, for example, identify the compliance. DRSPAN and SET Case Control
Commands are then used to select one compliance DRESP1 entry for each subcase that are used in DRESP2=1000
response. The equation response DRESP2=1000 with the attribute FUNC=AVG spans all subcases to calculate averaged
compliance of the structure. A DESOBJ Case Control Command selects DRESP2=1000 to be an objective.
DRESP1=500 defines a fractional mass response. This mass target is imposed by the upper bound on the DCONSTR=50
entry. As always, fractional mass constraints should be applied at the global level in a design optimization by using
DESGLB. Separate DRESP1 entries 1 -5 identify displacements responses at gird points. There responses are
constrained by the bounds set using a corresponding set of DCONSTR entries.
Listing 7 Input File for Engine Mount
analysis=statics
set 1 = 200
set 2 = 201
set 3 = 202
set 4 = 203
set 5 = 204
set 6 = 205
set 7 = 206
set 8 = 207
set 9 = 208
Objective: Minimize averaged compliance
Topology design region: PSOLID = 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, and 10
Constraints: Constraints: Mass target = 0.3 (i.e., mass savings 70%)
Displacements at grid points 76095, 76096, 76419, 76420,
and 76421 for all 14 load cases within the range (-6.0, 6.0)
Main Index
487
CHAPTER 35
Engine Mount Topology Optimization
set 10 = 209
set 11 = 210
set 12 = 211
set 13 = 212
set 14 = 213
DESOBJ = 1000
DESGLB = 50
DESSUB = 1
$ Direct Text Input for Global Case Control Data
$ ==================================================================
$ ==================================================================
SUBCASE 1
LOAD = 1
DRSPAN = 1
SUBCASE 2
LOAD = 2
DRSPAN = 2
SUBCASE 3
LOAD = 3
DRSPAN = 3
SUBCASE 4
LOAD = 4
DRSPAN = 4
SUBCASE 5
LOAD = 5
DRSPAN = 5
SUBCASE 6
LOAD = 6
DRSPAN = 6
SUBCASE 7
LOAD = 7
DRSPAN = 7
SUBCASE 8
LOAD = 8
DRSPAN = 8
SUBCASE 9
LOAD = 9
DRSPAN = 9
SUBCASE 10
LOAD = 10
DRSPAN = 10
SUBCASE 11
LOAD = 11
DRSPAN = 11
SUBCASE 12
LOAD = 12
DRSPAN = 12
SUBCASE 13
LOAD = 13
DRSPAN = 13
SUBCASE 14
LOAD = 14
DRSPAN = 14
$ ===================================================================
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 35
488
BEGIN BULK
$ *******************************************************************
$ Written by : MSC/NASTRAN
$ Version : 4.51
$ Translator : MSC/NASTRAN
$ From Model : D:\users\mulf\bmwroll\fmb.mod
$ Date :
$ *******************************************************************
$
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678
$DCONSTR 1 20 6. 6.1
$23456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
$DCONADD 1 15 16 17 18 19 21 22
$ 23 24 25 50
DCONSTR 1 1 -6. 6.0
DCONSTR 1 2 -6. 6.0
DCONSTR 1 3 -6. 6.0
DCONSTR 1 4 -6. 6.0
DCONSTR 1 5 -6. 6.0
DCONSTR 50 50 .3
TOPVAR, 1 , psolid, Psolid, .3, , , , 1
TOPVAR, 2 , psolid2, Psolid, .3, , , , 2
TOPVAR, 3 , psolid3, Psolid, .3, , , , 3
TOPVAR, 4 , psolid8, Psolid, .3, , , , 8
TOPVAR, 5 , psolid9, Psolid, .3, , , , 9
TOPVAR, 6 , psolid10, Psolid, .3, , , , 10
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
DRESP1 50 w FRMASS
DRESP1 1 d disp 123 76095
DRESP1 2 d1 disp 123 76096
DRESP1 3 d2 disp 123 76419
DRESP1 4 d3 disp 123 76420
DRESP1 5 d4 disp 123 76421
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
DRESP1, 200, COMP1, COMP
DRESP1, 201, COMP2, COMP
DRESP1, 202, COMP3, COMP
DRESP1, 203, COMP4, COMP
DRESP1, 204, COMP5, COMP
DRESP1, 205, COMP6, COMP
DRESP1, 206, COMP7, COMP
DRESP1, 207, COMP8, COMP
DRESP1, 208, COMP9, COMP
DRESP1, 209, COMP10, COMP
DRESP1, 210, COMP11, COMP
DRESP1, 211, COMP12, COMP
DRESP1, 212, COMP13, COMP
DRESP1, 213, COMP14, COMP
$234567812345678123456781234567812345678123456781234567812345678
DRESP2 1000 COMPL AVG
DRESP1 200 201 202 203 204 205 206
207 208 209 210 211 212 213
Main Index
489
CHAPTER 35
Engine Mount Topology Optimization
A topology result shown in Figure 35-3 is obtained by MSC Nastran. The topology optimization design proposal is
smoothed by Patran.
Figure 35-3 Front-Mount-Beam Topology Optimization Proposal
Modeling Tips
If multiple mass targets (multiple DRESP1=FRMASS) are used, it is recommended each TOPVAR's initial
value XINIT matches its corresponding mass target.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_35.dat Minimize averaged compliance/displacement constraints
Main Index
Chapter 36: Wheel Topology Optimization
36
Wheel Topology Optimization

Summary 491

Introduction 492

Solution Requirements 492

Modeling Tips 494

Input File(s) 494


Main Index
491
CHAPTER 36
Wheel Topology Optimization
Summary
Title Chapter 36: Wheel Topology Optimization
Topology optimization
features
Cyclical symmetry constraints
Geometry
Material properties
Youngs Modulus = 1.0x10
7
Pa, Poissons ratio = 0.3, density = 1.0
Boundary conditions Fixed at some points
Applied loads Force = 1000.0 N in direction of gravity
Element type HEXA, RBE3
Topology result Material distribution
)
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 36
492
Introduction
A wheel model shown in Figure 36-1 is used to demonstrate MSC Nastran topology optimization cyclical symmetry
capabilities. The wheel is modeled with six-sided solid elements (118156 CHEXA). The wheel outer layers and bolts
are nondesignable. One load case is considered. The structural compliance is minimized (i.e., minimize the total strain
energy of the structure) with a mass target 0.1 (i.e., remove 90% of the material). Although the load is not cyclically
symmetric about the Y-axis, the design is required to be cyclically symmetric about the Y-axis with five segments.
Figure 36-1 Wheel FE Model
Solution Requirements
Design Model Description
This solutions demonstrates:
By using cyclical symmetry constraints in topology optimization, a rotational symmetric design can be
obtained regardless of the boundary conditions or loads.
CASI solver provides a major speed up for large 3-D problems in static analysis.
Objective: Minimize averaged compliance
Topology design region: PSOLID (blue)
Constraints: Constraints: Mass target = 0.1 (i.e., mass savings 90%)
The design is forced to be cyclical symmetry about the Y-
axis with five segments.
Main Index
493
CHAPTER 36
Wheel Topology Optimization
Optimization Solution
The input data for this example related to topology optimization model is given in Listing 8. The coordinate system
(CORD2R = 1) is created to be used to specify cyclical symmetric constraints. The field CS (cyclical symmetric axis)
on the SYM line is Y-axis with NCS (number of cyclical symmetric segments) = 5. It is noticed that SMETHOD=
ELEMENT is used to select CASI iterative solver. The CASI iterative solver released in MSC Nastran can provide a
major speedup in the solution of large static analyses.
Listing 8 Input File for Wheel
DESOBJ = 10
DESGLB = 1
ANALYSIS = STATICS
SMETHOD = ELEMENT
SUBCASE 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
BEGIN BULK
CORD2R 1 10.512 33.3312 12.9921 -22.209833.3312 4.88385
28.388 33.3313 -19.7297
DCONSTR 1 2 .1
TOPVAR 1 PSOLID PSOLID .1 2
SYM 1 Y 5
DRESP1 2 FRM FRMASS
DRESP1 10 COMP COMP
Figure 36-2 shows the topology optimized result that is smoothed by using Patran. It is noticed that cyclical symmetry
is obtained even though the loading is not cyclically symmetric.
Figure 36-2 Wheel Topology Design
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 36
494
Modeling Tips
CASI solver is limited to compliance minimization topology optimization problem only.
The cyclical symmetry constraints can also be used for rotational parts <60. In addition, the starting surface
must be XY plane for cyclical symmetric CS=X, YZ plane for CS=Y; ZX plane for CS=Z, respectively. The
cyclical symmetric segment (NCS) must also be defined in 360 for this case. For example, a 90 rotational
part has three segments, NCS must be set to NCS=12 in 360.
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_36.dat Cyclical symmetry constraints
Main Index
Chapter 37: Local Adaptive Meshing
37
Local Adaptive Meshing

Summary 496

Introduction 497

Modeling Details 498

Mesh Refinement Process Definition 499

Material Modeling 500

Loading and Boundary Conditions 500

Solution Procedure 501

Results 501

Modeling Tips 505

Input File(s) 506

Video 506
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 37
496
Summary
Title Chapter 37: Local Adaptive Meshing
Features 2-D structure mesh refinement
Region to be refined defined by property identifier
Mesh adaptivity criterion based on error indicator
Free-Free structure
Geometry

Material properties
, ,
Analysis characteristics Linear static analysis using local adaptive meshing functionality
Boundary conditions Automatic inertia relief (INREL = -2)
Applied loads Tensile axial loading acting on the shortest edge of the plate (F = 280 N)
Element type 4-node, 3-node 2-D elements (QUAD4/TRIA3)
FE results 1. Stress at the most critical point for each refinement cycle
2. Stress concentration factor to compare with theoretical results
s
d H F F
H = 0.4 m
d = 0.2 m
s = 0.02 m
F = 280 N

max

nominal
E 69GPa = v 0.33 = 3200kg/m
3
=
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1.5
2.0
2.5
Numerical
Theoretical (2.157)
Stress Concentration
Refinement Cycle

max

nominal
K =
t
Main Index
497
CHAPTER 37
Local Adaptive Meshing
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of the mesh refinement capability to converge on the correct solution in terms
of stress distribution. A very simple structure has been considered to enable a comparison between theoretical and
numerical results.
Theory, based on net section, states that if the nominal stress is defined as the stress acting on the net
section (defined as the section that results from the difference between the width of the plate and the diameter of the
hole), then the stress concentration factor due to the presence of the hole is , where is the actual stress
at the critical point. The stress concentration factor can be calculated from the empirical relationship shown in
Figure 37-1.
Figure 37-1 Graphical Representation of Stress Concentration Factor versus d/H
The theoretical results and input data are shown in Table 37-1.
Table 37-1 Input Data and Theoretical Results
Applied
Load
(N) Geometrical Data (m)
Stress
Concentration
Factor
Nominal
Stress (Pa)
Maximum
Stress (Pa)
F H d s
280.0 0.4 0.2 0.02 2.157 70000.0 150990.0
o
nom
F
H d ( )s
--------------------- =
k
t
o
max
o
nom
------------ = o
max
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

3 2
1 320 . 1 1 600 . 0 1 284 . 0 2

+ =
H
d
H
d
H
d
k
t
K
t
H
d
k
t
o
nom
o
max
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CHAPTER 37
498
Modeling Details
A numerical solution has been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 101 for a 2-D representation of a free-
free plate with a hole in its central region. The details of finite element model, contact simulation, material, load,
boundary conditions and solution procedure are discussed below.
Figure 37-2 Initial Finite Element Model with Zoom in the Critical Region
The initial finite element model consists of:
M O D E L S U M M A R Y
NUMBER OF GRID POINTS = 964
NUMBER OF CQUAD4 ELEMENTS = 872
NUMBER OF CTRIA3 ELEMENTS = 12
The case control section of the input contains the typical entries for a linear static analysis. The only command that
has been added to activate the mesh refinement is HADAPT. This, in turn, specifies the use of the bulk data entries,
HADAPTL and HADACRI that control all the refinement process (see next section for details):
ECHO = NONE
HADAPT = 1
PARAM POST 0
PARAM,INREL,-2
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=First mesh
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(PLOT,SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(PLOT,SORT1,REAL,VONMISES,BILIN)=ALL
Furthermore, the INREL parameter has been included with a value of -2 to activate the automatic inertia relief
process. It is needed (automatic or manual) because the structure is in free-free conditions (unrestrained). The output
request for displacement has been considered only to check the congruency of the deformation while the stress output
is what we really need for comparison with the theoretical results.
The Bulk Data Section contains the standard options for a linear static analysis plus the specific option for mesh
refinement control.
Main Index
499
CHAPTER 37
Local Adaptive Meshing
Mesh Refinement Process Definition
The following options have been added to the standard linear static analysis Bulk Data section to define the mesh
refinement process:
$----------------------------------------------------------------------
$ C A R D S F O R R E F I N E M E N T
$---1---$---2---$---3---$---4---$---5---$---6---$---7---$---8---$---9---
HADAPTL 1 7 1 PROP 2 1
+
HADACRI 1 1 0.9
$----------------------------------------------------------------------
The HADAPTL option specifies the local adaptive mesh refinement control parameters. In particular, referring to the
specific name associated to each field in the MSC Nastran Quick Reference Guide, the process has been defined in this
way:
REPEAT = 7 (5
th
field): maximum number of refinement cycles executed before the process is stopped
CRITID = 1 (6
th
field): associated HADACRI option identifier
WHEREMET = PROP (7
th
field): method used to specify the mesh refinement region subjected to the adaptivity
criteria referenced in the associated HADACRI. PROP means that all the elements associated to a specific
property option are considered by the refinement process
WHEREID = 2 (8
th
field): Identifier of the mesh refinement region subjected to the selected adaptivity criteria.
Considering the WHEREMET value and the elements used in the finite element model, all the elements
associated to PSHELL which identifier is 2 will be involved in the refinement process
SNAPMETH =1 (9
th
field): Method to project, snap, or relax new grid points on mid-edge or mid-face during
the refinement process. The selected value allows the projection onto a smooth approximation of the analysis
domain boundary interpolated from the mesh boundary.
MAXLEVEL = default (2
nd
field in the second physical option for HADAPTL): Maximum refinement level
allowed for each individual element in the mesh. No elements will be refined to a level higher than the
specified value. The default value is equal to that one defined in the REPEAT field.
The HADACRI option specifies the mesh adaptivity criterion and the corresponding parameters. In this case, the
method based on a scalar error indicator has been chosen (TYPE = 1 in the 3
rd
field). According to this criterion a
scalar error indicator E
e
is computed in the finite element mesh and an element e will be refined if:
where is the total number of elements in the element set to which it belongs and is the value specified in the 4
th

field of this option (in the specific case ). Note that the elemental error indicator is computed using the grid
point stresses following the procedure utilized by the ELSDCON Case Control command.
E
e
2
F
1
1
N
---- E
f
2
f 1 =
N

--------------------------------- 1 >
N F
1
F
1
0.9 =
Main Index
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CHAPTER 37
500
Material Modeling
Isotropic elastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the following MAT1 option as follows:
MAT1 1 6.9+10 .33 3200.
The Youngs modulus is taken to be 6.9 GPa with a Poissons ratio of 0.33. Mass density ( = 3200 Kg/mm
3
) has
also been specified to support the inertia relief process. Note that the results are not affected by the value included
in this field.
Loading and Boundary Conditions
No boundary conditions have been defined because the structure is not constrained.
The loading involves application of concentrated forces (to simulate uniform load distribution) at the nodes located on
the shortest edges of the plate:
$ Loads for Load Case : Case_2
LOAD 2 1. 1. 1 1. 3 1. 4
1. 5
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Central_NEG
FORCE 1 252 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 253 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 254 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 255 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 256 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 257 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 258 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 735 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 736 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 737 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 738 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 739 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 1 740 0 20. -1. 0. 0.
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Central_POS
FORCE 3 504 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 505 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 506 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 507 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 508 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 509 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 510 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 959 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 960 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 961 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 962 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 963 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 3 964 0 20. 1. 0. 0.
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Ends_POS
FORCE 4 503 0 10. 1. 0. 0.
FORCE 4 958 0 10. 1. 0. 0.
$ Nodal Forces of Load Set : TENSILE_FORCE_Ends_NEG
FORCE 5 251 0 10. -1. 0. 0.
FORCE 5 734 0 10. -1. 0. 0.
Main Index
501
CHAPTER 37
Local Adaptive Meshing
Solution Procedure
According to the HADAPTL and HADACRI control options, the refinement process starts with a preliminary calculation
(CYCLE = 0 or ANALYSIS number 1) using the initial finite element model. Then, the refinement process starts and
continues up to a number of cycles equal to REPEAT (3
rd
field in HADAPTL). During these cycles, each element
involved will be refined up to MAXLEVEL value (2
nd
field in the second physical option in HADAPTL).
As result of each refinement cycle the following files will be generated (xxxx.bdf is the generic name of the input
file and):
xxxx.n.bdf It contains the grid points, the elements and the MPC options related to the refined mesh
created at the specific refinement cycle
xxxx.n.xdb It contains the model and the results for the specific refinement cycle.
where n is the number of the generic refinement cycle.
Furthermore, the standard files xxxx.log, xxxx.f04, xxxx.f06 are generated. In the last one, it is possible to read
some information about the refinement process show in the example below:
^^^------------------------------------------------------
^^^GLOBAL NUMBER OF ELEMENTS: 1096
^^^AVERAGE ERROR INDICATOR: 1.766260E+03
^^^CHANGE IN AVERAGE ERROR INDICATOR: 5.402161E-01 %
^^^------------------------------------------------------
^^^* * * E N D O F A N A L Y S I S #: 2 * * *
^^^------------------------------------------------------
by which it is possible to verify how it is proceeding and when the specific cycle is finished.
Results
The first result to analyze is the way in which the finite element mesh is changed during the refinement cycles. In the
figure below all the refined models are summarized. Note that the MPC relationships used to establish the congruency
between regions with different meshes are not displayed to make the images clearer.
Main Index
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CHAPTER 37
502
Figure 37-3 Refined Finite Element Models
Refinement Cycle 1
Refinement Cycle 6
Refinement Cycle 5
Refinement Cycle 4
Refinement Cycle 3
Refinement Cycle 2
Refinement Cycle 7
Refinement Cycle 1
Refinement Cycle 6
Refinement Cycle 5
Refinement Cycle 4
Refinement Cycle 3
Refinement Cycle 2
Refinement Cycle 7
Main Index
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CHAPTER 37
Local Adaptive Meshing
Looking at the refined meshes obtained in the subsequent cycles, it can be seen how important it is to activate a
projection onto a smooth approximation of the analysis domain boundary from the mesh boundary (SNAPMTHD field
in HADAPTL option). In fact, it avoids the creation of kinks that create two problems:
Driving the refinement process around the geometrical singularities
Generating stress concentration in the singular regions
Displacement output has been required only to verify the correctness of the solution in terms of deformed structure.
The use of PARAM.INREL,-2 enables a meaningful deformed structure in the case of free-free boundary conditions
(Figure 37-4). The deformation seems to be congruent with the applied loads.
Figure 37-4 Deformed Structure
Also, the stress distribution is as we expect.
Figure 37-5 von Mises Stress Distribution Relative to the Last Refinement Cycle
The stress level in the critical point is compared with the theoretical one and the relative stress concentration factor is
calculated. The resulting data are summarized in the following table together with other general information related
to refinement effects on mesh size and error indicator.
The error percentages are calculated according to the following relationship:
while, as already mentioned, the stress concentration factor is calculated as:
Error%
Cal cul at ed val ue Theoret i cal val ue
Theoret i cal val ue
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 100 =
k
t
o
max
o
nom
------------ =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 37
504
Referring to Table 37-1, the theoretical values for maximum stress and stress concentration factor are:
Two important considerations can be seen in Table 37-2:
The evaluated stress concentration factor is close to the theoretical one. The relative error is about 0.3%.
The differences between two subsequent maximum stresses decreases increasing the refinement level
(Figure 37-6).
Maximum Stress
= 150990 N/m
2

Nominal Stress
= 70000 N/m
2

Stress Concentration Factor = 2.157
Table 37-2 Results Comparison
Refinement
Cycle
Global
Number of
elements
Average
Error
Indicator
Maximum
von Mises
Stress
(N/mm
2
)
Stress
Concentration
Factor
Stress
Concentration
Factor Error
(%)
0 880 - 115461.46 1.649 -23.53
1 1100 1756.77 130292.07 1.861 -13.71
2 1568 1766.26 137223.50 1.960 -9.12
3 2900 1582.74 141407.04 2.020 -6.35
4 6476 1211.11 145797-84 2.083 -3.44
5 16326 838.27 148861.35 2.127 -1.41
6 41060 530.66 150535.57 2.151 -0.30
7 98996 338.77 150545.23 2.151 -0.29
Main Index
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CHAPTER 37
Local Adaptive Meshing
Figure 37-6 Theoretical/Numerical Stress Concentration Factor Comparison
Modeling Tips
Some suggestions can be helpful to define the best refinement process:
The refinement can be limited using the field MAXLEVEL in the HADAPTL option. None of the elements in the mesh
will be refined to a level larger than MAXLEVEL. Limiting this process is necessary to avoid run-away refinement. In
this example, the default value (MAXLEVEL = REPEAT) has been used not only to test the right convergence towards
the theoretical stress but also the limited improvement introduced in the latest refinement cycles.
Kinks (e.g., sharp internal corners that lack continuity) should be avoided in order to limit their influence:
on the refinement process (if they exist, the refinement is concentrated around the geometrical singularities)
on results (avoiding kinks prevents fictitious stress singularities)
Kinks can be controlled defining SNAPMTHD = 1 in the HADAPTL option. In this example, the relaxation/projection
method has been activated for the grid points created by the procedure; to verify its positive effect, change SNAPMTHD
from 1 to 0 and see how the refinement process behaves. The refined meshes are concentrated along the geometrical
singularities (sharp corners or kinks of a polygonal hole) and the results (the maximum value always increases) will
continue to subdivide elements near the kinks.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1.5
2.0
2.5
Numerical
Theoretical (2.157)
Stress Concentration
Refinement Cycle

max

nominal
K =
t
C
1
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 37
506
Setting SNAPMTHD = 1 ensures the geometry of the hole is correctly represented during the refinement process. By
creating a cylindrical coordinate system at the center of the hole, all the grid points that have been generated on the
boundary are all at R = 0.1 m, exactly the radius of the circle (the error is on the fifth decimal digit). It confirms the
need to use the SNAPMTHD = 1 relaxation/projection procedure.
Input File(s)
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 37-7 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_37.dat MSC Nastran input file for local adaptive meshing example
nug_37.bdf MSC Nastran input file for local adaptive meshing example used in video
nug37.SimXpert MSC Nastran input file for local adaptive meshing example
s
d H F F
H = 0.4 m
d = 0.2 m
s = 0.02 m
F = 280 N

max

nominal
Main Index
Chapter 38: Landing Gear
38
Landing Gear

Summary 508

Introduction 509

Solution Requirements 509

FEM Solution 509

Results 516

Modeling Tips 519

Input File(s) 519

Video 520
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 38
508
Summary
Title Chapter 38: Landing Gear
Contact features Frictionless Deformable-Deformable Contact
Glued Contact for non-matching meshes
Geometry
Material properties
Youngs Modulus = 3.0x10
7
Psi, Poissons ratio = 0.3
Boundary conditions Pinned Connections with/without Glued Contact SOL 400
)
Element types HEXA, TETRA, BAR
FE results Verify the contact conditions (GLUE and nonGLUE)
DRAG STRUT
AXLE
SIDE STRUT
GAS SPRING
UPPER CYLINDER
UPPER TORQUE LINK
LOWER TORQUE LINK
TORSION LINK APEX PIVOT
UPPER LINK PIVOT
LOWER LINK SPACER
UPPER LINK SPACER
APEX SPACER
INNER CYLINDER
DRAG STRUT PIVOT
SIDE STRUT PIVOT
PI NNED CONNECTI ONS
Main Index
509
CHAPTER 38
Landing Gear
Introduction
This test case demonstrates contact analysis using MSC Nastran. Two types of contact conditions between components
are considered:
glue contact
nonglue contact
In the first one, the contact is maintained for all the analysis after it occurs. In other words, nodes in contact are not
allowed to separate whereas, in the second one, separation can change depending on the loading conditions.
Large displacement/rotation and nonlinear materials are not taken into account in this example.
Solution Requirements
The numerical analysis is performed to demonstrate the behaviors of the 3-D surface contact solution into MSC
Nastran. In particular, the simultaneous presence of glue, nonglue surface contact is considered. The deformed
structure, the satisfaction of the relative motion between components, and the stresses in the contact regions are
considered as result of the analysis.
FEM Solution
FEM solutions have been obtained with MSC Nastrans solution sequence 400. The details of finite element models,
contact simulations, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed.
Finite Element Models
The structure consists of different components that have been modeled independently taking into account that
matching meshes are not needed in the contact regions.
Due to geometrical behaviors:
The pins and the spacers have been modeled by 8-node HEXA elements
4-node TETRA elements have been used to model the remaining components. Note that fine meshes have
been used for these components in order to avoid the rigidity of such kind of element associated with this type
of element.
For the axle, two BAR elements have been used. In this way the proper load has been applied in the middle grid point.
No LGDISP parameter has been defined and therefore no geometrical nonlinearity is considered.
Main Index
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CHAPTER 38
510
Contact Models
In defining the contact regions for the structure, the components are modeled as deformable bodies. In particular, 15
contact bodies have been defined by specific BCBODY and BCSURF entries (each couple of options has been defined
using the same identifier). Note that each of them has been defined considering all the elements belonging to the
specific components.
Each contact body has been defined in the same way so, as an example, one set of options is used to define one of them
that has been listed:
$ Deform Body Contact LBC set: lower_link_spacer
BCBODY 13 3D DEFORM 13 0 -1
BSURF 13 161551 161552 161553 161554 161555 161556 161557
161558 161559 161560 161561 161562 161563 161564 161565
161566 161567 161568 161569 161570 161571 161572 161573
161574 161575 161576 161577 161578 161579 161580 161581
161582
In the above BCBODY option, the 3-D (third field) elements mentioned in the BSURF which identifier is 13 (look at
the fifth field) define the contact body number 13. Furthermore:
The fourth field defines the general behavior of the contact body. In this case, it is a deformable contact body
The null value in the sixth field means that symmetric penetration or double side contact check is considered.
The contact is verified symmetrically and both the contact surfaces are checked for penetration and, also, if
we need to define a MASTER and a SLAVE in any case.
Table 38-1 Contact Body General Information
BCBODY/BSU Component Name Elements
1 Drag Strut 217804 - 237802
2 Drag Strut Pivot 159301 - 160572
3 Gas Spring 160575 - 161534
4 Inner Cylinder 200218 - 217803
5 Lower Link Pivot 157797 - 158596
6 Lower Torque Link 277629 - 297917
7 Side Strut 237803 - 257846
8 Side Strut Pivot 159717 - 160332
9 Torsion Link Ape Pivot 158597 - 159300
10 Upper Cylinder 161663 - 200217
11 Upper Link Pivot 156997 - 157796
12 Upper Torque Link 257847 - 277628
13 Lower Link Spacer 161551 - 161582
14 Upper Link Spacer 161599 - 161630
15 Apex Spacer 161647 - 161662
Main Index
511
CHAPTER 38
Landing Gear
The empty seventh field forces a null friction coefficient. It means that no tangential forces are generated
when the contact condition occurs, unless these bodies are glued together.
The negative value in the eighth field allows activating the analytic option for a deformable body. It is used in
this case because the part of each component involved in the contact process is cylindrical and therefore is
simple to represent it analytically. In this way, the contact is represented in the best way.
After the definition of the contact bodies, each couple of bodies that could be in contact must be defined in the
BCTABLE option. In this entry, one of the contact bodies is defined as the MASTER while the other one is the SLAVE.
The contact behaviors are completely defined. An example of the option format used in this case is listed below:
BCTABLE 1 19
SLAVE 1 4.-2 0. 0. 0. 1
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 2
SLAVE 2 4.-2 0. 0. 0. 1
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 10
SLAVE 3 4.-2 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 3 4.-2 0. 0. 0. 1
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 10
...
...
SLAVE 12 4.-2 0. 0. 0. 1
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 14
SLAVE 12 4.-2 0. 0. 0. 0
0 0 0
FBSH 1.+20 0. 0.
MASTERS 15
It can be checked how the nineteen contact regions (look at the fifth field of the above BCTABLE option) are defined
in the same. The only difference is in the eighth field of the option where the SLAVE option is defined. In fact, we can
see a unit or null value. If a unit value is defined, the two contact surfaces must be glued. It means that the glue option
is activated and all the degrees of freedom of the nodes are tied in case of deformable-deformable contact once the
node comes in contact. In general, if the unit value is defined, all degrees of freedom are MPCd in the deformable-
deformable contact once the grids have come in contact. To turn on the general SOL 400 contact algorithm the entry:
BCPARA, 0, NLGLUE,1
is used. It should be taken into account that if, in SOL 400 on the BCTABLE, there are multiple GLUE and nonGLUE
entries associated with different SLAVE entries, then, the above option must be used. It is the case in this example.
A null value activates the standard contact conditions. It means that a SLAVE node can move only over the MASTER
contact surface when it comes in contact (except if glued). In this case, if the general load condition leads to the
separation of the contact bodies, the slave node start again to move without constraints. Note that in this entry different
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 38
512
contact parameters (the distance below which the node is considered in contact, friction coefficient, separation force,
stress friction limit, contact tolerance bias, etc) can be defined for each contact region.
The BCTABLE entry is activated by BCONTACT option in the Case Control section. Note that in this case, a
BCONTACT = 0, defined above the subcase level activates the corresponding BCPARA,0 and BCTABLE,0 entries
defined in the Bulk Data Section. It allows to initially identify contacting bodies. Note that in SOL 400, a
BCONTACT = 0 is allowed above all subcases but is not required. Any of the contact Bulk Data entries that allow a 0
and have a 0 value ID field are automatically sensed by SOL 400 with or without a BCONTACT = 0 command. The
contact regions are summarized in the table below.
Table 38-2 Contact Body General Information (ID in Parenthesis)
Number
SLAVE Component
(BCBODY ID)
MASTER Component
(BCBODY ID) GLUE
1 Drag Strut (1) Drag Strut Pivot (2) YES
2 Drag Strut Pivot (2) Upper Cylinder (10) YES
3 Gas Spring (3) Inner Cylinder (4) -
4 Gas Spring (3) Upper Cylinder (10) YES
5 Inner Cylinder (4) Lower Link Pivot (5) -
6 Inner Cylinder (4) Upper Cylinder (10) -
7 Inner Cylinder (4) Lower Link Spacer (13) -
8 Lower Link Pivot (5) Lower Torque Link (6) YES
9 Lower Torque Link (6) Torsion Link Apex Pivot YES
10 Lower Torque Link (6) Lower Link Spacer (13) YES
11 Lower Torque Link (6) Apex Spacer (15) YES
12 Side Strut (7) Side Strut Pivot (8) YES
13 Side Strut Pivot (8) Upper Cylinder (10) YES
14 Torsion Link Apex Pivot Upper Torque Link (12) -
15 Upper Cylinder (10) Upper Link Pivot (11) -
16 Upper Cylinder (10) Upper Link Spacer (14) -
17 Upper Link Pivot (11) Upper Torque Link (12) YES
18 Upper Torque Link (12) Upper Link Spacer (14) YES
19 Upper Torque Link (12) Apex Spacer (15) -
Main Index
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CHAPTER 38
Landing Gear
Figure 38-1 Glued Contact Regions Panels a-e, Nonglued Contact Panel f
Looking at the behaviors of the defined contact regions, it can be checked that:
The gas spring is attached in its upper end to an internal surface of the UPPER cylinder. This system can
move along their common axis according to the non-glued contact regions defined between them and the
INNER cylinder.
The torsion link apex pivot is rigidly connected to the LOWER torque link while a nonglued contact region is
defined between the first body contact and the UPPER torque link. Also, the APEX SPACER is in the same
contact condition. Considering the null friction coefficient, this modeling solution allows to avoid any
singularity maintaining the relative rotational motion between the two links.
The rigid link pivot is rigidly connected to the LOWER torque link but it is connected by nonglued contact
region with the INNER CYLINDER. It is the same modeling solution than the above one.
The two struts are rigidly connected to the UPPER cylinder.
The two torque links (UPPER and LOWER) can rotate around the axes of the two pivots that connect each of
them respectively with the UPPER and the INNER cylinders.
DRAG STRUT
DRAG STRUT PIVOT
DRAG STRUT PIVOT
UPPER CYLINDER
GAS SPRING
UPPER CYLINDER
LOWER LINK PIVOT
LOWER TORQUE LINK
LOWER TORQUE LINK
TORSION LINK APEX PIVOT
LOWER TORQUE LINK
LINK LOWER SPACER
a
b c
d
e f
Main Index
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CHAPTER 38
514
Figure 38-2 Possible Relative Motion Between the Different Components
Material
The isotropic elastic material properties of the steel used for all the components have been defined by the
following MAT1.
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3 7.3-4
Nonlinear behaviors of the material are not considered.
Loading and Boundary Conditions
The set of boundary conditions (SPC = 2) defined in the model simulates hinges between some components and the
ground. In particular, they are positioned in the upper ends of the:
Drag Strut
Side Strut
Upper Cylinder
The following options are used to define this boundary condition:
SPCADD 2 1
...
SPC1 1 123 108520 108521 313468 313469 313470 313471
The braking load condition is considered. It consists of:
Concentrated forces and moments applied to the middle point of the axle. They define three different loads
acting on this component:
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CHAPTER 38
Landing Gear
Brake drag
FORCE 1 314410 0 60000. -1. 0. 0.
MOMENT 3 314410 0 0. .57735 .57735 .57735
Brake side moment
FORCE 4 314410 0 0. .57735 .57735 .57735
MOMENT 5 314410 0 1.335+6 0. 1. 0.
Brake vertical
FORCE 6 314410 0 140000. 0. 0. 1.
MOMENT 7 314410 0 0. .57735 .57735 .57735
Figure 38-3 Pressure Load Applied to the Axle
Breaking Pressure in the inner part of the Upper Cylinder (Load sets from 8 to 11)
PLOAD4 11 164669 1190.4 33161 7479
PLOAD4 11 164864 1190.4 33236 7156
PLOAD4 11 166091 1190.4 55196 49965
...
PLOAD4 10 199542 1190.4 54157 106392
PLOAD4 10 199546 1190.4 105944 106130
Figure 38-4 Pressure Load Applied to the Axle

FX MY FZ
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
X
Z
Y
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516
All these loads are combined by LOAD Bulk data entry to define the applied static load condition
LOAD 2 1. 1. 1 1. 3 1. 4
1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8
1. 9 1. 10 1. 11
Solution Procedure
In the present analysis, contact is the only nonlinearity. It means that the provided load condition generates small
displacements and only the stresses are in the linear elastic part of the stress-strain curve of the material. As
consequence, no geometrical and material nonlinearity are taken in account. Furthermore, looking at the geometries,
the contact conditions seems to be not so complicated, It simplifies the approach to be used in the analysis.
First of all no STEP is defined under the SUBCASE level.
BCONTACT = 0
SUBCASE 1
TITLE=This is a default subcase.
BCONTACT = 1
SPC = 2
LOAD = 2
DISPLACEMENT(plot)=ALL
$ SPCFORCES(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
STRESS(plot)=ALL
BOUTPUT(SORT1,REAL)=ALL
NLPARM = 1
The nonlinear procedure is defined through the following NLPARM entry with ID 1.
NLPARM 1 1 FNT PV YES
Here:
Only one increment is considered.
FNT represents the Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every iteration.
PV indicates that convergence will be checked on vector component (V) of the residuals (P). In this V method,
convergence checking is performed on the maximum vector component of all components in the model.
YES indicates that intermediate output is produced after every increment.
Results
No results to compare are available for this test case so what has been obtained by the calculation will be checked from
a qualitative viewpoint. The maximum total displacement occurs in the bottom part of the inner cylinder, close to the
axle (where the concentrated loads are applied).
Main Index
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CHAPTER 38
Landing Gear
Figure 38-5 Undeformed and Scaled Deformed Structure
To check how the contact is working it is possible to take advantage of a procedure that in MSC Nastran allows storing
all the contact results into the database. In fact it is not possible to obtain these data into XDB (PARAM,POST,0) or
OUTPUT2 (PARAM,POST,-1) postprocessing files while adding the keyword:
scr = post
in the Nastran command line, all the results, including the contact ones, are stored into the database. They are retrieved
into MSC Patran selecting:
in the Results Window.
The following results can be displayed for contact regions
Contact Status
Friction contact force, Magnitude
Normal contact force, Magnitude
Contact force, Friction
Contact force, Normal
Contact stress, Friction 1
Contact stress, Friction 2
Contact stress, Normal
It is possible to understand which components are in contact displaying the Contact Status output. As first example
some of the contact regions belonging to the lower and upper torque links will be considered.
Looking at the Contact Status Contours in Figure 38-7 and taking into account the contact regions behaviors (as
summarized in Figure 38-6) we can say that:
Both the contact bodies regions (MASTER and SLAVES) are highlighted.
Action Access Results
Object Attach Entities
Method Result Entities or Both
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518
The contact status in the UPPER TORQUE LINK-TORSION LINK APEX PIVOT nonglued contact
region put in evidence how the deformation of the structure determines the contact only in a limited part of
the bodies.
A good contact modeling is recognized by a congruent representation of the Contact Status output in the
MASTER and SLAVE contact bodies. In particular in case of glued contact a continuous contact status contour
should be displayed. A different representation could highlights problems in the geometries of the contact
bodies.
Figure 38-6 Upper and Lower Torque Links Connections
Figure 38-7 First Contact Status Contour Plot Example
A nonclear situation is displayed for the nonglued contact between UPPER TORQUE LINK and TORSION APEX
PIVOT. In fact, the contact status is differently represented in the corresponding contact regions of the two
components. Probably, the combined effects of the deformation and the different element types in the two components
determine it.

UPPER TORQUE LlNK
LOWER TORQUE LlNK
TORSlON LlNK APEX PlVOT
- SLAVE in contact region with UPPER TORQUE LlNK
- MASTER in contact region with LOWER TORQUE LlNK (GLUED)
UPPER LINK PIVOT
- SLAVE in contact region with UPPER TORQUE LINK (GLUED)
- MASTER in contact region with UPPER CYLINDER
APEX SPACER
- MASTER in both the GLUED contact regions

LOWER TORQUE LlNK
UPPER TORQUE LlNK
TORSlON LlNK APEX PlVOT
APEX SPACER
(NON-GLUED)
MASTER/SLAVE
MASTER/SLAVE
(GLUED)
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CHAPTER 38
Landing Gear
Differently, in case of nonglued contact regions defined in the UPPER CYLINDER-UPPER LINK PIVOT
connection the contact status seems to be represented correctly (see Figure 38-8). In fact, there is a complete
congruency between the two regions that are in contact.
Figure 38-8 Second Contact Status Contour Plot Example
Modeling Tips
Important behaviors of this example are the definition of glued and nonglued contact regions and the effects of contact
geometries to obtain good results. Contact is only verified in a qualitative viewpoint by the analysis of the Contact
Status output.
The following are some guidelines and tips for modeling this benchmark:
The geometry of a contact surface should be defined property in order to avoid problems when it touches
another surface contact.
The density of the mesh affects the results in the contact region in particular in case of contact surfaces with
nonplanar shape and in which different types of elements are used.
Use the Contact Status output to check if the contact is working properly (use scr=post in the Nastran
command line to obtain this kind of output).
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_38.dat MSC Nastran SOL 400 input for the landing gear model
UPPER CYLlNDER
(NON-GLUED)
MASTER/SLAVE
UPPER LlNK PlVOT
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520
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 40 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 38-9 Video of the Above Steps
Main Index
Chapter 39: Brake Squeal Analysis
39
Brake Squeal Analysis

Summary 522

Introduction 523

Modeling Details 523

Results 528

Modeling Tips 530

Input File(s) 530

Reference 530

Video 530
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 39
522
Summary
Title Chapter 39: Brake Squeal Analysis
Contact features Contact friction induced dynamic instability leading to brake squeal
Geometry
Model Courtesy of
Dr. Lin Jun Seng of TRW
Automotive
Material properties
Back plate E = 2.07x10
8
kg/(mm-sec
2
), = 0.28, = 7.82x10
-6
kg/mm
3
Insulator: E = 2.07x10
8
kg/(mm-sec
2
), = 0.28, = 7.82x10
-6
kg/mm
3
Pad: Anisotropic Organic Material
Rotor: E = 1.25x10
8
kg/(mm-sec
2
), = 0.24, = 7.2x10
-6
kg/mm
3
Boundary conditions Constraints to simulate caliper guided brake pad motion
Contact between the two deformable bodies with = user selected
Applied loads Piston pressure normal to pad surface
Element types 8-node solid element HEXA and PENTA
FE results
The unstable mode at
1.953 Hz in the analysis
when = 0.3.
R = 144
t = 20
Units: mm, kg, sec
Pad
Rotor
Back_Plate
Insulator
X Y
Z
v
v
v

Main Index
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CHAPTER 39
Brake Squeal Analysis
Introduction
Brake squeal is the unpleasant high frequency vibrations (2000 to 10000 Hz) that occur in disk brake systems.
Application of the brakes causes an increase in line pressure which results in the caliper piston (s) to push the pads
against the spinning rotor. A valuable review paper by Kinkaid et al. (Kinkaid 2003) provide a comprehensive review
and bibliography of research on disc brake squeal. The high pitch noise or squeal occurs when a specific combination
of piston pressure, friction and damping effects cause two stable modes to merge or coalesce into a single unstable
mode.
The solution to preventing modal coalescence is to modify the design. This would include, but is not limited to,
material changes, design changes and the addition or modification of present damping components. However the
analysis of disk brake systems has been challenging due to the complexity of the structure, material properties and
loading environment.
Brake squeal analysis models require not only the typical FEM mesh of the components (pads and rotor at a minimum),
but also the representation of the contact/frictional connection between the pad and rotor. This contact/friction is
represented by an unsymmetric stiffness matrix. Previously in Nastran there were restrictions imposed by this method
that included:
The meshed contact area between the rotor and pad must be congruent
Separation is not allowed; full contact is maintained
The contact matrix is supplied as a DMIG generated outside of the normal FEM calculations
Each contact condition involving the friction coefficient and loading (magnitude and pattern) required a
unique DMIG
Typically, the generation of the DMIG entries required days to weeks of analysis time. Interested users are directed to
Section 5.3 of the Advanced Dynamic Analysis Users Guide for a description on manual generation of the
contact/friction connection DMIG entries.
The introduction of the brake squeal analysis capability in this release has eliminated all of the previous restrictions.
In addition, the user now has the capability to examine various combinations of friction values, loading, and contact
definitions in a single execution. Further, the system matrices can include, at user request, differential stiffness due to
preloading, large displacement effects and full nonlinear property definitions. No longer is the brake squeal analysis
limited to a string of single shot runs or multiple restarts. This example features the following: 3-D deformable-
deformable contact with friction, multiple SUBCASE/STEP analysis, user selectable complex solution domain - real
or modal space, choice of complex Lanczos or Hessenberg solver, and full user control of contact parameters.
Modeling Details
Brake squeal analysis is activated in MSC Nastran's Advanced Nonlinear solution sequence (SOL 400) with the Bulk
Data entry BSQUEAL. The BSQUEAL entry is selectable within the Case Control section at the SUBCASE level. With
the analysis chaining capability complex eigenvalues can be computed at user selected load factors.
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524
The case control loading and modal extraction requests are shown in the listing that follows. This example
demonstrates the extraction of complex modes at specific piston load points
SUBCASE 100
$
SUBTITLE = Nonlinear static analysis
SPC = 2
METHOD = 100 $ Modal Approach
CMETHOD = 200
AUTOSPC(noprint) = YES
RESVEC = NO
$
STEP 1
LABEL = Nonlinear Static Step
NLPARM = 2 $ Ten load increments
BCONTACT = 1
BOUTPUT = NONE $ No contact surface output
SPC = 2
LOAD = 200
$
$ STEPs for complex eigenvalue extraction
$
STEP 2
LABEL = Brake Squeal modes at 20% piston load 0.3 friction coeff
ANALYSIS=MCEIG
BSQUEAL = 900
NLIC STEP 1 LOADFAC 0.2
$
STEP 3
LABEL = Brake Squeal modes at 50% piston load 0.3 friction coeff
ANALYSIS=MCEIG
BSQUEAL = 900
NLIC STEP 1 LOADFAC 0.5
$
STEP 4
LABEL = Brake Squeal modes at 80% piston load 0.3 friction coeff
ANALYSIS=MCEIG
BSQUEAL = 900
NLIC STEP 1 LOADFAC 0.8
BEGIN BULK
...
The analysis contains a single SUBCASE with four STEPs. Step 1 performs the nonlinear loading in 10 steps. Contact
bodies are selected with the BCONTACT where the contact friction values are defined on the Bulk Data BCTABLE.
This step performs a normal nonlinear 3-D contact analysis that allows separation of the contact surfaces.
Steps 2 through 4 perform a complex eigenvalue extraction at selected load points. The methods used to extract the
modes are defined above all the STEP definitions. Activation is done with the ANALYSIS=MFREQ entry which requires
a normal modes and complex modes selection which in this example is above all STEP definitions. The user has access
to all of the MSC Nastran modern modal methods: Lanczos, complex Lanczos, and Hessenberg.
Load steps selected for complex mode extraction is defined by the NLIC entry. This entry selects the loading STEP and
the load increment - LOADFAC. The allowable values for LOADFAC are determined by the INC value defined on the
Main Index
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CHAPTER 39
Brake Squeal Analysis
Bulk Data NLPARM entry. The BSQUEAL entry is also present to select the variables such as friction value to be used
in generating the contact stiffness matrix between the pad and rotor. As the example shows, complex modes are
extracted for a defined friction value of 0.3 at piston loads of 20, 50, and 80 percent of the maximum. This then allows,
in one execution, monitoring the complex modes for possible coalesce of two modes which signals the onset of brake
squeal.
Modeling Contact
Contact is easily defined in MSC Nastran. The Bulk Data pair BCBODY/BSURF to designate the type of contact body
(deformable) and the elements comprising the contact body. The contact algorithms locate the element faces that will
potentially participate in contact surfaces. There is no need for user effort to limit the elements listed on the BSURF
entry to aid the contact algorithms. For example, all of the elements in the rotor are selected in BCBODY/BSURF 4 of
the larger model, and there is no need to painstaking pick only those elements that might contact the pads; similarly
for the pads.
The contact bodies for this example model are shown in Figure 39-1. Note that the elements defining the contact body
can be groups of discontinuous elements as shown by the brake pads.
Figure 39-1 Contact Bodies
Additional contact bodies are permitted. With disk brake systems, other components would be (but not limited to) the
caliper, pistons, guide pins, and steering knuckle. The BCTABLE collects the contact bodies and assigns various
parameters related to the surface contact. In the example below, there are four contact bodies. Contact between the
pads and pistons are defined as glued contact - integer 1 in field 8. Glued contact also has the feature of eliminating
the requirement of matching mesh gridpoints between the bodies. Pad and rotor contact is defined as full nonlinear
contact with a frictional value of 0.3.
If the contact surfaces are a mixture on glued (pistons to pads) and full nonlinear contact (pads to rotor) the BCPARAM
entry is also required.
BCPARA 0 nlglue 1
bsurf-4
bsurf-5
bsurf-6
X Y
Z
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526
This ensures that a contact body that participate in glued and full nonlinear contact will maintain the full nonlinear
contact status in all STEPs.
$ Contact bodies (see BCBODY/BSURF) - all deformable
$ BODY 4 - Rotor
$ BODY 5 - Outer pad
$ BODY 6 - Inner pad
$ Body ID Fric Glued
$-------2-------3-------4-------5-------6-------7-------8-------9-------0-------
BCTABLE 0 2
SLAVE 6 0. 0. 0.3 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 5 0. 0. 0.3 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 1 2
SLAVE 6 0. 0. 0.3 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 5 0. 0. 0.3 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 2 2
SLAVE 6 0. 0. 0.4 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 5 0. 0. 0.4 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
BCTABLE 3 2
SLAVE 6 0. 0. 0.5 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
SLAVE 5 0. 0. 0.5 0. 0 0.
2 2 0
MASTERS 4
...
$
$ Rotor deformable contact body
$
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
...(rest of elements omitted)
$ Outer pad deformable contact body
$
BCBODY 5 3D DEFORM 5 0
BSURF 5 24400 24401 24402 24403 24404 24405 24406
24407 24408 24409 24410 24411 24412 24413 24414
...(rest of elements omitted)
$
$ Inner pad deformable contact body
$
BCBODY 6 3D DEFORM 6 0
BSURF 6 20704 20705 20706 20707 20708 20709 20710
20711 20712 20713 20714 20715 20716 20717 20718
...(rest of elements omitted)
BCTABLE with ID 0 is used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option
required in SOL 400 for contact analysis, and it is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT
= 0 option. The BCTABLE with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and
it is flagged using BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section. Also, the SLAVE-MASTER combination defines that the
nodes for body 1 are nodes belonging to the slave body. This in literature is referred by various terminologies as either
Main Index
527
CHAPTER 39
Brake Squeal Analysis
contacting body nodes or tied nodes (imagining the situation of multi-point constraints). The nodes belonging to body
2 are said to belong to the master body which are also referred to as the contacted body nodes or the retained nodes
(imagining the situation of multi-point constraints)
The definition of the contact bodies (defined as Rotor and Pads in Figure 39-1 above) as stated above use the
BCBODY/BSURF Bulk Data pair. The BCBODY options define the deformable body including the body ID,
dimensionality, type of body, type of contact constraints and friction, etc. BSURF identifies the elements forming a
part of the deformable body and includes the convenient THRU option when listing the element ID's.
Brake Squeal Parameters
The BSQUEAL Bulk Data entry supplies information specific for forming the brake squeal analysis.
$ ID OMETH AVSTIF
BSQUEAL 900 0.5 1.e+5
0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
AVSTIF is the average stiffness on a per unit basis between the pad and disk. This variable is under user control instead
of a hidden predefined value. This stiffness is used in forming the penalty contact stiffness between the pad and rotor.
Thus AVSTIF has a direct influence over the overall stability of the model and the values of the brake squeal modes.
The default value is 1.0E+4 however it is advised that until the user is comfortable with the calculated results, several
additional brake squeal runs be performed using alternate AVSTIF values.
Evaluation of the proper value for AVSTIF (or if the default is appropriate) can be easily accomplished with the STEP
command. As the BSQUEAL is called from the Case Control section, a series of STEPs can be defined each calling a
BSQUEAL Bulk Data entry with a unique AVSTIF.
The second line of data defines the rotational axis of the rotor; all reference from the basic rectangular coordinate
system. The first three values define the cosines of the rotation axis. The second three values represent a point on the
rotation axis. As the rotor spins about the Z direction, only the Z cosine is supplied. Any point coordinate on the Z axis
would be acceptable for the three values as the rotor straddles the Z=0.0 plane.
Loading and Boundary Conditions
The displacements for the pads simulate the guidance of the brake caliper system. This is best described in Figure 39-2.
Figure 39-2 Displacement Constraints
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528
Pressure is applied to the backside of each brake pad. This is best described in Figure 39-3.
Figure 39-3 Piston Pressure on Brake Pads
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 2 FNT PV YES
FNT represents Full Newton Raphson technique wherein the stiffness is reformed at every iteration. KSTEP (field after
FNT) is left blank, and in conjunction with FNT, it indicates that stiffness needs to be reformed between the end of the
load step and the start of next load increment. The maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment is left
at the default of 25. If more than 25 recycles is exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated.
PV indicates that the maximum norm of vector component of the incremental loads will be checked for convergence.
YES indicates that intermediate output will be produced after every increment. The second line of NLPARM is not
defined indicating that default tolerances will be used for convergence checking.
The number of increments is provided in the 3rd field of the NLPARM option. The default is 10 and this ties back to
the allowable values for LOADFAC on the NLIC entry.
Results
Figure 39-4 shows the displacement (contours and physical shape) of the brake pads due to the pressure load at 100%
magnitude. The undeformed shape is represented by the unshaded wireframe. This information is available for each
load increment (10 as NINC was defaulted to 10.)
Main Index
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CHAPTER 39
Brake Squeal Analysis
Figure 39-4 Displaced Shape at 100% Load
Figure 39-5 is an example of the modal shape of the first unstable complex mode when is 0.3. The mode shapes are
available for every complex mode calculated at each STEP where the BSQUEAL is present.
Figure 39-5 First Unstable Complex Mode Shape at 1953 Hz
The SUBCASE/STEP combination provides the user with the powerful capability to evaluate multiple combinations
of friction, load patterns, and contact properties. In Table 39-1 a simple comparison between two friction values has
been summarized.
Table 39-1 Summary of First Unstable Mode Results
Piston Load
First Unstable
Mode Frequency
Hz
Damping
Coefficient
First Unstable
Mode Frequency
Hz
Damping
coefficient
10% 1914.56 -0.014863 1914.90 -0.027065
20% 1914.55 -0.014855 1914.89 -0.027062
50% 1914.50 -0.014833 1914.84 -0.027052
100% 1914.42 -0.014796 1914.77 -0.027007
0.30 = 0.50 =
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530
Modeling Tips
Start with the smaller demonstration model (small_brake_squeal.dat). This model can be run locally on a PC
machine and runs fast. Data generation is reasonable even with a large number of output requests, then migrate to the
larger model.
Input File(s)
Reference
Kinkaid, N. M. OReilly, O. M. Papadopoulos, P. (2003) Automotive disc brake squeal. Journal of Sound and
Vibration 267, 105-166.
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately four minutes
and explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 39-6 Video of the Above Steps
File Description
nug_39a.dat Simple brake squeal model. Runs fast and users encouraged to evaluate analysis
procedures/selections with this model.
nug_39b.dat This is the large brake squeal model shown in the figures. Although it runs relatively fast it can
generate vast amounts of data, particularly if the print or punch options are chosen.
R = 144
t = 20
Units: mm, kg, sec
Pad
Rotor
Back_Plate
Insulator
X Y
Z
Main Index
Chapter 40: Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
40
Multiple Bird-strikes on
Box Structure

Summary 532

Introduction 533

FEM Solution 535

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 540

Results 593

Input File(s) 597


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
532
Summary
Title Chapter 40: Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Features Multi Material Euler
General Lagrangian-Eulerian Coupling
Failed Coupling Surface
Geometry
Material properties
Analysis characteristics
Explicit Transient Dynamic (SOL 700)
Boundary conditions Plate Structure fixed at ends
Outer flow on the boundary of outer Euler zone.
Element types Lagrange: 4-node shell element
Multi-Euler: 8-node hex element which is generated automatically using Mesh entry
FE results 1. Failure at primary structure followed by impact on secondary structure
2. Time history of total z-force on the coupling surface
Bird 2
Bird 1
Outer Euler Zone
Structure
Inner Euler Zone
Material Titanium Air Bird 1 Bird 2
Density (kg/m
3
) 4527 1.1848 930 930
Bulk Modulus (Pa) 1.03e11 2.2e9 2.2e9
Poissons ratio 0.314
Yield strength (Pa) 1.38e8
Gamma 1.4
Thickness (m) 0.0015
Radius (m) 0.25
Length (m) 0.25
Mass (kg) 0.36 0.285
Initial Velocity (m/s) 150 200
Fail (Eq. Plastic Strain) 0.1
Main Index
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CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Introduction
Bird strike on a box structure is a typical problem in aircraft industries. The box structure simulates the leading edge
of lifting surfaces, e.g. wing, vertical, and horizontal stabilizers. The box can be simplified to consist of a curve leading
edge panel and a front spar. The acceptable design criteria for bird strike are that the leading edge panel may fail but
the front spar strength may not degrade to a certain level.
In this example, two cylindrical panels are concentric. Two birds strike the upper panel. One bird strikes in horizontal
direction and the second one vertically. The second bird will perforate the first panel and impact the second one. The
birds are modeled as cylindrical slugs of jelly. The plate is constrained in such a way that the edges can only move in
radial direction.
Figure 40-1 Initial Situations
The properties and initial conditions of the plate and birds are as follows:
Plate Ambient B Bird 1 Bird 2
Material Titanium Air Jelly Jelly
Density (kg/m3) 4527 1.1848 930 930
Bulk modulus (Pa) 1.03e11 2.2e9 2.2e9
Poissons ratio 0.314
Yield stress (Pa) 1.38e8
Gamma 1.4
Thickness (m) 0.0015
Radius (m) 0.25
Bird 2 Bird 1
200 m/s
150 m/s
60
o
Main Index
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CHAPTER 40
534
Solution Requirements
SOL 700 Model
Each curved plate is modeled using 33x16 BLT-shells. The boundary conditions applied at the edges of the plate are
defined within a cylindrical coordinate system, where the local z-axis is aligned with the length axis of the plate. The
cylindrical system is defined using a CORD2C entry. To create a closed surface, required by COUPLING option, the
two plates are connected with dummy quad elements.
The two birds and air are modeled using Multi Material Eulerian (FV) elements, also known as MMHYDRO. The
location of the bird in the Euler domain is defined using TICEUL option.
The material for the birds and air are modeled using EOSPOL and EOSGAM, respectively.
To allow the bird perforating the first plate and impact the second one, several modeling techniques can be used. One
of them is using two Eulerian domains and two coupling surfaces. Both the Eulerian domains and the coupling surfaces
have to be logically different. Each coupling surface associates with one Eulerian domain.
In this model, the two coupling surfaces share the same physical space. By specifying that one domain is covered
outside and the other inside, the Eulerian domain represents the correct physical space. The two Eulerian domains
cannot interact with each other except through coupling surfaces. When coupling surfaces share the same shell
elements with some or all shells failing, then the material can flow from one Eulerian domain into another one. The
interaction between the Eulerian domains is activated using COUP1INT option and PARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE,
FAIL. The rest of the Euler domain is filled with air. Please notice that when the effect of air is neglected, then the rest
of the Eulerian domain should be filled with void. It will speed up the analysis.
The first domain is associated with a coupling surface that is ,16,'( covered. Therefore, it cannot be adaptive and is
defined using MESH,, BOX option. The second domain is adaptive and defined using MESH,, ADAPT. The ADAPT
option will let SOL 700 create and update the Eulerian domain to minimize memory allocation and consequently
reduced CPU time. The default Eulerian boundary condition is set to that only outflow is allowed using FLOWDEF
option. In this case, a bird that reaches the free face boundary will flow out of the domain. The initial velocity of the
birds is defined using TICVAL option.
The finite element model of the upper and lower plates, the Eulerian domains and the initialization of the birds are
shown in the Figure 40-2. The dummy quad elements used to create closed coupling surfaces are not shown in
Figure 40-1.
Length (m) 0.25
Mass (kg) 0.36 0.285
Initial velocity (m/s) 150 200
Fail (equiv. Plas. Strain) 0.1
Plate Ambient B Bird 1 Bird 2
Main Index
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CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
FEM Solution
Figure 40-2 Euler Domains
Input File:
SOL 700 is an executive control that activates an explicit nonlinear transient analysis:
Case control cards for problem time, loads, and initial conditions:
TSTEPNL is a SOL 700 bulk data entry which describes the number of time steps (10) and time increment (0.0015
seconds) of the simulation. The total time is the product of the two entries. Notice here the time increment is only for
the first step. The actual number of time increments and the exact value of the time steps is determined by SOL 700
during the analysis. The time step is a function of the smallest element dimension during the simulation.
SOL 700,NLTRAN stop=1
$ Direct Text Input for Executive Control
CEND
TITLE = Multiple BIRD STRIKE on BOX Structure
SUBCASE 1
$ Subcase name: Default
SUBTITLE=Default
TSTEPNL = 1
SPC = 1
IC = 1
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
TSTEPNL 1 10 0.0015 1
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536
Define the Initial, the Minimum and the Safety factor of the time step:
Define coupling surface that can fail and Multi material overflow array to store material data. In a problem where more
than 10% of the elements have more than one material, the default value of )08/7,must be increased.
Define Output results request for every 0.00015 s and time history output request for coupling surfaces:
Euler domain 1:
Define an Euler mesh with 50x28x44 elements reference to PEULER1 (=1):
Define FSI coupling surface from elements listed in the BSURF entry (covering inside):
Define Eulerian element properties with reference to TICEUL1 (=11).
The initial conditions of these elements are defined in geometric regions.
PARAM*, DYINISTEP, 1e-7
PARAM*, DYMINSTEP, 1e-8
DYPARAM, STEPFCTL, 0.9
DYPARAM, FASTCOUP, INPLANE, FAIL
DYPARAM, FMULTI, 0.2
DYPARAM, LSDYNA, BINARY, D3PLOT, .00015
DYTIMHS,, .000001,,,,,,,+
+, CPLSOUT
$ domain 1
$
MESH, 1, BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-0.26,-0.015,-0.05,0.50,0.28,0.44,,,+
+, 50, 28, 44,,,, EULER, 1
$ COUPLING SURFACE 1
$
COUPLE , 1 , 1 , INSIDE , ON , ON , , , , +
+ , , , , , , , , , +
+ , , 1
$
BSURF , 1 , 7393 , THRU , 8448 , 13729 , THRU , 14048 , 14577 , +
+ , THRU , 15236
PEULER1 , 1 , , MMHYDRO , 11
Main Index
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CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Define Regions with shapes, material, initial values and level indicators:
Define region shapes:
Define Initial values of the birds and the air:
Define Eulerian materials for the birds and the environment (air):
Euler domain 2:
Define an adaptive Euler mesh reference to PEULER1 (=6):
$ Allocation of material to geometric regions.
$ --------------------------------------------
TICEUL1 , 11 , 11
TICREG , 1 , 11 , CYLINDER , 1 , 3 , 1 , 3
TICREG , 2 , 11 , CYLINDER , 2 , 5 , 2 , 2
TICREG , 3 , 11 , SPHERE , 4 , 4 , 5 , 1
CYLINDR , 1 , , .13 , .125 , .2252 , .17 , .125 , .2944 ,
+
+ , .035
CYLINDR , 2 , , -.1381 , .125 , .26 , -.2381 , .125 , .26
, +
+ .035
SPHERE , 4 , , -.1381 , .125 , .26 , 1000
TICVAL, 1 , , XVEL , -75 , ZVEL , -129.9
TICVAL, 2 , , XVEL , 200
TICVAL, 5 , , SIE , 2.1388E5 , DENSITY , 1.1848
$--------Material Bird ------------------------------------
MATDEUL , 3 , 930 , 3
EOSPOL , 3 , 2.2e9
MATDEUL , 5 , 930 , 5
EOSPOL , 5 , 2.2e9
$ -------- Material Air id =4
MATDEUL , 4 , 1.1848 , 4
EOSG , 4 , 1.4
$-----------------------------Domain 2--------------------------
----
$
MESH , 2 , ADAPT , 0.01 , 0.01 , 0.01 , , , , +
+ , -0.26 , -0.015 , -0.05 , , , , , , +
+ , , , , , , , EULER , 6
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538
Define FSI coupling surface from elements listed in the BSURF entry (covering outside):
Domain 2 has only 1 region with air.
Interaction between the coupling surfaces 1 and 2:
Define interaction between coupling surface 2 and 1:
Define default Eulerian flow boundary condition:
Define cylindrical coordinate system:
Define properties of the panels:
$===Coupling Surface 2
$
COUPLE , 2 , 2 , OUTSIDE , , , , , , +
+ , , , , , , , , , +
+ , , 2
$
BSURF , 2 , 7393 , THRU , 8448 , 13729 , THRU , 14048 , 14577
, +
TICEUL1,12,12
TICREG,11,12,SPHERE,7,4,5,1.0
SPHERE,7,,0.0,0.0,0.0,500.0
$ coupling interaction
$
COUPINT,2,2,1
$ Flow boundary
$ -------------------------------------------------------------
FLOWDEF , 1 , , MMHYDRO , , , , , , +
+ , FLOW , OUT
$ --------------------
CORD2C , 1 , , 0.0 , 0.0 , 0.0 , 0.0 , 0.25 , 0.0 , +
+ , 0.0 , 0.125 , 0.25
PSHELL1 , 2 , 2 , Blt , Gauss , 3 , .83333
, Mid , , +
+ , .0015
$
MATD024 , 2 , 4527 , 1.150e11 , .314 , 1.38e8 , , 0.1
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539
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Define properties of dummy elements to close the coupling surfaces.
PSHELL,3,999,1.E-3
PSHELL,4,999,1.E-3
$
MATD009,999,1.E-20
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540
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
When aircraft are landing or taking off, they sometimes have difficulties with bird swarms. An impact of several birds
striking at a high velocity can cause severe damage to the structure of the aircraft. So, we are going to consider a
situation where two birds strike a curves titanium plate at an arbitrary time. Bird 1 hits the plate perpendicularly; bird
2 hits the plate on the lower side at an angle of 25 (Figure 40-3). The birds are modeled as cylindrical jelly masses
with the following specifications:
The plate is constrained on the edges in all directions.
Figure 40-3 Birdstrike
Bird 1 Bird 2
Material: Jelly Jelly
Density:
r = 930 kg/m
3
r = 930 kg/m
3
Speed of Sound: c = 1483 m/s c = 1483 m/s
Mass: m2 = .360 kg m2 = .285 kg
Velocity: v1 = 150 m/s v2 = 200 m/s
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541
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create a New Database
Enter the MSC Explicit Workspace.
a. Click MSC Explicit
b. Tools: Options
c. Select Units Manager
d. Select Basic Units (m, kg, s, ...)
e. Select GUI Options; check Solver Card
f. Click OK
g. Click Apply
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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542
Create Curve 1
a. Geometry: Curve
b. Polyline Spline window: Create: select Spline
c. Polyline Spline window, Entities: select Pick
d. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0 0.125; click OK
e. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0.25 0.125; click OK
f. Click Apply
f
e
e
d
c
b
a
d
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543
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create Curve 2
a. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0 0.001; click OK
b. For Entities: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.2165 0.25 0.001; click OK
c. Click Apply
d. Click OK
d c
b
a
a
b
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CHAPTER 40
544
Create Surface1
a. Geometry: Revolve
b. Revolve Axis: Along, select Vector
c. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK (not shown)
d. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 1; click OK (not shown)
e. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 1 0 0; click OK
f. Click OK
g. Revolve Curves: Entities, select CURVE/1
h. For Angle Of Spin (Degrees): enter -120; click OK
h
g
f
e
b
a
Main Index
545
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create Surface2
a. Geometry: Revolve
b. Revolve Axis: Along, select Vector
c. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 -0.124; click OK (not shown)
d. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 1; click OK (not shown)
e. For Locations: X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 1 0 0; click OK
f. Revolve Curves: Entities, select CURVE/2
g. For Angle Of Spin (Degrees): enter -120; click OK
h. Observe results
h
g
f
e
b
a
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546
Create Part2
Create surfaces 3, 4, 5, and 6
a. Assemble: Create Part
b. For Title: enter PART_2
c. For ID: enter 2; click OK
d. Observe in the Model Browser tree: PART_2
e. Surface: Filler
f. For Curves: pick CURVE/3; click OK
g. For Curves: pick CURVE/7; click OK (not shown)
h. Click Apply
i. Observe results
i
h
f
e
d
c
b
a
f
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547
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create Surfaces 4, 5, and 6
a. For Curves: pick CURVE/4; click OK
b. For Curves: pick CURVE/8; click OK
c. Click Apply
d. For Curves: pick CURVE/5; click OK
e. For Curves: pick CURVE/9; click OK
f. Click Apply
g. For Curves: pick CURVE/6; click OK (not shown)
h. For Curves: pick CURVE/10; click OK
i. Click Apply
i
h
f
e
d
c
b
a
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548
Show Labels PART_1
a. Right click in the Main Window
b. Select Render
c. Select Geometry WireFrame
d. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_1
e. Select Set Current
f. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_1
g. Select Show Only
h. Under Tools: select Identify
i. In the Pick window, select Curves
j. In the Pick window, select Surfaces
k. In the Pick window, select Select
l. In the Pick window, click All
m. In the Pick window, click Done (not shown)
n. In the Pick window, click Exit (not shown)
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Seed PART_1
a. Meshing: Seed
b. Type: Number of Elements, enter 20
c. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/3, Curve/4, Curve/7, and Curve/8
d. Click Apply
e. Entity: Curves, pick Clear
f. Type: Number of Elements, enter 40
g. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/5, Curve/6, Curve/9, (not shown) and Curve/10
h. Click Apply
i. Click OK
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
c
b
a
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550
Surface PART_1
a. Meshing: Surface
b. Element Type: Mesh Type, select Quad Dominant
c. Surface to mesh: pick Surface/1 and Surface/2
d. Element property: Add to part: PART_1
e. Click Apply
f. Click OK
f
e
d
c
b
a
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551
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Seed PART_2
a. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_2
b. Select Set Current (not shown)
c. In the Model Browser: right chick PART_2
d. Select Show Only (not shown)
e. Under Tools: select Identify (not shown)
f. In the Pick window, select Curves and Surfaces
g. In the Pick window, select Select
h. In the Pick window, click All
i. In the Pick window, click Done
j. In the Pick window, click Exit
k. Entity: Curves, pick Clear
l. Type: Number of Elements, enter 20 (not shown)
m. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/12 (not shown), Curve/14, Curve/16, and
Curve/18; click Apply
n. Entity: Curves, pick Clear
o. Type: Number of Elements, enter 40 (not shown)
p. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/20, Curve/22, Curve/24,
and Curve/26; click Apply
q. Type: Number of Elements, enter 5
r. Entity: Curves, pick Curve/13 (not shown), Curve/17,
Curve/19, Curve/21, Curve/23, Curve/25, and Curve/23;
click Apply
s. Click OK
s
r
q
p
n
m
k
j i
h
g
f
c a
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552
Surface PART_2
a. Meshing: Seed
b. For Mesh type:, enter Tria Only
c. For Surface to mesh, pick Surface/3, Surface/4, Surface/5, and Surface/6
d. Add to part:, enter PART_2
e. Click Apply
f. Click OK
f e
d
c
b
a
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553
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Merge Nodes Surface 1 - 6
a. In the Model Browser, right click PART_2
b. Select Show All (not shown)
c. Nodes/Elements: Equivalence
d. For Entities, select All Nodes
e. For Merging Option, select Merge Nodes
f. For Merging tolerance, enter 1.e-5
g. Select Keep Lower ID
h. Select Delete merged unreferenced nodes
i. Click OK
j.Click OK
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
a
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CHAPTER 40
554
Shell Materials
a. Materials: MAT[024] MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY (not shown)
b. For Name: enter MATD024_1
c. For MID, enter 1
d. For RHO, enter 4527
e. For E, enter 1.15E11
f. For PR, enter 0.314
g. For SIGY, enter 1.38E8
h. For FAIL, enter 0.1
i. Click Create
j. Materials: MAT[020] MAT_RIGID (not shown)
k. For Name: enter MATD020_2
l. For MID, enter 2
m. For RHO, enter 7856
n. For E, enter 2.1e+011
o. For PR, enter 0.3
p. Click Create
p
o
n
m l
k
i
h g
f
e
d
c
b
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555
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Shell Properties
a. Element Properties: 2D, select PSHELL1
b. For Name: enter PSHELL_1
c. For Card, enter PSHELL1
d. For PID, enter 1
e. For MID, double click, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select MATD024_1; click OK
g. For T1, enter 0.0015
h. Click Create
i. Materials: MAT[020] MAT_RIGID (not shown)
j. For Name: enter PSHELL_2
k. For Card, enter PSHELL2
l. For PID, enter 2
m. For MID, double click, select Select (not shown)
n. For Entity Selection, select MATD020_2; click OK (not shown)
o. For T1, enter 0.0015
p. Click Create
p
o
l
k
j
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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556
Shell Properties Change Region
a. Right click PART_1, select Show Only
b. Right click PSHELL_1, select Properties
c. Click Change Region
d. Screen select All Elements
e. Click Done
f. Click Modify
g. Repeat steps a through f for PART_2
g
f
e
c
b
a
b
Main Index
557
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Euler Properties
a. Element Properties: EOS, select [12] EOS Ideal Gas
b. For Name: enter EOSGAM_1
c. For PID, enter 1
d. For GAMMA, enter 1.4
e. Click Create
f. Element Properties: EOS, select [01] EOS Linear Polynomial
g. For Name: enter EOSPOL_2
h. For PID, enter 2
i. For A, enter 2.2E9
j. Click Create
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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558
Euler Materials
Air material
a. Materials: Eulerian, select Eulerian Material
b. For Name: enter MATDEUL_3
c. For MID, enter 3
d. For RHO, enter 1.1848
e. Double click EID, select Select (not shown)
f. For Entity Selection, select EOSGAM_1; click OK
g. Click Create
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
559
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Euler Materials
Bird material
a. Materials: Eulerian, select Eulerian Material
b. For Name: enter MATDEUL_4
c. For MID, enter 4
d. For RHO, enter 930
e. Double click EID, select Select (not shown)
f. For Entity Selection, select EOSPOL_2; click OK
g. Click Create
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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560
Create Mesh
Creation of Mesh 1 (modeling Outside Box Euler)
a. LBCs: Eulerian, select Mesh
b. For Name: enter Mesh_1
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. For X0, enter -0.26, for Y0, enter -0.015, for Z0, enter -0.05
e. For DX, enter 0.5, for DY, enter 0.28, for DZ, enter 0.44
f. For NX, enter 50, for NY, enter 28, for NZ, enter 44
g. For Prop, select Euler
h. Click Create
i. Observe that Mesh_1 has been added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
561
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create Mesh (continued)
Creation of Mesh 2 (modeling Inside Box Euler)
a. LBCs: Eulerian, select Mesh
b. For Name: enter Mesh_2
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. For X0, enter -0.26, for Y0, enter -0.015, for Z0, enter -0.01
e. For DX, enter 0.5, for DY, enter 0.28, for DZ, enter 0.27
f. For NX, enter 50, for NY, enter 28, for NZ, enter 27
g. For Prop, select Euler
h. Click Create
i. Observe that Mesh_2 has been added
j. In the Model Tree Browser, right click Mesh_1, select Show All
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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562
Create Cylinders
Create Cylinder 1
a. LBCs: Couple, select Cylinder (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -0.1381 0.125 0.26; click OK
d. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -0.2381 0.125 0.26; click OK
e. For ID: enter 1
f. For Name: enter Cylinder_1
g. For Radius, enter 0.035
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that Cylinder_2 has been added
i
h
g
f e
d
c
b
Main Index
563
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create Cylinders
Create Cylinder 2
a. LBCs: Couple, select Cylinder (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.13 0.125 0.2252; click OK
d. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0.17 0.125 0.2944; click OK
e. For ID: enter 2
f. For Name: enter Cylinder_2
g. For Radius, enter 0.035
h. Click Modify
i.Observe that Cylinder_2 has been added
i
h
g
f e
d
c
b
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564
Create Sphere (Initial Euler Condition)
a. LBCs: Couple, select Cylinder, select Sphere (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. For ID: enter 3
e. For Name: enter Sphere_3
f. For Radius, enter 1.
g. Click Modify
h. Observe that Sphere_3 has been added
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
Main Index
565
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Initial Euler Values
Air initial values
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Name: enter TICVAL_1
e. For Method, select NORMAL
f. For Density, enter 1.1848
g. For SIE, enter 13880.
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that TICVAL_1 has been added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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566
Initial Euler Values (Continued)
Bird 1 initial values
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICVAL_2
e. For Method, select NORMAL
f. For XVEL, enter 200
g. Click Modify
h. Observe that TICVAL_2 has been added
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
567
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Initial Euler Values (Continued)
Bird 2 initial values
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICVAL_2
e. For Method, select NORMAL
f. For XVEL, enter -75.
g. For ZVEL, enter -129.9
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that TICVAL_3 has been added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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568
Initial Euler Regions
Air initial region
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Name: enter TICREG_1
e. Double click VID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select Sphere_3; click OK
g. Double click MID
h.In the Entity Selection window, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
i. Double click TICID
j. In the Entity Selection window, select TICVAL_1; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Observe that TICREG_1 has been added
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Initial Euler Regions (Continued)
Bird 1 initial region
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICREG_2
e. Double click VID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select Cylinder_1; click OK
g. Double click MID
h.In the Entity Selection window, select MATDEUL_4; click OK
i. Double click TICID
j. In the Entity Selection window, select TICVAL_2; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Observe that TICREG_2 has been added
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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570
Initial Euler Regions (Continued)
Bird 2 initial region
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 3
d. For Name: enter TICREG_3
e. Double click VID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select Cylinder_2; click OK
g. Double click MID
h.In the Entity Selection window, select MATDEUL_4; click OK
i. Double click TICID
j. In the Entity Selection window, select TICVAL_3; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Observe that TICREG_3 has been added
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
Main Index
571
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Initial Euler Condition MESH_1
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICEUL1
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Name: enter TICEUL1_1
e. For NREG, enter 3
f. Click Modify
g. Observe that TICEUL1_1 has been added
h. In the Model Browser tree, right click TICEU1L_1
i. Select Properties
j. Double click TSID1
k. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_1; click OK
l. Double click TSID2
m. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_2; click OK
n. Double click TSID3
p. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_3; click OK
q. Click Modify
p
o
n
m
l
k
j
i
h
f
e
d c
b
a
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572
Initial Euler Condition MESH_2
a. LBCs: TIC
b. Click TICEUL1
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Name: enter TICEU1_2
e. For NREG, enter 1
f. Click Modify
g. Observe that TICEUL1_2 has been added
h. In the Model Browser tree, right click TICEUL1_2
i. Select Property
j. Double click TSID1
k. In the Entity Selection window, select TICREG_1; click OK
l. Click Modify
l
k
j
i
h
f
e
d c
b
a
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CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Initial Euler Properties MESH_1
a. Element properties: 3D
b. Click PEULER1
c. For Name: enter PEULER1_3
d. For Type: select MMHYDRO
e. Double click SID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select TICEUL1_1; click OK
g. Click Modify
h. Observe that PEULER1_3 has been added
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
574
Initial Euler Properties MESH_2
a. Element Properties: 3D
b. Click PEULER1
c. For Name: enter PEULER1_4
d. For Type: select MMHYDRO
e. Double click SID
f. In the Entity Selection window, select TICEUL1_2; click OK
g. Click Create
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
575
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Add Euler Property to MESH_1 and MESH_2
a. Element Properties: 3D
b. Select Properties
c. Double click PID
d. In the Entity Selection window, select PEULER1_3; click OK
e. Click Modify
f. In the Model Browser tree, right click Mesh_2
g. Select Properties
h. Double click PID
i. In the Entity Selection window, select PEULER1_4; click OK
j. Click Modify
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
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CHAPTER 40
576
Coupling Surfaces - Coupling Interaction
Coupling Surface 1
a. LBCs: Couple, select COUPLE (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
c. Select All; click Done
d. For ID: enter 1
e. For Name: enter COUPLE_1
f. For COVER, select INSIDE
g. For both REVERSE and CHECK, select On
h. Double click MESHID
i. In the Entity Selection window, select MESH_1; click OK
j. Click Modify
k. Observe that COUPLE_1 has been added
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
Main Index
577
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Coupling Surfaces - Coupling Interaction (Continued)
Coupling Surface 2
a. LBCs: Couple, select COUPLE (not shown)
b. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
c. Select All; click Done
d. For ID: enter 2
e. For Name: enter COUPLE_2
f. For COVER, select OUTSIDE
g. For both REVERSE and CHECK, select On
h. Double click MESHID
i. In the Entity Selection window, select MESH_2; click OK
j. Click Modify
k. Observe that COUPLE_2 has been added
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
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CHAPTER 40
578
Coupling Surfaces - Coupling Interaction (Continued)
Coupling interaction
a. LBCs: Couple, select COUPINT (not shown)
b. For ID: enter 1
c. For Name: enter COUPINT_1
d. Double click CID1
e. In the Entity Selection window, select COUPLE_1; click OK
f. Double click CID2
g. In the Entity Selection window, select COUPLE_2; click OK
h. Click Modify
i. Observe that COUPINT_1 has been added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
Main Index
579
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Parameters
Define result frequency output
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM_BINARY_option
b. For Name: enter DYPARAM_BINARY_option_1
c. For SID: enter 1
d. For DT_D3PLOT: enter 0.00015
e. Click Create
f. Click Exit
g. Observe that DYPARAM_BINARY_option_1 has been added
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
580
Parameters (Continued)
Define initial time step
a. Job Parameter: PARAM
b. For Name: enter PARAM_2
c. For SID: enter 2
d. For N: enter DYINISTEP
e. For V1: enter 5.E-7
f. Click Create
g. Click Exit
h. Observe that PARAM_2 has been added
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
581
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Parameters (Continued)
Define parameter to activate coupling interaction
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM
b. For Name: enter DYPARAM_1
c. For SID: enter 2
d. For F1: enter FASTCOUP
e. For F2: enter INPLANE
f. For F3: enter FAIL
g. Click Create
h. Click Exit
i. Observe that DYPARAM_1 has been added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
582
Create New Nastran Job
a. In the Model Browser Tree, right click FileSet
b. Select Create New Nastran Job
b
a
Main Index
583
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Create New Nastran Job (Continued)
Delete default Output Request to prevent excessive output Archive files
a. In the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: NewJob: Load Cases; DefaultLoadCase: Output Requests:
right click Displacement Output Request
b. Click Delete
c. Click Yes
d. the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: Load Cases; DefaultLoadCase: Output Requests:
right click Element Stress Output Request (not shown)
e. Click Delete (not shown)
f. Click Yes
f
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
584
Simulations
Solver Control
a. In the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: NewJob: Load Cases; Solver Control:
right click Properties (not shown)
b. Select Solution 700 Parameters
c. Deactivate Large Displacement
d. Deactivate Follower Forces
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
585
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Simulations (Continued)
Define End Time and Output frequency for Loadcase Control
a. In the Model Browser Tree: Simulations: NewJob: Load Cases; DefaultLoadCase: Loadcase Control
right click Properties (not shown)
b. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. For Ending Time: enter 0.0015
d. For Number of Time Steps: 10
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
586
Simulations (Continued)
Running New Nastran Job
a. In the Model Browser Tree: right click NewJob
b. Click Run
b
a
Main Index
587
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Postprocessing
Start SimXpert: New Project
a. File: Attach Results
b. File Path: select newjob.dytr.d3plot
c. Attach Options, select Both
d. Click Apply
e. Repeat steps a through d for newjob.dytr_Euler_FV1_0.ARC (not shown)
f. Repeat steps a through d for newjob.dytr_Euler_FV2_0.ARC
f
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
588
Postprocessing (Continued)
Displacement
a. FileSet: Part: newjob
b. Select Show Only
c. Results: Deformation
d. State plot property editor: Results cases: select Time 0.0015016
e. State plot property editor: Result type: click Deformation Components
f. State plot property editor: click Deformation
g. State plot property editor: Deformed Display scaling: select True
h. Click Update
h g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
589
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Postprocessing (Continued)
Fringe Stresses
a. Results: Fringe
b. State plot property editor: Results cases: select Time 0.0015016
c. State plot property editor: Results cases: select Stress Components
d. State plot property editor: click Fringe
e. State plot property editor: Element edge display: select Element edges
f. Click Update
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
590
Postprocessing (Continued)
IsoSurface Bird 1 (MESH_1)
a. StatePlot: right click Deform 01
b. Select Hide
c. StatePlot: right click Fringe 01
d. Select Hide
e. FileSet: Part: right click NEWJOB.DYTR_EULER_FV1_0.ARC
f. Select Show Only
g. Results: Iso-Surface
h. State plot property editor: Result cases: select ...FV1_cycle744
i. State plot property editor: Result type: select FMAT4
j. State plot property editor: click IsoSurface
k. State plot property editor: Target entities: select All elements
l. Click Update
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c b
a
Main Index
591
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Postprocessing (Continued)
IsoSurface Bird 2 (MESH_2)
a. FileSet: Part: right click NEWJOB.DYTR_EULER_FV2_0.ARC
b. Select Show Only
c. Results: Iso-Surface
d. State plot property editor: Plot attribute: select IsoSurf 02
e. State plot property editor: Result cases: select ...FV1_cycle744
f. State plot property editor: Result type: select FMAT4
g. State plot property editor: click IsoSurface
h. State plot property editor: Target entities: select All elements
i. Click Update
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
592
Postprocessing (Continued)
IsoSurfaces Deformations
Main Index
593
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Results
In this simulation, the time history of total z-force on the coupling surface is requested as shown in Figure 40-4. This
force is the sum of all z-forces on the nodes that belong to both the upper and the lower plate.
From Figure 40-4, it is obvious that there are three large impact forces occurring on the plate. The first one is when
the first bird impacts the upper plate, which is subject to a significant damage. The second one is when the second bird
impacts the upper plate. The last peak is caused by the first bird impacting the lower plate.
Snapshots of the motion of the two birds and the deformation of the plates are shown in Figure 40-5 at various time
steps of the simulation. Figure 40-5a is the initial condition. Figure 40-5b is at the moment when the first bird
penetrates the upper plate and second bird touches the plate.
This corresponds with the first peak in the time history plot shown in Figure 40-4. Figure 40-5c is at the moment when
the second bird penetrates the upper plate. It corresponds with the second peak of the time history plot. Figure 40-5d
is at the moment when the second bird has left the plate and the first bird penetrates the lower plate. This corresponds
with the third peak in the time history plot.
Figure 40-4 Time History of Total Z-force on Coupling Surface
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
594
Figure 40-5 Deformation of Plates
Main Index
595
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure
Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File
62/1/75$16723
&(1'
7,7/( 0XOWLSOHELUGVWULNHXVLQJ0XOWL0DWHULDO)96XUIHU
,&
63&
767(31/

%(*,1%8/.
3$5$0'<,1,67(3H
3$5$0'<0,167(3H
'<3$5$0)$67&283,13/$1()$,/
'<3$5$0)08/7,
'\SDUDPVWHSIFWO
'<3$5$0/6'<1$%,1$5<'3/27
'<7,0+6
&3/6287

767(31/

,QFOXGHPRGHO63&
,1&/8'(H[DPSBBEVEGI

GRPDLQ

0(6+%2;

(8/(5

&283/,1*685)$&(

&283/(,16,'(2121

%685)7+587+58
7+58

)ORZERXQGDU\SURSHUW\PDWHULDODQGHTXDWLRQRIVWDWHGDWD

)/2:'()00+<'52
)/2:287

3(8/(500+<'52
3(8/(500+<'52
(26*$0

0DWHULDO%LUG
0$7'(8/
(2632/H
0$7'(8/
(2632/H

Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 40
596

$OORFDWLRQRIPDWHULDOWRJHRPHWULFUHJLRQV

7,&(8/
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*63+(5(

&</,1'5

&</,1'5

63+(5(

,QLWLDOPDWHULDOGDWD

7,&9$/;9(/=9(/
7,&9$/;9(/

/$*5$1*(

3URSHUW\PDWHULDODQG\LHOGPRGHO

36+(//%OW*DXVV0LG

0$7'HH

36+(//(
36+(//(

0$7'(

%RXQGDU\FRQVWUDLQ

&25'&

0DWHULDO$LULG
0$7'(8/
_
!GHQVLW\

'RPDLQ

7,&(8/
7,&5(*63+(5(
63+(5(
7,&9$/6,(('(16,7<

&RXSOLQJ6XUIDFH

&283/(2876,'(
Main Index
597
CHAPTER 40
Multiple Bird-strikes on Box Structure

%685)7+587+58
7+58
0(6+$'$37

(8/(5

FRXSOLQJLQWHUDFWLRQ

&283,17

(1''$7$
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_40.dat MSC Nastran input file for multiple material Euler element using FSI
technique
Main Index
chapter 41: Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
41
Shaped Charge Penetrating
Two Plates

Summary 599

Introduction 600

Solution Requirements 601

FEM Solution 602

Results 654

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 605

Input File(s) 656


Main Index
599
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Summary
Title Chapter 41: Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Features Wall Boundary of Euler Mesh
Transient Initial Condition of Euler Region
Axis-symmetric Analysis
Structural multi material with shear strength and void
Geometry
Material properties Explosive
Military Compound B (See EOSIG in MSC Nastran QRG)
Copper
Density = 8960 kg/m
3
Shear Modulus = 0.477E11 Pa
Johnson-Cook Yield Model
Minimum Pressure of Spallation = -2.5E10 Pa
Steel
Density = 7830 kg/m
3
Shear Modulus = 0.818E11 Pa
Equivalent Yield Stress = 1.4E9 Pa
Minimum Pressure of Spallation = -3.8E9 Pa
Analysis characteristics Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)
Boundary conditions Wall Boundary on the part of Explosive Case
Element types Euler: 8-node solid element for explosive, void, steel, and copper
FE results 1. Snap Shots of Liner Collapse, Jet Formation and Plates Penetrated
2. Velocity field of explosive gases, liner, and jet at 20 s
Steel Plates
Voids Copper Plate
Explosive
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CHAPTER 41
600
Introduction
Figure 41-1 Model
When a metal cone is explosively collapsed onto its axis, a high-velocity rod of molten metal, the jet, is ejected out of
the open end of the cone. The cone is called a liner and is typically made of copper. The jet has a mass approximately
20 percent of the cone mass, and elongates rapidly due to its high velocity gradient. This molten rod is followed by
the rest of the mass of the collapsed cone, the slug. Typical shaped charges have liner slope angles of less than 42
degrees ensuring the development of a jet; with jet velocities ranging from 3000 to 8000 m/s. A typical construction
of a shaped charge is shown in Figure 41-2.
Figure 41-2 Typical Construction of Shaped Charge
Main Index
601
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
An example simulation of shaped charge formation is carried out to demonstrate the ability of SOL 700 to perform
such a simulation. A simplified axisymmetric model of explosives and a copper liner is created in a finite volume Euler
mesh. Explosive are detonated starting from a point on the axis of symmetry at the end of the explosives. The
simulation is carried out for 60 s after detonation of the explosives. The jet is formed and penetrates two thick plates.
See Figure 41-3 for the model layout.
Figure 41-3 SOL 700 Model Setup
Typical shaped charges are axisymmetric. However, aiming at higher velocity, 3-D designs are targeted. 3-D
simulation of shaped charge formation would be necessary to avoid excessive experimental work. SOL 700 has full
abilities to perform such a 3-D simulation.
Solution Requirements
SOL 700 Model
The model is simplified as shown in Figure 41-3. The aluminum casting is replaced with a rigid body.
Detonation is assumed to start at a point on the axis at the rear end of the explosives. The liner shape is slightly
simplified as shown in the figure. The retaining ring is assumed rigid and is modeled as a wall boundary for the Euler
Mesh (BARRIER). SI units are used in this example.
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
602
FEM Solution
A. Euler Mesh and Liner:
A triangular prismatic Finite Volume Euler mesh is used with head angle of 5 degrees as shown in Figure 41-4. A very
fine mesh is used to accurately simulate the behavior of the extremely thin liner. The liner is placed in this Euler mesh.
Symmetry conditions (closed boundary, default Euler boundary condition) are imposed on the two rectangular faces
of the prism to create an axisymmetric behavior.
Figure 41-4 Euler Mesh
The liner material pressure density relationship is modeled with EOSPOL model. The liner is made of copper and
the constants are taken as follows:
Material yield strength is modeled with a Johnson-Cook yield model. The constants are taken as follows:
a1 1.43E11 N/m2
a2 0.839E11 N/m2
a3 2.16E9 N/m2
b1 0.0
b2 0.0
b3 0.0
A 1.2E8 N/m2
B 1.43E9 N/m2
C 0.0
n 0.5
Main Index
603
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Other liner material properties of liner are as follows:
In the input file:
0$7'(8/
(2632/
6+5(/(
-RKQVRQ&RRN
$%Q&P(36&Y
</'-&((
70(/775220

30,1&(
It is very easy to define the shape and position of the liner by using the method of geometrical regions when creating
the initial conditions of the liner material.
&</,1'5

&</,1'5

&</,1'5

7,&9$/'(16,7<
B. Casting and Retaining Ring:
The casting is assumed to be rigid. It is modeled by the default Eulerian boundary condition (closed boundary). The
retaining ring is also assumed to be rigid and is modeled by a barrier.
C. Plates:
Two thick plates are placed in this Euler mesh. Plate material is defined as steel:
0$7'(8/
(2632/(
6+5(/(
</'90(
m 1.0
c0 1.0
T
melt
1356.0 K
T
room
293.0 K
C
v
399.0 J/kg
Density 8960 Kg/m3
Constant shear model 0.477E11 N/m2
Constant spallation model -2.5E10 N/m2
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
604
30,1&(
The shapes and positions of the plates are defined by using the method of geometrical regions.
&</,1'5

&</,1'5

7,&9$/'(16,7<
D. Explosive:
The explosive is modeled by ignition and growth equation of state. The explosive is placed in this Euler mesh.
(26,*

0&203%6,
The explosive material is taken from the database that is build into SOL 700.
To initialize the whole Euler mesh, a TICEUL entry will be defined.
7,&(8/
7,&5(*(/(0
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5

6(77+58
7,&9$/'(16,7<6,((
Main Index
605
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
Create a New Database
Enter the MSC Explicit Workspace.
a. Click MSC Explicit
b. Click Save As
c. File name, enter CH41
d. Click Save
d c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
606
Change the Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. Click Standard Units
d. Select the line with m, kg, s, ...
e. Click OK
f. Return to User Options screen and click OK
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
607
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Import the Model Geometry
a. File: Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Look in: CHAPTER41
d. Select sch_model.bdf
e. Click Open
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
608
Create Explosive Material Compound B
Ignition and Growth Equation of State
a. Click: EOS
b. Select [07] EOS Ignition
c. For Name: enter EOSIG_100
d. For MID, enter 100
e. For DBEXP, select MCOMPB
f. For UNITCNV, select SI
g. For ITRMAX, enter 99
h. Click Create
i. EOSIG_100 is added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
609
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Explosive Material Compound B (continued)
Shear Model Explosive
a. Click: Shear
b. Select Elastic Shear Model
c. For Name: enter SHREL_101
d. For MID, enter 101
e. For G, enter 3.E9
f. Click Create
g. SHREL_101 is added
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
610
Create Explosive Material Compound B (continued)
Yield Model Explosive
a. Click: Yield
b. Select Von Mises Yield
c. For Name: enter YLDVM_102
d. For MID, enter 102
e. For YIELD, enter 2.E8
f. Click Create
g. YLDVM_102 is added
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
611
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Explosive Material Compound B (continued)
Eulerian Material Explosive
a. Click: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name: enter MATDEUL_103
d. For MID, enter 103
e. For RHO, enter 1630
f. Double click EID; select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSIG_100; click OK
h. Double click SID; select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select SHREL_101; click OK
j. Double click YID; select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select YLDVM_102; click OK
l. Click Create
m. MATDEUL_103 is added
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
612
Create Material Copper Liner
Linear Polynomial Equation of State
a. Click: EOS
b. Select [01] EOS Linear Polynomial
c. For Name: enter EOSPOL_701
d. For MID, enter 701
e. For A1, enter 1.43E11
f. For A2, enter 8.39E10
g. For A3, enter 2.16E9
h. Click Create
i. EOSPOL_701 is added
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
613
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Material Copper Liner (continued)
Shear Model Copper Liner
a. Click: Shear
b. Select Elastic Shear Model
c. For Name: enter SHREL_702
d. For MID, enter 702
e. For G, enter 4.77E10
f. Click Create
g. SHREL_702 is added
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
614
Create Material Copper Liner (continued)
Yield Model Copper Liner
a. Click: Yield
b. Select Johnson-Cook Yield
c. For Name: enter YLDJC_703
d. For MID, enter 703
e. For A, enter 1.2E8
f. For B, enter 1.43E9
g. For N, enter 0.5
h. For CP, enter 399
i. For TM, enter 1356
j. For TR, enter 293
k. Click Create
l. YLDJC_703 is added
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
615
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Material Copper Liner (continued)
Spall Limit Copper Liner
a. Click: Spall
b. Select PMINC
c. For Name: enter PMINC_704
d. For MID, enter 704
e. For Value, enter -2.5E10
f. Click Create
g. PMINC_704 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
616
Create Material Copper Liner (continued)
Eulerian Material Copper Liner
a. Click: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name: enter MATDEUL_705
d. For MID, enter 705
e. For RHO, enter 8960
f. Double click EID; select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSPOL_701; click OK
h. Double click SID; select Select;
i. For Entity Selection, select SHREL_702 click OK
j. Double click YID; select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select YLJC_703; click OK
l. Double click PID; select Select
m. For Entity Selection, select PMINC_704; click OK
n. Click Create
o. PMINC_704 is added
o
n
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
617
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Material Steel Plates
Linear Polynomial Equation of State
a. Click: EOS
b. Select [01] EOS Linear Polynomial
c. For Name: enter EOSPOL_801
d. For MID, enter 801
e. For A1, enter 1.64E11
f. Click Create
g. EOSPOL_801 is added
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
618
Create Material Steel Plates (continued)
Shear Model Steel Plates
a. Click: Shear
b. Select Elastic Shear Model
c. For Name: enter SHREL_802
d. For MID, enter 802
e. For G, enter 8.18E10
f. Click Create
g. SHREL_902 is added
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
619
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Material Steel Plates (continued)
Yield Model Steel Plates
a. Click: Yield
b. Select Von Mises Yield
c. For Name: enter YLDVM_803
d. For MID, enter 803
e. For A, enter 1.4E9
f. Click Create
g. YLDJC_803 is added
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
620
Create Material Steel Plates (continued)
Spall Limit Steel Plates
a. Click: Spall
b. Select PMINC
c. For Name: enter PMINC_804
d. For MID, enter 804
e. For Value, enter -3.8E9
f. Click Create
g. PMINC_804 is added
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
621
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Material Steel Plates (continued)
Eulerian Material Steel Plates
a. Click: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name: enter MATDEUL_805
d. For MID, enter 805
e. For RHO, enter 7830
f. Double click EID; select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSPOL_801; click OK
h. Double click SID; select Select;
i. For Entity Selection, select SHREL_802 click OK
j. Double click YID; select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select YLJC_803; click OK
l. Double click PID; select Select
m. For Entity Selection, select PMINC_804; click OK
n. Click Create
o. PMINC_804 is added
o
n
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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622
Create Cylinders
Cylinder 1 defining outer surface of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter -0.5391 -0.56 0 2 0.4147 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 0.2958
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_1 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
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Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Cylinders (continued)
Cylinder 2 defining inner surface of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter -0.5391 -0.56 0 2 0.4147 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 0.2939
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_2 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
624
Create Cylinders (continued)
Cylinder 3 defining the rear end of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0.2 2.0406 0 0.2047 2.0406 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 2.0019
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_3 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
625
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Cylinders (continued)
Cylinder 4 defining the rear end of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0.22 2.0406 0 0.223 2.0406 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 2.05
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_4 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
626
Create Cylinders (continued)
Cylinder 5 defining the rear end of the liner
a. Click: Cylinder
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0.27 2.0406 0 0.273 2.0406 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 2.05
e. Click Modify
f. Cylinder_5 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
627
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Cylinders (continued)
Sphere 6 covering the entire model
a. Click: Sphere
b. Select XYZ
c. For XYZ Input: enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. For Radius, enter 1
e. Click Modify
f. Shpere_6 is added
f
e
d
c
b
a
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628
Create Initial Values
Initial values explosive
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICVAL_1
e. For Density, enter 1630
f. For SIE, enter 4.2E6
g. Click Modify
h. TICVAL_1 is added
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
Main Index
629
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Initial Values (continued)
Initial values copper liner
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Title, enter TICVAL_2
e. For Density, enter 8960
f. Click Modify
g. TICVAL_2 is added
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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630
Create Initial Values (continued)
Initial values steel plates
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 3
d. For Title, enter TICVAL_3
e. For Density, enter 7830
f. Click Modify
g. TICVAL_3 is added
g
f
e
d c
b
a
Main Index
631
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Initial Regions
Initial region explosive
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_1
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_6; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_103 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_1; click OK
k. For Level, enter 1
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_1 is added
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
632
Create Initial Regions (continued)
Initial region copper liner
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 2
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_2
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_1; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_705 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_2; click OK
k. For Level, enter 2
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_2 is added
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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633
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Initial Regions (continued)
Initial region of void
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 3
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_3
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_2; click OK
g. For Level, enter 3
h. Click Modify
i. TICREG_3 is added
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
634
Create Initial Regions (continued)
Initial region copper liner
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 4
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_4
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_3; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_705 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_2; click OK
k. For Level, enter 4
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_4 is added
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
Main Index
635
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Initial Regions (continued)
Initial region steel plate 1
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 5
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_5
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_4; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_805 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_3; click OK
k. For Level, enter 5
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_5 is added
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
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CHAPTER 41
636
Create Initial Regions (continued)
Initial region steel plate 2
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICREG
c. For ID: enter 6
d. For Title, enter TICREGL_6
e. Double click VID; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Cylinder_5; click OK
g. Double click MID; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_805 click OK
i. Double click TICID; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_3; click OK
k. For Level, enter 6
l. Click Modify
m. TICREG_6 is added
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
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CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Initial Condition Euler
a. Click: TIC
b. Click TICEU1
c. For ID: enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICEUL_1
e. Click NREG; enter 6
f. Click Modify
g. Double click TSID1; select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_1 click OK
i. Double click TSID2; select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_2 click OK
k. Double click TSID3; select Select
l. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_3 click OK
m. Double click TSID4; select Select
n. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_4 click OK
o. Double click TSID5; select Select
p. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_5 click OK
q. Double click TSID6; select Select
r.;For Entity Selection, select TICREG_6 click OK
s. Click Modify
t. TICEUL_1 is added
t
s
r
q
p o
n
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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638
Create Eulerian Element Property
a. Under Materials and Properties in Properties, click: 3D
b. Click PEULER1
c. For Name: enter PEULER_1
d. For Type, select MMSTREN
e. Double click SID1; select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select TICEUL1_1; click OK
g. Click Create
h. In the Model Browser tree, right click PEULER1
i. Select Properties
j. In the Modify PEULER_1 Property window, click Change Region
k. In the Pick Window, select All
l. Click Done
m. Click Modify
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
639
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Node Set Segments
Locate the rear end of the copper liner
a. Zoom around Cylinder_3 area in window
b. Tools: Identify
c. From Pick window Identify Entities, select Nodes
d. Select nodes next to Cylinder_3 (Node 23593); in Pick window Identify Entities, click Exit
e. Assemble: Contact Set
e. Click: Node Set Segment
f. Select five (5) nodes next to Cylinder_3
g. In the Node Set Segment window, for Name:, enter BCSEG_1
h. In the Node Set Segment window, for Node Set:, enter 10
i. Click OK
j. BCSEG_1_1 is added
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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640
Create Barrier
a. LBC tab: Couple: Eulerian
b. Select Barrier
c. From Pick window CREATE BARRIER, select Nodes
d. Click Node 23593
e. Select Plane YZ; click OK
f. For ID: enter 1
g. For Name: enter Barrier_1
h. Double click BCID
i. Select BCSEG_1; click OK
j. Click DIR to unselect
k. Click Modify
l. Barrier_1 is added
l
k
j
i
h
g f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
641
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Define Values for PARAMs
Define DYINISTEP parameters
a. Job Parameter: PARAM
b. For Name: enter PARAM_1
c. For SID: enter 1
d. For N: enter DYINISTEP
e. For V1: enter 1.E-11
f. Click Create
g. Click Exit
h. PARAM_1 is added
h
g
f
e d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
642
Define Values for PARAMs (continued)
Define Results Output Frequency
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM
b. For Name: enter DYPARAM_1
c. For SID: enter 1
d. For F1: enter LSDYNA
e. For F2: enter BINARY
f. For F3: enter D3PLOT
g. For F4: enter 5.E-6
h. Click Create
i. DYPARAM_1 is added
i
h
g
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
643
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Define Values for PARAMs (continued)
Define VELMAX parameter
a. Job Parameter: DYPARAM
b. For Name: DYPARAM_2
c. For SID: 2
d. For F1: enter VELMAX
e. For F2: enter 20.E3
f. Click Create
g. Click Exi
h. DYPARAM_2 is added
h
g
f
e d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
644
Create a New Nastran Job
a. Model Browser: Right click over sch_model.bdf
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Solver Input File, choose Chapter41/SESSION/Chapter41.bdf
d. SXLaunch: For File name: enter Chapter41.bdf
e. Click Save
f. Click OK
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
645
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Define Load Cases and Export a Nastran Input File
a. Model Browser: Right click over Load Case Control
b. Select Properties
c. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
d. For Ending Time, enter 60.E-6
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 12
f. Click Apply
g. Model Browser: Right click over Displacement Output
h. Click Delete
i. Model Browser: Right click over Element Stress Output
j. Click Delete
k. Right click NewJob
l. Click Export
m. Click Run (optional)
m
l
k
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
646
Run MSC Nastran Solver
a. Double click MSC Nastran icon
b. Select Chapter41.bdf
c. Click Open
d. Click Run
d
c
b
a
Main Index
647
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Access the MSC Nastran Results
To access the results, the ARC file is attached.
a. Under File, select Attach Results
b. File path, select CHAPTER41.DYTR_EULER_0.ARC
c. Click Open
d. Click Apply
Note: If SimX cant access the results, do the following:
File -> Save
File -> New
File > Attach Results
Attach Options: BOTH
OK
e d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
648
Create Fringe Plot
a. Results: Fringe
b. File path, select CHAPTER41.DYTR_EULER_0.ARC
c. For Result Cases, select Cycle 0, Time 0
d. For Result type, select DENSITY
e. Click Update
d
c
b
a
Main Index
649
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Fringe Plot (continued)
Adjust Spectrum Colors
a. Results: Spectrum
b. Spectrum Manager: click Add
c. Spectrum: enter Spectrum_1
d. Click Update
e. Click Calculator
f. Click Colors
g. Click and drag colors from the table to the bar
h. Click Apply
i. Click OK
j. Check the colors
j
i h
g
f
e
d c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
650
Create Fringe Plot (continued)
a. State plot property editor: click Fringe
b. Spectrum Manager: click Add
c. Spectrum range, Spectrum: enter Spectrum_1
d. Click Update; observe graphic
e. Click Plot Data
f. For Result cases, select Cycle 2993, Time 1.0; observe graphic
g. Repeat e. and f. for Time 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; observe graphics on following page
g
f
f
e
d
c
c
b
a
Main Index
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CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Create Fringe Plot (continued)
Time = 0
Time = 1.E-5
Time = 2.E-5
Time = 3.E-5
Time = 4.E-5
Time = 5.E-5
Time = 6.E-5
Main Index
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CHAPTER 41
652
Animate Fringe Plot
Create a Fringe Plot with animation.
a. Results: Fringe
b. State plot property editor: click Fringe
c. For Result cases, select CHAPTER41.DYTR
d. Click Density
e. Select Animate
f. Click Update
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
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CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
Animate Fringe Plot (continued)
Create mpeg file
a. State plot property editor: click Animation
Record Attributes, select Movie Filename
c. SimXpert Results Animation File: File name, enter Animation
d. Click Save
e. Click Record Animation button
f. Click Play Animation button
g. Click Stop Animation button
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
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CHAPTER 41
654
Results
Figure 41-5 shows the initial position of the copper liner and two thick plates at 0s, snap shots of
liner collapse, jet formation and plates penetrated at 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 40 s, 50 s and 60 s.
Figure 41-5 Initial Position of the Copper Liner and Two Thick Plates, Snap Shots of Liner Collapse, Jet
Formation and Plates Penetrated (Courtesy Postprocessing by CEI Ensight)
Figure 41-6 shows the velocity field of explosive gases, liner, and jet at 20 s. A jet velocity of about 6000 m/s is
achieved
Figure 41-6 Velocity Field of Explosive Gases, Liner, and Jet
Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File
62/1/75$16723
&(1'
7,7/( 6+$3('&+$5*(67(67
IRU4$SXUSRVHUXQVKRUWHUWLPH
(1'7,0( (
Main Index
655
CHAPTER 41
Shaped Charge Penetrating Two Plates
,&
767(31/

%(*,1%8/.
767(31/(
3$5$0'<,1,67(3(
3$5$0'<0,167(3(
'<3$5$09(/0$;(
'<3$5$0/6'<1$%,1$5<'3/27(

,1&/8'(PRGHOEGI
,1&/8'(ZDOOGDW
(;3/26,9(

0$7'(8/

(26,*0&203%6,

6+5(/(

</'90(

&233(5

0$7'(8/
(2632/
6+5(/(
-RKQVRQ&RRN
$%Q&P(36&Y
</'-&((
70(/775220

30,1&(

67((/

0$7'(8/
(2632/(
6+5(/(
</'90(
30,1&(

7,&(8/
7,&5(*(/(0
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
7,&5(*&</,1'(5
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 41
656

3(8/(500675(1
6(77+58
&</,1'5

&</,1'5

&</,1'5

&</,1'5

&</,1'5

7,&9$/'(16,7<6,((
7,&9$/'(16,7<
7,&9$/'(16,7<

%$55,(5

(1''$7$
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_41.dat MSC Nastran input file for wall boundary of Euler element
sch_model.bdf MSC Nastran model
Main Index
Chapter 42: Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle

Summary 658

Introduction 659

Solution Requirements 660

Results 664

Input File(s) 669

Video Examples 669


Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
658
Summary
Title Chapter 42: Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Features Using Dummy boundary to make closed volume
Using Leakage to make free flow between two Euler meshes
Explosive modeled by ideal gas
Geometry
Material properties Vehicle Structure
Density = 7.85E-9 ton/mm
3
Youngs Modulus = 2.1E5 ton/mm/s
2
Poissons ratio = 0.3
Yield stress = 250. ton/mm/s
2
Euler (Air)
Density = 1.29E-12 ton/mm
3
; Gamma = 1.4
Specific Internal Energy = 1.9385E8 ton-mm
2
/s
2
Euler (Explosive - equivalent to TNT of 7kg and radius of .25 meter)
Density = 107.E-12 ton/mm
3
; Specific Internal Energy = 3.9E12 ton/mm
2
/s
2
Ground Rigid
Analysis characteristics Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)
Boundary conditions Fixed boundary condition of ground
In and out directional flow boundary of outer euler zone
Element types 2-node bar element for stiffener of vehicle
4-node shell element for vehicle, dummy elements and ground
8-node hex element for euler which is automatically generated by MESH option
FE results 1. Acceleration plot at 0.0008 seconds
2. Stress Distribution plot at 0.0008 seconds
Inner Euler Zone
Vehicle
Ground
Explosive
Outer Euler Zone
Main Index
659
CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Introduction
This is a simulation of an explosion under a vehicle. The vehicle has triggered a mine that is exploding underneath the
bottom shield. In this example, the actual explosion of the mine is not modeled. Instead, the simulation is started
moments after the mine explodes. This is called the blast wave approach. At the location of the mine, a high density
and high specific energy is assumed in the shape of a small sphere. During the simulation, this region of high density,
energy, and high pressure, expands rapidly. The blast wave interacts with the bottom shield and causes an acceleration
of parts of the flexible body. The intent of this simulation is to find the location and the value of the maximum
acceleration.
SOL 700 Model
An outline of the basic numerical model is shown in Figure 42-1 below. It is composed of the following main
components:
a. Vehicle Structure
b. Euler Domain 1 - air outside vehicle and compressed air (explosive)
c. Euler Domain 2 - air inside vehicle
d. Ground
e. Fluid Structural Coupling
Figure 42-1 Outline of Basic Numerical Model
Main Index
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CHAPTER 42
660
Solution Requirements
A. The Vehicle:
Vehicle structure is modeled by QUAD, TRIA shell elements and some BAR elements.
Figure 42-2 Vehicle Structure
Material properties are taken as follows:
Assumed that there will be no failure of the structure. In a part of the structure, there is a hole through which air and
pressure waves can freely flow. This hole will be modeled with dummy shell elements.
B. Euler Domain 1:
The first Euler domain is the air on the outside of the vehicle. The properties of air at rest are:
Density 7.85E-9 tonne/mm3
Modulus of elasticity 210000. tonne/mm/s2
Poison ratio 0.3
Yield stress 250. tonne/mm/s2
Density 1.29E-12 tonne/mm3
Gamma 1.4
Specific internal energy 1.9385E8 tonne-mm2/s2
Main Index
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CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
In the input file:
MATDEUL,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
At the location of the mine, a small region will be modeled with high density and specific internal energy equivalent
to TNT of 7kg when the sphere has a radius of .25 meter:
The input file will show:
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
The Euler region will be modeled by using the MESH entry. The region will have to be large enough to contain the
entire vehicle, including when the vehicle is in motion:
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2623.,-1403.,-903.,6100.,2800.,2150.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,201
For the most accurate blastwave simulations, it is advised to use the Second-order Euler solver of SOL 700. This is
activated by specifying the second-order option on the Euler property entry and specifying the parameter to use the
second-order Range Kutta integration method:
PARAM,RKSCHEME,3
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
To initialize the whole first Euler mesh, a TICEUL entry will be defined. To initialize the Euler domain, other than
within the sphere of the explosion, a second large sphere is used. Because it has lower priority, the Euler elements
within the mine blast are will still initialized with high density and energy:
TICEUL1,101,11
TICREG,1,11,SPHERE,400,230,4,20.
TICREG,2,11,SPHERE,501,230,5,1.
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
SPHERE,501,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
The Euler domain has infinite boundaries. This can be achieved by defining a zero gradient flow boundary on the
outside of the Euler mesh. Use an empty FLOWDEF entry:
FLOWDEF,202,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH
Density 107E-12 tonne/mm3
Specific Internal Energy 4.9E12 tonne-mm2/s2
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CHAPTER 42
662
C. Euler Domain 2:
The second Euler region represents the air inside the vehicle. Also for the second Euler region, a MESH entry is used.
The air is at rest again, so the same properties apply:
PEULER1,202,,2ndOrder,102
TICEUL1,102,12
TICREG,3,12,SPHERE,502,230,5,5.
SPHERE,502,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
Many of the previous cards will be used to initialize the density and energy (TICVAL) and material (DMAT/EOSGAM)
in this Euler region:
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
MATDEUL,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
EOSGAM,203,1.4
D. The Ground:
The ground is modeled as rigid body using dummy QUAD elements. It is used to close the Euler boundary under the
vehicle so the blast wave will reflect on this boundary:
PSHELL,999,999,1.
MATRIG,999,,,,1.0E10,0.00,0.00,-800.,+
+,1.E10,0.0,0.0,1.E10,0.0,1.E10,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,1,7,7
E. Fluid Structure Interaction:
In order to make fluid structure interaction possible, a closed volume needs to be defined. The car model itself is not
closed, so a dummy boundary will be defined to close the volume. This extra surface consists of three parts:
Part 1 resides on the back,
Part 2 is the top cover, and
Part 3 is the vent on the bottom of the vehicle.
For all these parts, dummy shell elements are defined and hole definitions will be defined.
Figure 42-3 Dummy Shell Elements Defined to Close the Volume
Main Index
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CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
The input for dummy shell elements
PSHELL,900,901,1.
PSHELL,910,901,1.
PSHELL,920,901,1.
MATD009,901,1.E-20
With this closed volume, the coupling surface can be defined. For each Euler domain, a separate surface is required.
However, in this model, the interaction surface consists of the same elements, except for the extra ground elements
(pid=999) for the outer Euler domain region 1. The surface definition will make use of the properties of the elements.
The outer surface:
BCPROP,97,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920,999
The inner surface:
BCPROP,98,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920
Now the coupling surfaces can be defined. For the outer region, all elements inside the volume are not active. The
covered option will, therefore, be set to INSIDE. Attached to this surface will be the first Euler MESH:
COUPLE,1,97,INSIDE,ON,ON,11,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
The inner Euler domain is constrained by surface 2. For this volume, the outer Euler elements will be covered:
COUPLE,2,98,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
As discussed before, there are holes in the coupling surface. To this end, a flow definition is required for one of the
coupling surfaces. In this example, the flow cards are referenced from the first coupling surface. The input to define
flow between the regions is:
LEAKAGE,1,11,1,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,1,900
Also, for each of the other two flow surfaces, these set of cards are repeated
$
LEAKAGE,2,11,2,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,2,910
$
LEAKAGE,3,11,3,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,3,920
$
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
664
Finally, the flow definition itself prescribes that the Euler region from coupling surface 1 is interacting with the Euler
region from coupling surface 2:
PORFCPL,84,LARGE,,BOTH,2
F. Miscellaneous:
a. Because this model uses the coupling surface interface, the time step safety factor for Eulerian elements has
to be .6. However, the Lagrangian elements (the quadratic and triangular elements) determine the time-step,
and it is beneficial to use a higher time step safety factor for the Lagrangian elements:
PARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
b. To show results every .0002 seconds the following output request was added:
DYPARAM, LSDYNA, BINARY, D3PLOT,.0002
PARAM, CPLSARC,.0002
Results
The Figure 42-4 below shows the location, value, and time of the maximum acceleration. The stress distribution at this
time is also in Figure 42-5.
Figure 42-4 Acceleration Plot
Main Index
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CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Figure 42-5 Stress Distribution Plot
Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File
SOL 700,NLTRAN STOP=1
CEND
TITLE= Job name: mine blast (mm/tonne/s/K)
IC=1
SPC=1
$
TSTEPNL=1
$------- BULK DATA SECTION -------
BEGIN BULK
$------- Parameter Section ------
$
DYPARAM,RKSCHEME,3
DYPARAM,FASTCOUP
DYPARAM,STEPFCTL,0.9
PARAM*,DYINISTEP,.5E-7
PARAM*,DYMINSTEP,1.E-13
$
$
DYPARAM,LSDYNA,BINARY,D3PLOT,.0002
PARAM,CPLSARC,.0002
$
MESH,1,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2623.,-1403.,-903.,6100.,2800.,2150.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,201
$
MESH,2,BOX,,,,,,,+
+,-2621.,-1201.,-251.,5900.,2400.,1250.,,,+
+,30,10,10,,,,EULER,202
$
PEULER1,201,,2ndOrder,101
$
TICEUL1,101,11
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
666
$
TICREG,1,11,SPHERE,400,230,4,20.
TICREG,2,11,SPHERE,501,230,5,1.
$
SPHERE,400,,1797.5,0.,-450.,250.
SPHERE,501,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
$
PEULER1,202,,2ndOrder,102
$
TICEUL1,102,12
$
TICREG,3,12,SPHERE,502,230,5,5.
$
SPHERE,502,,0.,0.,-5000.,10000.
$
TICVAL,4,,DENSITY,107E-12,SIE,3.9e12
TICVAL,5,,DENSITY,1.29E-12,SIE,1.938e11
$
MATDEUL,230,1.29e-12,203,,,,,,+
+,,1.01
$
EOSGAM,203,1.4
$
FLOWDEF,202,,HYDRO,,,,,,+
+,FLOW,BOTH
$
COUPLE,1,97,INSIDE,ON,ON,11,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,1
$
$ Define flow thru the holes
$
LEAKAGE,1,11,1,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,1,900
$
LEAKAGE,2,11,2,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,2,910
$
LEAKAGE,3,11,3,PORFCPL,84,CONSTANT,1.0
BCPROP,3,920
$
PORFCPL,84,LARGE,,BOTH,2
$
COUPLE,2,98,OUTSIDE,ON,ON,,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,2
$
BCPROP,97,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920,999
$
BCPROP,98,60,61,62,110,135,150,900,+
+,910,920
$
$ ========== PROPERTY SETS ==========
Main Index
667
CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
$
$ * pbar.9988 *
$
PBAR 9988 222 3600.1000000.1000000.2000000.
$
$ * pbar.9989 *
$
PBAR 9989 222 100000. 3.E+8 3.E+8 6.E+8
$
$ * pbar.9990 *
$
PBAR 9990 222 3000. 200000.2500000.3000000.
$
$ * pbar.9993 *
$
PBAR,9993,111,459.96,25066.,55282.,16543.
$
$ * pbar.9996 *
$
PBAR,9996,111,895.52,309450.,55349.,48782.
$
$ * pbar.9999 *
$
PBAR,9999,111,736.,490275.,827555.,2095137.
$
$ * pshell.30 *
$
PSHELL 30 111 3
$
$ * pshell.40 *
$
PSHELL 40 111 4
$
$ * pshell.50 *
$
PSHELL 50 111 5
$
$ * pshell.60 *
$
PSHELL 60 111 6
PSHELL 61 111 6
PSHELL 62 111 6
$ * pshell.80 *
$
PSHELL 80 111 8
$
$ * pshell.110 *
$
PSHELL 110 111 11
$
$ * pshell.120 *
$
PSHELL 120 111 12
$
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
668
$ * pshell.135 *
$
PSHELL 135 111 13.5
$
$ * pshell.150 *
$
PSHELL 150 111 15
PSHELL 151 111 15
$
$ * pshell.200 *
$
PSHELL 200 111 20
$
$ * pshell.450 *
$
PSHELL 450 111 45
$
$ dummy elements for coupling surface
$ hole
PSHELL,900,901,1.
$ top cover
PSHELL,910,901,1.
$ side cover
PSHELL,920,901,1.
$
MATD009,901,1.E-20
$
$ ground
PSHELL,999,999,1.
$
MATRIG,999,,,,1.0E10,0.00,0.00,-800.,+
+,1.E10,0.0,0.0,1.E10,0.0,1.E10,,,+
+,,,,,,,,,+
+,,,,1,7,7
$
$ * conm2 *
$
CONM2,5000,1145,,1.5
CONM2,5001,1146,,1.7
$
$ ========= MATERIAL DEFINITIONS ==========
$
MATD024,111,7.85e-09,210000.,.3,250E10
$
MAT1,222,210000.,,.3,7.85e-09
$
INCLUDE model.bdf
INCLUDE ground.dat
$
ENDDATA
Main Index
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CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Input File(s)
Video Examples
Import and Inspect Model
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately four minutes to import and inspect the model.
Figure 42-6 Video of Importing To and Inspecting the Model
File Description
nug_42.dat MSC Nastran input file for leakage using dummy
element
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
670
Create Properties
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately two minutes.
Figure 42-7 Video to Create Properties
Main Index
671
CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Create Eulerian Domains
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately five minutes.
w
Figure 42-8 Video to Create Eulerian Domains
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
672
Create Eulerian Mesh
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately three minutes.
Figure 42-9 Video to Create Eulerian Mesh
Main Index
673
CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Create Coupling Surfaces
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately two minutes.
Figure 42-10 Video to Create Coupling Surfaces
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
674
Create Leakage
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately two minutes.
Figure 42-11 Video to Create Leakage
Main Index
675
CHAPTER 42
Mine Blast Under a Vehicle
Define Job Parameters
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately two minutes.
Figure 42-12 Video to Define Job Parameters
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 42
676
Attach and View Results
To see a video example of this step, click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video for this section; it
lasts approximately eight minutes.
Figure 42-13 Video to View Results
Main Index
Chapter 43: Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

Summary 678

Introduction 679

Solution Requirements 679

Results 681

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 685

Input File(s) 739


Main Index
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CHAPTER 43
678
Summary
Title Chapter 43: Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Contact features Fast Coupling Technique
Multiple Eulerian Domains with failure
Free flow between two euler zones on the side faces of bunker
Explosive modeled by ideal gas
Geometry
Material properties Bunker Structure
Density = .000734 lbf-s
2
/inch
4
Youngs Modulus = 2.9E7 lbf/in
2
Poissons ratio = 0.3
Yield stress = 5.E4 lbf/in
2
Plastic strain at failure = 0.21
Euler (Air)
Density = 1.2E-7 lbf-s
2
/inch
4
Gamma = 1.4
Specific Internal Energy = 3E+8 lbf-in
Euler (Explosive - equivalent to TNT of 7kg and radius of .25 meter)
Density = 3.84E-6 lbf-s
2
/inch
4
Specific Internal Energy = 3E+9 lbf-in
Ground
Rigid
Analysis characteristics Transient explicit dynamic analysis (SOL 700)
Boundary conditions Fixed boundary condition of ground
In and out directional flow boundary of outer euler zone
Element types 4-node shell element for bunker and ground
8-node hex element for euler which is automatically generated by MESH option
FE results 1. Isosuface plot of Specific Internal Energy (SIE) at 0.01 seconds
2. Deformed Effective Stress plot at 0.01 seconds
Euler Zone 1
Bunker
Ground
Euler Zone 2
Blast
Main Index
679
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Introduction
The purpose is to demonstrate application of multi-Euler domains to failing coupling surfaces. The problem simulates
a bunker, located on the ground that is open at the sides and is surrounded by air. Gas can flow freely through the sides
of the bunker. A blast wave is ignited close to the bunker and expands into the air. When by the impact of the blast
wave, the bunker surface fails gas will flow trough the bunker surface.
Solution Requirements
SOL 700 Modeling
The bunker and the ground consist of cquad4 shell elements. The elements of the bunker are Lagrangian deformable
shells and the ground is modeled as rigid, using a MATRIG. The explosive/air region is modeled by two Euler meshes.
The first domain models the inside of the bunker, and the second one models the outside of the bunker. For the
interaction between the bunker and an Euler domain, a unique coupling surface has to be used, therefore, two coupling
surfaces are needed.
The first coupling surface, for modeling the inside of the bunker, consists of the following facets:
The 180 degrees cylindrical surface and the two open sides of the bunker. The two open sides are represented
by dummy shell elements. These are elements 1 to 2240.
The top of the ground that lies within the bunker. This is a square and is formed by elements 2241 to 3280.
These facets make up a closed coupling surface, as shown in Figure 43-1.
This coupling surface contains gas inside, and therefore Euler elements outside the coupling surface should not be
processed and so the COVER is OUTSIDE.
Main Index
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CHAPTER 43
680
Figure 43-1 Coupling Surface 1
The second coupling surface consists of the following facets:
The 180 degrees cylindrical surface and the two open sides of the bunker. These are elements 1 to 2240. The
top of the ground inside the bunker is not part of the second COUPLE.
The top of the ground that is outside the bunker and 5 dummy surfaces of the ground that are used to close the
coupling surfaces. These are formed by the elements 3413 to 4012, 4095 to 4340, 4505 to 4709, 4894 to 7904.
These facets make up a closed coupling surface, as shown in Figure 43-2.
Figure 43-2 Coupling Surface 2
This coupling surface is used for simulating the gas outside the coupling surface. So Euler elements inside the coupling
surface should not be processed and the COVER has to be set to INSIDE. The second coupling surface uses the second
Euler mesh and serves as inner boundary surface for this Euler mesh. The outside boundary of this mesh is where the
Euler domains ends and boundary conditions for this boundaries are provided by a FLOWDEF. The FLOWDEF is
chosen as non-reflecting. Waves exit the Euler domain with only little reflection.
Main Index
681
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
To get an accurate expansion of the blast wave, the diffusion should be kept at a minimum, and therefore the Roe solver
with second-order is used. Interactive failure will be used for the bunker structure, while porosity will be used for the
open sides:
The bunker elements can fail and gas flows through the failed elements from outside the bunker into the
bunker. All elements of the bunker are assigned to a BSURF, and occur in both coupling surfaces. They are
able to fail interactively, using the COUP1FL entry. These parts are formed by elements 1 to 1600. The nodes
of the failed elements are constrained in space by using PARAM, NZEROVEL, YES, to preserve the geometry
of the coupling surfaces from severe distortion.
Since gas can flow through the two sides without any obstruction, these two areas are modeled with BSURF
entries, and are opened by using a PORFLCPL entry. These sides are modeled with dummy shell elements and
consist of elements 1601 to 2400.
The couple cards refer to mesh-number. The first mesh for the Euler elements inside the bunker is created and
initialized by:
3(8/(5QG2UGHU
0(6+%2;

(8/(5
The value 2ndOrder activates the Roe solver with second-order accuracy. The property id is the link between the
TICEUL1 entry 101 and the MESH entry. The second Euler mesh for the Euler elements outside the bunker is created
and initialized by:
3(8/(5QG2UGHU
0(6+%2;

(8/(5
Results
Figures 43-3 and 43-4 show a fringe plot and an isosurface. Figure 43-4 has been created by Ensight.
Figure 43-3 Deformed Effective Stress Plot of the Bunker
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
682
Figure 43-4 Isosurfaces Created using SIE Variable for the Two Euler Domains
Abbreviated SOL 700 Input File
62/1/75$16723
&(1'
7,7/( -REQDPHLVEXQNHU
,&
63&
767(31/

%(*,1%8/.
%8/.'$7$6(&7,21

,1&/8'(PHVKGDW
,1&/8'(PRGHOGDW

767(31/
3DUDPHWHU6HFWLRQ
'<3$5$0)$67&283)$,/
3$5$0'<,1,67(3(
3$5$0'<0,167(3(
'<3$5$0/,0,7(552(
'<3$5$05.6&+(0(
'<3$5$0/6'<1$%,1$5<'3/27

3523(57<6(76

VWHHOSURS

36+(//

GXPP\BVKHOO

36+(//(
0$7'(

Main Index
683
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker

36+(//

0$7(5,$/'(),1,7,216

0DWHULDOVWHHOLG
0$7'H

0DWHULDO$,5LG
0$7'(8/H
(26*$0

JURXQG
0$75,*H

/RDG&DVHV

*HQHUDO&RXSOLQJ*(1(5$/

&283/(,16,'(2121

%685)7+587+58
7+587+587+58

&283)/HH

&283/(2876,'(2121

%685)7+58

&283)/HH

&283,17

325)&3//$5*(%27+
/($.$*(325)&3/
%685)7+58

5LJLG%RG\&RQVWUDLQWV

63&'5,*,'05
63&'5,*,'05
63&'5,*,'05
63&'5,*,'05
63&'5,*,'05
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
684
63&'5,*,'05
7$%/('
(1'7

0HVKGDW

0(6+%2;

(8/(5

,QQHU(XOHU

0(6+%2;

(8/(5

3(8/(5QG2UGHU
3(8/(5QG2UGHU

7,&(8/
7,&5(*63+(5(
7,&5(*63+(5(

63+(5(
63+(5(

7,&(8/
7,&5(*63+(5(

63+(5(

7,&9$/%&$,5,1,
7,&9$/'(16,7<H6,(H

7,&9$/%&(;3,1,
7,&9$/'(16,7<H6,(H

)/2:'()+<'52
)/2:%27+

(1''$7$
Main Index
685
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
This example shows how to use SimXpert for a blast wave hitting a bunker shell. The two open sides are each modeled
by a fully porous subsurface using PORFCPL The flow of gas through failed shell elements is taken into account by
activating interactive failure.
For simulations with coupling surfaces with failure, the Roe solver is used. The second-order Roe solver is used to
minimize the diffusion of the blast wave.
Two types of result files are required:
ARC which includes the Euler element results
d3plot which includes the Lagrangian element results
Run SimXpert with MSC Explicit Workspace
a. For Default Workspace:, select MSC Explicit
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
686
Import the Model Data
a. File: select Import
b. Select Nastran
c. Select model.dat, click Open
d. The model is imported into the Model Browser
a
b
c
d
Main Index
687
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Equation of State (Ideal Gas)
a. Materials and Properties tab: EOS
b. Select [12] EOS Ideal Gas
c. For Name enter EOSGAM_3
d. For PID enter 3
e. For GAMMA enter 1.4
f. Click Create
g. New EOS is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
688
Create Flow Boundary
a. LBCs tab: Flow
b. Select FLOWDEF
c. For ID: enter 202
d. For Title: enter FLOWDEF_202
e. Click FLOW; select BOTH
f. Click Modify
g. New FLOWFED is added
a
b
c d
e
f
g
Main Index
689
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Transient Initial Condition for Euler (Air)
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 4
d. For Title: enter TICVAL_4
e. Click DENSITY; enter 1.2E-07
f. Click SIE; enter 3.0E+08
g. Click Modify
h. TICVAL_4 is added
a
b
c d
e
f
g
h
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
690
Create Transient Initial Condition for Euler (TNT) (continued)
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICVAL
c. For ID: enter 5
d. For Title: enter TICVAL_5
e. Click DENSITY; enter 3.84E-6
f. Click SIE; enter 3.0E+09
g. Click Modify
h. TICVAL_5 is added
a
b
c
d
e f
g
h
Main Index
691
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Sphere Shape for TNT
a. LBCs tab: Sphere
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -536.4, 165.0, -453.6; click OK
d. For ID, enter 8
e. For Title, enter Sphere_8
f. For RADIUS, enter 85.0
g. Click Modify
h. Sphere_8 is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
g
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
692
Create Sphere Shape for Outside Air (continued)
a. LBCs tab: Sphere
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -536.4, 165.0, -453.6; click OK
d. For ID, enter 5
e. For Title, enter Sphere_5
f. For RADIUS, enter 10000.0
g. Click Modify
h. Shpere_5 is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
h
Main Index
693
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Sphere Shape for Inside Air (continued)
a. LBCs tab: Sphere
b. From the Pick Window: select XYZ
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter -53.4, 100.0, -673.6; click OK
d. For ID, enter 9
e. For Title, enter Sphere_9
f. For RADIUS, enter 10000.0
g. Click Modify
h. Sphere_9 is added
a
b
c
d e
f
g
h
h
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
694
Create Euler Material
a. Materials and Properties tab: Eulerian
b. Select Eulerian Material
c. For Name, enter MATDEUL_3
d. For MID, enter 3
e. For RHO, enter 1.2e-7
f. Double click EID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select EOSGAM_3; click OK
h. Click Create
i. MATDEUL_3 is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
Main Index
695
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Transient Initial Value for TNT
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICREG
c. For ID, enter 1
d. For Title, enter TICREG_1
e. Activate TYPE
f. Double click VID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_8; click OK
h. Activate and double click MID, select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
j. Activate and double click TICID, select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_5; click OK
l. For LEVEL, enter 2
m. Click Modify
n. TICREG_1 is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
696
Create Transient Initial Value for Outer Air (continued)
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICREG
c. For ID, enter 2
d. For Title, enter TICREG_2
e. Activate TYPE
f. Double click VID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_5; click OK
h. Activate and double click MID, select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
j. Activate and double click TICID, select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_4; click OK
l. For LEVEL, enter 1
m. Click Modify
n. TICREG_2 is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
Main Index
697
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Transient Initial Value for Inner Air (continued)
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICREG
c. For ID, enter 3
d. For Title, enter TICREG_3
e. Activate TYPE
f. Double click VID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select Sphere_9; click OK
h. Activate and double click MID, select Select
i. For Entity Selection, select MATDEUL_3; click OK
j. Activate and double click TICID, select Select
k. For Entity Selection, select TICVAL_4; click OK
l. For LEVEL, enter 1
m. Click Modify
n. TICREG_3 is added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
698
Create Transient Initial Value Conditions of Eulerian Zone
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICEUL1
c. For ID, enter 101
d. For Title, enter TICEUL1_101
e.For NREG, enter 101
f. Click Modify
g. TICEUL1_101 is added
a
b
c d
e
f
g
Main Index
699
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Transient Initial Conditions of Eulerian Zone (continued)
Modify the Transient Initial Condition
a. Double click TICEUL1_101
b. Double click TSID1, select Select
c. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_1; click OK
d. Double click TSID2, select Select
e. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_2; click OK
f. Click Modify
f
e
d
c
b
a
b
d
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
700
Create Transient Initial Conditions of Eulerian Zone (continued)
a. LBCs tab: TIC
b. Select TICEUL1
c. For ID, enter 111
d. For Title, enter TICEUL1_111
e. For NREG, enter 1
f. Click Modify
f. TICEUL1_111 is added
a
b
c d
e
f
g
Main Index
701
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Transient Initial Conditions of Eulerian Zone (continued)
a. Double click TICEUL1_111
b. Double click TSID1; select Select
c. For Entity Selection, select TICREG_3; click OK
d. Click Modify
a
b
c
d
b
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
702
Create Eulerian Property
a. Materials and Properties tab: 3D
b. Select PEULER1
c. For Name, enter PEULER_201
d. For PID, select 201
e. For TYPE, select 2ndOrder
f. Double click SID, select Select
g. For Entity Selection, select TICEUL1_101; click OK
h. Click Create
i. PEULER1_201 is added
a
b
c
d
e f
f
g
h
i
Main Index
703
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Eulerian Property (continued)
a. For Name, enter PEULER_301
b. For PID, select 301
c. For TYPE, select 2ndOrder
d. Double click SID, select Select
e. For Entity Selection, select TICEUL1_111; click OK
f. Click Create
g. PEULER1_301 is added
a
b
c
d
d
e
f
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
704
Create Mesh for Outer Euler
a. LBCs tab: Eulerian
b. Select Mesh
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. Deactivate DXVEL through ZREF
e. For XO, enter -647.0; for YO, enter 0.0; for ZO, enter -1293.0
f. For DX, enter 1057.0; for DY, enter 447.0; for DZ, enter 1293.0
g. For NX, enter 33; for NY, enter 23; for NZ, enter 37
h. For PROP, select EULER
i. Double click PID, select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select PEULER1_201; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Mesh_1 is added
l
k
j
i
h
g
f e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
705
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Mesh for Inner Euler
a. LBCs tab: Eulerian
b. Select Mesh
c. For TYPE, select BOX
d. Deactivate DXVEL through ZREF
e. For XO, enter -430.0; for YO, enter 0.0; for ZO, enter -1287.0
f. For DX, enter 837.0; for DY, enter 480.0; for DZ, enter 1296.0
g. For NX, enter 24; for NY, enter 26; for NZ, enter 30
h. For PROP, select EULER
i. Double click PID, select Select
j. For Entity Selection, select PEULER1_201; click OK
k. Click Modify
l. Mesh_2 is added
a
b
c d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
706
Create Coupling for Outer Coupling Surface Failure
a. LBCs tab: Couple
b. Select COUP1FL
c. For ID, enter 1
d. For Title, enter COUP1FL_1
e. For RHO, enter 1.2E-07
f. For SIE, enter 3.0E+08
g. Deactivate XVEL, YVEL, ZVEL, PRESSURE, and MATERIAL
h. Click Modify
i. COUP1FL_1 is added
a
b
c d
e f
g
h
i
Main Index
707
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Coupling for Inner Coupling Surface Failure
a. LBCs tab: Couple
b. Select COUP1FL
c. For ID, enter 2
d. For Title, enter COUP1FL_2
e. For RHO, enter 1.2E-07
f. For SIE, enter 3.0E+08
g. Deactivate XVEL, YVEL, ZVEL, PRESSURE, and MATERIAL
h. Click Modify
i. COUP1FL_2 is added
a
b
c d
e f
g
h
i
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
708
Create Group for Outer Coupling Surface
a. Right click on the Model Browser tree, select New
b. Select Group, select Create
c. For Pick entities: deactivate Pick nodes and Pick Part options
d. In Main window, select all elements
e. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Add to group
f. Under Member list, see that all elements are added
g. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Main Index
709
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Group for Outer Coupling Surface (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_1_model.dat and PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Hide
c. From the Ribbon menu: select Advanced Pick Dialog
d. In Extended Pick Dialog, select Contiguous [Auto]
e. Select the inside part of the base plates
f. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Remove from Group
g. Under Member list, see that assigned elements are removed
h. Click OK
Useful Tip!
If using Show Selection List option, the elements
selected are shown in Selected Items dialog
a
b
c
d
e
f g
h
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
710
Create Group for Inner Coupling Surface
a. Right click on the Model Browser tree, select New
b. Select Group, select Create
c. From the Ribbon menu: select Advanced Pick Dialog
d. In Extended Pick Dialog, select Contiguous [Auto]
e. Select the inside part of the base plates
f. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Add to group
g. Under Member list, see that all elements are added
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Main Index
711
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Group for Inner Coupling Surface (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_1_model.dat and PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Show Only
c. In the Main Window: select all the elements
d. In Group window for Add/Remove Content, click Add to group
e. Under Member list, see that all elements are added
f. Total in the Member list should now be 3280
g. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
712
Create Inner Coupling Surface
a. In the Model Browser tree, select GROUP_2
b. Select Show Only
c. LBCs tab: Couple
d. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
e. In the Main Window: select all the elements
f. Click Done
a
b
c
d
e
f
Main Index
713
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Inner Coupling Surface (continued)
a. For ID, enter 8
b. For Title, enter COUPLE_8
c. For COVER, select: OUTSIDE
d. Activate REVERSE and CHECK
e. Activate and double click MID, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select Mesh_2; click OK
g. Activate and double click COUP1FL, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUP1FL_2; click OK
i. Click Modify
a b
c d
e
f
g
h
i
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
714
Create Porosity
a. LBCs tab: Accessory
b. Select PORFCPL
c. For ID, enter 81
d. For Title, enter PORFCPL_81
e. For SIZE, select LARGE
f. Activate FLOW, select BOTH
g. Activate and double click COUP1FL, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUPLE_8; click OK
i. Click Modify
a
b
c d
e f
g
h
i
j
Main Index
715
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Leakage
a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Show Only
c. LBCs tab: Accessory
d. Select LEAKAGE
e. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
f. In the Main Window: select all the elements
g. Click Done
h. For ID, enter 1
i. For Title, enter LEAKAGE_1
j. For NPOR, enter 1
k. Click Modify
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h i
j
k
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
716
Modify Leakage
a. In the Model Browser tree, double click LEAKAGE_1
b. Double click SUBID1
c. For Entity Selection, select BSURF_4; click OK
d. For PORTYPE1, select PORFCPL
e. Double click PORTYPID1, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select PORFCPL_81; click OK
g. Activate COEFF1, select CONSTANT
h. Activate COEFFV1, enter 1.0
i. Click Modify
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
Main Index
717
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Outer Coupling Surface
a. In the Model Browser tree, select Group_1
b. Select Show Only
c. LBCs tab: COUPLE
d. From the Pick Window: select Shells for BSURF
e. In the Main Window: select all the elements
f. Click Done
a
b
c
d
e
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
718
Create Outer Coupling Surface (continued)
a. For ID, enter 7
b. For Title, enter COUPLE_7
c. For COVER, select: INSIDE
d. Activate REVERSE and CHECK
e. Activate and double click PORID, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select LEAKAGE_1; click OK
g. Activate and double click COUP1FL, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUP1FL_1; click OK
i. Click Modify
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
Main Index
719
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Coupling Surface Interaction
a. LBCs tab: Couple
b. Select COUPINT
c. For ID, enter 1
d. For Title, enter COUPINTL_1
e. Double click CID1, select Select
f. For Entity Selection, select COUPLE_7; click OK
g. Double click CID2, select Select
h. For Entity Selection, select COUPLE_8; click OK
i. Click Modify
a
b
c d
e
f
g
h
i
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
720
Create Boundary Condition
a. In the Model Browser tree, select PSHELL_1_model.dat and PSHELL_2_model.dat
b. Select Hide
c. LBCs tab: LBC
d. Select SPC BC and select Fully Fixed Constraint
e. From the Pick Window: select Nodes
f. In the Main Window: select all the nodes
g. Click Done
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Main Index
721
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Parameters
a. Job Parameters tab: PARAM
b. For Name, enter PARAM_1
c. For SID, enter 1
d. For N, enter DYINISTEP
e. For V1, enter 1.E-7
f. Click Create
g. For Name, enter PARAM_2
h. For SID, enter 2
i. For N, enter DYMINSTEP
j. For V1, enter 1.E-8
k. Click Create
a
b
c
d
e
f
g h
i j
k
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
722
Create Parameters (continued)
a. Job Parameters tab: DYPARAM
b. For Name, enter DYPARAM_1
c. For SID, enter 1
d. For F1, enter FASTCOUP
e. For F3, enter FAIL
f. Click Create
g. For Name, enter DYPARAM_2
h. For SID, enter 2
i. For F1, enter LIMITER
j. For F2, enter ROE
k. Click Create
l. For Name, enter DYPARAM_2
m. For SID, enter 2
n. For F1, enter RKSCHEME
o. For F2, enter 3
p. Click Create
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i j
k
l
m
n
o
p
Main Index
723
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create Parameters (continued)
a. Job Parameters tab: DYPARAM_BINARY_option
b. For Name, enter DYPARAM_BINARY_option_3
c. For SID, enter 3
d. Activate DT_D3PL, enter 0.002
e. Click Create
a
b
c
d
e
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
724
Create New SOL700 Job
a. In the Model Browser tree, right click model.dat
b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Solver Input File, change the input file name and location
d. Click OK
a
b
c
d
Main Index
725
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Create New SOL700 Job (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, right click Loadcase Control
b. Select Properties
c. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
d. For Ending Time, enter 0.01
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 10
f. Click Apply
g. Click Close
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
726
Execute the Job
a. In the Model Browser tree, right click NewJob
b. Click Run
a
b
Main Index
727
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Attach the Analysis Results File
After a job is finished, there are two types of results: ARC and d3plot. Both files are attached to SimXpert. The d3plot
result file is attached first.
a. Under File, select Attach Results
b. File path, select the desired path
c. Open, select nug_43a.dytr.d3plot
d. Attach Options, select Both
e. Click Apply
f. View the Lagrangian results
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
728
Attach the Analysis Results File (continued)
The ARC result file is attached second.
a. File path, select the desired path
b. Open, select NUG_43A.DYTR_EULER_FV1_0.ARC
c. Attach Options, select Both
d. Click Apply
e. View the Outer Euler results
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
729
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Attach the Analysis Results File (continued)
a. File path, select the desired path
b. Open, select NUG_43A.DYTR_EULER_FV2_0.ARC
c. Attach Options, select Both
d. Click OK
e. View the Inner Euler results
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
730
Display the Deformation Results
Create a deformation plot of Lagrangian results.
a. In the Model Browser tree, select all the Euler elements
b. Select Hide
c. Check to see that all Euler elements are hidden
d. Results tab: Deformation
e. Result entities: Result cases: nug_43a.dytr.d3plot, select Time 0.0100956
f. Results entities: Result type, select Displacement Components
g. Click Target entities
h. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
i. In Main Window, select all Lagangian elements
j. Plot Data, click Deformation
j
i
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
731
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Display the Deformation Results (continued)
a. Deformed display scaling: click True
b. Click Update
c. In Main Window, check the deformation plot
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
732
Display the Stress Results
Create a stress fringe plot of Lagrangian results.
a. Deformed display scaling: click True
b. Plot type, select Fringe
c. Result entities: Result cases: nug_43a.dytr.d3plot, select Time 0.0100956
d. Results entities: Result type, select Stress Components
e. Result entities: Deviation, select von Mises
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
733
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Display the Stress Results (continued)
a. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
b. n Main Window, select all Lagangian elements
c. Click Fringe tab
d. In current window, change Element edge display entities to Element edges
e. Click Update
f. In Main Window, check the stress fringe plot
f
e d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
734
Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results
Create a pressure iso-surface plot of Eulerian results.
a. In the Model Browser tree, select only the outer Euler elements (FV1)
b.Select Show Only
c. Check to see that all outer Euler elements are shown
d. Plot type, select IsoSurface
e. Result entities: Result cases: NUG_43A.DYTR.EULER_FV1_0.ARC,
select Time 0.0101689
f. Results entities: Result type, select PRESSURE
g. Click Target entities
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
735
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)
a. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
b. n Main Window, select all outer Eulerian elements
c. Click IsoSurface tab
d.:First value, enter 19.5244
e. Click Update
f. In Main Window, check the iso-surface plot of the outer Euler zone
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
736
Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, select only the inner Euler elements (FV2)
b.Select Show Only
c. Check to see that all inner Euler elements are shown
d. Name, select Create Attribute
e. For Enter the plot attribute name, enter IsoSurf 02; click OK
f. Result entities: Result cases: NUG_43A.DYTR.EULER_FV2_0.ARC,
select Time 0.0101689
g. Results entities: Result type, select PRESSURE
h. Click Target entities
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
Main Index
737
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)
a. In current window, change Target entities to Elements
b. n Main Window, select all inner Eulerian elements
c. Click IsoSurface tab
d. First value, enter 19.5244
e. Click Update
f. In Main Window, check the iso-surface plot of the inner Euler zone
f
e
d
c b
a
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 43
738
Display the Euler Pressure Iso-surface Results (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, select elements
b. Select Hide All
c. In Main Window, check the iso-surface plot of the Eulerian elements and the
stress/deformation plot of the Lagrangian elements
c
b
a
Main Index
739
CHAPTER 43
Blastwave Hitting a Bunker
Input File(s)
File Description
nug_43a.dat MSC Nastran input file for l=blast on bunker using Fast Coupling technique
nug_43b.dat Geometry of Euler elements
nug_43c.dat Geometry of Lagrangian structure elements
Main Index
Chapter 44: Concentric Spheres with Radiation
44
Concentric Spheres
with Radiation

Summary 741

Introduction 742

Modeling Details 742

Material Modeling 749

Solution Procedure 749

Results 750

Modeling Tips 751

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 752

Input File(s) 795

Video 796
Main Index
741
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Summary
Title Chapter 44: Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Features Hemi-cube versus Gaussian Integration Methods
Geometry

Material properties
Analysis characteristics Nonlinear steady state thermal analysis
Boundary conditions Inside sphere temperature fixed at 1000 K. The heat sink is ambient temperature at zero
K where the radiation to space boundary condition is applied on the outer sphere.
Stefan-Boltzmann constant is (above).
Element type 4-node QUAD4
FE results Outer sphere temperature using different radiation schemes and compared to an
analytic solution
R = 1
T = 1000
R = 1.5
T = ?
Units: inch, watt, K
T = 0

o
2
1.0 =

o
1
0.9 =
t
1
0.01 =
t
2
0.05 =

i
2
0.7 =
k
1
4.0W i n K ( ) = k
2
6.0W i n K ( ) = o 3.66x10
11
W i n
2
K
4
( ) =
o
708.0
708.5
709.0
709.5
710.0
710.5
Hemi-cube Gaussian integration Analytic
Temperature K (Grid 367)
Analytic 710.30
Gaussian integration 709.85
Hemi-cube 708.91
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
742
Introduction
This problem demonstrates the ability of the Nastran SOL 400 thermal nonlinear solution sequence to perform thermal
radiation view factor calculations using the Hemi-cube and Gaussian integration methods. The Gaussian adaptive
integration view factor calculation method has been with Nastran for many years. The view factor computed by the
Gaussian method is extremely accurate. However, as the problems get big, computation time is roughly proportional
to the number of surfaces squared. The introduction of Hemi-cube method in MSC Nastran permits the solution of
very large scale view factor problems where previously the use of the Gaussian method was overly time intensive. As
compared to the adaptive Gaussian method, we have seen an improvement in CPU speed of 33 times in some
problems. The CPU time increases linearly with the number of radiation surfaces because in Hemi-cube, the
computation time is linearly proportional to the number of surfaces. In this problem, we have an analytical solution in
which we compare both Hemi-cube and the Adaptive Gaussian integration methods to see which method offers the
most accuracy.
Modeling Details
Figure 44-1 Concentric Spheres (top sector of outer sphere removed)
As shown in (Figure 44-1), the inner sphere with radius equal to 1 inch is subjected to a constant temperature of
1000K (red). There is radiation exchange between the inner and the outer sphere (orange). The outer sphere radiates
to space at an ambient temperature of zero K with view factors equal to 1.0.
Reference Solution
For these two diffuse isothermal concentric spheres, the view factors need to be determined. Since all of the energy
leaving the inner sphere (1) will arrive at the outer sphere (2), . The reciprocity relation for view factors F
1 2
1.0 =
Main Index
743
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
gives , or . Since the inner sphere cannot see itself, . Finally since energy
must be conserved, the sum of all view factors of a closed cavity must be unity, which yields, .
Notice how the number of view factors grow as the square of the number of surfaces, i.e. two surfaces yield 4 view
factors. Given the geometry of the spheres as and , the four view factors become:
. Below is an equation for calculation of outer sphere temperature where the outer sphere is
radiating to space at absolute zero and a view factor of 1. (Holman, Jack P. Holman Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill,
2001).
This solution assumes perfect conduction (no resistance to heat flow) in the outer sphere.
While, in general, the view factors cannot be obtained from analytical solutions, in this simple problem, the view
factors can be found analytically and we can use these view factors in a simple three grid model to check our analytic
solution above. One grid represents the inner sphere, another represents the outer sphere, and the last grid represents
the ambient temperature of the outer sphere.
Nastran test file: user1_point.dat
$Model concentric sphere with two nodes
$ Length in Inches
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = NONE
$! Case Control Section
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) = 21
TITLE=MSC.Nastran job created on 05-Dec-03 at 13:33:05
A
1
F
1 2
A
2
F
2 1
= F
2 1
R
1
R
2
( )
2
= F
1 1
0 =
F
2 2
1 R
1
R
2
( )
2
=
R
1
1 = R
2
1.5 =
F
1 1
0 = F
1 2
1 =
F
2 1
4
9
--- = F
2 2
5
9
--- =
c
1
0.9 = c
2
out
1 = c
2
i nner
0.7 =
T
1
1000 =
A
1
4 t R
1
2
= A
2
4 t R
2
2
=
A
1
12.566 = A
2
28.274 =
C
1
c
1
-----
A
1
A
2
------
1
c
2
i nner
---------------- 1
\ .
|
| |
+ = C 1.302 =
D
2
A
1
T
1
4

A
1
C c
2
out
A
2
+
--------------------------------------------- =
D
2
2.545 10
11
=
T
2
D
2
0.25
=
T
2
710.299 =
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
744
SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : subcase_1
$LBCSET SUBCASE1 lbcset_1
SUBTITLE=Default
SPCFORCES(SORT1,PRINT,REAL)=ALL
OLOAD(SORT1,PRINT,REAL)=ALL
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
ANALYSIS = HSTAT
SPC = 23
NLSTEP = 1
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM SNORM 20.
PARAM K6ROT 100.
PARAM WTMASS 1.
PARAM* SIGMA 3.6580E-11
PARAM POST 1
PARAM TABS 0.0
$! Bulk Data Model Section
RADM 11 0.0 0.9 RadMat_1
RADM 12 0.0 0.7 RadMat_1
RADM 13 0.0 1. RadMat_1
PHBDY 1 12.566 PHBDY_1_
PHBDY 2 28.274 PHBDY_2_
GRID 101 0.0 0.0 0.0
GRID 102 1. 0.0 0.0
$!
SPOINT 777
CHBDYP 1 1 point 10 101 +
+ 11 1. 0.0 0.0
CHBDYP 2 2 point 10 102 +
+ 12 -1. 0.0 0.0
CHBDYP 3 2 point 102 +
+ 13 -1. 0.0 0.0
SPC 23 101 1 1000.
SPC 23 777 1 0.0
RADBC 777 1. 3
RADCAV 1 +
+
VIEW 10 1
VIEW3D 10
RADSET 1
RADMTX 10 1 0.012.56637
RADMTX 10 215.70922
RADLST 1 1 1 2
TEMPD 21 900.
TEMP 21 777 0.0
TEMP 21 101 1000.
NLSTEP 1 1. +
+ GENERAL 25 +
+ FIXED 1 1 +
+ HEAT PW 0.001 1.E-7AUTO 5
Main Index
745
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
ENDDATA b1272084
Notice that the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (sigma) is 3.66e-11 W/in
2
/K
4
and, the radiation matrix is define above by
the RADLST and RADMTX,
The radiation matrix must be symmetric to conserve energy (reciprocity relation ), and the
symmetric terms are not entered. Running this three node problem yields the output below with the temperature of the
outer sphere of 710.31, agreeing to within 4-digits of our analytic solution of 710.3.
T E M P E R A T U R E V E C T O R

POINT ID. TYPE ID VALUE ID+1 VALUE ID+2 VALUE ID+3 VALUE ID+4 VALUE ID+5 VALUE
101 S 1.000000E+03 7.103098E+02
777 S 0.0
Solution Highlights
The following are highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model this problem using 700 elements to represent
the inner and outer spheres with 1268 radiating surfaces:
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = SORT
$! Case Control Section
TEMPERATURE(INITIAL) = 33
SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : NewLoadcase
$LBCSET SUBCASE1 DefaultLbcSet
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
ANALYSIS = HSTAT
SPC = 35
NLSTEP = 1
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM WTMASS 1.
PARAM GRDPNT 0
NLMOPTS HEMICUBE1
PARAM* SIGMA 3.6580E-11
PARAM POST 1
$! Bulk Data Model Section
PARAM OGEOM NO
PARAM MAXRATIO 1e+8
RADMTX
A
1
F
1 1
0 = A
1
F
1 2
12.566 ( ) 1 =
A
2
F
2 1
28.274 ( )
4
9
--- = A
2
F
2 2
12.566 ( )
5
9
--- =
0 12.56637
sym 15.70796
= =
A
1
F
1 2
A
2
F
2 1
=
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
746
The use of a steady-state thermal analysis is indicated by ANALY=HSTAT. The NLMOPTS parameters indicate that we
are using the Hemi-cube method as the view factor calculation method. If one desires to run the Gaussian integration
method, then you do not need the NLMOPTS bulk data entry.
The inner sphere is composed of CHBDYG elements (see command details below) numbered from 6987 through
7214, and the outer sphere is from 7215 to 7734. The set1 ID option is used on the RADCAV bulk data entry to sum
up all the view factors between the inner and outer spheres for comparisons against theory.
Loading and Boundary Conditions
Radiation- View Factor Calculation (CHBDYG Element)
The CHBDYG element is used in Nastran thermal analysis for any surface heat transfer phenomenon such as radiation
or convection or imposing heat flux on these elements.
CHBDYG 6987 AREA4 2 3
3390 3389 3397 3398
CHBDYG 6988 AREA4 2 3
3404 3403 3389 3390
RADM 3 0.9 0.9 Radm_3
RADM 4 0.7 0.7 Radm_4
RADM 5 1. 1. Radm_5
RADSET 4
RADCAV 4 YES 4 0.1
VIEW3D 4 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0
$!
VIEW 2 4 KSHD 1 1
Main Index
747
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
In this case, we have CHBDYG element 6987 with TYPE='AREA4' bounded by grid 3390, 3389, 3397, 3398. The
normal vector is defined by the grid connectivity and is directed from the inner sphere to the outer sphere (Figure 44-2
and Figure 44-3). The internal sphere has KSHD defined on the 4
th
field of the VIEW data entry, which means that this
group of elements can shade the view of other elements. The external sphere has KBSHD defined which means that
these elements can also be shaded by other elements. The reason that we have specified the shading flag is to speed
up the sorting for these potential blockers in the view factor calculations. In general when the surface is very complex,
the use of the flag called BOTH is recommended. The RADSET option tells us there is only 1 cavity in the model, and
the 2
nd
field on the VIEW points to the IVIEWF or IVIEWB on the CHBDYG field 5
th
or 6
th
, respectively. For a plate
element, there is top and the bottom surface for view factor calculations. For a solid element, only the front side
IVIEWF should be used. The inner sphere here is represented by number as 1 on the field 5 (IVIEWF) on the CHBDYG.
The 7
th
and 8
th
represent the ID for the RADM option where 7
th
field is the top surface RADM ID and the 8
th
field is
the bottom surface RADM ID. The RADM specified the emissivity used for the sphere and, in this case, the emissivity
for the inner sphere is equal to 0.7.
The RADCAV bulk data entry indicates that we will print the summary of view factor calculations. In this case, we
have a complete enclosure and, therefore, the view factor summation should equal 1.0. The surface numbers 703, 704
are the ID numbers for the CHBDYG that has the radiation exchange.
*** VIEW FACTOR MODULE *** OUTPUT DATA *** CAVITY ID = 4 ***
ELEMENT TO ELEMENT VIEW FACTORS
SURF-I SURF-J AREA-I AI*FIJ FIJ SCALE
6987 -SUM OF 5.19803E-02 9.99998E-01
6988 -SUM OF 6.14400E-02 9.99997E-01
6989 -SUM OF 4.30822E-02 9.99988E-01
6990 -SUM OF 4.36718E-02 1.00000E+00
6991 -SUM OF 5.08568E-02 1.00000E+00
The continuation field on the RADCAV is optional.
Radiation - RADBC (radiation to space)
On the outer sphere, we have a radiation to space using the view factor supplied on the 3
rd
field on the RADBC. (see
Example below) The 2
nd
field on the RADBC points to the ambient grid ID 100001 and, in this case, we have the grid
fixed at 0 K.
SPOINT 6497
SPC 5 6497 1 0.0
TEMP 33 6497 0.0
RADBC 6497 1. 0 -6467
CHBDYG 6467 AREA4 5
5987 5975 5976 5986
RADBC 6497 1. 0 -6468
CHBDYG 6468 AREA4 5
5989 5976 5975 5988
RADBC 6497 1. 0 -6469
CHBDYG 6469 AREA4 5
5997 5996 5975 5987
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
748
Please note the negative EID represents that the radiation to space is effected from the back surface (opposite to the
direction of normal) of the element.
Also, we have the temperature boundary conditions applied to all grids on the inner sphere at 1000 K via the SPC
option.
SPC 1 1 1 1000.
Specifies an CHBDYi element face for application of radiation boundary conditions.
Format
Example
Remarks:
1. The basic exchange relationship is:
if CNTRLND = 0, then
if CNTRLND > 0, then
RADBC
Space Radiation Specification
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADBC NODAMB FAMB CNTRLND EID1 EID2 EID3 -etc.-
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RADBC 5 1.0 101 10
Field Contents Type Default
NODAMB Ambient point for radiation exchange. I > 0
FAMB Radiation view factor between the face and the ambient point. R > 0
CNTRLND Control point for radiation boundary condition. (Integer > 0; Default = 0) I > 0 0
EIDi CHBDYi element identification number. ( or THRU or BY) Integer 0 =
q o = FAMB c
e
T
e
4
T
amb
4
( )
q o = FAMB u
CNTRLND
c
e
T
e
4
T
amb
4
( )
Main Index
749
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Figure 44-2 Normal Vectors Point Outward from the Inner Sphere
Figure 44-3 Normal Vectors Point Inward for the Outer Sphere
Material Modeling
Thermal conductivity value is supplied on the MAT4 bulk data entry.
MAT4 1 4. Iso_1
MAT4 2 6. Iso_2
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined using the following NLPARM entry:
NLSTEP 1 1. +
+ FIXED 1 +
+ HEAT UPW 0.001 0.001 1.E-7PFNT
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
750
In thermal analysis, the TEMPD bulk data entry specifies the initial temperature for the nonlinear radiation analysis.
In this case, an initial guessed temperature of 800 was used. A casual selection of initial guessed temperature is not
so important in a nonlinear conduction and convection thermal analysis. However, for nonlinear radiation analysis
where the thermal radiation transfer is given by , an initial guess is very helpful. The error (residual)
is proportional to the temperature to the 4th power. It is. therefore, recommended to specify a higher estimated
temperature in a radiation dominant problem.
The default method for the NLPARM is the AUTO method in SOL 400 analyses. The convergence criterion is based
on UPW. In this problem, you can achieve convergence by either the PFNT method (as above) or the AUTO method:
NLSTEP 1 1. +
+ FIXED 1 +
+ HEAT UPW 0.001 0.001 1.E-7AUTO
The U convergence criterion measures the error tolerance for the temperature. It has a recommended value of 1.0e-3
or smaller for thermal problem. The P and W convergence criteria measure the error tolerances for the load and work,
respectively.
The number of increments is specified on the 3rd field of the NLPARM data entry (NINC). This should be set to 1 for
steady-state thermal analyses since convergence can be achieved in one step only. This, typically, is not the case for
structural analyses, where NINC is set to 10 by default. Generally, the PFNT or FNT methods are used for highly
nonlinear mechanical analyses.
Results
Both methods yield temperatures very close to the analytical solution.
Q coA T
1
4
T
2
4
( ) =
708.0
708.5
709.0
709.5
710.0
710.5
Hemi-cube Gaussian integration Analytic
Temperature K (Grid 367)
Analytic 710.30
Gaussian integration 709.85
Hemi-cube 708.91
Main Index
751
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Figure 44-4 Hemi-cube Results
Modeling Tips
The current model uses 1268 surfaces to define the radiating surfaces of both spheres. The CPU run times for the
Gaussian and Hemi-cube methods are nearly the same, at 27 seconds.
Figure 44-5, however, shows the dramatic increase in run time for the Gaussian model and the clear benefits of the
Hemi-cube method as the number of surfaces increases.
At 20,000 surfaces, the Gaussian model takes 33 time longer to complete.
Figure 44-5 CPU Run Times
0 5000 10000 15000 20000
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
Gaussian
Hemi-cube
CPU Time (s)
Number of Surfaces
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
752
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
The same physical model will now be built, run and postprocessed with SimXpert. The Gaussian integration scheme
will be used to compute the viewfactors. While the dimensions of length in the summary and nug*.dat files is inches,
the model built here with SimXpert will use the same geometry but with units of meters. The only other change will
be in the selection of the correct units of the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (p. 786).
Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units:
e. Length = m, Mass = kg, Time = s, Temperature = Kelvin, and Force = N
a
b
c
d
e
Main Index
753
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create First Hemispherical Surface
a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc
b. Select Arc
c. Select 3 Points
d. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0.0245, 0, 0; input, click OK
e. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0, 0.0245, 0; input, click OK (not shown)
f. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter -0.0245, 0, 0; click OK (not shown)
g. Click OK
h. Observe in the Model Browser tree: Part 1
l. Observe the curve arc
a
b
c
h
i
d
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
754
Create First Hemispherical Surface (continued)
a. Geometry tab: Surface/Revolve
b. Select Vector
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. Click OK
e. For Axis, select X; click OK
f. For Entities screen select the Curve arc
g. For Angel Of Spin (Degrees), enter 180; click OK
h. Observe the first hemispherical surface
-
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
j
h
Main Index
755
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Part for Second Hemispherical Surface
a. Assemble tab: Parts/Create Part
b. Use defaults of form
c. Click OK
d. Observe Part_2 in the Model Browser Tree
a
b
c
d
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
756
Create Second Hemispherical Surface
a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc
b. Select Arc
c. Select 3 Points
d. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0.0381, 0, 0; input, click OK
e. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter 0, 0.0381, 0; input, click OK (not shown)
f. For X,Y,Z, Coordinate, enter -0.0381, 0, 0; click OK (not shown)
g. Click OK
h. Observe the curve arc
- -
a
b
c
h
d
g
Main Index
757
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Second Hemispherical Surface (continued)
a. Geometry tab: Surface/Revolve
b. Select Vector
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0 0 0; click OK
d. Click OK
e. For Axis, select X; click OK
f. For Entities screen select the Curve arc
g. For Angel Of Spin (Degrees), enter 180;
h. Click OK
i. Observe the second hemispherical surface
a
b
c
f
kk
e
d
h
g
i
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
758
Create Third Hemispherical Surface
a. Tools: Transform/Reflect
b. Select X-Y Plane
c. Select Make Copy
d. Select Inner (smaller) hemispherical surface
e. Click Done; then click Exit
f. A third hemispherical surface is created that is the same color as the copied surface
g. Observe that there is another Part in the Model Browser tree
a
b
c
e
f
g
Main Index
759
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Third Hemispherical Surface (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, right click on PART_1.COPY; select Change Color
b. Select a different color
c. Observe that the third hemispherical surface is now a different color
a
b
c
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
760
Create Fourth Hemispherical Surface
a. Tools: Transform/Reflect
b. Select X-Y Plane
c. Select Make Copy
d. Select outer (larger) hemispherical surface
e. Click Done; then click Exit
f. A fourth hemispherical surface is created that is the same color as the copied surface
g. Observe that there is another Part in the Model Browser tree
a
b
c
e
f
g
f
Main Index
761
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Fourth Hemispherical Surface (continued)
a. In the Model Browser tree, right click on PART_2.COPY; select Change Color
b. Select a different color
c. Observe that the fourth hemispherical surface is now a different color
a
b
c
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
762
Create Material Properties
a. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
b. For Name enter Inner_sphere
c. For Description enter a description
d. For Youngs Modulus enter 10e9 (needed for the software to run)
e. For Poissons Ratio enter 0.28 (needed for the software to run)
f. For Thermal Conductivity enter 157.48
g. Click OK
a
b
c
f
h
d
e
g
f
Main Index
763
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Material Properties (continued)
a. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
b. For Name enter Outer_sphere
c. For Description enter a description
d. For Youngs Modulus enter 10e9 (needed for the software to run)
e. For Poissons Ratio enter 0.28 (needed for the software to run)
f. For Thermal Conductivity enter 236.22
g. Click OK
a
b
c
g
h
d
e
f
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
764
Create Inner Sphere Element Property
a. Create the element property for the inner sphere
b. Right click on PART_2; select HIDE to hide the outer hemispherical surfaces
c. Repeat Step b. for PART_2.COPY
d. Create the element property for the inner sphere
a
b
c
d
Main Index
765
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Inner Sphere Element Property (continued)
a. Materials and Properties tab: 2D Properties/Shell
b. For Name, enter Inner_sphere
c. For Entities screen, select the two inner hemispherical surfaces
d. For Material, select Inner_sphere from the Model Browser tree
e. For Part thickness, enter 2.54e-4
f. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
c
f
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
766
Create Outer Sphere Element Property
a. Create the element property for the outer sphere
b. Right click on PART_1; select HIDE to hide the outer hemispherical surfaces
c. Repeat Step b. for PART_1.COPY
d. Right click on PART_2; select SHOW to show the outer hemispherical surfaces
e. Repeat Step d. for PART_2.COPY
f. Create the element property for the outer sphere
a
f
Main Index
767
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Outer Sphere Element Property (continued)
a. Materials and Properties tab: 2D Properties/Shell
b. For Name, enter Outer_sphere
c. For Entities screen, select the two outer hemispherical surfaces
d. For Material, select Outer_sphere from the Model Browser tree
e. For Part thickness, enter 1.27e-3
f. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
c
f
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
768
Create Surface Mesh for Outer Sphere
a. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
b. For Surface to mesh screen, select both surfaces
c. For Element Size, enter 0.35
d. For Mesh type, select Quad Dominant
e. For Element property, select Outer_sphere from the Model Browser tree
f. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
b
f
Main Index
769
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Surface Mesh for Outer Sphere (continued)
a. Display the geometric surfaces in wireframe
b. Display the elements as shaded
c. Observe resulting mesh for the outer sphere
d. Notice the elements at the geometric interface are congruent
e. Verify that the elements at the interface are connected
a
b
c
d
e
e
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
770
Create Surface Mesh for Inner Sphere
a. Display only the inner sphere using the picks in the Model Browser tree and those of the Render toolbar
for Geometry and FE.
a
Main Index
771
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Surface Mesh for Inner Sphere (continued)
a. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
b. For Surface to mesh screen, select both surfaces
c. For Element Size, enter 0.35
d. For Mesh type, select Quad Dominant
e. For Element property, select Inner_sphere from the Model Browser tree
f. Click OK
a
b
c
d
e
b
f
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
772
Create Surface Mesh for Inner Sphere (continued)
a. Display the geometric surfaces in wireframe
b. Display the elements as shaded
c. Observe resulting mesh for the inner sphere
d. The elements at the geometric interface are congruent
e. Verify that the elements ar the interface are connected
a
b
c
d
e
e
Main Index
773
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Equivalence All Nodes
a. Right Click Part_1 Show All
b. Nodes/Elements Modify/Equivalence
c. Select All
d. Observe Highlighted Nodes
e. OK
f. Observe 52 merged unreferenced nodes deleted
aa
c
b
e
d
f
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
774
Create Fixed Temperature LBC for Inner Sphere
a. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Temperature BC
b. For Name, enter Temperature_inner
c. For Entities screen, select the two inner hemispherical surfaces; best to have only the Pick Surfaces
icon active and pick near the center of an element away from the nodes.
d. For Temperature, enter 1000
e. Click OK
a
b
d
e
c
c
Main Index
775
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Fixed Temperature LBC for Inner Sphere (continued)
a. Observe the applied temperatures as values
b. Display temperature values; turn Detailed Rendering On/Off
c. Set Geometry and FE to Wireframe
d. Double click on Temperature_Inner under LBC in the Model Browser
e. Click on Visualization tab
f. Select Short under LBC Type and Value Labels
g. Select Associated Geometry under Display on Geometry / FEM
h. Click OK
a
b
e
f
g
h
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
776
Create Fixed Temperature LBC for Inner Sphere (continued)
a. Observe the applied temperatures (red dots)
b. Select FE Shaded
a
Main Index
777
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres
a. Create two radiation enclosure faces (inner and outer spheres)
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Encl Rad Face
c. For Name, enter Encl Rad Face_Inner
d. For Entities screen, select both the inner hemispherical surfaces
e. Click on Advanced
f. For Shell surface option select, Front; direction of the element normals is found by
Quality tab: edit/fix Elements/Fix Elements/Normals
g. For Shell surface option, select Front
h. For Absorptivity, enter 0.9
i. For Emissivity, enter 0.9
j. Click OK
b
d
e
f
h
i
j
g
c
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
778
Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)
a. Create two radiation enclosure faces (inner and outer spheres)
b. Display only the outer sphere surfaces
c. Using the Model Browser tree, hide the inner surfaces and show the outer surfaces
d. Observe the outer surfaces
d
Main Index
779
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)
a. Create two radiation enclosure faces (inner and outer spheres)
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Encl Rad Face
c. For Name, enter Encl Rad Face_outer
d. For Entities screen, select both the outer hemispherical surfaces
e. Click on Advanced
f. For Shell surface option select, Front; direction of the element normals is found by
Quality tab: edit/fix Elements/Fix Elements/Normals
g. For Shell surface option, select Back
h. For Absorptivity, enter 0.7
i. For Emissivity, enter 0.7
j. Click OK
b
c
d
e
f
h
i
j
g
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
780
Create Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)
a. Create a single radiation enclosure
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Radiation Enclosure
c. For Name, enter Rad Enclosure
d. For Shadowing Option, select NO
e. For Unused Enclosure Faces, select Encl Rad Face_outer
f. Click the > icon
g. For Unused Enclosure Faces, select Encl Rad Face_inner
h. Click the > icon
i. Click OK
b
c
d
e
f
i
g
h
Main Index
781
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Radiation Enclosure LBC Between Spheres (continued)
a. Create a single radiation enclosure; display created Radiation Enclosure LBS form
b. In the Model Browser tree under LBC, double click Radiation Enclosure
c. Observe the form for Rad Enclosure
b
c
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
782
Create Radiation to Space From Outer Sphere
a. Create radiation to space (ambient)
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Rad to Space
c. For Name, enter Rad to Space
d. For Entities screen, select the two outer surfaces
e. For Ambient temperature, enter 0.0
f. For View Factor, enter 1.0
g. For Absorptivity, enter 1.0
h. For Emissivity, enter 1.0
i. For Shell surface option, enter Front
j. Click OK
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
d
Main Index
783
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create SimXpert Analysis File
a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Right click on FileSet
c. Select Create new Nastran job
d. For Job Name, enter a title
e. For Solution Type, select SOL 400
f. For Solver Input File, specify the fine name and its path
g. Unselect Create Default Layout
h. Click OK
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
784
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Right click on Load Cases
c. Select Create Loadcase
d. For Name (Title), enter NewLoadcase
e. For Analysis Type, select Nonlinear Steady Heat Trans
f. Click OK
b
c
d
e
f
Main Index
785
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Right click on Load/Boundaries
c. Select Select Lbc Set
d. For Selected Lbc Set, select DefaultLbcSet in the Model Browser tree
e. Click OK
f. To see the contents of DefaultLbcSet, click on it in the Model Browser tree
b
c
d
e
d
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
786
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
Remember that our length unit is meter, so the correct Stefan-Boltzmann constant to pick will have units of W/M
2
/K
4
.
a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. For Default Init Temp, enter 750.0
d. For Absolute Temp Scale, select 0.0
e. For Stefan-Boltzmann, select 5.6696e-8 W/M
2
/K
4
(Expert)
f. Click Apply
b
d
e
c
Main Index
787
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
Finally lets pick the hemicube viewfactor algorithm
a. Right Click Solver Control
b. Select Direct Input (BULK)
c.Enter nlmopts,hemicube,1
d. Check box Export this Section
e. Click Apply and Close
a
nlmopts,hemicube,1
b
c
d
e
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 44
788
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Specify parameter values for SOL 400 analysis
b. Select Output File Properties
c. For Text Output, select Print
d. Click Apply
b
d
c
Main Index
789
CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Specify parameter values for Sol 400 analysis
b. Double click on Loadcase Control
c. Select Subcase Steady State Heat
d. Click Temp Error
e. For Temperature Tolerance, enter 0.01
f. Click Load Error
g. For Load Tolerance, enter 1e-5
h. Click Apply
i. Click Close
b
d
c
e
f
g
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Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Specify parameter values for Sol 400 analysis
b. Right click on Output Requests
c. Select Nodal Output Requests
d. Select Create Temperature Output
e. Click OK
b
d
c
e
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Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Perform SimXpert SOL 400 Thermal Analysis
a. Perform steady state heat transfer analysis Sol 400
b. Right click on rad_between_concentric_spheres
c. Select Run
d. After the analysis is complete, the shown files are created
b
d
c
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792
Attach the Analysis Results File
a. Analysis complete, attach the .xdb results file
b. File: Attach Results
c. Select Results
d. Click OK
b
d
c
Main Index
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CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Display the Temperature Results
a. Create a fringe plot for the temperature results
b. Display just the two original surfaces (PART_1 and PART_2)
c. Results tab: Results/Fringe
d. For Result Cases, select Non-linear: 100. % of Load
e. For Result type, select Temperatures
f. Click Target entities
g. Screen select the elements for the two surfaces
c
d
e
f
g
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794
Display the Temperature Results (continued)
a. Create a fringe plot for the temperature results
b. Click Label attributes
c. Set color to black
d. Set format to Fixed
e. Click Update
b
c
d
e
Main Index
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CHAPTER 44
Concentric Spheres with Radiation
Display the Temperature Results (continued)
Input File(s)
a. Create a fringe plot for the temperature results
b. Observe the fringe plot
File Description
nug_44a.dat MSC Nastran input using Hemi-cube method
nug_44b.dat MSC Nastran input using Gaussian integration method
nug_44c.dat
MSC Nastran input with simple three grid model with
user-defined radiation matrix
Ch_44b.SimXpert SimXpert model file
Ch_44c.SimXpert SimXpert model file
b
709.3
1000
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796
Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 24 minutes and
explains how the steps are performed.
Figure 44-6 Video of the Above Steps
708.0
708.5
709.0
709.5
710.0
710.5
Hemi-cube Gaussian integration Analytic
Temperature K (Grid 367)
Analytic 710.30
Gaussian integration 709.85
Hemi-cube 708.91
Main Index
Chapter 45: Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
45
Transient Thermal Analysis of
Power Electronics

Summary 798

Introduction 799

Modeling Details 799

Solution Highlights 799

Results 802

Modeling Tips 806

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 807

Input File(s) 861

Video 861
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798
Summary
Title Chapter 45: Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Features Transient thermal analysis using CHEXA elements
Geometry

Material properties
Analysis characteristics Nonlinear transient thermal analysis
Boundary conditions
All material is initially at 25
o
C then a heat flux is applied on top surface of the copper
chip for 10 seconds.
Element type 8-node CHEXA
FE results Temperature contours at t = 10 seconds.
Copper
Aluminum
Y
X Z
10 X 10 X 8
1.295 X 1.295 X 0.2
Units: mm, g, sec, C
Flux 1.4907 W/mm
2
(0 to 10 seconds)
k
Cu
0.386W mm K ( ) = k
Al
0.204W mm K ( ) =
Cp
Cu
0.383J g K ( ) = Cp
Al
0.896J g K ( ) =
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CHAPTER 45
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Introduction
This problem demonstrates the transient thermal capability of SOL 400 in solving a short duration heating on a chip
through a copper tab attached to an aluminum backing.
Modeling Details
Figure 45-1 Chip Analysis (Nastran Test File: chip1.dat)
In many applications, the power dissipation inside integrated circuits is transient in nature. The device maybe turned
on for 10 seconds or less. The above model (Figure 45-1) consists of D2pak copper tab mounted on the aluminum heat
sink. Due to the symmetry, only a quarter of the model is meshed.
Solution Highlights
The following are highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model this problem:
$! NASTRAN Control Section
NASTRAN SYSTEM(316)=19
$! File Management Section
$! Executive Control Section
SOL 400
CEND
ECHO = SORT
$! Case Control Section
IC = 13
SUBCASE 1
$! Subcase name : NewLoadcase
$LBCSET SUBCASE1 DefaultLbcSet
THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL
FLUX(PRINT)=ALL
ANALYSIS = HTRAN
SPC = 15
Copper
Aluminum
Y
X Z
10 X 10 X 8
1.295 X 1.295 X 0.2
Units: mm, g, sec, C
Flux 1.4907 W/mm
2
(0 to 10 seconds)
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800
DLOAD = 16
NLSTEP = 1
BEGIN BULK
$! Bulk Data Pre Section
PARAM* SIGMA 1.7140E-9
PARAM POST 1
$! Bulk Data Model Section
PARAM PRGPST NO
MAT4 1 0.386 0.383 0.00895 Cu
MAT4 2 0.204 0.896 0.00271 Al
PSOLID 1 1 PSOLID_1
PSOLID 2 2 PSOLID_2
$ CHBDYG Surface Elements
CHEXA 126 1 17 18 1 19 179 181+
+ 147 183
CHEXA 127 1 179 181 147 183 180 182+
+ 148 184
CHEXA 128 1 18 20 2 1 181 185+
+ 149 147
CHEXA 129 1 181 185 149 147 182 186+
+ 150 148
$ Loads for Load Case : tran
TABLED1 1 LINEAR LINEAR +
+ 0.0 1. 10. 1. 10.1 0.0 100. 0.0+
+ ENDT
$!
TLOAD1 1 2 1
QBDY3 2 1.5 0 2176
CHBDYG 2176 AREA4
148 150 158 156
$ Dynamic Load Table : flux_time
TABLED1 1
0. 1. 10. 1. 10.2 0. 20. 0.
100. 0. ENDT
$ Default Initial Temperature
TEMPD 13 25.
DLOAD 16 1. 1. 1
NLSTEP 1 12. +
+ GENERAL -10 0 5 +
+ FIXED 600 5 +
+ HEAT UPW 0.01 0.01 0.01ITER 2 +
+ 10 2 0.2
The transient thermal analysis is indicated by ANALY=HTRAN. The IC option in the case control section points to the
initial temperature of the model. In this case, The IC=1 points to the TEMPD in the bulk data section, and the initial
temperature is set at 25
o
C. The DLOAD bulk data in the case control either points to the DLOAD in the bulk data with
same ID.
Furthermore, the DLOAD in the bulk data section can then point to the multiple load set ID that refers to either
TLOAD1, which called a time dependent table TABLED1 or TLOAD2 which has built in function such as unit step, sine,
or cosine functions.
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
TABLED1 1 LINEAR LINEAR +
+ 0.0 1. 10. 1. 10.1 0.0 100. 0.0+
+ ENDT
TLOAD1 1 2 1
QBDY3 2 1.5 0 2176
CHBDYG 2176 AREA4
148 150 158 156
DLOAD 16 1. 1. 1
Field 3 on the TLOAD1 record has an integer value of 2 which points to a transient heat load of QBDY3 with this same
set ID. In the field 6 of the TLAOD1 is the ID of time-dependent table of this heat flux. We see that the heat load is 1.0
from time equals to 0 to 10 seconds and, at 10.2 seconds, we shut this heat load back to zero.
Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the NLSTEP entry:
NLSTEP 1 12. +
+ GENERAL -10 0 5 +
+ FIXED 600 5 +
+ HEAT UPW 0.01 0.01 0.01ITER 2 +
+ 10 2 0.2
We are running a total 600 time steps with equal steps of 0.02 seconds and output the temperature at every 5th step.
This means that the temperature will then be output at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 seconds, respectively. Also we can use the
Method called FIXED and the convergence is set on the error on temperature (U) with 0.01 as the error tolerance. Grid
point 195 is the fastest responding in the copper tab; it is also used in subsequent graphs to illustrate how fast the chip
heats up and cools down.
Figure 45-2 Early Temperature History of Grid Point 195
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802
Results
Figure 45-3 Temperature Contours at 5 Seconds
Figure 45-4 Temperature History Past 10 Seconds
Suppose that the user decided to add a fan to increase the cooling on top. To simulate this, we will apply convection
boundary condition on the top surface where the convection coefficient is a function of time and the ambient
temperature is also at 25
o
C. We can then compare this run against the previous run that has no convection. Convection
is applied as a heat transfer coefficient of . The temperature contours at 5 seconds are shown in
Figure 45-5.
H 0.02W mm
2
C ( ) =
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Figure 45-5 Temperature Contours at 5 Seconds
Another comparison between the two models is shown in Figure 45-6, where the influence of the cooling is very
obvious with the entire model returning to the initial conditions after about 20 seconds.

Figure 45-6 Temperature Histories With and Without Cooling
By applying the convection on the top surface, the temperature of the chip is now cooled from 40.3 to 33.2
o
C. In this
run we have a total of three time dependent boundary conditions. The DLOAD in the bulk data section (Nastran test
file Chip_spcd1.dat) points to multiple TLOAD1 options as shown in the table below.

Boundary
Conditions TLOAD1 ID SPCD/DAREA
Grid (enforced
temperature as a
function of time) TABLED1 (ID)
H(time) 2 5 2556 2
Heat flux(time) 1 3 1
T
ambient
(time) 6 8 2555 3
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CHAPTER 45
804
The SPCD is used only on enforced temperature as a function of time.
TLOAD1 1 3 1
TLOAD1 2 5 1 3
TLOAD1 6 8 1 2
TABLED1 1 LINEAR LINEAR +
+ 0.0 1. 10. 1. 10.1 1. 100. 1.+
+ ENDT
TABLED1 2 LINEAR LINEAR +
+ -10. 0.02 0.0 0.02 5. 0.02 10. 0.02+
+ 20. 0.02 ENDT
TABLED1 3 LINEAR LINEAR +
+ 0.0 1. 100. 1. ENDT
$!
PCONV 4 3 0 0.0
MAT4 3 1.
SPOINT 2555
SPCD 5 2555 25.
SPC1 4 2555
TEMP 21 2555 25.
$!
SPOINT 2556
SPCD 8 2556 1.0
SPC1 7 2556
TEMP 21 2556 0.02
QBDY3 3 1.5 0 2176
CHBDYG 2176 AREA4
148 150 158 156
TEMPD 21 25.
SPCADD 23 4 7
DLOAD 24 1. 1. 1 1. 2 1. 6
NLSTEP 1 12. +
+ GENERAL -10 0 5 +
+ FIXED 600 5 +
+ HEAT UPW 0.01 0.01 0.01ITER 2 +
+ 10 2 0.2
SPOINT 2555 indicates the ambient temperature for the convection, while SPOINT 2556 represents the variation of
convection coefficient with time.
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Specifies a free convection boundary condition for heat transfer analysis through connection to a surface element
(CHBDYi entry).
Format:
Example:
$ Convection to Ambient of Load Set : htime
PCONV 4 3 0 0.0
MAT4 3 1.
SPOINT 2555
SPCD 5 2555 25.
SPC1 4 2555
TEMP 21 2555 25.
SPOINT 2556
SPCD 8 2556 1.0
SPC1 7 2556
TEMP 21 2556 0.02
CONV 2201 4 2556 2555
CHBDYG 2201 AREA4
17 18 37 73
CONV
Heat Boundary Element Free Convection Entry
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CONV EID PCONID FLMND CNTRLND TA1 TA2 TA3 TA4
TA5 TA6 TA7 TA8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
CONV 2 101 3 201 301
Field Contents Type Default
EID CHBDYG, CHBDYE, or CHBDYP surface element
identification number.
I > 0
PCONID Convection property identification number of a
PCONV entry.
I > 0
FLMND Point for film convection fluid property
temperature.
I > 0 0
CNTRLND Control point for free convection boundary
condition.
I > 0 0
TAi Ambient points used for convection. I > 0 for TA1
I > 0 for TA2 through TA8
TA1 for TA2
through TA8
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CHAPTER 45
806
The SPOINT 2556 is on the field 5 (CNTRLND) on the CONV, and the SPOINT 2555 is on the field 6 (TA1). The
field 6 on the MAT4 option is the convection coefficient times the tabeld1 ID 2 where this a function of time. At time
equal to zero, the value is equal to 0.02, and time equal to 10 seconds, the value is 0.03.
For SPOINT 2556, we used SPCD and SPC1 to specify enforced temperature as a function of time. The value of 1.0
that specified on the field 5 on the SPCD bulk data entry actually is a scale multiplier to the TABLED1 ID 2 that it refers
to.
The ambient temperature is constant at 25
o
C, but we could make it time dependent as well. It is important that for any
enforced temperature as a function of time or any use of a control node in RADBC or CONV bulk data entries, that a
value of 1 is specified on field 5 on the TLOAD1 or TLOAD2 entry to indicate that this refers to the SPCD.
Modeling Tips
The transient thermal analysis involved a lot more data compared to a steady state thermal analysis since every time
step requires a temperature distribution. It is sensible to monitor those nodes that handle the time-dependent boundary
conditions. In this case, the convection coefficient as a function of time is applied to SPOINT 2556 which, when
plotted as a graph in SimX, should behave as described by the input. The other point of interest is where the heat load
is applied.
Adaptive time stepping facilitates capturing transient thermal behavior more precisely than uniform stepping, because
the length of each time step changes based upon changes in temperature. To invoke adaptive time stepping requires
the nonlinear procedure defined through the NLSTEP entry:
NLSTEP,6,12.0
,GENERAL,10,1,10
,ADAPT,0.001,1.0E-5,0.5
,HEAT,U,1.0E-6,1.0E-6,1.0E-6,AUTO
and a backward Euler thermal operator with the NDAMP parameter:
PARAM,NDAMP,0.5
This will run for a total time period of 12 seconds with an initial time step of 12/1000. The minimum time step is
12*1e-5; the convergence is set to U and is at 1e-6. The allowable range of the NDAMP parameter is -2.414 to 0.414,
and any NDAMP value that violates this range is reset to the closest allowable value. Here it triggers the backward
Euler operator. (NDAMP = 0 would be the Crank-Nicholson operator). The adaptive time stepping would avoid the
small oscillation seen in Figure 45-4 since the backward Euler operator is both stable and immune to oscillations. The
input files nug_45c.dat and nug_45d.dat use this operator.
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert
Run SimXpert with Structures Workspace
a. For the Default Workspace, select Structures
a
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808
Specify the Model Units
a. Tools: Options
b. Observe the User Options Window
c. Select Units Manager
d. For Basic Units, specify the model units
e. Length = mm; Mass = g; Time = s; Temperature = celsius, Force = N
f. Click OK
a b
c
e
d
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create a Surface with a 45 Angle
a. Create two straight curves
b. Geometry tab: Curve/Curve
c. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 1.295, 0, 0; click OK
d. For X, Y, X Coordinate enter 1.295, 1.295, 0; click OK
e. Click Apply
f. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 10, 0, 0; click OK (not shown)
g. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 10, 10, 0; click OK (not shown)
f. Click Apply
e
b
c
d
f
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
810
Create a Surface with a 45 Angle (continued)
a. Create two straight curves
b. Geometry tab: Surface/Filler
c. For Curves screen, select 2 curves
d. Click OK
b
c
d
c
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Mesh the Surface
a. Create mesh seeds on the four curves of the surface
b. Meshing tab: Automesh/Seed
c. For Curves screen, select the shortest curve and the opposite curve
d. Select Number of Elements, enter 5; click OK
e. Do this for the lower-right curve, using One Way Bias
f. Select Number of Elements and L2/L1
g. For Number of Elements, enter 10
h. For L2/L1, enter 5; click OK
i. Do this for the last curve, using One Way Bias (not shown)
j. Select Number of Elements and L2/L1 (not shown)
k. For Number of Elements, enter 10
l. For L2/L1, enter 0.2; click OK (1/5) (not shown)
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
c
f
i
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CHAPTER 45
812
Mesh the Surface (continued)
a. Create mesh seeds on the four curves of the surface
b. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
c. For Surfaces to mesh screen, select the surface
d. For Mesh type, select Quad Dominant
e. For Mesh method, select Mapped
f. Click OK
b
c
d
e
f
c
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
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Reflect the Part
a. Reflect (mirror) the Part (surface and its mesh)
b. Tools: Transform/Reflect
c. To define a plane to reflect about, create a node at the origin (0,0,0) and one above it (0,0,10)
d. Nodes/Elements tab: Create/Node
e. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0,0,0; click OK
f. For X,Y,Z Coordinate, enter 0,0,10; click OK (not shown)
g. Click OK
d
e
g
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
814
Reflect the Part (continued)
a. Reflect (mirror) the Part (surface and its mesh)
b. Tools: Transform/Reflect
c. For Plane, select Any Plane
d. Select Make Copy
e. Select Nodes
f. Select the node at the origin
g. Select the node at the tip of the surface (interior angle is 45)
h. Select the node that is above the origin
d
c
e
b
f
g
h
Main Index
815
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Reflect the Part (continued)
a. Reflect (mirror) the Part (surface and its mesh)
b. From Reflect - Any Plane pick panel, select Parts
c. Screen select the Part
d. Click Done; then click Exit
d
b c
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816
Create a Square Surface to be Congruent at Lower-left
a. Create a square surface at the lower-left corner of the Part
b. Geometry tab: Curve/Curve
c. For Entities screen, select the node at the origin and the node to its right
d. Click OK
b
c c
d
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create a Square Surface to be Congruent at Lower-left (continued)
a. Create a square surface at the lower-left corner of the Part
b. Geometry tab: Surface/Filler
c. For Curves screen, select the curve just created and the curve just above it
d. Click OK
b
c c
d
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
818
Mesh the Square Surface at Lower-left
a. Create a square surface at the lower-left corner of the Part
b. Meshing tab: Automesh/Surface
c. For Surfaces to mesh screen, select the square surface just created
d. Click OK
b
c
d
c
Main Index
819
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Connect the Adjacent Elements (continued)
a. Connect the adjacent elements using equivalence
b. Nodes/Elements tab: Modify/Equivalence
c. Set geometry to wireframe (not shown)
d. Tools: Identify to display the node labels (not shown)
e. For Entities screen, select all the nodes
f. For Merging tolerance, enter 0.05
g. Click OK
b
e
f
e
g
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820
Connect the Adjacent Elements (continued)
a. Connect the adjacent elements using equivalence
b. Click OK
c. View: Clear Labels (not shown)
d. Tools: Identify (not shown)
e. For Identify Entities pick panel, select Nodes (not shown)
f. Click All (not shown)
g. Click Exit (not shown)
h. Observe only one node label
i. View: Clear Labels (not shown)
b
h
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Sweep 2-D Elements to Create 3-D Elements
a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Meshing tab: FEM based/Normal
c. For Shell Elements screen, select all the elements
d. For Distances, enter -8
e. For Layers, enter 8
f. Click OK
c
b
c
f
e
d
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
822
Sweep 2-D Elements to Create 3-D Elements (continued)
a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Model Views: Isometric View
c. Observe the 3-D elements
b
c
Main Index
823
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux
a. Create 2-D elements at the location where they are needed
b. View > Entity Display Filter: Show/Hide 3D FE
c. Tools: Transform/Translate (not shown)
d. For Translate XYZ, enter 0, 0, 8
e. Select Make Copy
f. Select Elements
g. Model Views: Top
h. Screen select the 2-D elements for the square surface
i. Select Done
j. Model Views: Isometric View
b
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
824
Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux (continued)
a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Observe the new 2-D mesh that is to be sued to create the 3-D elements for the application region for
the heat flux
c. Rotate model as needed
b
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux (continued)
a. Create 2-D elements at the location where they are needed
b. Meshing tab: FEM based/Normal
c. For the Shell Elements screen, select the 2-D elements that were just created
d. For Distances, enter -0.2
e. For Layers, enter 2
f. Click OK
g. Model Views: Isometric View (not shown)
h. Render:FE Shades with Edges (not shown)
b
f
e
d
c
c
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
826
Create 3-D Elements for Applying Heat Flux (continued)
a. Create 3-D elements by sweeping the 2-D elements
b. Observe the 3-D meshes
b
Main Index
827
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Delete All 2-D Elements
a. Eliminate all 2-D Elements for the model
b. Edit: Delete
c. From the Delete pick panel, select Elements
d. Select Advanced
e. From the Extended Pick Dialog, select CQUAD4
f. Select the entire model
g. Click Done
h. In the Delete window, click Yes
i. Click Exit
b
c
i
h
g
e
d
f
Main Index
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828
Connect All 3-D Elements
a. By using equivalence, all 3-D elements can be connected
b. Modes/Elements: Modify/Equivalence
c. For Entities screen, select the entire model
d. For Merging tolerance, enter 0.5
e. Click OK
f. Click OK
b
c
e
d
f
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Material Properties
a. Design material properties for Copper and Aluminum
b. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
c. For Name, enter Copper
d. For Youngs Modulus, enter 210
e. For Poissons Ratio, enter 0.28
f. For Thermal Conductivity, enter 0.386
g. For Specific Heat, enter 0.383
h. For Thermal Density, enter 0.00895
i. Click OK
i
c
e
d
f
g
h
b
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830
Material Properties (continued)
a. Design material properties for Copper and Aluminum
b. Materials and Properties tab: Material/Isotropic
c. For Name, enter Aluminum
d. For Youngs Modulus, enter 210
e. For Poissons Ratio, enter 0.28
f. For Thermal Conductivity, enter 0.204
g. For Specific Heat, enter 0.896
h. For Thermal Density, enter 0.00271
i. Click OK
i
c
e
d
f
g
h
b
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
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Element Properties
a. Define element properties for Copper and Aluminum parts of the model
b. Materials and Properties tab: 3D Properties/Solid
c. For Name, enter SOLID_Copper
d. For Entities screen, select the solid elements that are to represent the Copper
e. under Material on the Model Browser tree, select Copper
f. Click OK
c
e
d
f
b
d
e
Main Index
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CHAPTER 45
832
Element Properties (continued)
a. Define element properties for Copper and Aluminum parts of the model
b. Materials and Properties tab: 3D Properties/Solid
c. For Name, enter SOLID_Aluminum
d. For Entities screen, select the solid elements that are to represent the Aluminum
e. Under Material on the Model Browser tree, select Aluminum
f. Click OK
c
e
d
f
b
d
e
Main Index
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Define Time Dependent Heat Flux on Copper Chip
a. To define the time dependent heat flux that is to be normal to the Copper chip, first define the time
dependent function for the heat flux
b. Fields/Tables tab: Tables/NastranBDF/Tabled1
c. For Name, enter TABLE_1
d. For X and Y values, enter the values shown below
e. Click OK
c
e
d
b
Main Index
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834
Define Time Dependent Heat Flux on Copper Chip (continued)
a. Define the time dependent heat flux that is to be normal to the Copper chip
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Normal Flux
c. For Name, enter Normal_Flux_Copper_Chip
d. For Entities screen, select the nodes at the top of the chip
e. For Heat Flux, enter 1.4907
f. Under Flux vs Time scaling function on the Model Browser tree, select TABLE_1
g. Click OK
c
g
d
b
d
e
f
Main Index
835
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Define Time Dependent Heat Flux on Copper Chip (continued)
a. Define the time dependent heat flux that is to be normal to the Copper chip
b. Observe the model with the applied heat flux
b
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
836
Create a SimXpert Analysis File
a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on FileSet, and select Create new Nastran job
c. For Job Name, enter a title
d. For Solution Type, select SOL400
e. For Solver Input File, select the path
f. Unselect Create Default Layout
g. Click OK
b
g
f
e
d
c
Main Index
837
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Load Cases and select Create Loadcase
c. For Name (title), enter NewLoadcase
d. For Analysis Type, select Nonlinear Transient Heat Trans
e. Click OK
b
e
d
c
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
838
Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Right click on Loads/Boundaries and select Select Lbc Set
c. For Selected Lbc Set, enter DefaultLbcSet; click OK
d. Under LBC Set in the Model Browser, double click on DefaultLbcSet to observe the lbcs
that are assigned
e. Click Cancel
b
d
c
e
Main Index
839
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under Simulations, transient analy power... in the Model Browser, double click on Solver Control
c. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
d. For Default Init Temperature, enter 25; click Apply
e. Select Output File Properties
f. For Test Output, select Print
g. Click Apply
h. Click Close
2009 MSC.Software Corporation
b
e
d
c
f
g
h
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
840
Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Create a SimXpert analysis file for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under Simulations, transient_analy_power... NewLoadcase in the Model Browser, double click on
Loadcase Control
c. Select Subcase Transient Heat Transfer Parameters
d. For Initial Time Step, enter 0.02
e. For Number of Time Steps, enter 600
f. Click on Temperature Error
g. For Temperature Tol., select 0.01
h. Click Apply (not shown)
i. Click Close (not shown)
.
.
b
f
d
c
g
e
Main Index
841
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Create a SimXpert Analysis File (continued)
a. Create a SimXpert analysis fole for performing an MSC Nastran analysis
b. Under Simulations, transient_analy_power...,Load Cases, NewLoadcase in the Model Browser,
right click on Output Requests
c. Select Nodal Output Requests
d. Select Create Temperature Output Request
e. Click on Suppress Print
f. For Sorting., select By Frequency/Time
g. Click OK
b
f
d
c
g
e
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
842
Run a SimXpert Analysis
a. Perform a SimXpert thermal analysis
b. Under Simulations in the Model Browser, right click on transient analy power elect
c. Select Run
b
c
Main Index
843
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File
a. Attach the SimXpert result file
b. Click on Attach Results
c. For File path, select the results file transient_analy_power_elect.xdb
d. Click OK
b
c
d
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
844
Display a Chart of Temperature Results
a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Results tab: Results/Chart
c. For Results Cases., select the results for all the times
d. For Results Type, select Temperatures
e. For Target Type, select Nodes
f. Pick Filters: Accumulate Mode
b
c
d
e
f
Main Index
845
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Display a Chart of Temperature Results (continued)
a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Select two nodes; e.g., Node 1522 and Node 67
c. For Independent axis., select Time
d. Click Add Curves
b
c
d
b
b
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
846
Display a Chart of Temperature Results
a. Display the thermal results for all the times
b. Observe the temperature results
b
Main Index
847
CHAPTER 45
Transient Thermal Analysis of Power Electronics
Define Free Convection off Heat Storage Body
a. Define free convection off top of model
b. LBCs tab: Heat Transfer/Free Convection
c. For Name, enter Free Convection_Al_Body
d. For Ambient Temperature, enter 25
e. To make picking easier, hide the lbc Normal Flux_Copper_Chip (not shown)
f. For Entities screen, select the nodes at the top of the Aluminum body. Make sure to select
the node at the corner
g. DO NOT CLICK OK
.
c
d
b
f
f
f
Main Index
MSC Nastran Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 45
848
Define Free Convection off Heat Storage Body (continued)
a. Define free convection off top of model
b. Change the picking to Pick Filters: Accumulate Mode
c. Change to different view using Model Views: Front (not shown)
d. For Entities screen, sel