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Hindi Verbs Verb list

A to - age barhna advance to answer - jawab dena ana, pahunchana

to arrive -

to attack - hamla karna to - koshish karna attempt B to bathe to be to bear to beat to beg to behave to believe to be sleepy to be tired to bind to bite to break

- nahana - hona - sahna - marna - mangna bartav karna vishwas karna

- nind ana - thakna - bandhna - katna - torna

to nasta breakfast karna to bring to bring - lana - palna

up to burn to burst to bury C to call to care to cast to catch to change to clean to climb jalna, jalana

- phutana - dafnana

- bulana parwah karna

- dhalna - pakarna - badalna - saf karna - charhna kanghi karna

to comb to come

- ana

to - bat karna converse to cook to copy - pakana nakal karna

to cover - dhakna to creep - rengna to cry chillana, rona

to cruch - kuchalna to cut D to depart - katna

juda hona, alag hona, jana

to - utarna decend to dig to die - khodna - marna

to dine - khana khana to do to dream - karna - sapna dekhna

to drink - pina to dry to dye E to eat - sukhna, sukhana - rangna

- khana

to - maf karna excuse to expect - asha karna

to - samjhana explain to vichar prakat express karna F to fall to fear to fight to fill

- girna - darna - larna - bharna

to fly (in air) - urna to fly (run away) to forget to forgive bhag jana

- bhulna maf karna

G to get to get up

- pana utha na

to give - dena to go - jana

H to - hona, rakhna have to hate to hear to help to hide - nafarat karna - sunna sahayata dena, madad dena

- chhipana

I to - thik karna improve to irrigate to irritate J to jump - pani dena chirhana, naraz karna

- kudna

to join - jorna to vichar judge karna K to keep

- rakhna

to kick - thokar marna to kill - marna

to kiss -

chumna, chumma lena

to - janna know L to laugh to lead to learn to let

- hansna - karne dena - sikhna makan kiraye dena

to lie (on bed) - letna to lie (speak) to lift to like - jhuth bolna - uthana - chahna

to live (reside) - rahna to live (not to - jina die) to look to lose to love M to make banan a - dekhna - khona - pyar karna

to - napna measure to mould to move dhaln a sarka na

N to kutar nibble na

O to open

- kholna

to hukum order dena P to pat to pay to play to play (music) to pour thapthapa na

- dena - khelna baja bajana

- dalna vada karna

to promise -

to - bolna pronounce to pull to push to put - khinchna dhakka dena

- rakhna

Q to jhagra quarral karna R to read to receive

- parhna - pana

to recollect - yad karna to sifarish recommend karna to reject to reply to ride napasnd karna

- jawab dena - charhna

to rise

- uthana

S to say - kahna to scold - dantna dekhna, talash karna

to see to seek

- dhundhana

to sell - bechna to send - bhejna

to sew - sina to - hilna shake to - chillana shout to show to shut - dikhana - band karna

to sing - gana to sit to sleep to smell to solve - baithna - sona - sunghana - hal karna

to sow - bona to - bolna speak to spin - katna to spit - thukna to - thaharna

stay to steal to stop to swim T to take - churana thaharna, tharana

- tairna

- lena batchit karna

to talk to taste to tear

- chakhna - pharna

to - tang karna tease to tell to think kahna, batana

- sochna

U to samajh understand na V to ulti vomit karna W to walk chalna, ghumna

to idhar-udhar wander phirna to wash - dhona

to waste

- barbad karna

to weep - rona to weave - bunna

Hindi verbs are inflected with respect to


gender of the subject (masculine, feminine) number of the subject (singular, plural) tense (present, past, future) action (perfect, imperfect, continuous) degree of respect (intimate, familiar, respect)

Verbs are referred to in their infinitive noun form which ends in na. Examples:
boln a to speak

likhn to a write lena ana to take to come

The stem of a verb is the infinitive form minus the na ending. Examples:
bol lik h le a

Present Tense
Present tense of hona (to be):
main hun

I am

tu hai yah hai vah hai ham hain tum ho ap hain ye hain ve hain

you are (intimate) this, he, she, it is that, he, she, it is we are you are (familiar) you are (respect) these, they are those, they are

Present Imperfect

The present imperfect is used for habitual actions. It is formed by adding ta, te, or ti to the stem of the verb followed by the present tense of hona. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing bolta and bolte with bolti.
main bolta hun tu bolta hai yah bolta hai vah bolta hai ham bolte hain tum bolte ho ap bolte hain ye bolte

I speak you speak (intimate) this, he, it speaks that, he, it speaks we speak you speak (familiar) you speak (respect) these, they

hain ve bolte hain

speak those, they speak

Present Continuous

The present continuous is used for ongoing actions -- like the "-ing" form in English. It is formed like this: stem + raha/rahe/rahi + present tense of hona Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing raha and rahe with rahi.
main bol raha hun tu bol raha hai yah bol raha hai vah bol raha hai ham bol rahe hain tum bol rahe ho ap bol rahe hain ye bol rahe hain ve bol rahe hain

I am speaking you are speaking (intimate) this, he, it is speaking that, he, it is speaking we are speaking you are speaking (familiar) you are speaking (respect) these, they are speaking those, they are speaking

Past Tense
Past tense of hona (to be):
main tha / thi tu tha / thi

I was you were (intimate)

yah tha / thi vah tha / thi ham the / thin tum the / thin ap the / thin ye the / thin ve the / thin

this, he, she, it was that, he, she, it was we were you were (familiar) you were (respect) these, they were those, they were

(The slash seperates masculine and feminine forms)


Past Imperfect

The past imprefect is used for habitual actions in the past. It is formed like the present imperfect but with the past tense of hona instead of the present tense. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing bolta and bolte with bolti, replacing tha with thi, and the with thin.
main bolta tha tu bolta tha yah bolta tha vah bolta tha ham bolte the tum bolte the ap bolte the ye bolte the

I used to speak you used to speak (intimate) this, he, it used to speak that, he, it used to speak we used to speak you used to speak (familiar) you used to speak (respect) these, they used to speak

ve bolte the

those, they used to speak

Past Continuous

The past continuous is used for ongoing actions in the past -- like the "-ing" form in English. It is formed like this: stem + raha/rahe/rahi + past tense of hona Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing raha and rahe with rahi, replacing tha with thi, and the with thin.
main bol raha I was speaking tha tu bol raha tha yah bol raha tha vah bol raha tha ham bol rahe the tum bol rahe the ap bol rahe the ye bol rahe the ve bol rahe the you were speaking (intimate) this, he, it was speaking that, he, it was speaking we were speaking you were speaking (familiar) you were speaking (respect) these, they were speaking those, they were speaking

Future Tense
Future Imperfect

The future imprefect is used to refer to the future as well as to make assumptions about the presents (just like in English). It is formed by adding unga/i, ega/i, enge/i, or oge/i to the stem. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing the ending a or e with i.
main bolunga

I will speak

tu bolega yah bolega vah bolega ham bolenge tum bologe ap bolenge ye bolenge ve bolenge

you will speak (intimate) this, he, it will speak that, he, it will speak we will speak you will speak (familiar) you will speak (respect) these, they will speak those, they will speak

Future Continuous

The future continuous is used to refer to ongoing actions in the future. It is formed as the present imperfect but with the future of raha instead of hona. Below are shown the forms in the masculine. The feminine forms can be constructed by replacing the ending a or e with i in both verbs.
main bolta rahunga tu bolta rahega yah bolta rahega vah bolta rahega ham bolte rahenge tum bolte rahoge ap bolte rahenge ye bolte

I will be speaking you will be speaking (intimate) this, he, it will be speaking that, he, it will be speaking we will be speaking you will be speaking (familiar) you will be speaking (respect) these, they will be

rahenge ve bolte rahenge

speaking those, they will be speaking

Imperative
There are three different imperatives in Hindi: tu, tum, and ap imperative. The tu imperative is the stem itself The tum imperative is the stem + o The ap imperative is the stem + ie or iye Examples:
pani la pani lao pani laie bring water (intimate) bring water (familiar) bring water (respect)

The imperatives are made negative by adding mat, na, or nahin. Use mat with the tu imperative. Use mat or na with the tum imperative. Use na or nahin with the ap imperative. Examples:
vahan mat ja vahan na jao vahan nahin jaie don't go there (intimate) don't go there (familiar) don't go there (respect)

To Have
There is no Hindi verb for "to have". Possession is expressed in other ways.
Movable Objects

Possession of movable objects is expressed using ke pas after the (English) subject. Examples:
Ram ke pas gari hai Ram has a car ("near Ram a car it is")

`mera pas kitab I have a book ("near me a hai book it is")

Immovable Objects

Possession of immovable objects and of relatives is expressed using the possessive particles ka, ki, ke. Examples:
uska makan hai Ram ke do bete hain he has a house ("of him a house it is") Ram has two sons ("of Ram two sons there are")

Adverbs, prepositions, conjuctions...

about (place) about (pertaining to) above across after again again & again against (opposite) against (touching) alas aloof almost also although altogether always among and around as if as far as as soon as at backward backwards & forwards because because (him) before behind below beneath between beyond

- as-pas - bare men - upar - uspar - bad men - phir - bar-bar - khilaf - bhira kar - afsos - dur - karib-karib - ohi - halanki - ekdam - hamesha - unke bich men - aur - as - mano - jahantak - jyonhi - taraf - pichhe - age-pichhe - kyonki - vajah se (uski) - pahle - pichhe - niche - niche - bich men - us par

bravo but by certainly certainly not down downward during early either enough especially even even then ever every moment far for for ever forward from generally gradually hence (place) hence (time) here here and there hither how how much if if not if possible if so immediate in in brief indeed in front of inparticular in general in short inside just now late little by little near never neither no nor not

- shabash - lekin - se - zarur - hargiz nahin - niche - niche ki taraf - us bich men - jaldi - ya to - kafi - khas kar - bhi - tab to - hamesha - hardam - dur - (uske) liye - hamesha ke liye - age - se - am taur par - dhire-dhire - yahan se - ab se - yahan - yahan vahan - yahan - kaise - kitna - agar - agar nahin to - ho sake to - agar aisa hai to - zaruri, turamt andar - andar - thore men - vastav men - samne - khas taur se - am taur se - thore men - andar - abhi-abhi - der se - thora-thora karke - pas - kabhi nahin - na vah - nahin - na vah - nahin

nothing not yet now now or never of of course off oft / often on once only or out out and out over (higher) over (finished) perhaps please quite quietly really scarcely seldom since (time) since (conditional) so some somehow so much so and so so late so soon soon still sorry suddenly surely that (conjunction) than then there therefore thither though through thrice thus till today together tomorrow tonight

- kuchh nahin - abhi tak nanin - ab - abhi ya phir kabhi nahin - ka - albatta - dur - aksar - upar - ek bar - kewal - ya - bahar - bilkul - upar - khatam - shayad - krpaya - bilkul - chupchap - sachmuch - mushkil se - kabhi-kabhi - tab se - chunki - isliya - kuchh - jyon tyon karke - itna - falana - itni der se - itni jaldi - jaldi - phir bhi - afsos - achanak - zarur - ki - se - to, tab - vahan - isliye - yahan se - yadyapi - us mense - tin bar - aise - tab tak - aj - ek sath - kal - rat ko

towards truly truly twice under until up unless very well when whenever whenever it de where wherever whereas while why yes yesterday

- taraf - sach taur par - sahi - do bar - niche - tab tak - upar - jab tak - bahut - achchha - kab - jab kabhi - jab kabhi ho sake - cahan - kahin bhi - chunki - jab tak - kyon - han - kal

Syntax
Hindi uses a different word order than English. The main differences are that verbs are placed at the end of the sentence (like in German) and that Hindi (like other Indian languages) uses postpositions instead of prepositions. Postpositions are like prepositions except that they are written after the noun.
Normal sentences

English: Subject Verb Object => I learn Hindi Hindi: Subject Object Verb => I Hindi learn English: Subject Verb Preposition Object => I go to the shop Hindi: Subject Object Postposition Verb => I shop to go
Imperative sentences

English: Verb Place Adverb => Come here now Hindi: Place Adverb Verb => Here now come English: Verb Negative Verb Adverb => Do not eat quickly Hindi: Adverb Negative Verb => Quickly not eat
Interrogate sentences

English: Adverb Aux.Verb Subject Verb => What are you drawing? Hindi: Subject Adverb Verb => You what draw?

Pronouns

First Person I - main To me My We To us Our - mujhko mera (m) , meri (f) , mere (pl)

- ham - hamko hamara (m) , hamari (f) , hamare (pl)

Second Person You - tum , ap (r) To you Your Your (r) - tumko , apko (r) tumhara (m) , tumhari (f) , tumhare (pl)

- apka (m) , apki (f) , apke (pl)

Third Person He, she, it (there)

- vah , ve (r)

He, she, it (here) - yah, ye (r) To him, her, it (there) To him, her, it (here) His, her, its They To them Their - usko, unko (r) - isko, inko (r) uska (m) , uski (f) , uske (pl)

- ve - unko unka (m) , unki (f) , unke (pl)

Demonstrative & relative This - yah This very, this same That That very, that same These Those Who Whom (s) Whom (pl or r) Whose Which (s) Which (pl) Of which (s) Of which (pl) - yahin - vah - vahin - ye - ve - kaun - kis ko - kin ko kis ka (m) , kis ki (f)

- kaun si - kis ko - kis ki - kin ki

Pronouns in the direct and indirect cases Singu Plural lar Direc Indir Indir | Direct t ect ect yah - is | ye | ye hin | ve | ve hin | kaun | koinkoin - in - inhin - un - unhin - kin - kinhin - jin

yahin - isin vah - us

vahin - usin kaun koin jo - kis - kisin - jis

| jo

Postpositions

Postpositions in Hindi are like prepositions in English but they are placed after the noun. The noun in front of the postposition is always in the indirect case. The use of postpositions makes it possible to express the "missing" cases in Hindi.
nominativ larki e genitive s, m s, f pl, m pl, f dative accusativ e larki larki ko vocative ablative larki larki se a girl the girl girl! from / with / of the girl the girl (direct case) (direct case) larki ka kam the work of the girl the girl (direct case)

larki ki bat the word of the girl larki ke kam larki ki baten larki ko the works of the girl the words of the girl to the girl

agentive larki ne locative larki men larki par larki tak

in the girl on / upon / after the girl as far as / as long as / up to the girl

Adjectives

An adjective ending with -a changes form according to the gender and number of the noun it qualifies. chota = small
Singul Masculine Feminine ar chota kamra chota ghar choti narangi choti mez

Plur Masculine Feminine al chote kamre chote ghar choti narangiyan choti mezen

Other adjectives do not change form. saf = clean


Masculi Feminin ne e Singul saf ar kamra Plural saf kamre saf mez saf mezen

The comparative and superlative forms are made by adding the words usase (or se) and sabse in front of the positive form.
Positive sundar

Comparat usase sundar / se ive sundar Superlativ sabse sundar e

When an adjective is repeated twice it emphasises different kinds of the noun or the intensity or selectivity.

Adjective list

easy difficult sweet bitte sour good bad blunt sharp dark open closed full empty tired fresh stale fat lean dirty clean thick thin true false distant

- asan - mushkil - mitha - karwa - khatta - achchha - kharab - bhaunta - paina - light - khula - band - bhara - khali - thaka - taza - basi - mota - dubla - ganda - saf - mota - patla - sachcha - jhutha - dur

near hot cold honest dishonest hollow solid liquid glad sad wealthy rich poor healthy sick long short new old young old light (color) dark (color) light heavy polite rude

- pas - garam - thanda - imandar - beiman - pola - thos - taral - khusk - ranjida - maldar - dhani - garib - tandurust - bimar - lamba - chhota - naya - purana - jawan - buddha - halka - gahra - halka - bhari - namra - badtamiz

mannerles - badtamiz s narrow - sankra, tang

wide broad active lazy smart dull angry kind pleased

- chaura - chaura - phurtila - sust - hoshiyar mattha, manda

- naraz - meharban - khush

displeased - naraz proud humble cheap dear dry wet clever stupid deep shallow urban rural brave coward - ghamandi - namra - sasta - mahnga - sukha - gila - hoshiyar - bewakuf - gahra - uthla - shahri - dehati - vir - kayar

handsome - sundar pretty beautiful ugly raw - sundar - sundar - kurup - kachcha

cooked smelling good smelling bad noisy quiet all little

- paka - khushbudar - badbudar - shorgul ka - shant - sab - kuchh

interesting - dilchaspa dull durable not durable strong weak elder younger big small high (person) low (person) high (things) low (things) some much few - ubane wala - mazbut - kamzor - takatwar - kamzor - (usase) bara (usase) chhota

- bara - chhota - bare - chhote - uncha - nicha - thora - zyada - kuchh

many right wrong excellent worthless wise foolish sweet harsh national foreign this much as many several

- bahut - sahi - galat - barhiya - raddi - buddhiman - bewakuf - mitha - kara deshi ya rashtriya

- videshi - itna, itni - jitne, jitna - kai

that much - utna, utni such whatever hard soft other same - aisa, aisi - jo kuchh - sakhta - mulayam - dusra - vahi

Different words
Questions who - kaun what why when where - kya - kyon - kab - kaha

n how which how many how much - kaise kaun sa

- kitne - kitna

Cardinal numbers 0 - sunya, sifar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - ek - do - tin - char - panch - chhah - sat - ath - nau - das - bis - tis - chalis - pachas - sath - sattar - assi - nabbe

100 - ek sau 101 - ek sau ek 200 - do sau 1.00 - ek hazar

0 lac ek lakh (100.000)

cror ek karor e (10.000.000) Other words having to do with numbers 1st - pahla 2n - dusra d 3rd - tisra 4th 5th 6th cauth a pancv an chath a

7th - satvan 8th 9th athva n nauva n

10t dasva h n 1/2 - adha 1/3 - tihai 1/4 cauth ai

3/4 - pauna Colors black - kala blue - nila

brigh chamk t ila

brow - bhura n color - rang golde sunahr n a gray - bhura gree - hara n indig baingn o i oran - naranji ge red rosy - lal - gulabi

white - safed yello - pila w

Adverbs, prepositions, conjuctions...

about (place)

- as-pas

about (pertaining - bare men to) above across after again again & again - upar - uspar - bad men - phir - bar-bar

against (opposite) - khilaf against (touching) - bhira kar

alas aloof almost also although altogether always among and around as if as far as as soon as at backward backwards & forwards because because (him) before behind below beneath between beyond bravo but by certainly certainly not down

- afsos - dur - karib-karib - ohi - halanki - ekdam - hamesha - unke bich men - aur - as - mano - jahantak - jyonhi - taraf - pichhe - age-pichhe - kyonki - vajah se (uski) - pahle - pichhe - niche - niche - bich men - us par - shabash - lekin - se - zarur - hargiz nahin - niche

downward during early either enough especially even even then ever every moment far for for ever forward from generally gradually hence (place) hence (time) here here and there hither how how much if if not if possible if so immediate

- niche ki taraf - us bich men - jaldi - ya to - kafi - khas kar - bhi - tab to - hamesha - hardam - dur - (uske) liye - hamesha ke liye - age - se - am taur par - dhire-dhire -yahan se - ab se - yahan - yahan vahan - yahan - kaise - kitna - agar - agar nahin to - ho sake to - agar aisa hai to - zaruri, turamt

andar in in brief indeed in front of inparticular in general in short inside just now late little by little near never neither no nor not nothing not yet now now or never of of course off oft / often on once only or - andar - thore men - vastav men - samne - khas taur se - am taur se - thore men - andar - abhi-abhi - der se - thora-thora karke - pas - kabhi nahin - na vah - nahin - na vah - nahin - kuchh nahin - abhi tak nanin - ab abhi ya phir kabhi nahin

- ka - albatta - dur - aksar - upar - ek bar - kewal - ya

out out and out over (higher) over (finished) perhaps please quite quietly really scarcely seldom since (time) since (conditional) so some somehow so much so and so so late so soon soon still sorry suddenly surely

- bahar - bilkul - upar - khatam - shayad - krpaya - bilkul - chupchap - sachmuch - mushkil se - kabhi-kabhi - tab se - chunki - isliya - kuchh - jyon tyon karke - itna - falana - itni der se - itni jaldi - jaldi - phir bhi - afsos - achanak - zarur

that (conjunction) - ki than then there - se - to, tab - vahan

therefore thither though through thrice thus till today together tomorrow tonight towards truly truly twice under until up unless very well when whenever whenever it de where wherever whereas while why yes

- isliye - yahan se - yadyapi - us mense - tin bar - aise - tab tak - aj - ek sath - kal - rat ko - taraf - sach taur par - sahi - do bar - niche - tab tak - upar - jab tak - bahut - achchha - kab - jab kabhi - jab kabhi ho sake - cahan - kahin bhi - chunki - jab tak - kyon - han

yesterday

- kal

Examples of sentences in Hindi


Greetings Good morning Good day

- subh prabhat - subh din

Good afternoon - subh sandhya Good night Hello Good bye (hindus) Good bye (muslims) How are you (r,m) How are you (r,f) I am fine, thanks I am fine, thanks - subh ratri namaskar / namaste / subh din

- namaste - khuda hafiz - ap kaise hain? - ap kaisi hain? - bahut accha, sukriya main thik hun, dhanyavad

Hindus greet each other with namaste. The answer is also namaste. Muslims greet each other with salam alekum. The answer is valekum as salam.
Questions Who is that? What is this? What is that? Where is it? Where is ...? How much is it? - yah kaun hai? - yah kya hai? - vah kya hai? - vah kahan hai? - ... kahan hai? - yah kitne ki hai?

Who are you? What is your name? Where are you from?

- ap kaun hai? apka subh nam kya hai? ap kahan ke rahne vale hain?

Which country are you - ap kis des ke hain? from? How old are you? What is your job? What are you studying? What is wrong? Do you speak Hindi? What time is it? What time is it? Misc. sentences (Masculine forms used) - ap ki umar kya hai? - ap kya kam karte hain? - ap kya padethe hain? - Kya bat hai? kya ap hindi bol sakte hain?

- kya samay hua? - kya baja hai?

My name is Poul I live in Denmark I am a student I go to school in Lyngby I speak a little Hindi I would like some tea I am tired I am thirsty I am hungry I am not hungry I have to go

- mera nam poul hai main denmark men rahta hun

- main vidyarthi hun lyngby men main skul jata hun main hindi kuch-kuch bol sakta hun

- mujhe cay cahiye - main thak gaya hai - mujhe pyas lagi hai - mujhe bhukh lagi hai - mujhe bhukh nahin hai - mujhe jana hai

I don't understand it I understand (now) It is important

mujhe samajh men yah nahin a raha

- (ab) main samajha - yah zaruri hai main ... karidhna chahtha hun

I would like to buy a ... I would like a ... I would like some ... Poul speaking (on the phone) Who is it? (on the phone)

- mujhe ... chahiya - mujhe kuch ... chahein - yah poul bol raha hai - kaun bol raha hai?

Hindi Verbs Hindi is one of the main languages of India and is spoken by a large number of people worldwide. If you are learning this language, knowledge of Hindi grammar can come in handy. Let's take a look at Hindi verbs.

Verbs, for those who don't know, most frequently denote action. Hindi verbs usually have the following characteristics:

They have two elements, one is the verb stem and the other is the infinitive suffix. It is essential for Hindi verbs to agree with their subjects in both number of the subject and gender of the subject. When Hindi verbs describe the action of a pronoun, the verbs take on the gender of the noun that the pronoun indicates. Hindi verbs distinguish past tense, present tense, and future tense. They also distinguish different kinds of actions. For example, actions that have been completed, actions that regularly occur, and actions that are going on. Hindi verbs are also influenced by the degree of respect accorded to the subject. For example, intimate, familiar, or formal.

Some common Hindi verbs are irregular, like the following:

Hona - to be Karna - to do Jana - to go Lena - to take Dena - to give Khana - to eat Pina - to drink Sona - to sleep Different Forms of Hindi Verbs By adding the infinitive suffix to the verb stem, you get the infinitive form of the verb. The infinitive suffix is 'na'. For example, 'likh' means 'write' and if you add 'na' to 'likh', we have 'likhna', which is 'to write'.

Mujha likhna hai - I have to write Tujhe likhna hai - You have to write Use likhna hai - He/she has to write Unhe likhna hai - They have to write

The present participle suffix is 'ta' or 'ti'. If you add that to 'likh', you have 'likhta' (m.) or 'likhti' (f.), which is 'is writing'.

Main likhta hoon - I am writing Wo likhta hai - He is writing Wo likhti hai - She is writing

The past participle suffix is 'a'. If you add that to 'likh', you have 'likha', which is 'had written' or 'was written'.

Maine likha - I have written Usne likha - He/she has written Wahan likha tha - It was written there

The present continuous (progressive) tense is formed by adding 'raha', 'rahi', or 'rahe' to the verb stem along with the present tense of 'hona', that is 'to be'.

Main likh raha hoon - I am writing (m.) Main likh rahi hoon - I am writing (f.) Tum likh rahe ho - You are writing Hum likh rahe hain - We are writing Although, raha, rahi, and rahe are written separate, they are pronounced as one with the verb stem.

For past tense, you add 'a' (for masculine singular), 'e' (for masculine plural) or 'i' (for feminine singular and plural) to the verb stem. along with 'tha', 'thi', or 'the'.

Maine likha tha - I had written Maine likhe the - I had written Usne likha tha - He had written Usne likhi thi - She had written Unhone likhe the - They had written Past imperfect tense is achieved by adding 'ta', 'te', or 'ti' along with 'tha', 'thi', or 'the' to the verb stem.

Main deta tha - I used to give (m.) Main deti thi - I used to give (f.) Tum dete the - You used to give

Hum dete the - We used to give Wo deta tha - He used to give Wo deti thi - She used to give Woh dete the - They used to give

For future tense, verb stems are appended with 'unga' (for I), 'ega' and 'oge' for 'tu', and 'tum' (you), 'ega' and 'egi' for 'wo' (he and she), and 'enge' for 'woh', 'hum' or 'aap' (us, you formal/plural, or they).

Main khaunga - I will eat Tu khayega - You will eat Tum khaoge - You will eat Wo khayega - He will eat Wo khayegi - She will eat Woh khayenge - They will eat Hum khayenge - We will eat Aap khayenge - You will eat (formal, singular/plural)

For future continuous (progressive) tense, verb stems are appended with 'ta', 'te', or 'ti' and 'rahunga', 'rahega', 'rahegi', 'rahenge', or 'rahoge'.

Main jata rahunga - I will keep going Tu jata rahega - You will keep going (m.) Tu jati rahegi - You will keep going (f.) Woh jate rahenge - They will keep going Tum jate rahoge - You will keep going

Hindi, a language belonging to the Indo-Iranian sub-group of the Indo-European family of languages, is one of the official languages of India. It is mainly spoken in Northern India, but is also spoken and understood in other parts of the country. Hindi grammar is called Vyakaran.

Pronouns in Hindi:

Pronouns in Hindi are called Sarvanam. Like pronouns in English and other languages, Hindi pronouns perform the task of making the language easier to use.

Here are some characteristics of Hindi Pronouns:

In Hindi, the first person, second person and third person pronouns all have a single gender. There is no he and she difference as in the English language. It is the verb that, upon conjugation, usually indicates the difference in gender. The first person pronouns and second person pronouns are indicated by personal pronouns. The third person pronouns are indicated by demonstrative pronouns. Hindi pronouns have accusative and genitive cases. Hindi pronouns do not have vocative cases. There are five main types of pronouns in Hindi:

1. Personal Pronouns, known as Purush Vachak Sarvanam

2. Demonstrative Pronoun, known as Nischay Vachak Sarvanam

3. Indefinite Pronoun, known as Anischay Vachak Sarvanam

4. Relative Pronoun, known as Sambandh Vachak Sarvanam

5. Interrogative Pronoun, known as Prashna Vachak Sarvanam

Personal Pronouns:

There are three types of personal pronouns First Person, Second Person and Third Person.

First Person Pronouns, also known as Uttam Purush, are -

Mai (I) Mai Ne (I) Mera (My/Mine) Hum (Us/We) Humara (Ours) Hum and Humara are sometimes used as I and Mine. It was common in the days of the royalty a royal person always referred to himself/herself as Hum. It is still common in some areas nowadays, particularly in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. For example - Hum nahi karange (I won't do it/We won't do it).

Examples -

"Mai ga raha hoon" (I am singing) "Mai ne kavita likhi" (I wrote a poem)

"Mera kutta kala hai" (My dog is black) "Hum banaras jane wale hain" (We are going to Banaras) "Humara ghar Lucknow main hain" (Our house is in Lucknow) Second Person Pronouns, also known as Madhyam Purush, are -

Tum (You) Tu Ne (You) Tumhara (Yours) Tera (Yours) Aap (You, formal, singular and plural) Aap Ne (You, formal, singular and plural) Tum, Tu ne, Tumhara and Tera are informal second person pronouns and may be used for friends, family, children and pets. Aap and Aap ke are formal second person pronouns and are used on formal occasions, to address strangers, seniors and authority figures. They are also quite often used between family members. This is mostly seen in Northern India, where parents may use Aap when addressing their children. For example - Beta, aap khaoge? (Son/daughter, will you eat?)

Examples -

"Tum mere sath aaoge?" (Will you come with me?) "Tu ne khana khaya?" (Have you eaten?) "Tumhara nam kya hai?" (What is your name?) "Tera ghar kahan hai?" (Where is your house?) "Aap ka nam kya hai?" (What is your name?) "Aap ke kyun taklif ki?" (Why did you trouble yourself? Actually, a polite form of 'Oh, it really wasn't necessary, you shouldn't have bothered'. Taklif is an urdu word for trouble or bother) Third Person Pronouns, also known as Anya Purush, are -

Woh (He/She/They) Uska/Uski (His/Her) Examples -

"Woh bazaar gaye hain" (They have gone to the market) "Woh pathshala ko gaya/gayi hain" (He/She has gone to school) "Uski aaj exam hai" (Today is his/her exam)

Demonstrative Pronouns:

Demonstrative pronouns indicate a particular person or persons or a particular thing or things.

Yeh (This/He/She/It) Woh (That/He/She/It) Ye (These) Ve (Those) Examples -

"Yeh mera ghar hai" (This is my house) "Woh uska ghar hai" (That is his/her house) "Ye log wahan rahate hai" (These people stay there) "Ve log kal jayenge" (Those people will leave tomorrow) Indefinite Pronouns:

Indefinite pronouns indicate general rather than particular people and things.

Koi (Someone) Kuch (Something) Kuch bhi (Anything)

Sab kuch (Everything) Sab log (Everyone) Examples -

"Koi ja raha hai" (Someone is passing/going) "Kuch karna hoga" (Something must be done) "Kuch bhi chalega" (Anything will do) "Sab kuch karke dekho" (Try everything) Sab log aayenge (Everyone will come) Relative Pronouns:

Relative pronouns give the relation between words, people and things.

Jo (Who) Jiski (Whose) Jaisa (Like) Examples -

Jo kal aayega, usko dena" (the one who comes tomorrow, give it to him) "Jiski chal hathi jaisi" (Whose walk is like that of an elephant) "Uske jaisa koi nahin" (There is no one like him) Interrogative Pronouns:

Interrogative pronouns ask questions about people and things.

Kaun (Who) Kya (What) Kisko (Whom)

Examples -

"Kaun banega crorepati?" (Who will be a millionaire?) "Kya baat hai?" (What is the matter?) "Kisko phal diye?" (Whom did you give the fruit to?)

C'mon, dinner's ready - Chalo, khana tayar hain.

Sit down - Baith jao.

I'm hungry - Mujhe bhook lagi hai.

What will you eat? - Tum kya khaoge? (informal) / Aap kya khaoge? (formal)

What's for dinner? - Khane may kya hai?

Today we have made Hyderabadi biryani - Aaj humne Hyderabadi biryani banayi hain.

And there is also rice, roti, sambhar, paratha, vegetables, salad, pakoda, papad, pickle, curd, buttermilk and lassi - Aur chawal, roti, sambhar, paratha, sabzi, raita, pakoda, papad, aachar, chutney, dahi, tak, lassi bhi hain.

Do you like sweet dishes? - Tumko mithai pasand hai? (informal) / Aapko mithai pasand hai? (formal)

There is also mango juice, jalebi, rasgulla, gulab jamun, shrikhand, barfi and laddoos - Aam-ras, jalebi, rasgulla, gulab jamun, shrikhand, barfi aur laddoo bhi hain.

I was also going to make Momos, but I didn't have the time - Main Momos bhi banana wali thi, lekin mujhe wakt nahi mila.

Tomorrow I'm going to make South Indian food - dosa-sambhar and wadasambhar - I particularly like Iddiyappam - Kal main Dakshin Bharatiya khana banana wali hoon -dosa-sambhar aur wada-sambhar - mujhe Idiyappam khas pasand hai.

What will you have? - Tum kya logay? (informal) / Aap kya logay? (formal)

What else will you have? - Tum aur kya logay? (informal) / Aap aur kya logay? (formal)

Would you like some more? - Tumko aur chahiye? / Tumhe aur chahiye? (informal) / Aapko aur chahiye? (formal)

Do you want water? - Tumko pani chahiye? (informal) / Aapko pani chahiye? (formal)

Move your glass here - Glass yahan karo

Do you want a spoon, knife and fork? - Tumko chamach, suri aur kata chahiye?

No, I'll eat by hand - Nahi, main haat say khaoongi. (feminine) / Nahi, main haat say khaoonga. (masculine)

I would like some more rice - Mujhe aur chawal chahiye.

I will have sambhar with it - Uske saath main sambhar loongi. (feminine) / Uske saath main sambhar loonga. (masculine)

Does it need more salt? - Usme aur namak chahiye kya?

Does it need more sugar? - Usme aur shakkar chahiye kya?

Do you find it hot (as in chillie hot)? - Tumko tikha lag raha hai kya? (informal) / Aapko tikha lag raha hai kya? (formal)

You don't find it hot (chillie hot), do you? - Tumko tikha to nahi lag raha hai na? (informal) /Aapko tikha to nahi lag raha hai na? (formal)

Is it hot (as in scalding hot)? - Garam hai kya?

The food hasn't become cold, has it? - Khana thanda toh nahi huwa hai na?

There's more in the pot - Katore may aur hain.

Do you like the dinner? - Khana aachha lag raha hai na?

Yes, it's good, thank you - Ha, acchha hai, shukriya.

Eat some fruit - Kuch phal kha lo.

Will you have some more? - Tum aur logay? (informal) / Aap aur logay? (formal)

Your plate looks/is looking empty - Tumhari thali khali deekh rahi hai (informal) / Aapki thali khali deekh rahi hai (formal)

No, enough, I'm done, my stomach is full - Nahi, bas, mera ho gaya, mera pet bhar gaya.

Thank you, the food was very tasty/good, your cooking is amazing Shukriya/Dhanyawad, khana bahut swadishta/acchha tha, tum kamal ka khana pakati ho (informal)/ aap kamal ka khana pakatay ho (formal).

Come again - Phir aao/aajao

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