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;kvk p/Vk fJT[_ rofenkHHHHHHHH

fJzdo f;zx xZrk


gq'c?;o

gqek;ae
cafsj gpbhe/PBI
wekB BzH 90, eoj/Vh,
ftZfdnk Bro, B/V/ gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh, gfNnkbk.
(w'L O98144^55582)
Sada Bera Eon Garkaya..................
(Misrepresentations of Religion)

By

Prof :- Inder Singh Ghagga (M. 98551-51699)

;G jZe b/ye d/ okyt/A jB

;'Xh j'Jh u'Eh n?vh;B


;szpo 2007

FATEH PUBLICATIONS
H.No. 90, Karheri
Vidya Nagar, Near Punjabi University,
Patiala - 147 002 (Pb.) (INDIA)
(M) 98144-55582

Type Setting
Avtar Singh
(Pbi. Uni., Patiala)

Printer :
Daffodil Printing Press
Industrial Area,
Patiala (Pb.)

Price Rs. 60/-


$ 5/-
£ 3/-
b/ye dhnK j'o ouBktK

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g"okDe eEktK dk nzs
fet/A ehsk ik foj? f;ZyK dk ;opBk;<
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r[og[op fet/A wBkJhJ/
w?B{z f;Zyh s/ wkD j?
d;tzX gqzgok
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ro[V uV/ r'fpzd nkfJbk
wkbk dh eokwks
nktkrtD
d';ah eT[D jB<
;hHvhI
f;Zy f;XKs (18 xzN/ dh nkvhT[, mp3 eEk)
fJfsjk; p'bdk j? (d; xzN/ dh nkvhT[ mp3 eEk)
eh fJj f;ZyK d/ fsT[jko jB (d; xzN/ dh nkvhT[, mp3 eEk)
r[o T[gd/;a eh j? (d; xzN/ dh nkvhT[, mp3 eEk)
nodk; eh j? (thvhT[ C.D. eEk)
r[o{ nwodk; ih (thvhT[ C.D. eEk)
f;Zyh ’s/ wkD (thvhU C.D. eEk)
52 f;XKse ;apdK dh eEk (24 xzN/ MP3)
fywk :kuBk
fwsh 20$10$06 B{z NoKN' (e?B/vk) fty/ gq'L doPB f;zx ih, ns/ T[ANkohU
r[odtkok e"A;b d/ gqXkB ;qL jopz; f;zx izvkbh Bkb ehs/ rJ/ fJeoko
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eoe/ fiBk ;zrsK d/ wBk B{z m/; gj[zuh j? T[jBK ;G s'A b/ye fywk dh :kuBk
eodk j?.
feskp gqkgs eoB bJh gs/

1H cfsj gpbhe/PBI ftZFdnk Bro, B/V/ gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh,


gfNnkbk (w'L 98144^55582)

2H bkj"o p[e
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3H pkpk nkswk f;zx Xkowe g[;se Gzvko, r[od[nkok f;zx ;Gk,


pfmzvk (0164^2215252)

4H e/jo f;zx uzvhrVQ (9815906213)

5H nikfJp f;zx ;[Bkw (94171^06555)

6H GkJh i'X f;zx eowihs f;zx, ndkbs pIko, gfNnkbk


(0175^2216092)

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gfNnkbk (98144^13453)

8H ;qH pbftzdo f;zx wkB;k (01652^228911, 9872549105)


sseok
eh feZE/

G{fwek T^;
r[o g{Sj[ s[w eoj[ phuko[ j^y
1H f;Zy PskpdhnK^ektK o"bh 1^17
2H Bkw f;woD ^ fJe ihtB iku 18^29
3H r[opkDh wjkB ^ f;Zy BkdkB 30^35
4H g[oksB p'bh^;z;feqs iK gzikph < 36^42
5H nzfwqs eh j?< 43^55
6H s\s ;kfjp dh s"jhB d/ d'Ph e"D < 56^62
7H BkBe n?;k nkr{ ikg? 63^67
8H w[nkch Bkw/ dh okiBhsh 68^73
9H 400 ;kbk ekoi s/ iE/dkoK dk feodko 74^82
10H Xow n;EkBK dh e[tos'A 83^87
11H ;/tk s/ gftsosk dk xkD 88^94
12H epho dh iziho fet/A N[ZNh < 95^107
13H f;zx G'iB 108^119
14H nebh gfVQ e? p[Mhn? 120^129
15H Xow s/ okiBhsh ^ fJZe ;kfiPh rZmi'V 130^141
16H ebo[ y/s[ b? e{V[ iwkfJnkHHHH 142^163
17H r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp^;wki Bt f;oiDk dk nkXko 164^171
18H Xow dk ftP/P nzr ^ e/; 172^176
19H N[efVnK ftZu tzfvnk “gzE” 177^183
20H ;/tk tZvh fe r[o{ frnkB < 184^195
21H pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo^pzdJh, fe sZs ykb;k < 196^205
22H G'r okr wkbk fe w[zdktDh ’s/ 206^220
23H nkgDh wK p'bh 221^224
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nes{po 2004 ftu w/oh gfjbh feskp, “Xow d/ BK s/” Sg e/
nkJh ;h. T[; tes fus u/sk Gh BjhA ;h fe fJ; soQK e"VhnK e;?bhnK
ftukoK B{z Gh gkme gqtkB eo b?Dr/. w/oh y[;ah ftu nEkj tkXk j'fJnk
id'A T[j g[;se e/tb ;Zs nZm wjhfBnK ftu yasw j' rJh. d{ih ;'Xh
j'Jh n?vh;aB g[;se S/sh jh gkmeK se g[Zidh j' rJh. gfjbh feskp
Sgtk e/ w?A j'o b/y fbyD/ ikoh oZy/. ;w/A^;w/A xNBktK tkgodhnK
ojhnK, jkbks eJh soQK d/ w'V eNd/ oj/. f;Zy gzE Bkb tkgo oj/
xNBk uZeo B{z fdb dhnK rfjokJhnK ftu'A t/yfdnK, nzdo T[Eb g[Eb
wudh ojh. eJh tko nzdo tVe/ fJeZb/ B/ gzEe dod ftu jT[e/ Go/
jB. eJh tkoh ;N/i s/ p'bfdnK gzE dh ftrVh ;fEsh B{z X[o fdb dhnK
nzdobhnK gosK ftu'A eY e/, ;apdK okjhA fpnkB eofdnK, jzM{ e/odk
fojk jK. gzE d/ fJ; dod B{z wfj;{; eoB tkb/ tho G?DK B'itkB, w/o/
Bkb t?okr ftu v[;ed/ t/y/ jB. e[M Bk ;wM b'e fJ; tfj oj/ fdb d/
dod B{z t/ye/, j;d/ Gh oj/ jB, s/ fJ; B{z fJe “;N/ih y/yD” dk fyskp
Gh py;a fdzd/ oj/ jB.
pZfunK s'A b? e/ pI[orK se, ;XkoB f;ZyK s'A b? e/ yk; nj[d/
dkoK se Xow gqukoeK s'A b? e/ sysK d/ iE/dkoK se, S'N/ oki;h toeo
s'A b? e/ tZv/ f;nk;sdkBK se, nDgV ;aoXktkB ftneshnK s'A b? e/
ekbiK :{Bhtof;NhnK d/ gq'c?;oK ns/ soe;hbK se, ;G B{z ;w/A^;w/A
fwbD dk w"ek fwbdk fojk j?. fJjBK e'b'A pj[s e[M gqkgs ehsk, j'
;edk j? w?A Gh fJjBK Bz{ e[M d/ ;fenk j'tK. ;zB 1993 ftu w/o/ e[M
b/y gzikph fNqfpT{B ftu Sg/. fpBK tiQk fpBK r[ows dh ft;/a;a ikDekoh
d/, ;L gqhsw f;zx, ;qL n?;Hn?;H d';KM, ;qh jouoB p?A; nfde r[ows
n;{bK B{z s'V wo'V e/ fJ;/ nypko ftu Sgtk oj/ ;B. tkoh tkoh w?A
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fJjbK fszBK d/ b/yK d/ ‘m'et/A’ i[nkp d/ fojk ;K. fJjBK ftu'A ;qL gqhsw
f;zx fJsB/ nkg/ s'A pkjo j' rJ/ fe nyapkoh fbys ftu w/o/ tb fJj
Xweh ;/Xs eo G/ih ^ ‘gq'H xZrk w/o/ pko/ BjhA ikDd/ fe w?A e"D jK, T[jBK
(xZrk) dh ikDekoh tk;s/ dZ; fdnK fe w?A ohNkfJo I.A.S. nc;o
jKHHH’.
fJ; Xweh B[wk b/y d/ i[nkp ftu i' ft;a/;a rb w?A fbyh fi; s'A
nZr/ tZvk g[nkVk fgnk T[j fJT[A ;h ^ “tho gqhsw f;zx ih n;hA f;Zyh
d/ nfjw B[efsnK pko/ fJe d{i/ B{z w[yksp jK, nkjw' ;kjwD/ vZN/ j'J/
jK. s[;hA dbhb okjh r[opkDh d/ frnkB okjhA rZb eo', nj[d/ dhnK
XwehnK Bk fdU. Xkowe y'i d/ y/so ftu s[;hA nZi se fezBhnK
g[;seK fbyhnK jB< ;?whBkoK ftu Xkowe ftf;anK Bkb ;pzXs fezB/ g/
go gVQ/ jB d; ;e'r/< Xow dh e'Jh j'o tv/oh ;/tk ehsh d; ;ed/ j'<
nkJhHJ/Hn?;H nc;o j'D dk fJj wsbp BjhA fe s[;hA ‘Xow nukohnk’
Gh pD rJ/ j'. w?A ikDdk jK I.A.S. (D.C.) nc;o B{z fwbD tk;s/ w/o/
tor/ ;?AeV/ pzd/ bkJhBK ftZu bZr/ X[g/ yb's/ tkoh dh T[vhe eod/ ofjzd/
jB. nzdo ;odko ;kfjp ih d';sK Bkb rZg^PZg eo oj/ j[zd/ jB.
dbhb Bkb rb eoB dh Ekt/A id'A e'Jh ngD/ nj[d/ ftu b? nkt/. id'A
e'Jh nkgDh nwhoh B{z x;hN fbnkt/. id'A e'Jh nkgD/ vzv/ ;'N/, fg;s"b
pzd{eK dh pVQe wko/. id'A e'Jh fwb p?me/ GoktK tKr ftuko eoB dh
Ekt/A nkgD/ v'b/ cVekT[D bZr gt/, c[zekok wkoe/ d' jZE eoB bJh tzrko
gkt/ T[; tes w?A jko wzB b?Adk jK feT[Afe w/o/ e'b fJ; soQK dk w[ekpbk
eoB tkbh skes BjhA j?.”
do;fB d/fyn? dfJnk B j'fJ.. bJ/ fds/ ftD[ oj? B e'fJ..
okik fBnkT[ eo/ jfE j'fJ.. ej? y[dkfJ B wkB? e'fJ.. (wH 1H 350)
b/y fsnko eoe/ gzikph fNqfpT{B B{z G/i fdZsk frnk. b/y Bk
Sfgnk. gzdoK fdBK dh T[vhe s'A pknd w?A nyapko d/ dcaso uzvhrVQ
ike/ ;zgkde ;L joGiB f;zx jbtkoth B{z fwfbnk. T[; Bkb fJ; ft;a/
Bkb ;pzfXs pj[sh bzwh ftuko uouk j'Jh. gfjbK T[;B/ Gh w?B{z g?o'A
(n)
eZYDk ukfjnk. nyho ftu T[; Gb/ fJB;kB B/ ;Zu' ;Zu w/o/ ;Bw[y oZy
fdZsk. T[; df;nk “fJj ;ko/ s[jkv/ fto'Xh b/ye fNqfpT{B ;w{j d/ w[y
;zgkde ns/ u/now?B B{z fwb/. fJjBK dk efjDk ;h fe fJe r[wBkw
fijk fJB;kB (fJzdo f;zx xZrk) ;kvh ;kfonK dh fbysK d[nkok ‘p/
fJZish’ eo fojk j?. n;hA s[jkv/ g[okD/ b/ye jK. i/ s[;hA fJ; nkdwh
e'b'A ;kvh fJ;/ soQK fJZias j"bh eokT[Dh j? sK n;hA fNqfpT{B bJh nr'A
e[ZM BjhA fbyKr/. i/ ;kvh b'V j? sK T[;dh b/yDh pzd eoBh gt/rhHHH.”
“nyapko d/ w[yh B/ ;fjwsh d/ fdsh. (joGiB f;zx jbtkoth)
w/o/ e'b c'B nk frnk, fJzdo f;zx xZrk dk nr/ B{z e'Jh b/y ;kv/ nyapko
ftu BjhA SgDk ukjhdk”. brgr s/oK ;kb j' rJ/, fJ; s'A wro'A w/oh
e'Jh ouBk fNqfpT{B B/ BjhA Skgh. gkme iB ;fji/ jh nzdkik bk ;ed/
jB fe f;Zy ‘r[zr/’ jB. p'b/ jB, nzB/ jB s/ b{b/ fgzrb/ Gh jB feT[Afe
nkgDh t/dBk fes/ efj BjhA ;ed/. nkgDh woih dk t/y ;[D BjhA
;ed/. nkgDh woih d/ ezw BjhA eo ;ed/. j'o s/ j'o nkgDh woih dk
;'u Gh BjhA ;ed/. ;kvh ;'u ;e{bK ftu'A xVh iKdh j?, T[j ;kv/ BjhA
jB. ;kvh ;'u ekbi ftu gqc[bs j[zdh j? T[j Gh p/rkB/ jB. ;kvh ;wM
B{z ;wki sok;dk j?, fJj Gh ;kv/ nBe{b BjhA j?. nyapko fo;kb/ f;ZyK
B/ ukb{ BjhA ehs/, p/rkfBnK s/ fBoGo j'Dk g? fojk j?. NhHthH u?BbK s/
jo o'i jo tes Bzr/i dk Bzrk Bku j' fojk j?. tZv/ nopgsh ftT[gkohnK
tb'A fJj u?Bb ubkJ/ iKd/ jB. nkgD/ wkb B{z t/uD tk;s/ fJE/ fJ;fsjko
fdZs/ iKd/ jB. fJ; ;ko/ g;ko/ ftu ;kvh ;'u r[nku jh iKdh j?. n;hA
p/p; j'J/ fJe emg[sbh tKr e/tb swk;ak eoB i'r/ ofj rJ/ jK. ;kvh
fizdrh ;kvh ;'u dk fow'N ezNo'b ;kv/ e'b BjhA j? fe;/ j'o jZE j?.
nfij/ jkbs ftu ;kv/ Xow gqukoe eh gquko oj/ jB, ;kv/
oki;h nkr{ eh r[b fybk oj/ jB, gzEe p/Vh B{z v'pD tk;s/ e"D b'e fezBk
e[ Xq'j ewk oj/ jB, fJ; feskp okjhA ;zy/g ftu d;D dk isB ehsk j?.
f;Zy c"iK jko u[ehnK jB, fJjBK B{z jokfJnk Gh ngfDnk B/ j?. ;kvk
p/Vk v[Zp frnk j?, v'fpnk Gh ‘;kv/ nkgfDnk B/ j?’. j[D jkohnK c"iK B{z
(J)
e'Jh ‘ewKvo’ (ioB?b) BjhA bG fojk. v[pd/ p/V/ B{z e'Jh ‘ijkih’
(egskB) BjhA fwb fojk. u/szB r[of;Zy gkmeK nZr/ sobk j?, i'dVh j?,
u[g ukg xo p?fmnK, d/;aK ftd/;aK ftu wkfJnk dhnK gzvK fJeZmhnK
eofdnK ekbiK :{Bhtof;NhnK ftu ;[y G'rfdnK iK oki;h e[o;hnK
dk ;[y wkDfdnK i/ f;Zyh feodko Bk fojk i/ f;Zyh ;o{g Bk fojk, sK d;
r[o{ ;kfjpkB dh Biao ftu fet/A gqtkB j'tKr/< f;Zyh dh uVQdh ebk bJh
y{B dhnK BdhnK soB tkb/ r[of;ZyK B{z fet/A w{zj ftyktKr/< pZfunK d/
N[eV/ eotk e/ rbK ftu jo g[nk b?D tkbhnK wksktK d/ f;oV f;de dk
eoik fet/A T[skoKr/< d;w gkfs;akj ih d/ bkbK dh nd[Zsh e[opkBh G[bk
e/ fet/A ;[oyo{ j'tKr/< nk; eodk jK fJ; feskp ftu r[zB/ dod B{z
;theko eo'r/. ;yas puBK B{z Bk fuskod/ gzE dh uVQdh ebk bJh eow
^e;/ eo bT[r/HHHH

w?A XzBtkd eodk jK ;[fjod ihtB ;kED ;odkoBh okitzs e"o


dk, fiBQK ;kohnK fizw/tkohnK ;KG e/ w?B{z fbyD bJh T[s;akjs ehsk.
p/Nh Btdhg e"o fi;B/ fJ; feskp B{z fbyD d/ bJh w/ok j";bk tXkfJnk.
p/Nk eztodhg f;zx s/ p/Nh (B{zj) ;[yfizdo e"o fiBK B/ go{c gVQB ns/
g[;se SgkT[D dh fizw/tkoh ;zGkbh. ;fj:'rh g[Zso, gqfwzdo f;zx B/ Gh
;w/A^;w/A wdd ehsh. fJjBK ;kfonK dk XzBtkd ns/ yk; eoe/ vkH
jofizdo f;zx fdbrho ih, fiBK B/ G{fwek fbye/ w/ok wkD tXkfJnk j?.
j'o ;ko/ ;fj:'rhnK dk Gh XzBtkd.
15 ;szpo 2005 r[o{ xo dk ;/te
(fJzdo f;zx xZrk)

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r[o g{Sj[ s[w eoj[ phuko[
vkH jofizdo f;zx “fdbrho”

;kv/ tor/ fwZNh d/ pkftnK B{z pDk ;ztkoe/, tZv/ ezw eotk b?D,/ fJe
nB'yh eokwks jh ;wMh ik ;edh j?. fBozeko ftu nEkj skesK,
poesK, ofjwsK jB. i/ T[j “wkNh e/ g{sb/” s' e'Jh B/e ekoi eotk bt/
sK fJj poes nekb g[oy dh j[zdh j?, go ;'Gk fwZNh d/ g{sb/ dh j' iKdh
j?. w?A fBwkD/ ;/te B/ fgSbh tkoh (;akfJd nZm wjhB/ gfjbK) id'A tho
fJzdo f;zx xZrk ih dh g[;se “Xow d/ BK s/” dh G{fwek fbyh ;h. T[;
tes w?A “j[;Bb ;bkw” nfynk ;h. fe fJ; ;'jDh ebw B{z Bw;eko j?,
ftnesh B{z BjhA` w/oh Bw;ekoh ebw s/ih Bkb tr N[oh, nkgDk okj
pDkT[Adh, eJhnK d/ ;hB/ SbDh eodh, fes/ N[ZfNnK B{z i'Vdh, feXo/
wBw[yK B{z bkjDsK gkT[Adh, fe;/ B{z Xow dk tk;sk gkT[Adh, fJj fsZyh Xko
tkbh ebw tr gJh j?. fdb dhnK nZyK Bkb nkb/^d[nkb/ tos oj/
tosko/ B{z, xZrk ih B/ t/fynk gofynk j?. nkgD/ fgzv/44 s/ ;[Zy xZN d[y
pj[sk jzYkfJnk j?. fJj fdb dh uh; j[D T[;dh nBw'b ok; g{zih pD
rJh j?. ;z;ko ftu d[fynko/ pj[s b'e jB, go pj[fsnK B{z o'D dk Yzr Gh
BjhA nkT[Adk. i' fJB;kB nkgD/ jzM{nK Bkb nkgDh e"w dk w[ZyVk X'Dk
ukj[zdk j't/, i' nkgD/ ;hB/ ftu T[m/ dod dhnK uheK d[nkok rcbs dh
BhAd ftu ;[fsnK B{z irk d/t/, T[j jzM{ s/ uheK w[pkoe.
fJ; feskp dk f;ob/y “;kv/ p/Vk fJT[A rofenk” gVQe/ fJe tkoh
sK f;o ueok frnk. eh ;Zu w[u Z jh ;kvk p/Vk roe frnk j?< fe jkbh
puD dh e'Jh ;zGktBk j?< i' e[M Z nkgD/ siop/ d/ nkXko s/ xZrk ih B/ t/fynk
j?, wfj;{; ehsk j?, T[jh fbfynk j?. w?A GKt/ fJj BK Gh ejK fe ;kvk p/Vk
roe frnk j?, go roeD s'A pfunk j'fJnk Gh BjhA j?.
g[okD/ ;kfjs fJfsjk; dhnK pkohehnK dk b/yk^i'yk pj[s ;ko/ b/
(j)
yeK B/ ehsk j? feT[Afe gfjbK tkgo u[ZehnK xNBktK dk u;awdhd rtkj
e'Jh BjhA j[zdk. d{i/ fiBQK fJfsjk;e gksoK pko/, ftuko gqrN ehs/ ik oj/
jB, T[jBK ftu'A fe;/ B/ tkg; nke/ bkjDsk fcNekoK BjhA gkT[DhnK.
;kvk nkw gkme tor sK fBo'b “;kT[ rT{” pDe/ ;G e[M gqtkB eoh ik
fojk j?. ;w/s ;" gqsh;as M{m co/p d/. eokwksh ejkDhnK Bkb “xo
g{ok” ehsk ik fojk j?, fijVhnK ed/ tkgohnK jh BjhA. i' ;{oits
o';aB, eokwksK, ;afjD;ahbsk ns/ ;{owrsh dhnK f;yoK S'Ajd/ ekoBkw/
, fJfsjk; ftZu w"i{d jB, T[j ;ko/ xZN/ o'b fds/ rJ/. w"i{dk
;w/A d/ ftnesh iE/pzdhnK w"i{d jB. T[jBK pko/ b/yk i'yk eoBk, nb'uBk
se ;hws Bk ofj e/ fcNekoK gk d/DhnK, G{zvK d/ yZyo B{z S/VB tKr j?.
w/o/ tho fJzdo f;zx ih B/ fBMZe j' e/ fJ; yZyo B{z jZE gk fbnk j?, tkfjr[o{
Go';/.
“;kvk p/Vk fJT[A rofenk” feskp ftu doi ;ko/ b/y ft;a/ Bkb
g{oh soQK Us^g's jB. gfjbk bzwk b/y “f;Zy ;askpdhnK ektK o"bh” ftZu
b/ye B/ tos oj/ tosko/ B{z, nZyhA t/fynk, fgzv/ s/ jzYkfJnk j?. id'A e"w
dk eo'VK nopK o[fgnk fJ; soQK p/ofjwh Bkb, bhvo b'e popkd eo oj/
j'D, frnkB d/D dh Ekt/A e[okj/ gk oj/ j'D, Xkowe ;aoXk B{z b[ZND dk ;kXB
pDk b?D fco eh ;kvk p/Vk feBko/ bZr ikt/rk< id'A ;/tk B{z gqw[Zysk ns/
frnkB d'w doi/ s/ ubk ikt/, T[; tes fe;/ e"w ftu “frnkBh” g?dk
BjhA j' ;ed/. nfij/ wko{ ebuo ftu'A fco N'eoh Y'D tkb/ “eko;/te”
neb d/ d[;awD g?dk j'fJnk eod/ jB. fJ;/ d[ydh or s/ T[rb oy fdsh
j? tho ih B/ nkgD/ b/y, “;/tk tZvh fe r[o{ frnkB” ftu. nZi jo e'Jh
uko e[ gqkDhnK B{z fJeZm/ eoe/ “BkwXohe” iE/pzdh pDk e/ nkg/ jh n;bh
f;Zy s/ nkg/ jh “r[o{ gzE” j'D dk Yzv'ok fgZN fdzdk j?. r[o{ j'Dk sK fes/
fojk, pj[sh tkoh fJjBK ftu'A pj[frDsh w?Apo jkbh f;Zyh dh gfoGk;ak s/
yo/ BjhA T[sod/. fJ; gZy B{z T[ikro eodk b/y j? “N[efVnK ftu tzfvnk
gzE”.
wk; ykDk Bk ykDk nkg' nkgD/ ;[Gkn w[skpe, ;ohoe b'V w[skpe
(e)
iK jkbks w[skpe u'D eoBh j[zdh j?. r[opkDh wk; d/ MrV/ ftu g?D s'A
toidh j?. ;ohoe wiap{oh ekoB, yzv, wZyD, sbhnK ykD t;sK s'A Gh,
;ze'u eoBk g? iKdk j?. ojh gkg g[zB dh rb, fJ; nzX ft;atk;a ftu g?
e/ wB[y fJe edw Gh N[o BjhA ;e/rk, fiT[A BjhA ;e/rk. fJ; ft;a/ s/ tho
xZ r k ih B/ pV/ Bt/ e b/ nz d kia ftu g{ o h p/ p keh Bkb bz w k
b/y fbfynk j?, fJ; s/ rzGho ftuko eodk pDdk j?. fJ;/ soQK r[ows ftu
tVQ u[e/ pqkjwDtkdh v/o/dkoh gqpzX B{z tzrkfonk j?. Bkw igD d/ wPhBh
o[MkB s/ y[Zb/Q ftuko gqrN ehs/ jB. ‘wK p'bh gzikph s/ gzikph p'bh ;z;feqs
Bkb'A Gh g[okDh’ j'o tXhnk b/y ej/ ik ;ed/ jB. epho ih B{z p/VhnK ftu
ieV e/ rz r k Bdh ftu ;[ Z N fdZ s k frnk. T[ j feBko/ s/
fet/A br/, fJj fJe y{p;{os ouBk j?. e[Zb s/Jh b/yK dk ;zrqfj fbye/
SgtkT[Dk ekcah i'yaw Gfonk ezw j?. w?A pfbjko ;qL fJzdo f;zx xZrk ih
s'A, fiBQK E'VQ/ fij/ ;w/A ftu, d{ih tXhnk g[;se f;Zy gkmeK se g[ukD dk
T[gokbk ehsk j?. nZr'A ;{MtkB gkmeK dk fJj coi pDdk j? fe b/ye dh
fwjBs B{z ;fseko d/D. fJ; feskp B{z y[d gVQB, ;zrh ;kEhnK B{z gVQB
dh gq/oBk eoB. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoBK ftu nodk; j? fJj f;XKse ebw
fBozso p/pkeh Bkb ubdh oj/, nkwhB.
r[o g{Sj[ s[w eoj[ phuko[.. sK gqG ;ku/ br? fgnko[.. (1173)

[[[[

(y)
f;Zy ;askpdhnK-eKtK o"bh
(fJe ys pkpk BkBe ih d/ Bkw)
goT[gekoh, wB[Zysk d/ dodh ;fsr[o{ BkBe d/t ih`
d't/A jZE i'Ve/ uoBk s/ wZEk N/fenk gqtkB eoBk ih. fJ; Bkuhi
B/ pj[s ;ko/ yas fby/, b?euo ehs/ feskpK Sgk e/ wB dh t/dBk f;Zy gzE
d/ wkbeK nZr/ oZyD dh e'fPP ehsh. fe;/ B/ w/oh rZb tZb fXnkB BK
fdZsk. wB pVk ebfgnk fe fJj b'e f;Zy gzE ƒ jB/oh r[ck tZb XZe oj/
jB. spkje[B dbdb ftZu roe eo oj/ jB. ngD/ jh r[o GkJhnK dk
y{B SzB/ Go Go vhe oj/ jB. nkgD/ jh pZfunK dhnK bk;aK d/ whBko T[;ko
e/ T[FZgo p?m ozr obhnK wBk oj/ jB. “Xow w[yh” (<) f;Zy feoshnK dh
ewkJh ƒ d't/A jZEhA b[ZN e/ si'ohnK Go oj/ jB. nfijh “e{V[ nwkt;”
ftZu w/o/ dod ƒ fe; ;wMDk ;[DBk ;h < w/o/ jzM{nK ƒ ehjB/ jwdodh
Bkb g{zMDk ;h < jko j[ZN e/ ;fsr[o{ fgsk ihT[, nkgD/ fdb d/ fo; oj/
i\w s[jkƒ ftykD bZrk jK. j'o pj[s ;ko/ tho G?DK Gh s[jkƒ y/ub fdzd/
ofjzd/ jB. fBZih b'VK dh g{osh tk;s/ p/BshnK eod/ jh ofjzd/ jB. w?A
tuB fdzdk jK nkgD/ tk;s/ s[jkv' e'b'A e[ZM BjhA wzrKrk. p; fJjh p/Bsh
j? fe w/oh fuZmh gVQ Io{o b?Dh. tes eZYe/ gj[zu o;hd Io{o G/i d/Dh.
pkeh nrbh ekotkJh bJh e'Jh pkBD{z Io{o pzBDk.
r[o{ fgsk ih` id'A s[jkv/ d;t/A ikw/ dh (1966) sh;oh ;askpdh
wBkJh rJh sK T[; tes w/oh T[wo thj ;kb j' u[Zeh ;h. pj[s ;ko/ j'o
PoXkb{nK Bkb obe/ w?A Gh “PoXk d/ c[Zb” nogD ehs/. pj[s EktK s/
ehosB dopko j'J/ tki/ Y'beK yVe/ bzro uZb/, nodk;K j'JhnK, i?eko/
rikJ/ rJ/. s[jkvh wZs fe;/ ftob/ B/ gqkgs ehsh j't/rh. T[AR f;Zyh d/
fB;akB T[Zu/ M[bkT[D d/ dwri/ pj[s wko/ rJ/. eJhnK B/ bhvohnK
uwekJhnK,fe;/ B/ wkfJnk T[rokj e/ i/pK Go bJhnK. fco ;ko/ rcbs
dh bzwh BhAd ;"A rJ/. w?ƒ pknd ftZu fe;/ f;nkD/ f;Zy B/ dZf;nk fe 1666

(1)
ftZu r'fpzd okJ/ f;ZyK d/ r[o{ BjhA pD/ ;B. r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih dh Pjkds
s'A pknd :kBh 1675 ftZu T[j r[orZdh s/ fpoki/ ;B. go s[jkv/ d{b/ gzE
B/ fJZe ;kfjpIkd/ r'fpzd okJ/ dk iBw fdB r[o{ ikD e/ wBkfJnk. gqkgsh
pko/ sK fe;/ ;'funk jh BjhA.
f;Zy gzE d/ pkBh ;fs[ro{ BkBe ;kfjp ihU` s[jkvk nkrwB fdt;
1969 ftZu f;Zy ;wki B/ g{oh PkB' P"es Bkb wBkfJnk. feT[Afe fJj gzi
;"tK iBw fdB i' ;h. d/P ftd/P ftZu pV/ b?euo j'J/, ehosB dopko
;ikJ/. gkmK dhnK bVhnK oykJhnK. Bro ehsoB (ib{;) eZY/ bzro
fsnko j'J/ Se/. nodk;K d/rK g[;seK ;?whBkoHHHHH. s[jkv/ BK s/ fJZe
ekbi gfNnkb/ y'jfbnk frnk “r[owfs ekbi”. fJ; ekbi ftZu e'Jh
thj e[ ftfdnkoEhnK s'A tZX B"itkB Xow ftfdnk b?D tk;s/ dk\b BjhA
j'J/. gqpzXeK tZb'A ia'o gkT[D s/ fJj ndkok gzikph :{Bhtof;Nh B/ nkgD/
Bkb i'V fbnk s/ wkBsk d/ fdZsh. fi; ekoD 95 gqshPs youk ;oeko
tZb'A fwbDk gqtkB j'fJnk. e'Jh PZe BjhA gq'c?;oK dhnK sBykjK eJh r[Dk
tZX rJhnK. ftfdnkoEhnK dh gVQkJh xN rJh. nkw fij/ ;oekoh
ekbiK tork fJZe wkw{bh ekbi pDe/ ofj frnk. ;oekoh jdkfJsK
nB[;ko, ;b/p; ftZu pqjwk fpPB, okw s/ feqPB dhnK eEk ejkDhnK pVh
PkB Bkb gVkJhnK ikD bZrhnK. nZi fJZE/ s[jkv/ fBowb fBnko/ gzE dh
gVQkJh ns/ ofjs dh gogZesk BjhA f;ykJh iKdh. ;r'A “Gkosh w[ZyXkok”
dh gVQkJh eokJh iKdh j?. fgsk ih` s[jkv/ BK s/ t?;/ sK pj[s ;ko/ v/o/
Ne;kbK, r[odtko/ y[zpK tKr T[FZr/ j'J/ EK EK t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. go nzrq/Ih
Bkw tkbh, s[jkv/ gzi ;"t/A iBw fdB ƒ ;wofgs “r[o{ BkBe ckT{Av/;aB”
XV/ pzdh dk fPeko j' e/ ofj rJh. ekbi tZb'A w{zj w'V fbnk. p; s[jkv/
Bkw dh tos'A tkb/ T[;/ ekbi d/ njks/ ftZu, pj[sh wkfJnk ewkT[D bJh
fJZe ;e{b y'jb fdZsk frnk j?. gzikp d/ pkeh ;e{bK tork fJZe j'o
;e{b.
;fsr[o{ ihU` s[;hA B"t/A ikw/ ftZu pj[s T[geko ehs/. s[jkvk
r[orZdh ;zGkbD dk fdB sK BjhA wBkfJnk iKdk. Pjhdh fdB n;hA

(2)
wBkT[Ad/ nk oj/ jK. Xow j/s i' ;kek s[;hA 1675 ftZu toskfJnk ;h,
T[;dh shih Pskpdh f;ZyK B/ 1975 ftZu wBkJh. T[jh g[okDk okr T[jh
ehosB gkm nodk;K s/ bzroHHHH. s[jkv/ ehs/ T[gekoK ƒ o;wh sohe/ jh
:kd ehsk frnk. fe;/ dk fBZek fijk ezw ;ztko d/JhJ/, e[ZM wds eo
d/JhJ/, ;pzXs ftnesh nfj;kBwzd j'DA' BjhA ofj ;edk. feZv/ nfeosxD
b' e jK n;hA, s[ j kv/ f;Z y nytkD tkb/ . s[ j kv/ pko/ e' J h
fJZe Gh :kdrkoh ekoi BK nkozfGnk. t?;/ sK fiBQK b'eK bJh s[;hA Pjhdh
gkJh ;h T[j tZv/ gZXo s/ s[jkvh f;Zfynk ns/ ihtBh ƒ d[BhnK sZe g[uKd/.
T[jBK B/ sK Bk Pa[eo/gD dk ;p{s d/ jh fdZsk go s[jkv/ ngfDnK Gh sK T[jh
e[ZM ehsk j?. B"t/A BkBe ih s[jkv/ ;oho Bkb ;pzXs pj[s ;ko/ r[odtko/
pD/ j'J/ jB. T[E'A gzvK wkfJnk dhnK fJZeZso eoe/ pj[s/ b'eK B/ nkgDhnK
e'mhnK T[;ko bJhnK, ekoK yohd bJhnK, oki;h e[o;hnK s/ ik fpoki/.
s[jkv/ Pjhd j' u[Ze/ ;oho Bkb ;pzXs fszB pj[s tZv/ r[odtko/ T[Z;o u[Ze/
jB. fiE/ Pjhdh j'Jh “;h; rzi” uKdBh u"Ae fdZbh. fiZE/ ;oho dk
;;eko j'fJnk, oekprzi fdZbh. GkJh i?sk ih B/ s[jkvk gktB Pjhd ;h;
u[Ze e/ nBzdg[o ƒ ikfdnK, fiZE/ fiZE/ gVkn ehsk, T[j ;ko/ r[odtko/.
nBzdg[o fiZE/ gktB ;ajhd ;h; dk ;;eko ehsk frnk T[j Gh ;h; rzi
j? ;[fDnk ;h n"ozri/p dk j[ew ;h fe s[jkv/ ;oho d/ nzr eZN eZNe/ fdZbh
d/ ;ko/ tZv/ u"eK ftZu bNek fdZs/ ikD. e[ZM “f;o fco/” f;ZyK B/ nfijk Bk
j'D fdZsk. t?;/ s[;hA sK ;dk goT[geko jh ehsk j?. i/ s[jkv/ ;oho d/
N[eV/, ;ko/ u"eK ftZu Nzr fdZs/ iKd/ sK T[sB/ jh j'o “fJfsjk;e” r[odtko/
Bk T[Z;o iKd/ < T[jBK ;kohnK EktK s/ Gh Bw;aekoK eoB tkbhnK eskoK
brdhnK. wkfJnk d/ nzpko br iKd/. s[jkv/ eJh “;/te” f;ZyK dh
rohph eZNh iKdh. eJh ;ko/ gkmhnK, rqzEhnK, ehosBhnK, eEktkueK ƒ
“;'jDk” o[Irko fwb iKdk. gqXkBK, ;eZsoK, yikBuhnK dhnK si'ohnK
Go iKdhnK, u"XoK uwe iKdhnK, oki;h mkm pkm pD iKdk, e'mhnK T[;o
iKdhnKHHHH.
feogk fBXkB fgsk r[o{ ih` s/o/ ;/teK B/ s[jkv/ sh;o/ ;oho dk

(3)
nkrwB g[op r'fJzdtkb fty/ 1979 ftZu pVh “X{wXkw” Bkb wBkfJnk.
wBkJhJ/ feT[A Bk fJj gzi ;"tK iBw fdB i' ;h. Gkt/A s[;hA r[o{ gdth ƒ
74 ;kb dh T[wo ftZu g[Zi/. fJ;/ ;ohoe ikw/ okjhA ;Zm e[ ;kb dh T[wo
sZe r[ows s'A T[bN ekoi Gh eod/ oj/. ukjhdk sK fJj ;h fe 53 d/ ;kb
ƒ w[Zy oZye/ r[orZdh fdt; wBkJ/ iKd/. feT[Afe s[;hA ;zB 1553 ftZu BkBe
i's ;zGkbh ;h. fJ; rZb dh gqtkj Bk eofdnK 1979 ƒ r'fJzdtkb fty/
(fco iBw n;EkB pk;oe/ feT[A BJh <) d/P ftd/P ftZu rZvhnK w'NoK
ns/ g?dbK wkouK okjhA ;zrsK dk bZyK dh frDsh ftZu iwxZNk i[fVnk.
EK EK ehosB ;wkrw, bzro, nodk;K Bkjo/ i?eko/, “pkT[bh fJ;aBkB”.
u[ok;h eZN d/D d/ ftPtkP. nwo{ fBEktK nkye/ s[jkvk ngwkB, pj[s
;kohnK M{mhnK eEk ejkDhnKHHHH. gzE dh uVQdhebk dk e'Jh fJZe Gh
ekoi BjhA T[bhfenk frnk, fiE/ s[jkv/ pZfunK ƒ f;Zyh dh ;{M gqkgs
j[zdh. 1975 ftu jh ssekbhB ;oeko tb'A ny"sh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx wkor
nBzdg[o s'A ub e/ 520 feb' whNo se xNk T[vk e/ f;yK B[z ewb/ pDk e/
;oekoh yikB/ dk eo'Vk o[fgnk c{e e/ dwdw/ (sbtzvh ;kp') ;wkgs
j'fJnk ;h. fpBK fe;/ gqkgsh s'A. b'eK B[z x'fVnk dh fbZN Gh gq;kd ikDe/
gqkgs ehsh. fJj x'V/ d;w gkfs;akj tb'A ;tkoh bJh tos/ rJ/ x'V/ d/
“tz;i” d;/ rJ/ ;B. fJjBK B{z jikoK b'eK B/ wEk N/fenk s/ “iBw
;cbk” ehsk.
fBozekoh N'b/ tZb'A 1978 ftZu f;ZyK dk esbkw, pknd ftZu T[FZfmnk
o'j, Gkosh c"iK tZb'A i{B 84 ftZu ehsk frnk gzikp s/ f;Zy wko{ jwbk.
x'o spkjh, nekb sys dk Y?jDk, ;ko/ gk;/ y{B d/ dfonk. wZeko nekbh
bhvoK d/ Gkos ;oeko ftoZ[X Ifjohb/ fpnkB. fJ; ;G dk f;ZNk fJj
fBefbnk fe fe;/ GftZy w[yh ;{Mp{M tkbh Bhsh s'A fpBK nDyhb/ f;Zy
rGo{nK B/ jfEnko ;KG bJ/. ;oekoh skesK tZb'A bZrGZr YkJh bZy
B"i[nkBK dk tfjPh xkD. nDfrDs gqeko d/ I[bw. d[BhnK d/ d{o nzd/P
bhvoK B/ PjhdK d/ y{B dk p/UVe w[Zb tZfNnk s/ nkgDh e"w d/ jZe ftZu
;koEe ckfJd/ gqkgs ehs/. ;zB 1989 ftZu id'A f;Zy bhvo MP pDe/

(4)
gkobhw?AN ftZu g[Zi/ ;B, sK f;ZyK d/ fujfonK dh T[dk;h s/ fdb nzdobk
y"c wfj;{; eoe/ w[bkfJw f;zx :kdt B/ bkitkp fNZgDh ehsh ;h ^ “bzwK
;wK ;oekoh I[bw d/ ekb/ d"o ftZu'A r[Io e/ f;Zy tho gkobhw?AN ftZu g[Zi/
jB. n;hA fJjBK s'A j"A;bk s/ pjkdoh tkbh ;fgoN b?Dk ukj[zd/ jK. go
nc;'; fe f;Zy Gok y[d jhD GktBk u'A pkjo BjhA fBeb ;e/.” ;r'A nZi
sZe T[jh jhD GktBk f;ZyK ftZu nzdo sZe X; rJh gqshs j' ojh j?.
fgsk ihT[` s[jkv/ S/t/A ikw/ dk uko ;" ;kbk nkrwB fdt; wBkT[D
dh fsnkoh d/ sfjs 1994 d/ nes{po wjhB/ ftZu r[o{ eh tvkbh s'A
“ykb;k wkou” nkozG ehsk frnk. ibzXo, b[fXnkDk s/ o'gV gVkn
eodk j'fJnk u"E/ fdB fJj d' e[ bZy dk ftPkb fJZeZm nBzdg[o g[Zi e/,
fpBK e'Jh ekoi T[bhe/ xo' xoh gos frnk. fJ;/ bVh sfjs jfor'fpzdg[o
s'A P[o{ eoe/ nrbk tZvk “ykb;k wkou” sbtzvh ;kp' gZ[fink. fJZE/ Gh
bZyK ;aoXkb{ nk i[V/. ;fsr[o{ ihT[` s[;hA sK ikDh ikD j', Gbk s[jkv/ uko
;"t/A g[op Bkb fJj wkouK dk e'Jh ;pzX i[Vdk j? < fco s[;hA fJjBK
u"XohnK ƒ fcNekod/ feT[A BjhA < fJj s[jkv/ G'b/ PoXkb{ f;ZyK dk g?;k
s/ ;wK feT[A popkd eod/ jB < ;fsr[o{ ih w[nkc eoBK` eh s[;hA BjhA
t/fynk (ikDh ikDsk) fe oki;h b'e sK e[o;hnK ekoB MrVd/ jB. jkJ/`
fJj s[jkv/ do d/ pj[s tZv/ ;/tkdko (nkyD ƒ e{eo^r[bkw r[o{ ek)
f;o'fgnK ekoB, s[ZS fij/ cbK s/ w/ftnK ekoB w?A fJZe d{i/ dh gZr ƒ jZE
gkT[Ad/ t/y uZ[fenk jK. fJfsjk; ftZu gfVQnk j? fe s[;hA d;t/A ikw/ ftZu,
T[jBK dhnK wzd eos{sK t/y e/, w;zd N'b/ ƒ f;Zyk d/ rb'A bkj fdZsk ;h.
go ;fsr[o{ ih fJj sK ;r'A j'o Pesh;akbh o{g Xkoe/ rohp f;ZyK dk y{B
gh oj/ B/. j[D fJjBK ƒ ;oekoh ;ogq;sh, (r[odtkok n?eN 1925
sfjs) Gh jk;b j?. fJj rZb jo f;Zy B/ ;[Dh j'Jh j? fe s[;hA S/t/A s/ d;t/A
;o{g ftZu ebrh ;ikJh ;h. s[;h sK ;woZE j', go eh dopko ;kfjp d/
;/tkdko iK nekb sys d/ ;/tkdko ebrh bk ;ed/ jB < PkfJd ebrh
sK S'Nh uhi j? ;fsr[o{ ih` fJj sK nZieZb “skig'Ph” eokT[Ad/ jB.
;[fDnk ;h fe f;Zy r[o{ xo d/ ;/tkdko jB. nkj skidko pkdPkj ed'A s/

(5)
fet/A pD rJ/ < w?A w{oy ƒ Io{o jh ;wMk d/Dk ih. s[jkv/ Bfws S/t/A ikw/
tkbk ykb;k wkou eo'VK o[g? popkd eoe/ mzY/ p;s/ ftZu ik fgnk. e'Jh
gqkgsh BjhA j'Jh.
fJjBK jh fdBK ftZu (;szpo 1995) ftPt f;Zy ;zw/bB ehsk
frnk. ;fsr[o{ ih s[;hA sK g?;/ Ne/ tZb'A p/gqtkj j'. s[jkv/ uoBK d/ G"fonK
tZb'A s[jkvh r'be ftZu PoXk ;fjs nogD ehsk bZrGZr gzikj eo'V
o[fgnk c{e fdZsk frnk. tZv/ tZv/ ;?whBko j'J/, gou/ gVQ/ rJ/. tZv nekoh
ozr pozr/ fJ;afsjko Sg/. iE/dkoK dhnK rZvhnK pj[s s/i d"VhnK. d/PK
pd/PK d/ uZeo eZN/, wkfJnk fJZeZso ehsh. bzro uZb/, thvhU fcbwK
pDhnK, i?eko/, Bkjo/, ;o'g/, fyskp, ;BwkB. d[BhnK Go s'A f;ZyK d/
ji{w nkD Y[e Z .
/ pZ; nodk;K eoe/ bzro See/ ;G nkg' nkgD/ xoK ƒ ub/
rJ/ i/pK ykbh eotk e/ wDk w{zjh wB s/ Gko b?e/. gzE d/ Gb/ tkbk ehsk
frnk ekoi fJ; ;wkrw ftZu feXo/ BiaohA BjhA fgnk. n;b ftu gzikp
dh oki rZdh ;KGD bJh fJj oki;hfsnkoh wkso ;h.
;Zu/ ;fsr[o{ ih` fJj r{zidh nktkia sK s[jkv/ sZe ntZ;a gZ[ih j't/rh
fe ykb;/ dk fszB ;" ;kbk ;zg{oDsk fdt; 1999 s[jkv/ ;/teK B/ fezBh
“PkB” Bkb wBkfJnk j?. ;[y Bkb s[jkv/ ;G s'A bkvb/ f;Zy, fi;ƒ s[;hA
ofjws eoe/ pj[s XB gdkoE s/ iwhB sK py;ah jh j?, ;r'A f;ZyK dk ;G
s'A skesto bhvo Gh pDk fdZsk j?. j[D T[j gzE ƒ fij' fijk ;o{g iK
f;XKs d/t/ e'Jh o'e BjhA ;edk, feT[Afe s[;hA T[;dh nzr ;zr j'e/ ;jkfJsk
eo oj/ j'. w/oh w[okd ;qhL gqekP f;zx pkdb s'A j? ih. T[;ƒ T[; d/ fwZsoK
B/ “ykb;/ dk iBw fdB” X{wXkw Bkb wBkT[D tk;s/ ;" eo'V o[fgnk fdZsk.
fco pdb/ ftZu fJj ezNo'b nkgD/ jZE ftZu b? fbnk fe fJj fdB fet/A
wBkDk j?. s[;hA f;ZX/ ;Zuyzv ftZu'A t/fynk j't/rk fe fet/A d/P dk gqXkB
wzsoh nNb fpjkoh tkigkJh, f;Zy ;zrsK ƒ r[owfonkdk fdqV eotk fojk
;h. d/P d/ rqfj wzsoh n?bH e/H nvtkBh f;ZyK d/ ;'fjb/ rk fojk ;h. shj
g?Ash bZy PoXkb{ nBzdg[o j[zwj[wk e/ gZ[fink. fJj nk; bkJhA fe gzE dh
fprVh ;ztkoB tk;s/, T[Fi Z V/ gqtkoK ƒ p;kT[D tk;s/, gzikp d/ y'j/ rJ/ jZeK

(6)
s/ g?dktkoh t;hfbnK dh gqkgsh tk;s/, f;o i'Ve/ e'Jh gq'rokw T[bhfenk
ikt/rk. f;Zyh tX/rh
gzE y[Pjkb j't/rk. jzM{ g{zM/ ikDr/, fujfonK s/ w[;ekB nkt/rh. f;Zyh dk
ukBD xo xo g[Zi/rk. Xow gquko bJh e'Jh nyapko, w?riahB, fbNo/uo,
;?N/bkJhN u?Bb dk gqpzX ehsk ikt/rk. B"itkBK d/ o[iarko pko/ ipkB sZe
Bk y'jbh rJh. e[ZM BkNeh fij/ j'S/, fpnkB dkr/ rJ/, “whBko/ ykb;k”,
nkfd d/ fyv"D/ s/o/ gzE nZr/ go';/ rJ/. fgsk r[o{ ih` “nkvo nkc ykb;k”
fij/ ;BwkB s[jkv/ s\s s'A fiBQK ƒ py;a/ rJ/ T[j e/;K dh p/ndph eoB
tkb/, PokpK ghD tkb/, ftGuko eoB tkb/, fo;atsK Bkb e'mhnK Go b?D
tkb/, wkw{bh BZuD rkT[D tkb/, f;ZyK ƒ b[ZN g[ZN e/ popkd eoB tkfbnK ƒ
wBZ[ysk d/ d'yhnK s/ wekoK ƒ “;BwkBs” ehsk frnk. fJ;/ ;kb (1999)
d/ d;zpo wjhB/ ftZu 300 ;kbk yk; s'jck pkdb ih d/ ;fseko/ j'J/ frqj
wzsoh bkb feqPB nvtkBh s/ gqXkB wzsoh tkigkJh ih B/ fJZe nfijk
ekoBkwk ehsk i' f;ZXk f;Zyh s/ wko{ tko ;h. fJj gkghnK B/ c[owkB ikoh
ehsk fe nro e'Jh ftnesh p[ZX Xow, fJ;kJh Xow, fJ;bkw Xow
gVQ/rk sK Gkos ;oeko tZb'A ;jkfJsk fwbdh oj/rh. i/ e'Jh r[owZs pko/
gVQ/rk T[; ƒ ;jkfJsk BjhA fwb/rh. jK fJ;d/ pdb/ “rKXh ;NZvh tkfbnk
ƒ rqKN fwb/rh, f;Zy Xow tk;s/ czv BjhA fwb/rk. fJj j[ew d;zpo 1999
ftu ikoh j'fJnk. i' r[owfs gqek;a gou/ d/ wJh 2003 d/ gzBk 40 s/
Sfgnk. ;fsr[o{ ih s[jkv/ ;G s'A fgnko/ tZv/ g[Zso gqekP f;zx B/ (ns/
pkeh i[zvbh) fto'X ftZu n"yk ;kj Gh Bk fbnk. ;" eo'V d/ e/ f;Zyh d/ iVhA
e[jkVk tkj fdZsk frnk.
eh dZ;K ;fsr[o{ pkpk ih` ;ko/ b'e rZbK eod/ B/ fe s[;hA ikDh ikD
j'. i/ fJj rZb ;Zu j? sK s[;hA gzE d'yhnK ƒ jh f;Zyh dh tkrv'o feT[A
cVkJh j'Jh j? < fes/ g?;/ s/ G'iB Bkb T[j s[jkvh pj[sh “;/tk” sK BjhA
eo oj/ < rohp f;ZyK e'b sK w;hA wZEk N/eD bJh o[fgnk X/bh j[zdh j?.
nkj ngq?b 2004 ftZu s[jkv/ d{i/ ikw/ dk yv{o fty/ gzi ;" ;kbk i;aB
wBkfJnk frnk j?. nk; eod/ ;K fe f;ZyK bJh ekbi iK :{Bhtof;Nh

(7)
yZ[b/rh, feZsk w[yh ;z;EktK yZ[bDrhnK. f;Zy pZfunk ƒ frnkB fwb/rk
o[Irko fwb/rk. T[FZE/ yv{o fty/ fJZe “goT[gekoh” pkpk ih B/ s[jkv/ d{b/
gzE dk eJh eo'V you eoe/, pd/PK ftZu'A pj[s wfjzrhnK wPhBK wzrtke/
fJZe “ezfgT{No ezNo'bv” fwT{iahnw fsnko ehsk j?. nwohek d/ fJZe
pj[s “f;nkD/ f;Zy” B/ fwZNh xZN/ tkb/ d/P ftZu nfijhnK wPhBK bkT[D dh
B/e ;bkj fdZsh fe g[ZS' e[ZM Bk. T[j wPhBK s's/ tKr p'be/ “r[owfs” dk
frnkB fdnk eoBrhnK. wB[Zy uZ[g ukg wPhBK dk GkPD ;[DBr/. fco
fit/A fe nkw j[zdk j? wPhBk E'V/ ;w/A wro'A ezw eoBK pzd eo d/DrhnK.
yokp$Bekok j' u[ZehnK w;ahBK e'b fJZe fJZe wB[Zy yVQk fdZsk ikt/rk. s/
p'be/ dZ;/rk fe fJ; EK gfjbK fJj wPhB j'fJnk eodh ;h. eo'VK o[g?
veko e/ wPhB ftrV rJh, nZr'A n;hA ikDekoh fdnk eoKr/. ;fsr[o{ ih
T[jh i?eko/, Bkjo/, d/rK, nodk;K, ykb;k wkouK Bkb f;ZyK B/ s[jkvhnK
“y[PhnK” gqkgs eo bJhnK jB.
pkpk ih s[jkv/ B{okBh T[gd/P dk uko ;"tK gqekP fdt; Gh 2004
ftZu jh nk frnk. nzfwqs;o fty/ gfjbh ;szpo ƒ d; bZy PoXktkB
wkJh GkJh dk fJZeZm j'fJnk. bZrGZr fJZe nop o[g? dh G/Nk fJZeZso j'
rJh. dhg wkbktK j'JhnK, wfmnkJhnK tzvhnK, Bro ehosB j'J/. Xow
T[gd/P d/D bJh okiBhsh d/ rzd ftZu rb sZe X;/ j'J/ b'e froMk tKr nkD
T[so/. s/ s[jkvhnK fBowb p[X, gqhswkB f;Zy ;zrsK ƒ “gkg eh izR”
uVQk fbnkT[D tkb/, fes/ ;ZiB mZr d/ ;/te, fe;/ gk;/ wbe Gkr' d/
GkJhpzd, fes/ “gVQ/ fby/ w{oy” Xow T[gd/P d/D br gJ/. ;c?d u'fbnK
tkb/, Bhb/ pkfDnK tkb/, Grt/A eoB tkb/, ;w/s ;{j/ MzfvnK tkb/, s[jkv/
gktB c[owkBK dh ;a'Gk ;zrsK ƒ ezB gkVthnK nktkIK okjhA ;[Dk oj/ ;B.
fJjBK tZv/ fJZeZmK ftZu pkeh ;kok e[ZM ;h, p; e'Jh Xowh g[oy Xow dh
feos ewkJh eoB tkbk wB[Zy, Xow ƒ ;wMe/ T[; w[skpe ihtB fiT[D
tkbk fJB;kB BjhA fdZ; fojk ;h i' efjDh s/ eoDh dk g{ok ;{ok j't/. pkpk
ih pj[s g?;k o'fVQnk frnk j? Xow d/ Bkw s/. pj[s g?;k ewkfJnk frnk
j? Xow d/ Bkw s/. fJ; tZv/ BrkoykB/ ftZu Xow dk e'Jh nzP n;{b fuokr

(8)
b? e/ Y{zfvnK Gh BjhA bGdk ;h. Bkb/ ;fsr[o{ ih ;apd r[o{ dk gfjbk gqekP
fJj fet/A ;h < n;hA w{oy fij/ ;/te ;wMD s'A n;woE jK. s[;hA fi;
fdB nkgD/ w[ykofpzd s'A gfjbk gktB puB T[ukoB ehsk ^ gKX/ ƒ, gq'fjs
ƒ, okJ/ p[bko ƒ, t?d ƒ iK dkJh ƒ, wksk fgsk ƒ iK G?D BkBeh ih ƒ.
i' T[gd/P s[;hA gfjbh tkoh fdZsk T[jh n;b ftZu s[jkvh pkDh dk gfjbk
gqekP ;h. ;zgkdBk j'Jh ;h 1604 ftZu. s/ ;zg{oDsk gqtkB ehsh ikt/rh
nes{po 1708 ftZu. pkeh i' e[ZM j'fJnk ;[ j'fJnk go s[jkv/ T[gd/P ƒ
fes/ B/V/ Gh BjhA cNeD fdZsk frnk. jK fJZe tZvk ;kok w/bk fijk Io{o
;h fJj.
;fseko:'r ikDh ikD ;fsr[o{ ih` s[;hA d;t/A ikw/ ftZu g[Zie/
pj[s e;aN MZb/. nB/e gZy s'A ;{owrsh d/ Bt/A ehoshwkB ;Ekgs ehs/.
e'Jh fdB nfijk BjhA ;h fe s[jkv/ s/ w[PebK d/ gjkV Bk fvZr/ j'D. s[;hA
jo w[;hps ƒ ;fji Bkb gqtkB ehsk s/ T[;dk e[ZM Gh Bk j[zfdnK vZN e/
Nkeok ehsk. ;cbsk ;dk s[jkv/ nzr ;zr ojh. uwe"o dh izr ftZu
pjkdoh dh p/i'V e[opkBh eoB tkb/ fBoG?sk dh uow;hwk gko eo ikD
tkb/, bZyK d/ fNZvh dbK dk fjZe sKD e/ Nkeok eoB tkb/, s[jkv/ tZv/
;g[ZsoK^;kfjp nihs f;zx, ;kfjp i[Mko f;zx. fszB fgnko/^ GkJh
fjzws f;zx, w'jew f;zx s/ ;kfjp f;zx, ns/ g?Ash j'o f;obZE PjhdK dh
fszB ;"thA :kd wBk oj/ jK. pj[s ;ko/ BroK, PfjoK, fgzvK ftZu'A bZrGZr
fJZe bZy PoXkb{ uwe"o fty/ g[Zi/. wjkB PjhdK ƒ :kd ehsk. Bro
ehsoB, ykb;k wkou, bzro, Bkjo/, i?eko/, d/rK, nodk;K eoe/ cfsjrVQ
ƒ uZb gJ/. fJj uwe"o dh eZuh jt/bh ;zB 1965 sZe, PjhdK dh ;{owrsh
ƒ, v[ZbQ/ y{B ƒ ;KG e/ T[;/ n;bh nt;Ek ftZu ;bkws ;h. p; fJ; s'A
pknd I[bw dh nfijh jB/oh trh fe f;Zy ;wki e'b'A T[j p/;ehwsh
;owkfJnk y'j e/ b? rJh. s/o/ nkgD/ f;ZyK s/ ;zsK B/, pkpk ih` T[; nB'yh
izr dhnK ;kohnK :kdK fwNk fdZshnK. fiZXo BIo wko' ;c?d gZEo,
;zrwowo. j[D sK fJj ypoK Gh ir ikjo j' rJhnK B/ pkpk ih,
r[odtkfonK dh “eko ;/tk” gqkgs eoB tk;s/ ew/Nh w?ApoK ƒ bZyK o[g?

(9)
ny"sh ;zsK tZb'A fo;ats fdZsh iKdh j?. eko ;/tk ftZu'A jh fco ngDhnK
wfjzrhnK ekoK ubdhnK B/. s[jkv/ BK s/ g?;/ ewkT[D bJh wEok d/
gKfvnK tKr Bkb'A Bkb r[odtkfonK dhnK eskoK yVQhnK ehshnK ik
uZ[ehnK jB. tZvk r[odtkok sK fJZe' jh ekch j'fJnk eodk j?. nkj j'o
d[ekBK ekjd/ tk;s/ jB < PjhdK dh :kd fJZE/ pkeh ofj rJh j? e'Jh <
;G fwZNh ftZu fwbk fdZshnK rJhnK jB. fgsk r[o{ ih s[;hA fJjBK ƒ
edh ;[wZs BjhA fdT[r/ < ;N/iK s/ ;{owrsh dhnK tkoK rkT[D tkb/, pkjtK
T[bko e/ X{znKXko b?euo d/D tkb/, y[ZbhnK dkjVhnK s/ rkso/ feogkBK
tkb/, nZi eZb e/tb “o'NhnK ekoD” skb g{o oj/ jB. s[jkv/ g[ZsoK B/ y{B
d/ dfonk so/, nDfrDs ikpoK d/ w{zj w'V/, ;t?wkD dh fJ; bkfw;kb izr
ftZu vZeo/ vZeo/ j' rJ/, go Xow BjhA jkfonk, f;Zyh f;de e/;K ;[nk;K
;zr fBGk rJ/. ukbh d/ ukbh ;[oyo{ j' iBw ;cbk eo rJ/. nZi T[j
Xowh ihtB phs/ dhnK ejkDhnK pDe/ ofj frnk j?. fJj stkohyh fdB,
ns/ ;c?d ;zrwowoh ;[zdo fJwkosK e/tb B'NK dhnK gzvK fJZeZso eoB
d/ ;kXB wkso ofj rJ/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih pj[Vh eo'HHHH.
irs skoe pkpk ih` E'VQk fizBk s[jkvk tes j'o btKrk. s[;hA ;G
e[ZM ikDd/ j', s[jkvh fdZG fdqPNh sq?b'eh ƒ t/yD dh ;woEk oydh j?. fco
Gbk s[;hA fJ; G{yv z , gzikp dh Xosh s/ edh feT[A Mksh BjhA wkod/ < PkfJd
s[;hA pj[s tZv/ pyf;azd j', iK t/ye/ nDfvZm eo iKd/ j'. s[jkvhnK s[;hA
ikD'` go w?ƒ i' nkb/ d[nkb/ fd; fojk j? T[;ƒ fet/A nDt/fynk eo iktK
< feT[Afe w?A ;z;koh iht s[jkv/ tor/ ftPkb ;[Gk tkbk BjhA jK. pZ; fJZe
j'o eo[DwJh rkEk ;[Dk e/ ysw eo fdnKrk. r[Dh fBXkB pkpk ih` fJ;/
;kb (2004) ftZu s[jkv/ fBZe/ fBZe/ wk;{w c[ZbK tor/, fgnko/ ;kfjpIkd/
d[BhnK dh nB'yh y/v ftyk rJ/ ;B. jK ;Zu wksk r[ioh dk s[jkv/ Bkb
fejVk foPsk i'VK < feT[Afe ;oho eoe/ T[jBK B/ r'fpzd okJ/ ih ƒ iBw
fdZsk ;h. ;kY/ e[ B"A ;kb dh T[wo/ T[jBK ƒ s[jkvh frnkB i's gqkgs j'Jh.
i's sK f;ZXh nekb g[oy tZb'A nkT[Adh j?, T[; dk ;ohoe wK pkg sK e'Jh
BjhA j[zdk. ;' wksk r[ioh ih dk e'Jh ;ohoh foPsk s[jkv/ Bkb i'VB s'A

(10)
n;woE jK, fywk eoBk ih.
;fsr[o{ gkfsPkj pkpk BkBe ih` BzB/Q w[B
z /Q c[b
Z K tor/ e'wb fujfonK
tkb/ s/ fjwkbk gops tor/ firo/ tkb/ ;kfjpIkfdnK dh ;{owrsh sK
Xosh s'A nzpo sZe jo e'Jh ikDdk j?. fet/A wb{e fijhnK fdZ;D tkbhnK
fizdK B/ ski syas fBtk fds/. tIho dfozd/ dh y{Bh sbtko, fGnkBesk
tkbhnK GpeK, fJjBK “dPw/P d[bkfonk” ƒ okJh Go Gh nkgD/ nehd/
s'A fEVek BK ;ehnK, v[bk BK ;ehnK. fJZe eth :'rh B/ fbfynk j? ^
fi; dw rb/ rb/ E/ T[j wk;{w rV rJ/.
fdB S[gB/ Gh Bk gkfJnk fe ekfsb T[iV rJ/.
i'rh ih fJ; e/ pknd j{Jh E'Vh d/o Eh.
p;sh ;ojzd eh JhN'A ek Y/o Eh`
fJjBK dh p/i'V ;ajkds ƒ PoXktkB f;ZX/ ;kX/ pI[orK s'A ;[fDnk
eod/ ;K i' e[ZM fJ; soQK dZf;nk eod/ ;B ^ “;kfjp ia'okto f;zx s/ cfsj
f;zx dh e[opkBh e'Jh nkdwh fpnkB BjhA eo ;edk. n"ozr/ ƒ s/ e[Zb
w[rb oki ƒ fJ; Pjhdh dk x'o gkg bZfrnk. w[rbK d/ iakbw oki dh
;wM' iV fJjBK B/ jh g[ZNh ;h. “tihdk” ;{p/dko fes/ w{zj ftykD i'rk Bk
fojk. “M{m/ Bzd” ƒ jo/e fjzd{ B/ bkjDsK gkJhnK. T[; d/ gqtko B/ Gh YkjK
wko nkekP o[nk fdZsk. ;ko/ ;ojzd ftZu fe;/ uZ[b/ nZr Bk gkJh. G[Zy/ GkD/
jzM{nK d/ p[Ze Go Go o'Ad/ o'Ad/ iawhB s/ ;ZEo ftSk ;[Zs/. fe;/ tv/ nwho
d/ xo Gh dhtk Bk pfbnk. rktK wZMK ƒ ukok Gh fe;/ Bk gkfJnk, d[ZX BK
u'fJnk. feZfbnK s/ pZMhnK o'AdhnK ojhnK, T[jBK d/ fBe/ tZSo{ ozGd/ jkb'A
p/jkb j' rJ/. wzdoK ftZu NZb BK yVe/, ;zy Bk tZi/, nkoshnK BK j'JhnK.
w;fidK ftZu BtkiK ndk eoB e'Jh Bk nkfJnk. w[Zbk dh “pKr” d/D dh
fjzws Bk gJh. nk;wkB ftZu gsk BjhA feZE'A pdbhnK Sk rJhnK. fBZeh
fBZeh eDh dk d' fdB whAj toQdk fojk. n;b ftZu fJj ;kXkoD pko;a BjhA
;h. ;kfjpiakfdnK dh d[ydkJh Pjhdh s/ nzpo o' fojk ;h. ykw'P jzM{
pjk fojk ;h. T[; fdB s'A b? e/ nZi sZe jo ;kb fJjBK wk;{w fizdK d/
rw ftZu oZp Gh iko' iko o'Adk j?, fJj gkDh d/ s[ge/ BjhA, op d/ jzM{

(11)
jBHHHHH.” fJj b'e nykD pD frnk.
fBZehnK fizdK d/ tZv/ ;ke/ B/ ykb;k gzE nzdo o'j dh nZr d/ GKpV
pkb fdZs/. ;kfjpiakfdnK ƒ fdZs/ rJ/ s;hj/ f;zxK d/ ;hB/ ftzB rJ/. E'V/
jh ;w/A nzdo f;Zy s{ckB pDe/ ;ojzd tb tX/. t/yd/ t/yd/ iakbwK ƒ fwZNh
ftZu fwbk fdZsk frnk. ;zB 1927 sZe “r[o{ wkoh” ;ojzd dk fJZNK wbpk
T[t/A T[ikV/ dh :kd dtkT[Adk fojk. ;w/A B/ eotN bJh. oki pdb/, syas
ski pdb/, ekƒB pdb/ s/ f;ZyK d/ ;[Gk pdb/. r[o{ fgsk ihU` f;ZyK dh
fJZe u[Dh j'Jh iE/pzdh Pq'wDh r[odtkok gqpX z e ew/Nh j'Ad ftZu nkJh.
gfjbK e[M Z ;wK fJjBK uzrk ezw ehsk. fco rzdh okiBhsh jkth j[d z h rJh.
j[D sK ih nzfwqs;o, nBzdg[o, sbtzvh ;kp', uwe"o, s/ w[es;o tor/ ;ko/
Xow n;EkB f;nk;s dh dbdb ftZu p[oh soQK roe j' rJ/ jB. nkj fBZe/
;ajhdK dk n;EkB fiZE/ pj[s Gkoh ;zrs jo ;kb i[Vdh j?, fJZE/ Gh p/JhwkB
okiBhseK B/ g{oh soQK epIk iwk fbnk j?. edh E'VhQ fizBh ftjb eZY e/
nkU s/ y[d t/y.' s[jkv/ g[s
Z oK dh ;{owrsh dhnK rkEktK fJZE/ ;[DkJh BjhA
fdzdhnK. oki;h b'eK dk e{V e[co ;[DB ƒ fwbdk j?. fJZe d[ekB ekwo/vK
dh, nkj d{ih eKro;hnK dh. shih “GkigkJh” nekbhnK dh. u"Eh
“nzfwqs;oh” nekbhnK dh. gzithA fe;/ f;Zy c?vo/;B a dh, S/thA “b"Art
' kbhJ/”
nekbhnK dh. fco fBjzrK dh (eJh fe;w d/ fBjzr) Ne;kbhnK dh,
BkBe;ohnK dh, ;kXK dh, ;zsK dhHHHj'o gsk BjhA ehjdh ehjdh < ;fsr[o{
ih` fJZE/ “Xow[ gzy efo T[vfonk” tkbh jkbs gosZy t/yhdh j?.
T[j mzYk p[oi fiZE/ wksk ih s/ ;kfjpiakfdnK ƒ e?d ehsk frnk,
;kv/ “ngfDnK” B/ Ykj fdZsk j?. fi; dhtko ftZu fufDnk frnk ;h T[;dk
fBPkB sZe BjhA fojk. Pjhdh n;EkB s/ fJsBh nkbhPkB wkotb tkbh gzi
wzibh fJwkos, t/ye/ f;o ueok iKdk j?. eh fJj Pjhdh ;wkoe j?, iK
y[PhnK y/fVnK tkbh fJwkos < ew/Nh tkfbnK s/ “;zsK” B/ g{oh ;kfi;a
ehsh j?, ;ko/ g[oksB fuzBQ fwNk fdZs/ jB. ;fsr[o{ ih` nkyoh rZb d;d/
ysw eoB bZfrnk jK. s[jkv/ ;/teK f;ZyK s/ g[s
Z oK d/ Pjhdh ;EkB j[D f;ZyK
nzdo pjkdoh dk i'P Bjh God/. Xow s/ gogZe ofjD dh rkEk ;[DB ƒ

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BjhA fwbdh. fJjBK EktK s/ u"XoK bJh gZrK bZEdhnK jB. f;o gkNd/ jB
w[edZ w/ uZbd/ jB. r'beK dh wkfJnK dh d[otos'A sK j[D nkw fijh rZb
;wMh iKdh j?. gzE dh uVQdhebk tk;s/ fJ; uVQs dh tos'A BjhA j[d z h. j[D
g?;k, okiBhsh s/ t'NK gqkgs eoB tk;s/, fBih n?P gq;sh tk;s/, o'jfVnk
iKdk j?. i/eo s[jkv/ d' fszB g[s Z o j'o j[d
z ,/ s/ tZy' tZyoh Ekt/A ;ajhdh gkT[Ad/,
sK n;hA e[M Z Pjhdh ;EkB r[odtko/ j'o pDk b?Ad/. j'o ekcah ;kok uVQktk
r'be ftZu g? iKdk. n;hA T[; g{ik d/ XkB ƒ nkgD/ fBih wB'oEK bJh tos
b?Ad/. s[jkv/ d' d' g[sZ o fJZe fJZe Ekt/A fJZem Z / Pjhd Bk j' e/ nro fJeZb/
fJeZb/ Gh Pjhd j[d z / sK d' j'o Pjhdh r[odtko/ sK tZX jh ikD/ ;h. ;fsr[o{
ih wksk r[ioh ih ƒ n;hA xZN jh :kd eod/ jK. pZY [ hnK wksktK ƒ b'ehA
xZN jh :kd eod/ jB. w[es;o d/ PjhdK dh shih ;ajhdh ;skpdh Gh
;akfJd ed/ fJ; soQK jh wBkJh ikt/. gkfsPkj ih s[jkv/ wjK ;{opho gZs [ oK
ƒ pj[s sVckfJnk frnk, pV/ y"cBke s;hj/ fdZs/ rJ/. ezXK ftZu fuD/ rJ/,
s/;h eoBh dhnK ;ZNK wkohnK rJhnK. p'fonK ftZu pzd eoe/ wkfonk
frnk, x;hfNnk frnk. G[y Z / oZy,/ fgnk;/ oZy,/ ;odh ftZu mko/ rJ/. nzs
iakbw S[ok b? Sksh s/ uVQ p?m. / e'j e'j e/ wkfonk frnkHHHH. XzB ;B s[jkv/
;ki/ bk;kBh g[s Z o, o'J/ BjhA, ;h BjhA ehsh, nZyK ftZuA' jzM{ BjhA e/fonk.
wksk r[ioh ih B/ ngDk coi f;defdbh Bkb g{ok ehsk. ftobkg BjhA
ehsk, P[eokB/ ftZu i[V rJ/HHHH. T[j Gh ;[oyo{ j'e/ “i'sh i'fs” fwb rJ/.
f;Zy nytkT[D tkfbnK dhnK wzd eos{sK, fJB;kBhns s'A fro/ j'J/ ezw
t/ye/, j[D fJj ;{ow/ Io{o o' oj/ j'Dr/. T[jBK d/ B/soK ftZuA' jzM{ brksko tfj
oj/ j'Dr/. fsBQK dh o{j p/uB ? j' ftbe ojh j'tr / h. wksk ih d/ nEo{ pzd j'D
dk BK BjhA b?Ad/ j'Dr/HHHH.
;fsr[o{ ih rzr{ B/ pj[s tZvk pZio gkg ehsk p/df' ;anK ƒ frqcsko
eotkfJnk. ;[u Z k Bzd B/ j'o pbdh T[go s/b gkfJnk, ;kfi;h uZe [ Dk d/d/
e/. nfij/ fGnkBe ;w/A ftZu Gh w'sh wfjok ;/tk ftZu jkIo ;h. fJZe y[dk
gq;s w[;bwkB w[jw z d P/o ykB (wb/oe'Nbk) ;Zu dh nktkI p[bd z eo fojk
;h. GkJh N'vo wZb tork ;/te nkgDk ;G e[M Z t/u e/ ;;eko bJh EK yqhd

(13)
fojk ;hHHHH. nZi sK fJZE/ ;[ukBzd s/ rzrn{ K dhnK j/VK jbehnK j'JhnK
epIk eoh p?mhnK jB. tIho ykB dh gkgh o{j brd? f;Zy ;aeb tkb/ bhvoK
ftZu w[V gqrN j' rJh j?. i' s[jkv/ pZfunK, ;kfjpIkfdnK ƒ e'j e'j e/
wkfonk ik fojk j?. fgsk ;fsr[o{ ih s[;hA fe;/ f;Zy ƒ EkgVk d/ e/, ;{M
f;nkDg s/ Pesh pyPe/, T[; ftZu pzdk f;zx pjkdo dh o{j gqtP / eotke/
fJjBK gzE d'yhnK ƒ f;ZX/ okj gkT[D bJh xZb. ' fJT[ fJjBK B/ BjhA ;[XoBk,
S/sh pj[Vh eo'.** vzvk gho j? ftrfVnk fsrfVnK dk.
xN xN dh ikBD tkb/ ;fsr[o{ ih` s[;hA u"E/ ikw/ ftZu “uZe
okwdk;” t;kT[D dh P[on { ks ehsh ;h. f;ZyK ƒ d[ekB, tgko, nkfd dh
f;Zfynk d/D bJh. s[jkvh w/jopkB nrtkJh ftZu uZe okwdk; s/ih Bkb
T[Gfonk, bkj"o ƒ fgSKj SZv frnk f;Zy Xow s/ f;Zy oki;h skes dk e/Ado
pD frnk. fJ; n;EkB B/ pV/ wko{ jZb/ nkgD/ fgzv/ s/ jzYkJ/. fJ; x[r Z
t;d/ Pfjo dh P[on { ksh :kd ƒ ;wofgs uko ;" ;kbK ;askpdh ;zB 1977
ftZu wBkJh rJh. gzikp ftZu s/o/ nytkT[D tkb/ f;ZyK (nekbhnK) dh
;oeko ;h. Gkos ;oeko ftZu nekbhnK dh GothA ;awb { hns ;h. g{oh
PkB' P"es Bkb fJBQK iPBK dh fsnkoh ehsh rJh. ;ko/ nzfwqs ;o Pfjo
ƒ y{p ;ikfJnk frnk. ;w[u Z h gzikp ;oeko gZpK Gko ;h. Gkos dk
okPNogsh Bhbw ;zihtk o?vh ih g[i Z rJ/. goXkB wzsoh w'okoih v/;kJh,
;w/s nkgD/ wzsohnK d/ nkD Y[fZ enk. d[BhnK ns/ d/P d/ gZsoeko nypkoK
ƒ ypoK d/D bJh ekjb/. d/P Go ftZuA' fjzd{ w[;bwkB s/ f;Zy okrhnK ƒ
fBoXkos okrK ftZu Ppd rkT[D ;Zfdnk frnk. ;fsr[o{ ih` okr ftZfdnk
ftZu sK fjzd{ w[;bwkB ehosBhJ/ ;ko/ ;BwkB b? rJ/. f;Zy e/tb tki/
tikT[Ad/ jB, okr ftZfdnk s'A bZrGZr ;ZyD/ jh jB.
j'o sK ;kohnK ekotkJhnK otkfJsh jh ;B. fJZe rZbA' fJZe
ftnesh nkgD/ g{o/ ikj' ibkb ftZu ;h. T[;ƒ fJzBk ukn ufVQnk j'fJnk
;h wkB' nZi jh ;koh fIzdrh dk fBu'V Gkos ;oeko d/ ;BwZy [ oZy d/Dk j?.
;N/i ;?eNoh pbtzs f;zx B/ iZe' seh wro'A Bkw p'fbnk. “j[D s[jkv/ ;Bw[y Z
f;odko eg{o f;zx ih, B?;aBb gqc ' ;? o nkc f;ZyfJiaw ftZuko oZyD bJh

(14)
;N/i s/ nk oj/ jB.” ;qHih B/ nkgDk b?euo fJzrfb;a ftZu d/Dk P[o{ ehsk.
i' e[MZ fJ; soQk d/ Gkt tkbk ;h^ gqXkB wzsoh ih, ns/ Gkos ;oeko tZbA'
gXko/ ;ko/ ;fseko :'r ;ZiB'` w?A s[jkƒ e'Jh otkfJsh T[gd/P d/D BjhA
nkfJnk. Bk jh w?A fJZEA' p'be/ c'Nn
' K fyutkD dh fJZSk oZydk jK. s[;hA ;ko/
Gh fJsB/ nDikD BjhA j' fe fJ; ;w/A s[jkƒ e[M Z f;ykfJnk ikt/. w/ok fJj
b?euo fJzrfb;a ftZu fJ;/ bJh p'fbnk ik fojk j? sK fe Gkos ;oeko d/
fIzwt/ ko ftnesh ns/ d[BhnK Go d/ gZsoeko fJ; ƒ ;"fynK ;wM ;eD.
w?A nZi ;z;ko d/ fJB;kc g;zd ns/ wBZy [ sk tZbA' ehs/ T[gekoK dh ehws
;wMD tkb/, ;ko/ B/e fJB;kBK ƒ w[V :kd eokT[Dk ukj[d z k jK fe f;Zy e'Jh
ftP/P fonkfJs BjhA ukj[d z .
/ fe;/ dk jZe y'jDk Gh BjhA ukj[d z .
/ f;ZyK d/
r[on{ K B/ wBZy
[ sk ƒ eoKshekoh ;'u fdZsh. dZp/ e[ub/ b'eK d/ jZe ftZu uNkB
tKr yV/ j' rJ/. g?oK j/m fbskV/ b'eK ƒ ;t?wkD Bkb fiT[D dh fjzws py;ah.
G{so/ j'J/ iakbw jkewK ƒ bzwh izr bVe/, ngDk ;G e[M Z tkoe/ fNekD/ f;o
fbnKdk. fJ; d/P dh fJZIs gZs dh okyh ehsh. T[Fi Z V u[fZ enK Bz{ w[V s'A
t;D i'rk ehsk. ob fwbe/ ofjD pfjD dh iku dZ;h. fwZNh ftZu fwbkJhnK
ik ojhnK fjzd{ oj[ ohsK dh y{B pjke/ okyh ehsh. ;sb[i s'A gZSw tb dk
;kok gzikp ;dk tk;s/ ncrkfB;skB dk fjZ;k pDk fdZsk frnk ;h. fJj
bZyK tor whb dh ioy/i iawhB ekpb Bkb'A s'V e/ Gkos Bkb i'Vh, Gkt/A fJ;
dh fezBh tZvh ehws skoBh gJh. d[BhnK ftZu fJzBk ehwsh s'jck nZi sZe
fe;/ B/ d{i/ ƒ BjhA fdZsk.
r'fonK s'A d/P ƒ nkIkd eokT[D tk;s/ f;ZyK B/ 80 gqshPs s'A tZX
e[opkBhnK ehshnK. w/o/ GoktK B/ c"i ftZu Gosh j'e/ jo izr ftZu w'joh
j' d/P dh okyh ehsh. id'A Gkostk;h nzB d/ fJZe fJZe dkD/ bJh ftbe fojk
;h, s/ Gkos dk Bk nfjb wzsoh pd/;K ftZuA' e/tb Ghy wzr e/ vzr NgkT[D
dh nfjwekBk e'fPP eo oj/ ;B. T[; tes gzikp d/ fwjBsh fe;kBk B/
fdB oks fJZe eoe/ pVh ;wMdkoh Bkb ezw ehsk. fJjBK nzB d/ Gzvko Go
fds/, oZyD bJh EK Bk ojh. w/ok f;Zy Gok fiZE/ Gh yVk ehsk frnk, T[;B/
g{oh tckdkoh Bkb nkgDh fvT{Nh fBGkJh. go d{i/ pzB/ p/JhwkBh ns/ gkg

(15)
eow dh uow ;hwk d/y. ' gzikp d/ *47 ftZu d' N[eV/ j'J./ f;Zy bZyK s'A eZyK
d/ j' rJ/, T[jBK ƒ :'r w[nktik BK fdZsk frnk. pdBhsh Bkb gzikph p'bd/
fJbke/ fjwkub s/ jfonkD/ ƒ fdZs/ rJ/. gzikph p'bh dk rbk x[fZ Nnk
frnk. gzikp dh okiXkBh uzvhrVQ y'j bJh rJh. gzikp d/ gkDhnK ƒ d'tA/
jZEh bZf[ Nnk frnk. c;bK dk g{ok w[b Z Bk fdZsk frnk gzikp ƒ tZv/ ekoykB/
Bk fdZs/ rJ/. f;Zy B"itkBK ƒ c"i ftZu Gosh eoB s/ eN"sh bk fdZsh rJh.
gkfe;skB Bkb j'JhnK izrK ftZu ;G s'A tZX ikBh wkbh B[e;kB gzikp dk
j[d
z k j?, go T[;dh g{osh edh BjhA ehsh rJh. gzikp ftZu uZb ojhnK
;zftXkBe ;oekoK ƒ ;ko/ fB:wK ekƒBK dh x'o T[bx z Dk eoe/ pko pko
s'fVnk frnk. id'A ;qhwsh rKXh B/ (i{B 1975) ;ko/ ekƒB wB;{y eo fdZs,/
d/P ftZu nzdo{Bh n?woiz;h bk fdZsh. ;ko/ d/P d/ ;oeko fto'Xh B/sk i/jbK
ftZu vZe fdZs/ rJ/. T[; tes ;kok d/P w[ofdnK tKr nfjZb j' frnk ;h.
gzikp d/ f;Zy thoK (nekbhnK) B/ fJ; I[bw d/ fto[X Z vN ikD dk c?;bk
ehsk. izsk gkoNh ftZu wjZstg{oB nj[fdnK s/ fpokiwkB f;o eZYt/A nkr{,
i' s[;hA w/o/ ;kjwD/ p?m/ j', ;ko/ jh ekb e'mVhnK ftZu vZe/ j'J/ ;h. s[;hA s/
s[jkv/ gkoNh toeoK B/ ;oekoh ipo nZr/ r'v/ N/e fdZs/ ;B. f;ZyK B/ nekb
g[oy dk nk;ok b? e/, n?woiz;h ftoZX [ Ipod;s o'; gorN eofdnK
frqcskohnK d/D dk okj nyfsnko ehsk. ;qhwsh rKXh B/ nekbhnk Bkb
e[MZ b? d/ e/ eJh tko ;wM"s/ eoB dh g/PeP ehsh. nekbh w[yhnK s[jkvk
;kE fdZsk fJzdok dk BjhA.
nZi w[V w?A s[jkƒ T[j tknd/ :kd eotkT[D bZfrnk jK, i' s[jkv/
tv/fonK B/ ;kv/ g[ofynK Bkb gqwkswk ƒ jkiao Bkiao ikD e/ e;wK yk e/
fBGkD d/ gqD ehs/ ;B, go g{o/ BjhA ehs/ rJ/ ;B. f;Zy gzE Ghy wzrD dk,
r?os jhD fiad z rh fiT[D dk nkdh BjhA j?. s[;hA nZi ;woEktkB j', s[jkv/
e'b oki;h skes j?. f;ZyK ƒ ft;atk; ftZu b?D bJh, fJjBK d/ d[yh
fjofdnK ƒ PKs eoB bJh, x'o p/fJB;kch dk ykswk eoB bJh, ehs/ rJ/
T[gekoK dk foD u[ekT[D bJh nZi j[D/ fJ;/ tes e'Jh m'; s/ ;fsekos
n?bkB eo'. fJZE/ s[;hA e/tb ;oekoh i;aB wBkT[D BjhA nkJ/. f;Zy gzE dk
yZb
[ /Q wB Bkb XzBtkd eoB nkJ/ j'. dZ;' eh n?bkB eoe/ P[eohnk ndk eo'r/
<”HHH;kfonK dk XzBtkd. f;odko eg{o f;zx dh dZrdZr eod/ fujo/ s/ wkD
(16)
Go/ nzdkia ftZu gzEe J/iv z k ;z;ko ;BwZy
[ oZye/ nkgDh EK ik fpoki/.
;fsr[o{ fgsk ih eh d;K < dZ;fdnK G[p Z K fBebdhnK jB` s[jkv/
fJZe d' g[s
Z o nytkD tkb/ f;Zy, fi; ftZu ;akfJd fgoEh uzd, ;[uk Bzd iK
rzr{ dh o{j gqtP/ eo uZe
[ h ;h. fJ; dk Bkw ;h pbtzs f;zx (yiakBk wzsoh)
i' ;N/i ;eZso ;h. fJ; B/ wkJhe jZE ftZu b? e/ pVh p/j:kJh Bkb fjwkbk
gops fiZvk fxoDs gkg eofdnK nky fdZsk^ “fJj Gk;aD i' s[;hA j[D/
;[fDnk j?, fJ;dk nekbh db Bkb e'Jh ;pzX BjhA j?. fJj fJjBK d/ fBih
ftuko ns/ fBZih frb/ f;aet/ jB. n;hA fpBK e'Jh nfj;kB iskJ/ izsk
gkoNh iK Gkos ;oeko ƒ fJ;/ soQK ;fj:'r fdzd/ ojKr/.” f;odko ih d/
p[b
Z coe/, fujo/ dk ozr ghbk g? frnk, nZyK ftZuA' fuzfrnkV/ fBebd/ gqshs
j'J./ o'; gqrN eofdnK T[m e/ pkjo ub/ ikD bJh yVQ/ j'J,/ ;oho ezpD
bZfrnk XVzw eoe/ fvZr gJ/. ;jkok d/ e/ e[o;h s/ fpmkfJnk. gkDh w{j z ƒ
bkfJnk, iaok mhe j'D s/, pbtzs f;zx ƒ bkjDsK gkT[Ad/ pkjo ub/ rJ/.
fgsk ih s[jkv/ nekbh g[s Z oK dh iapkB ƒ Gh skb/ bZr/ oj/. pbtzs f;zx T[;/
soQk wzsoh pDdk fojk, eg{o f;zx T[;/ soQk ftbedk fojk. bhvo b'e gzE
dk wk; B'ud/ oj/. Gkos ;oeko d/ fjzd{ bhvo fJj swk;ak t/ye/ w[;aeVhJ/
j;d/, fpBK e[M Z fdZfsnK tkg; gos rJ/.
;fsr[o{ ih w[nkc eoBk` w?A e[M Z fInkdk jh Gkt[e j' frnk ;h.
s[;hA sK ikDh ikD j'. feogk eoe/ ;kƒ e[M Z ;[ws Z fdU sKfe s[jkvhnK
;askpdhnK wBkT[D dh ;kƒ ;'Mh nk ikt/. BjhA sK j[D sZe ektK o"bh jh
g?Adh ojh j?.
;fseosko pkpk ih` g?ohA gtDk gotkB eoBk ih.
s[jkvk fJZe wkw{bh fijk ;/te HHHHH
gzEe p/Vk roe eoB bJh eh fJj e[M
Z ekcah BjhA j?.
[[[[

(17)
Bkw f;woD - fJZe ihtB iKu
id'A Gh r[opkDh dk gkm eohJ/$;[DhJ/, sK fJZe “Ppd” pko pko
d[jokfJnk frnk ;kjwD/ nkT[Adk j?. e'Jh pkDh e'Jh gzBk gVQ t/yhJ/ sK
fco T[jh d[jok ^“Bkw f;woD”. fJj Bkw ns/ f;woD id'A fe;/ ;kX
e'b'A g[ZShJ/ sK T[j r[opkDh ftZu'A e'Jh gzesh iK g{ok Ppd oND bJh d/
fdzdk j?. nky/rk fe fJ; dk gVQh ikDk jh “f;woD iK Bkw j?”. e[ZM fJZe
iE/pzdhnK B/ “Bkw f;woD” dhnK ftXhnK, tes, ;EkB ns/ fJ; s'A j'D
tkbhnK gqkgshnK dZ;D bJh d[ekBdkohnK Gh ubk bJhnK jB. fJ;
uZeoftT{ ftZu c;D tkb/, ;dk jh c;D bJh fsnko po fsnko j[zd/ jB.
eJh ;ko/ b'e s/ iE/pzdhnK “;op o'r ek nT[yd[ Bkw[” (;[ywBh^9^5)
tkbh fJZe gzesh d/ wBwoIh tkb/ noE eZYe/ o'rhnK dk “wkBf;e
fJbki” eoB torh Gkoh ntZfrnk eo oj/ jB. i/ e'Jh fJj dkjtk eo/
fe d/y' ih, fezB/ ;ko/ ftneshnK dk “o'r” jN frnk j?. nfij/ ewI'o
wB tkb/ b'eK dk “pDktNh” o'r ;[nkj dh u[Neh b?e/ Gh jN iKdk j?. Xkrk
sths b? e/ Gh, jE"bk eotk e/ Gh, wVQhnK epoK s/ BZe orV e/ Gh “o'r
w[es” j' iKd/ jB. nfij/ ewi'ao b'e jh G{sK gq/sK dk fPeko j' iKd/ jB,
fco gkyzvh v/o/dkoK e'b'A G{s eYtkT[AfdnK Gkoh nkofEe s/ ;ohoe ;'PD
eotkT[Ad/ jB. fJjBK G'b/ gzShnK (nfrnkBh ;oXkb{nK) ƒ ckj[D bJh EK
Ek fPekoh ikb ftSkJh p?m/ jB.
r[opkDh B/ vze/ dh u'N Bkb fJ; gkyzv ikb ƒ g{oB s"o s/ oZd
ehsk j?. i/ e[ZM fJZe gzrshnK oND eoB Bkb, ;ko/ ekoi ok; nkT[Ad/
j'D, sK fe;/ ƒ fwjBs eoB dh T[FZek jh Io{os BjhA j?. tZv/ tZv/ y'i
e/Ado, j;gskb, w?vheb ekbi, dtkJhnK, wfjzr/ fJbki s/ fco Gh
nBzs w"sK < i/ Bkw f;woB (wzsoikg) Bkb ;ko/ o'r eZN/ ik ;ed/, fco
sK fJj ezw pj[s ;[ykbk ;h. “fjzr bZr/ Bk cNeVh ozr Gh u'yk.” d; r[o{
;fjpkB ;oho eoe/ ;kE'A ftdk j' rJ/. r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp e/tb 48 e[ ;kb
(18)
ftZu. u"E/ gkfs;akj 47 ;kb dh T[wo ftZu. S/t/A BkBe 48 ;kb, ;st/A
gkfsPkj fJZeZsh ;kb, s/ nZmt/A BkBe f;oc ;kY/ e[ nZm ;kb d/ ;B id'A
i'sh i's ;wk rJ/. T[j pj[s neb tkb/ ;B, pV/ jh goT[gekoh ;B.
;ohoe ikw/ ftZu j'o bzwk ;wK ihts ofj e/ wB[Zy wkso dh pj[gZyh
efbnkD eo ;ed/ ;B. fi; wzso$Ppd ƒ ftP/P ftXhnK Bkb, r[gs
sohe/ ukj/ T[uh T[uh ofNnk ik fojk j?. nk; ehsh ik ojh j? fe fJ;
soQK ;ko/ o'r Bftos j' ikDr/. d[Bhnk Go dhnK y[PhnK nk ikDrhnK.
fiBQK r[o{ ;fjpkBK B/ pkDh dh ouBk ehsh, “BkBe o{g” j' e/ ftuo/, T[jBK
d[ZyK dh Bftosh bJh nfijk e'Jh ubhjk eZFfNnk j't/, wkbktK x[wkJhnK
j'D, T[wo bzwh eoB tk;s/ sob/ eZY/ j'D. fJ; soQk dk e'Jh fposKs
fJfsjk; ftZu BjhA fwbdk. fco nZi d/ f;Zy fJB/ Bk;wM fet/A pD rJ/,
fe wzso ikgK ƒ, u"AeV/ wko e/, d' uko xzN/ p?mD ƒ, f;woB wzBh p?m/ jB
< “;op o'r ek nT[y[d Bkw[” gqukoB tkb/, Iok e[ f;o ghV j'D s/, uzr/
vkeNoK s/ tZv/ j;gskbK tZb ƒ d"Vd/ gb Go d/o BjhA bkT[Ad/. tZv/ tZv/
“Bkwh ;zs” nkw wohiK tKr wjhfBnK pZXh, j;gskbK ftZu nZvhnK
orVd/ y[d t/y/ jB. fGzvoK Ne;kb tkfbnK dk fJZe w[yh (frL r[opuB
f;zx) s/oK ;kb sZe, ePN G'rdk fojk ;h (jtkbk^yzv/Xko, 8^03) ;[nkj
dh u[Neh (g[Vh) Bkb ;ko/ o'r Bftos eoB d/ dkjt/dko, ;[nkj ftZu
dtkJh gh; e/ fwbk oZyd/ jB. Bk;wM PoXkb{ ;wM b?Ad/ jB fe pkp/ dh
;[nkj jh eokwksh j?.
r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih ;'ofm okr d/ fJZe Ppd ftZu, fJZe' EK ;ko/
gkyzv eow d/ pyhJ/ T[X/V e/ oZy fdzd/ jB. gkm ikg, i'r nk;D, w'B,
eZgVk GKvk fsnkr d/Dk, T[wo Go xz[wd/ ofjDk, nkfd nB/e e{V ekoi,
fe;/ b/y/ ftZu BjhA jB. ;fsr[o{ e/Adoh ftuko (ojkT[ tkbk pzd) fJj
pyf;a;a eod/ jBl j/ gqG{` w?ƒ T[Zuh wZs d/thA, w?A ;ko/ nk;o/ SZv e/ e/tb
s/oh PoB sZeh j?. tke jB ^
fgnko/ fJB fpfX fwbD[ B ikJh, w? ehJ/ eow nB/ek]
jkfo gfoU ;[nkwh e? d[nko?, dhi? p[fX fpp/ek] ojkT[] (641)

(19)
gkm gfVU no[ p/d[ phukfoU fBtfb G[nzrw ;kX/]
gzu iBk f;T[;zr[ S[NfeU nfXe njzp[fX pkX/]
fgnko/ fJB fpfX fwbD[ B ikJh w? ehJ/ eow nB/ek]
jkfo gfoU ;[nkwh e? d[nko? dhi? p[fX fpp/ek]ojkT[]
w'fB GfJU eogksh ofjU BrB fcfoU pB wkjh]
sN shoE ;G Xosh GqfwU d[fpXk S[Ne? Bkjh]
wB ekwBk shoE ikfJ pf;U f;fo eots XokJ/]
wB eh w?b B T[vo? fJj fpfX i/ by isB eokJ/]
efBe ekfwBh j?to r?to pj[ fpfX dkB[ dkskok]
g{ik nouk pzd B vzvkT[s yN[ eowk ov[ ojsk]
jT[ jT[ eos pzXB wfj gfonk Bj fwbhn? fJj i[rsk]HHHH(641)
^ rktfB s[XB' gT[D[ gkDh p?;zso[ rkt? okik Xow[ d[nko/] (ig[)
r[odtkfonK ftZu eJh jiako gkm jo o'I P[o{ j[zd/ jB, eJh jIko
gkmK d/ fBs G'r g?Ad/ jB. nyzv gkm, ;fji gkm, ;zgN gkm, nsh ;zgN
gkm, w'B gkm, ;[ywBh gkm, nkg' nkgDk fBsB/w gkm, Bro ehosB, s/
ehosB dopko. fJzB/ ;ko/ gkm fBozso j'D d/ pkti{d Gh d[Bhnk ftZu ebj
eb/; BjhA fwN/. ;z;ko dh rZb Bk ;jh f;ZyK d/ dZ[yK dh Bftosh sK MZNgZN
j' ikDh ukjhdh ;h. ;d nc;';, f;Zy ;wki Gh gq/PkBhnK ftZu ftbe
fojk j?. n;b rZb ;h e[dos d/ ekBz{B ƒ ;wMD dh. ftekoK ns/
tk;aBktK s/ ekp{ gk e/, ;ziw tkbk B/e ihtB pshs eoB dh. go nfijk
BjhA j'fJnk, ;r'A ny"sh Xkowe nkr{, G'bh b[ekJh ƒ e[okj/ Gh gk oj/ jB
s/ d't/A jZEhA b[ZN Gh oj/ jB.
gzikp ftZu “okXk ;[nkwh” v/ok (fpnk;) fgSb/ ;tk e[ ;" ;kb s'A
“Bkw dkB” nkbsh gkbsh nk;D nkfd eotkT[Adk nk fojk j?. fJjBK
ftZu'A o[Z; e/ frnk “Pkj w;skBk, f;o;/ fty/ v/ok “;Zuk ;"dk” tZyok
pDkT[D ftZu ekw:kp j' frnk. fit/A fe v/o/dko ;kXK dh yk;hns jh j?,
;oeko Bkb fwbe/ uZbDk, b'eK ftZu'A wodkT[g[Dk (eoKshekoh sZs) ysw
eoBk. I[bw ftoZ[X TFZ[uk ;kj sZe Bk b?Dk, ;t?wkD fwZNh ftZu fwbk e/ “pzd/

(20)
dk pzdk” pDk e/, g?o g{itkT[D/ s/ i{m sZe ytkT[Dh. ew neb s/ p/r?os
pD uZ[e/ b'eK ƒ ;oeko Gh s/ v/o/dko Gh, obe/ b[ZNd/ jB. fJj fgSbZr
pD u[Ze/ b'e f;o ;[ZNe/ fiT[D d/ nkdh pD iKd/ jB. nkgD/ ;/teK d/ d[ZyK
dh Bftosh tk;s/ okXk ;[nkwh pkp/ wzso dh pyfPP eod/ jB. nZr'A Pos
fJj bkT[Ad/ jB gJh fJj wzso fe;/ ƒ dZ;Dk BjhA j?. ;t/o/ Pkw w{zj f;o
eZgV/ ftZu tb/N e/ fJ; “Bkw” dk ikg eoBk j?. ;ko/ ;z;koh ;[y fwbDr/
s/ “okXk ;[nkwh Xkw” ftZu fBtk; fwb/rk. fJjBK dk wzso fJj j? ^
i's fBoziB, T[Aeko, oozeko, ;'jz, ;fsBkw.
j[D brd/ jZE fJjBK d/ jh fJZe Bkoki XV/ tZb'A pyf;ank ik fojk
wzso Gh gVQ bU. fJj j? ;Zu/ ;"d/ tkb/ v/o/dkoK tZb'A fsnko, fdZsk ik fojk
“Bkw” ^
“;fs g[oy, fBozeko, nekb w{os, npBk;h, Ppd ;o{gh okw.”
fJjBK v/fonK B/ ;oekoh ;ogo;sh ftZu ofj e/, pVh skes pDk
bJh j?. e/tb t'N p?Ae okjhA fJj ;oeko s'A eJh fonkfJsK gqkgs eo b?Ad/
jB. T[j fonkfJsK nkw b'eK tk;s/ BjhA j[d z hnK, e[M
Z yk; u'Dt/A “wjKg[oyK”
bJh j[zdhnK jB. ;oekoh i[bw d/ fybkc fJjBK B/ edh iapkB BjhA
y'jbh. d[Bhnk ftZu Gkt/A gob' nk ikt/ fJjBK nkgD/ ;/teK ƒ “Bkw
f;woB” eotkT[Dk j?. ipo d/ fto[ZX nktkI p[bzd BjhA eoBh. fJj
f;oc “gob'e ;ztkoB dh wjkB ;/tk” eod/ jB. fJ; b'e dh rZb G[Zb
ikT[. G[Zy woh nDgVQsk, nzXftPtk;h, fpwkohnK, foPtsy'oh nkfd
torhnK nDfrDs nbkwsK, fJjBK ƒ ed/ BIo BjhA nkT[DrhnK. t?;/
jiakoK ;kb s'A jh “ozr pozr/” ;kX ;zs, Gkos dh izsk iBkoB ƒ, wzso
ikg dh n";aXh y[nkT[Ad/ nk oj/ jB. fJjBK dh ngko feogk ;dek jIkoK
;kb sZe, oki;h r[bkwh b'eK B/ G'rh s/ wkBf;e r[bkwh sK nZi Gh G[rs
oj/ jB. f;Zy ;kXK s'A b? e/ fjzd{ ;kXK sZe, fJjBK dh fcsos brGr fJZe'
fijh j?^ nkgD/ jh b'eK ƒ u{zv u{zv ykDk.
Xow gouko tZb'A f;yK dhnK e/Adoh iE/pzdhnK (Pq'wDh ew/Nh s/
fdZbh ew/Nh) f;Zy gzE Bkb Xo'j ewk ojhnK jB. Xow gouko dh

(21)
fizw/tkoh s'A g{oh soQK w{zj w'V e/,okiBhsh dh rzdh ykJh ftZu roe u[ZehnK
jB. uVQs dk g?;k wBwkB/ Yzr Bkb o'jV ojhnK jB. pkeh r[odtkok
ew/NhnK B/ Gh nkgD/ coI dh gSkD Bk ehsh. fJ;/ pZio bkgqtkjh ekoB,
EK EK gkyzvh ;kX y[{zpK tKr T[Zr gJ/ jB. bzw/ ;w/A s'A f;ZyK ftZu nkgDk
n;o o;{y pDk uZ[fenk fJZe v/ok (wfjs/ u"e tkb/^Ne;kbhJ/) ns/ T[jBK
dk j' u[Zfenk fJZe w[yh frL r[opuB f;zx, nkgDh fbyh feskp “r[opkDh
gkm doPB” ftZu wzso pko/ gzBk 230 s/ fbydk j? ^ ;zs o/D Bkwh ;kX B/
r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih s'A g[ZfSnk fe “s[jkvk w{b wzso fejVk j? < r[o wzso
eh j? < s/ wkbk wzso fejVk j? <” T[jBK B/ fco ;zs o/D ƒ dZf;nk ^ “;kvk
r[o wzso tkfjr[o{ j?, w{b wzso >HHHHH j? s/ wkbk wzso ig[ih ;kfjp j?.
eosk g[oy ih B/ t, j, r, o dk B"A B"A i[Zr ikg ehsk. fco fJj tkfjr[o{
wzso pfDnkHHHH”. :kd oj/ uko/ i[ZrK dh T[wo 43 bZy ;kb s'A tZX pDdh
j?. fco B"A B"A i[r
Z K dh j'o iop eo t/y. ' fJj jB f;o/ dhnK rZgK i' ny"sh
;zs, b'eK nzdo XZe oj/ jB. r[opkDh i[ZrK ƒ ftPƒ nkfd s/ d/thnK ƒ
wkBsk BjhA fdzdh Bk jh fJjBK d/thnK d/tfsnK B/ wB[Zysk dk e'Jh gk;k
EzfwQnk j?. ;r'A fJj ;ko/ sK jB jh ebfgs.
nkT[ j[D r[opkDh d/ gowkD gVQhJ/, ftukohJ/ fe “w{b wzso, r[o
wzso, wkbk wzso” f;ZyK tk;s/ e'Jh j? Gh fe n?t/A wBxVQs ;a';a/ jh SZv/ ik
oj/ jB. i/ GkJh r[odk; ih ƒ g[S Z hJ/ fe dZ;' ih w{b wzso fejVk j? < sK
T[j g{ok BjhA fbyd/ nX nX{ok fbyd/ jB. gV'^
“;fsBkw eosk g[oy w{b wzso f;woD gotkD']” (tko^6)
“tkfjr[o{ r[o wzsq j? ikfg jT[w? y'Jh” Gh efjzd/ jB. Bkb jh
“;fsBkw[ gfV wzsq ;[DkfJnk” Gh fby rJ/ jB. nr'A j'o t/y'^ fXqr ihjtk
r[o ;apd ftD[ j'o wzso[ f;woDh (27^10) j'o fby oj/ jB^
e[opkDh fsBk r[of;yk j'fJ fJZe wB r[o ikg igzd/]
e[opkDh fsBk r[o f;yk r[opkDh fBs rkfJ ;[Dzd/] (2^32)
;w[Zuh r[opkDh dh T[usk pko/ jh GkJh r[odk; ih B/ fbfynk j?,
Bk fe;/ fJZe ;apd s/ wzso pko/. j'o t/y'^

(22)
r[ow[fy gzE fBo'b B o'bD o'bhn?]
r[ow[y ;pd nb'b[ gh nzfwqs x'bhn?. (19^20)
j'o
wzsq w{b[ r[o[ tke j? ;u[ ;pd[ ;fsr[o{ ;[DkJ/] 22$40 Gkr[L
nkT[ j[D r[opkDh ftZuA' wzso ikg iK f;woD pko/ gZS [ hJ/. ;fsr[o{
ih iku dZ; oj/ jB ^
1H ;qtDh ;[Dhn?, o;Bk rkJhn?, fjod? fXnkJhn? ;'Jh]
eoD ekoD ;woE ;[nkwh iks/ fpqEk Bk e'Jh] (611)
ezBK Bkb T[gd/P ;[D', I[pkB d[nkok T[gd/P ƒ fdqV eo', fjod/
ftZu'A ;Zu d/ T[gd/P ƒ edh G[bkU Bk. f;oc T[; eoD ekoD ;woE gqG{
ƒ fjod/ ftZu t;kT[.
2H r[o e/ uoD wB wkfj t;kfJ] d[y[ nB/ok nzdoj[ ikfJ] (1334)
fJ; gzesh ftZu r[o{ d/ uoD wB ftZu p;kT[D dk j[ew j?. go d;K
gkfs;akjhnK d/ ;oho eoe/ sK nZi e'Jh uoD BjhA jB. fBozeko gqwkswk
Gh ;oho ofjs j? T[;d/ uoD j'D dk ;tkb jh BjhA j?. fco uoD eh jB
< ji{o fJj “uoD r[o T[gd/;” jB.
3H iB e/ uoB p;fj w/o? jhno? ;zfr g[Bhsk d/jh] ( )
fJ; gqwkD ftZu Gh oZp ih d/ uoB fjod/ ftZu tZ;D dh rZb nkyh
rJh j?, wsbp T[gd/P.
4H d[y GziB[ s/ok Bkw[ ih d[y GziB[ s/ok Bkw[]
nkm gjo nkokXhn? g{oB ;fsr[o{ frnkB[] (218)
j/ oZp ih` ;ko/ wkBf;e o'rK ƒ ysw eoB tkbk s/ok frnkB j?.
nZm/ gjo s/ok ft;akb fBnw (frnkB) ;wMe/, ;[yh ihtB pshs ehsk ik
;edk j?.
5H wjK wzs[q r[o fjod? pf;U nuoi Bkw ;[fBT[oh](384)
fJZE/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ r[o{ d/ T[gd/P ƒ jh “wjK wzso” eoe/ fpnkB
ehsk j?.
6H phi wzs[q jfo ehosB rkT[] nkr? fwbh fBEkt? EkT[] (391)

(23)
fJ; EK ;fsr[o{ ih B/ joh i; ƒ “phi wzso” nky e/ tfvnkfJnk
j?.
7H “phi wzs[q ;op e' frnkB[] uj[ toBk wfj ig? e'T{ Bkw[]
(;[ywBh^9^5)
fJ; gowkD ftZu ;kfjp ih B/ b'e gqb'e pko/ ;kok frnkB, oZp
pko/ s/ T[; dh ekfJBks pko/ ;kok frnkB jk;b eoB dh skehd ehsh j?.
8H r[o ek puB[ ifg wzs[] J/jk Grfs ;ko ss[](895)
n;bh Grsh fJjh j? fe ;fsr[o{ ih d/ j[ew ƒ ;theko eo',
ihtB ftZu Ykb'.
9H wB wfj ikfg Grtzs[] r[fo g{o/ fJj[ dhB' wzs[](396)
g{o/ ;fsr[o{ B/ fJj T[gd/P fdZsk j?, ;dk oZp ih ƒ u/s/ oZyDk j?.
10H r[o eh ;[ofs fBefN efo ikB[]
r[o ek ;pfd ;fs efo wkB[] (897)
nkgDh wZs ƒ r[ows nB[;koh pDkT[. r[o{ T[gd/P ƒ ;Zs puB wzB
e/ ;theko eo'.
11H r[o ek T[gd/P ;[Bhi?] BkBe ;[fy ;jfi ;whi?] (896)
j/ GkJh ;fsr[o{ ih dk T[gd/P ;[D' wzB', fJ; ƒ ;thekoB ftZu jh
;ko/ ;Z[y jB.
12H ;u fpB[ ;s[ ;zsy ' [ B gkt?] fpB[ r[o w[efs B nkt? ikt?]
w{b wzs[ q jfo Bkw[ o;kfJD[ ej[ BkBe g{ok gkfJnk] (1040)
;ZukJh d/ wkor s/ uZbDk, ;zs'yh pD/ ofjDk, fJjBK T[sw ftukoK
dk ;fsr[o{ s'A frnkB fwbdk j?. r[o{ s'A pr?o GNeDk ysw BjhA j't/rh.
yk; ihtB dksh ;zihtBh p{Nh gqG{ ih dh :kd ns/ r[D jB. id'A r[o{
do;kJ/ okj s/ wB[Zy uZb gt/rk, ;wM' w{b (w[ZY) Bkb i[V frnk.
13H wkJh uoB r[o whm/]
tv? Gkfr d/t? gow/;o[ e'fN cbk do;B r[o vhm/] (717)
j/ wK` ;fsr[o{ ih dh ;aoD ftZu ofj e/ ihtB pshs eoBk pj[s
uzrk brdk j?. fi;d/ tZv/ Gkr j'D T[jh wB[Zy, ;fsr[o{ d/ r[DK ƒ XkoB

(24)
eodk j?. eo'VK soK d/ j'o eowK s'A T[FZsw j? gqG{ ih dh :kd s/ ;fsr[o{
ih dk T[gd/P.
14H “r[o efjnk” ;k eko ewktj[]
;pd[ uhfB ;ji xfo nktj[] ;ku? BkfJ tvkJh gktj[] (832)
j/ r[of;Zy'` i' ;fsr[o{ c[owkB eodk j? T[;/ soQK ezw eo'. r[o{ d/
v{zx/ G/d tkb/ puB ƒ ;wM e/ fNekT[ ftZu nk ;e'r/. fJ; ;ZukJh tkb/
wkor s/ ubfdnK tfvnkJh gkT[r/.
15H g[B
z dkB ig sg i/s/ ;G T{gfo Bkw]
jfo jfo o;Bk i' ig? fs;[ g{oB ekw] (401)
e'Jh dkB g[zB eodk j?, e'Jh ftP/P wzso ikgdk j?, fJjBK ;ko/
ezwK s'A T[go, oZph :kd ftZu pshs ehsk, B/e ihtB j?. fJ; soQK d/
ftnesh B/ ihtB dh g{oBsk gqkgs eo bJh ;wM'.
16H “r[o T[gd/f;” ighn? wfB ;kuk]
“r[o T[gd/f;” okw ozfr okuk]
“r[o T[gd/f;” s[Nfj ;fG pzXB, fJj[ Gow[ w'j[ go ikbDk]
(1077)
j/ r[of;Zy'` ;fsr[o{ dh f;Zfynk w[skpe ;Zu/ oZp ih ƒ fjod/ ftZu
t;kT[. r[o{ dh f;Zfynk okjhA oZph ozr ftZu ozr/ oj'. r[o{ d/ T[gd/P Bkb
Gowk tkb/ ;ko/ pzXB N[ZN ikDr/.
17H p'fb jfo Bkw ;cb ;k xoh]
“r[oT[gd/f;” ;fG d[y gojoh] (1134)
nekbh fBnw ftZu i' ;wK pshs j'tr / k,T[jh ;cb wzfBnk ikt/rk.
fJj ;'Mh r[o{ s'A gqkgs j[zdh j?, r[o{ ftekoK s'A w[es eoB dk sohek dZ;dk
j?.
18H wB eh wfs fsnkrj[ jfo iB J/jk pks em?Bh]
nBfdB[ jfo jfo Bkw[ fXnktj[ r[o ;fsr[o eh wfs b?Bh]
(800)
j/ GkJh, nkgD/ wB dh S'Nh ws ƒ fsnkr fdU, fJj rZb pVh

(25)
n"yh bZr/rh. fBskgqsh gow/;ao ƒ :kd oZy', ;fsr[o{ dh py;ah wZs p[ZX
XkoB eo', fJjh n;b ihtB iku j?.
19H nT[yX wzsq szsq ;G Sko[] eoD?jko fod? wfj Xko[] (196)
efj epho ikek Bjh nzs] fs;e/ nkr/ szs[ B wzs] [ (971)
tkfjr[o{ ih ƒ ;dk fjod/ ftZu :kd oZy', j'o ;ko/ wzso szso T[jV
y'jV wkw{bh jB, e/tb ;[nkj dh fBnkJh` gow/;ao i' p/nzs r[DK poesK
dk wkbe j? T[; dh :kd jh n;bh wzso j?. j'o e'Jh wzso nkfd T[; s'A
T[FZsw BjhA j' ;ed/.
20H e[pf[ X fwN/ r[o ;pd[ phukfo] ;fsr[o G/N? w'y d[nko]
ss[ B uhb? wBw[y[ ifb ikfJ]
d[owfs ftS[fV u'Nk ykfJ] (944)
j/ fgnkfoU` r[o{ d/ Ppd (r[opkDh) ƒ ftuko^;wMe/ gVQ'. fJ;
soQK ;fsr[o{ ih dh nkyh rZb ;wM nk ikt/rh. wBwZ[y fJB;kB gs/ dh
rZb BjhA ;wMdk. fJ; soQK nzdo'A ;fVnk G[Zfink ofjzdk j?. G?Vh wZs
ekoB ;fsr[o{ s'A (ftukoK eoe/) d{oh pDh ofjzdh j?. fJ;/ ekoB ftS'V/ dk
d[Zy Gh ;fjzdk j?, ns/ ;z;ko ftZu Gh brksko m'eoK yKdk d[yh j[zdk j?.
nkyoh fBu'V^gkme iB'` s[;hA r[opkDh gowkDK ;fjs gVQ fbnk, r[opkDh
ftZu, “wzso, phi wzso, wjKwzso, w{b wzso” ;fsr[o{ d/ T[gd/P tk;s/
nkfJnk j?. r[ows ftZu fe;/ wzso ikg bJh e'Jh EK BjhA, Gkt/A T[j
r[opkDh ftZu'A jh fbnk j'fJnk j't/. fJZE/ sK ;fsr[o{ ih d/ j[ew ƒ ;wM
ftuko e/ T[; nB[;ko ihtB ubD pDkT[Dk j?.r[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ I[bw dk
ykswk wzsoK Bkb BjhA, f;nkDg ns/ fjzws Bkb ehsk ;h. f;ZyK B/
nDfrDs w[;hpsK fgzv/ s/ MZbhnK ;B. wzso ikgK Bkb, pkpo, ijKrho,
n"ozrI/p, Bkdo, nfjwd;akj, Ieohnk ykB nkfd BjhA wo/. wzso ikgK
ftZu gk e/ f;ZyK ƒ w{oy s/ p[Ifdb pDkfJnk ik fojk j?. v/fonK tkb/, f;Zy
gzE ƒ fJ; jB/oh yZv tZb Xed/ ub/ ik oj/ jB. fJ; d{b/ gzE ƒ fJZe
fBozeko d/ bV bkfJnk ;h ;fsr[o{ ih B/. nZi jo wZmkXkoh, v/o/dko s/
iE/dko y[d jh y[dk pD p?mk j?. gkmK ikgK dhnK nB/e ftXhnK gquZbs

(26)
eo fdZshnK jB. fJjBK wzsoK gkmK Bkb, ;ko/ ftrV/ ekoiK dh ;cbsk
dh rozNh t/uh ik ojh j?. “;zsK jZE ;fsr[o{ ukph ;"Ag rJ/ jB” goukfonk
ik fojk j? ^ “nBjd pkDh g{zih] ;zsB jfE okyh e{zih” (893) gzesh ;[Dk
e/ f;ZyK ƒ r[o{ Bkb'A ftS'V e/ eZu/ fgZb/ ftneshnK d/ ;/te pDkfJnk ik
fojk j?. id'A fe fJ; gzesh d/ noE fJT[A jB ^ e[dos dk nBjs (S'j
s'A fpBk ^oZph rhs) Bkd r[o{ dh gktB pkDh ftZu'A gqrN j' fojk j?. r[o{ d/
okjhA fJ;dh ;wM g?Adh j?.
fJZe j'o Ppd ftZu ;fsr[o{ fJ; r[zMb ƒ ;kc eod/ j'J/ fJ; soQK
;/X pyP oj/ jB F
r[o[ e[zih, gkj{ fBtb[, wB[ e'mk, sB Sfs]
BkBe r[o fpB[ wB ek ske[ B T[xV? nto B e[i z h jfE] (1237)
r[o{ dk frnkB ukph j?, g?oK ftZu ftekoK dhnK p/VhnK jB wB sB
ftekoK ftZu rq;/ j'J/ jB. j/ BkBe wB sB d/ pzd skb/ (fteko) e/tb r[o{
d/ frnkB okjhA yZ[bd/ jB. j'o e'Jh fJzBk ;woZE BjhA fe wB[Zysk ƒ ;jh
frnkB d/ ;e/.j'o t/y' ^
;fsr[o dksk Bkw ek j'o[ dksk e'Jh Bkjh] (1258)
nyho ftZu fJZe gqG{ Bkb B/Vsk pko/ fJZe r[opkDh T[gd/P fbye/
;wkgs eod/ jK ^
^ J/e' J/e ;G[ nkfy tykD?] j[ew[ ;{M? sK J/e' ikD?] (1176)
jfo fJZe', eosk fJZe[, fJZe' dhpkD[ jfo]
jfo fJZe;? dk j? nwo[, fJZe' jfo fufs Xfo]
fjo fs;[ fpB e'Jh BkfJ, vo[ Gqw[ GT[ d{fo efo]
jfo fs;? B' ;kbkfj, fi s[X[ oy/ pkjfo xfo]
jfo fi;B' j'fJ dfJnkb[ ;' jfo ikfg GT[ fpyw[ sfo (83)

gkmK wzsoK ikgK d/ r'oy Xzd/ ftZu p/nzs ;wK s/ nEkj XB popkd
j' uZf[ enk j?. v/od
/ koK dhnK e'mhnK T[;o ojhnK B/, si'ohnK Bek Be Go
rJhnK jB. f;Zy j'o eoweKvh, tfjw rq;s s/ ezrkb j[zdk ik fojk j?.

(27)
fJj jB e[ZM ekoD ;kvk p/Vk roe j'D d/. fJ; p/V/ ƒ v[ZpD' pukT[D bJh
r[opkDh dk frnkB, fJfsjk; dh ;wM, r[ows fcbk;ch, ofjs wfonkdk
pko/, jo f;Zy wkJh GkJh fisBh d/o u/szB BjhA j[zdk, T[Bh d/o gkyzvhnK
d/ ieVpzd *u'A fBeb BjhA ;eKr/.
yk; B'N L^ e?B/vk c/oh ;w/A (;szpo nes{po 06) Bkw f;woD d/
jwkfJsh e[M ftneshnK B/ nZyK whNe/ u"AeVk wkoe/ ;t/o/ ;kio/ Bkw
f;woD s/ pj[spb fdsk ;h. fJj Bkw f;woD fe;/ ftnesh dk fBih
w;bk j' ;edk j?. id'A nDgVsk pj[sh ;h T[; tes f;Zy tkfjr[o{ iK
wzrbk uoB ig b?Ad/ ;B. nZi ftfdnk dk i[r j? tX s'A tX r[opkDh noEK
;w/s gVe/ frnkB ftu tkXk eoBk ukjhdk j?, Bk fe fJe' gzesh iK Ppd
B[z pko pko oNh ikDk j?. i/ tkfjr[o{ wzso Bkb ezw ;o ;edk sK 1430
gzB/ r[opkDh fbyD dh eh b'V ;h < i/ f;woB fe;/ wzso B{z wzB fbnk ikt/
sK fJjBK PpdK d/ eh noE eo'r/ <
e'fN d/th ik eT[ ;/tfj, bfywh nfBe Gkfs]
r[gs gqrN ikeT[ nokXfj, gT[D gkDh fdB;[ okfs]
Bfynsq ;;hno ;{ofXnktfj, p;[Xk rrBk rktJ/]
;rb ykDh ;rb pkDh ;dk ;dk fXnktJ/] (456)
j/ GkJh` eo'VK d/thnK d/ts/ nB/e sohe/ oZp B{z fXnkT[Ad/ jB.
eJh r[gs YzrK Bkb eJh T[uh p'be/, nokXd/ jB. gT[D s/ gkDh ns/ oks
T[;/ B[z :kd eod/ jB. ;ko/ BSZso uzd ;{oi, Xosh s/ nkekP T[;/ B{z rkT[Ad/
jB. ;kohnK ykDhnK tkb/ iht ;kohnK p'bhnK okjhA, ;dk jh oZp B{z
fXnkT[Ad/ jB.
j[D ;tkb g?dk j[zdk j? fe Xosh uzd ;{oi jtk s/ gkDh oZp B{z fet/A
f;wod/ jB < fJj e'Jh wB[y sKr ;oho Xkoh sK jB BjhA. fJ;dk ;gPN
wsbp j? fe nekb g[oy d/ pDkJ/ nNZb fBnw nB[;ko nkgD/ fizw/ brh
;/tk fBoftxB fBGk oj/ jB. wB[y B/ Gh ekdo dh e[dos B{z ;wMe/ ;[ui Z k
ihtB pshs eoBk j? BK fe nZyK pzd eoe/ fe;/ Ppd dk pko pko oND
eoh ikDk. fJ; soQK eofdnK frnkB s'A ;yD/ ofj ikJhdk j?. r[opkDh
(28)
;wM ftuko e/ gVB:'r j? Bk fe oND eoB bJh.
n?;k frnkB igj[ wB w/o/] j'tj[ ukeo ;ku/ e/o/] (728)
fJ; gzesh ftu r[o{ frnkB B{z igD dk j[ew j?. frnkB ifgnk
iK f;wfonk BjhA ik ;edk. frnkB sK jk;b eoe/ T[; w[skpe ezw
eoBk j[zdk j?.
pkto/ s? frnkB phuko B gkfJnk] fpoEk iBw rtkfJnk](793)
j/ Bk ;wM fJB;kB, s{z r[o{ frnkB ;wfMnk BjhA, ftuko ehsh jh
BjhA. ;kok ihtB fpnoE rztk fbnk.

[[[[

(29)
r[opkDh wjkB - f;Zy BkdkB
fJZe tkoh f;Zy nkr{nK dh p?me ftZu f;Zyh ƒ T[FZuk uZ[eD bJh
I'odko xVwZ; fgnk j'fJnk ;h. fe;/ nkfynk j;gskb y'jb', d{i/ B/
fejk ;e{b ukb{ eo'.shi/ B/ sho SZfvnk Bro ehosB eo', s/ u"E/ B/
i?ekok rikfJnk ;oeko fto[ZX w'ouk bkU. fe;/ okJ/ fdZsh ykfb;skB s'A
fpBK BjhA i/ ;oBk fJZe j'o B/ c[owkfJnk ;ko/ r[odtkfonK ftZu gzE dh
uVQdh ebk bJh nyzv gkm eotkJ/ ikD. gzE dh ftrVh sedho ;ztkoB
tk;s/ bZr oj/ i'o ekoB ;ko/ “iE/dko” g;hB' g;hBk j'J/, pV/ n"y/ ;kj
b? oj/ ;B. r'rV ƒ ;zGkbfdnK gzE d/ dod dh ghV ftZu ftnke[b, fJZe
fibQk iE/dko yVk j'fJnk, s/ fJbkjh c[owkB gVQe/ ;[DkT[D d/ nzdki ftZu
e{fenk^ “w/o/ gzE gq;s Gokt'` pVh d/o s'A w?A eZu/ fgZb/ fij/ ftuko ;[Ddk
nktkiko j' fojk ;K. s[jkv/ e'b'A gzE dh v[Zpdh p/Vh pzB/ BjhA bZrDh.
fJjd/ tk;s/ w/o/ e'b fIzdrh dk siopk j?, r[o{ fgnko s/ gzEe dod j?.
pVhnK ;ehwK ;[D uZ[fenk jK w?A, j[D fXnkB Bkb w/oh rZb ;[D' s/ nwbh
ikwk gfjBkT[. fJZe fwzN r[nkJ/ fpBK ;ko/ r[odtkfonK ftZu M[b oj/
fBPkB ;kfjp d;-d; c[ZN T[FZu/ eotk fdU. fBPkB T[FZu/ sK ykb;k gzE
T[FZukHHHH”. iE/dko i/s{ nzdkI ftZu sfDnk yVk ;h. s/ fe;/ B/ i' p'b/ ;'
fBjkb dk i?ekok rik e/ fJ; ftuko dh g[;Nh eo fdsh.
uko/ gk;/ pVh ektK o"bh gkJh ik ojh j?, “gzE ƒ ;zGkb', gfssg[Dk
o'e', B"itkBK ƒ Bf;anK s'A pukU, pqkjwDh eoweKvK s'A w[esh gkUHHH.”
ftXh g{ote nkgDh fizw/tkoh ;wMe/ e'Jh iE/pzdh (SGPC s/ DGPC)
bzw/ ;w/A d/ ekoi T[bheD bJh fsnko BjhA j?. e[ZM fJZe iE/pzdhnK s/
v/o/dko pVh bk i[nkp dbhb xVh xVkJh rZb eoB tkb/ d/ wZE/ eZY wkod/
jB.” d/y' ih fJj gktB r[opkDh ;uyzv ftZu'A, pkpk BkBe ih B/ fbnKdh
j?. T[FZu/ rrB wzvbK dhnK fJ; ftZu ftZukoK jB. fJ; ƒ e"D ;wM ;edk
j? < e"D fJ;d/ noE eoB dh ;woZEk oZydk j? < fJj sK p; rkT[D bJh
(30)
s/ nBzd b?D bJh j?.” eh w?A g[ZSD dh r[;skyh eo ;edk jK fe fJj pkDh
pkpk BkBe ih B/ Xosh s/ nke/ jh feT[A fbyh < i/ ;Zuyzv dh t;s{ j? sK T[go
fes/ ;zGkb oZyd/, Xosh T[go nkT[D dh eh b'V ;h < fJj pkDh T[jBK
p'bhnK ftZu fbyh rJh j?, i' fJ; G{yzv s/ gquZbs ;B. fJ; pkDh ftZu
Xosh s/ pD/ wzdoK dk fIeo j?, w;fidK dk fiaeo j?. BdhnK dfonktK
(rzrk iT[ r'dktfo ikJhn?, e[zfG iT[ e/dko BQkJhn?. r'wsh ;j; rT[ dkB[
ehi? 973”) gP{nK, gzShnK, oZ[yK, fpoyK, nzB dkD/ sZe d/ Bkw w"i{d jB.
i'rh, i?Bh, p'Xh, fjzd{, w[;bwkB, T[jBK d/ g{iBhe d/ts/, nkfde dk r[o{
rqzE ;kfjp ih ftZu Gog{o fiaeo fwbdk j?. jtk, gkDh, fwZNh, ;wz[do,
uzd ;{oi (i' Xosh s'A BIo nkT[Ad/ jB) skfonK dk Bkw pko pko nkT[Adk
j?. i/ fJj pkDh wBZ[y wkso (yk; eo f;Zy gzE) bJh BjhA j?, fco fJ;dh
ouBk eoB dh Io{os jh e'Jh BjhA ;h. i/ pkDh ƒ e'Jh ;wM BjhA ;edk
sK fJ; n;{b dk fBoDk fet/A j't/rk fe r[owZs eh j? s/ wBws eh j? <
fijV/ b'e fJ; soQK w{oysk tkbk gquko eo oj/ jB T[j fBowb fBnko/
ykb;k gzE ƒ pqkjwDh yko/ ;kro ftZu v'p oj/ jB. e[ZM ;kX bkDk i'
nBgV j'D eoe/ r[opkDh ftub/ “;Zu” ƒ ;wMD s'A n;woE j'D eoe/,
nkgDh ew nebh ƒ S[gkT[Adk j'fJnk fJj nkye/ gZbk S[vk b?Adk j?F “ih
pkDh ƒ e"D ;wM ;edk j? < r[o{ eh rs r[o{ ikD/, n;hA r[o{ dh pqkpoh fet/A
eo ;ed/ jK <
fJj T[go tofDs ftuko dk fJZe gZy j?. d{ik gZy fJj Gh j? fe
;kv/ ;ko/ gqukoe, Xkowe ;N/i s/ jkiaoh b[nkD tkb/, f;Zy oki;h nkr{,
eth, okrh, Ykvh nkfde, ;ko/ jh fJjBK e[ZM e[ puBK ƒ pko pko
d[jokT[Ad/ ;[D/ ik ;ed/ jBF “fJj fJbkjh pkDh j?, X[o eh pkDh j?, ;fsr[o
;fjpkB d/ fjod/ ftZu'A gqrN j'J/ noPh puB jB. i[r' i[r nNZb r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp ih, d;K gkfs;akjhnK dh nkswe i's j?. Ppd r[o{ j?, u"o sys
d/ wkbe, PfjBPkjK d/ PfjBPkjHHHH.” fJ; s'A gqrN j'fJnk nZi dk
fJbkjh fJoPkd, oZph c[owkB, nZi dk wjKtke dopko ;kfjp s'A pyfPP
j'fJnk “nzfwqs t/b/” dk j[ewBkwkHHHH”. gkme iB'` s[;hA fJ; soQK dk

(31)
gquko f;ZyK dhnK Xkowe ;N/iK s'A j[zdk nB/e tkoh ;[fDnk j't/rk. fizB/
ftP/PD r[o{ rqzE tk;s/ tZX s'A tZX tos/ ik ;ed/ ;B ;ko/ tos/ ik oj/ jB.
j[D iaok r"o Bkb d[pkok fXnkB e/Ados eoe/ ;'u. ' fizBh tfvnkJh r[o{ rqE
z
;kfjp ih dh ipkBh ebkwh ehsh ik ojh j?, eh ;Zu w[Zu fJ; soQK
;thekfonk Gh ik fojk j? < f;ZyK dh PoXk w[skpe sK ;koh r[opkDh jh
;fsr[o{ ih dk j[ewBkwk j?. fco fJZe Ppd dk j[ewBkwk feT[A < y?o fJZe
Ppd nro “j[ewBkwk” j?, sK eh j[ew dh T[bzxDk Gh ehsh ik ;edh j?
< xo ftZu pZu/ wksk fgsk dk j[ew BK wzBD sK eh T[j fgnko gqkgs eo
;eDr/ < ndkbsK tZb'A fdZsk frnk “j[ew” e'Jh gbN e/ t/y/` s[ozs ;hyK
fgZS/ pzd j't/rk. j[ew tZfvnK tZb'A fdZsk iKdk j?, s/ T[; ftZu S'fNnK dh
GbkJh S[gh j'fJnk eodh j?. fijV/ w?Apo xo d/ tZv/ dk j[ew BK wzBD,
nkg j[dohnK eoB fco T[jBK ƒ y[nkoh, popkdh s'A e'Jh BjhA puk
;edk.
f;Zy p[bko/ s/ f;ZyK d/ u"Xoh ;N/i s/ BkNe pVk tXhnk eod/ nk
oj/ jB. go BkNe sK e/tb pDktNh rZb jh j'fJnk eodh j?, T[; ftZu
jehes sK e'Jh j[zdh jh BjhA. d[Bhnkdkoh d/ ftjko ftZu, ;akfJd BkNe
ehsk uZb ikt/, go ;Zu/ ;fsr[o{ Bkb Gh Sb BkNe < eh fJj r[ow[yskJh
nkyh ik ;edh j? < fBozeko dk fJbkjh “j[ew” id'A ikoh j[zdk j? T[;ƒ
d[BhnK dh e'Jh skes BjhA o'e ;edh. ;w[zdo TF[ZSb e/ Xosh tZb uVQ gJ/
sK spkjh eo fdzdk j?. G[ukb, pko;aK, s{ckB nkfde id'A efjo toskT[Ad/
jB, e'Jh BjhA o'e ;edk. id'A y[PhnK y/fVnK tkb/ ;kirko w";w ubd/
jB, sK bfjoK pfjoK j' iKdhnK jB. ftP/PD sK r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ƒ d/ fdZs/
;ko/, pj[s tZv/, go j[ew T[;dk n;b ftZu fes/ Gh BjhA ubdk. ;N/ih
Sb, BkNe ƒ SZv e/ iaok n;bhns ftZu T[so e/ t/y'. f;Zy gzE dh soi/a
fIzdrh eh r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ih d/ “j[ew” w[skpe j? < id'A f;Zy nytkD tkb/
jh ;fsr[o{ ih dk “j[ewBkwk” wzBD bJh fsnko BjhA fco y[nkoh s/
popkdh jh gZb/ g?Dh j'Jh. ;z;ko Go ftZu nzdkiaB d' bZy r[odtko/ jB.
T[jBK ;kfonK EkJhA ;Zuh pkDh dk jo o'ia eJh eJh tko “j[ewBkwk” gVQ

(32)
e/ ;[DkfJnk iKdk j?. p'ov s/ fby fdZsk iKdk j? sK fe jo e'Jh gVQ ;e/.
d[yh wB Bkb fby fojk jK fe T[; “j[ewBkw/” ƒ o;w g{osh tKr gfVQnk
;[fDnk ik fojk j?. T[;ƒ ;wMD tk;s/ e'Jh isB BjhA ehsk iKdk. ;zrsK
ƒ ;wMkT[D dk e'Jh gqpzX BjhA ehsk frnk. i' ehosBhJ/ ehosB eod/
T[wo fpsk fdzd/ jB, pkDh pj[s ;koh :kd Gh eo b?Ad/ jB. T[jBK ƒ y[d
gsk BjhA j[zdk fe n;hA i' rk oj/ jK, fJ; dk noE eh j?. ;fsr[o{ eh
“j[ew” d/ oj/ jB. gkmh gkm eofdnK p[ZY/ j' iKd/ jB, fJZe wPhB dh
fBnkJh. eh gVQ oj/ jB, eh T[gd/P j? gktB pkDh dk e[S gsk Bjh.
;fsr[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh r'd ftZu p?m e/, tkfinK fuwfNnK tkb/, bzw/
M[ZfrnK tkb/, “;qh wkB 1008, ;zs, pqjw frnkBh” j'D dk Y'b fgZND tkb/
“;Zuk j[ew Bkwk” (r[opkDh) fsnkr e/, nkgD/ i'V/ j'J/ fx;/ fgN/ N'Ne/,
(eftsktK) G'bhnK ;zrsK ƒ j/eK bk bk e/, ;zx gkV gkV e/ ;[DkJ/ ik oj/
jB. G'b/ PoXkb{ wBwsh e{Vk eoeN wB d/ GKv/ ftZu PoXk ;fjs g[nk
oj/ jB. pdb/ ftZu fJjBK gkyzvh ;kXK ƒ b'eH wkfJnk d/ tZv/ rZc/ G/N
eod/ jB. fJjBK r[opkDh Bkb'A s'Ve/ v/fonK Bkb i'VB tkfbnK dh “uoBK
s/ f;o oZye/” g{ik Gh eod/ jB.
nekb sys d/ w[y Z ;/tkdko (iE/dko) dh jkioh ftZu fJZe xkr v/o/
dko pko pko ;zrsK dk w{zj fuVKdk fojk, r[owfonkdk dhnK XZihnK
T[vkT[Adk fojk, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh s"jhB eodk fojk. “iE/dko *s/ ;zrsK
p/p; j'J/ BhthnK gkJh fJ; ;kX dhnK pVQeK oZph j[ew wzB e/ ;[Dd/ oj/. ;N/
i s/ nkT[D s'A gfjbK fJ; ;kX ƒ r[of;ZyK tZb'A fejk frnk, “;zs ih
feogk eoe/ ;N/i s/ e/tb r[opkDh rkJh, ;[DkJh ikt/, eZuh pkDh BjhA.”
“;zs B/ c[zekok wkfonk, s/to fsZy/ j'J/ nZyK d/ v'o/ bkb j' rJ/. nzdo/
nzdo iafjoh Bkr tKr Ifjo x'bfdnK, ;zs ih B/ ;ZspuB nky e/ f;o
fjbkfJnk. nrb/ jh gb fJ; ;zs Bz{ ;N/i s'A fJT[A pVQefdnK ;ko/ ;[D
oj/ ;B ;w/s “iE/dko” nekb sys.” ;zs ih ;Zu' ;Zu pykB oj/ ;B^
“w?ƒ fejk frnk j? fe ;N/i s'A f;oc gZeh pkDh (r[opkDh) gVQh
ikt/. eZuh pkDh BK gVQh ikt/. fJ;dk wsbp fe i' e[ZM r[o{ rqzE

(33)
;kfjp ftZu doi j? T[jh gZek (mhe) j? pkeh ;G eZu fgb j?, s[jkƒ
r;hnK g?DrhnK w/ohnK ;ZuhnK rZbK ;[De/, bU ;[D' ^ uko/
;kfjpIkfdnK dk r[o{ rqzE ftZu e'Jh fIeo BjhA j?, s[jkv/ uko/
;kfjpIkd/ eZu/` p'b' tkfjr[o{. s[jkv/ gziK fgnkfonK dk r[o{ rqzE
ftZu e'Jh jtkbk BjhA fJ;dk wsbp gzi fgnko/ eZu/` p'b' tkfjr[o{.
uko r[o{nK dk Bkw s/ pkDh r[o{ rqzE ftZu BjhA j?. ;wM' s[jkv/ uko/
r[o{ eZu/` p'b' tkfjr[o{. ;ajhdK w[ohdK dk, yzv/ dh gkj[b dk e'Jh
fIeo BjhA, fJj Gh ;ko/ eZu/ fgZb/. p'b' tkfjr[o{HHHH. s[jkv/ GkJh
r[odk; s/ GkJh Bzd bkb Gh eZu/, p'b' tkfjr[o{HHH.” xzNk Go fJj
p{pBk ;kX (wkB f;zx g/jt/ tkbk) ;kfonK d/ f;o ;[nkj gkT[Adk fojk fe;/
dh fjzws Bk gJh fe fJ; dh IpkB pzd eotk ;e/. S/t/A gkfsPkj d/ ;ki/
s\s dk “iE/dko” “;zs ih d/ fJj gqtuB nzfwqs ikD e/ ;[Ddk fojk.
;zrsK tkfjr[o{ tkfjr[o{ igdhnK ojhnK. gqpzXe BhthnK gkJh fNefNeh
bke/ r'be ftZu vkbo g?Ad/ t/yd/ oj/. frDsh d/ ;/te euhuhnK tZNd/ oj/.
“;zs” ih nkgD/ T[gd/P ;qtD eotk e/ vkboK d/ E?b/ Goe/ mkm Bkb fe;/
;aoXkb{ d/ xo g[Zi rJ/.
fJZe iawkBk ;h r[opkDh d/ ;Zu s/ gfjok fdzfdnK, ;fsr[o{ ih d/
T[gd/P w[skpe ihtB fiT[AfdnK, r[of;Zy f;o dh pkih bk fdnK eod/
;B. fJZe iawkBk ;h id'A f;ZyK d/ d[PwD Gh f;Zy feodko d/ r[D |yo Bkb
fpnkB efonk eod/ ;B. fJZe ;wK ;h goT[geko fjZs f;Zy pjkdo
nkgD/ ;ko/ ;[Zy fsnkr fdnk eod/ ;B. T[j Gh tes ;h g{ik d/ XkB (r[o{
Bfws wkfJnk s/ gdkoE) ƒ Ifjo ts ikfDnk eod/ ;B. nZi f;Zy
feodko fezBk o;ksb ftZu fvZr fgnk j?, (ftofbnK ƒ SZve/) fpnkB
eofdnK jh Pow Bkb gkDh j' ikJhdk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih dk c[owkB j? F
fXqr[ fsBk ek ihftnk fi fbfy fbfy t/ufj BkT[]
y/sh fiB eh T[iV? ybtkV/ fenk EkT[.. (1245)
fJZE/ fJj Bk ;wM b?Dk fe Xkr/ sths wzso s/ w[Zb d/ gkmK sZe jh
rZb ;hws j?. BjhA, ;r'A bkbu t;, y[droihnK ftZu o[VQe/ Xow d/ n;{b

(34)
t/u d/D/, Xow fJwkB s/ Iwho t/u d/Dh. Xkowe ;wkie s/ oki;h
;"d/pkih ftZu fBZi dk ckfJdk jh gqwZ[y oZyDk. r[o{ xoK ƒ u"XoK uwekT[D
d/ nZv/ pDk b?Dk. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh T[Zsw f;Zfynk s/ Bk uZbe/ e/tb
pkDh dh nkV ftZu wkfJnk d/ nzpko fJeZm/ eoB/. nfij/ ;ko/ b'eK tk;s/
jh T[gq'es gzeshnK jB. fJZe T[od{ d/ PkfJo B/ pVk ewkb dk f;ano fJ;
goEkJ/ fbfynk j? LF
y[dkfJnk jt; e/ pzd/ tck e' p/u d/s/ j?.
y[dk e/ xo eh fenk ejhJ/ f:j y[dk e' p/u d/s/ j?.
nZi nkw f;ZyK dh rZb sK pj[s fgSKj ofj rJh j?, gzE d/ tkfjd
bhvo e"vhnK d/ Gkn fted/ BIo nk oj/ jB. iE/dkoK d/ xo'A (s/ fdb'A)
f;Zyh T[FZv uZ[eh j?. “;kX ;zs” ;zrsK ƒ GowK ftZu gke/ d'B/ jZEhA b[ZN oj/
jB. fsnkrh pqjwukoh nytkT[D tkb/ “wjKg[oy” nkbhPkb wfjb T[;ko
uZ[e/ jB. eo'VK nopK dhnK iawhBk ikfJdksK pDk uZ[e/ jB. nkw f;Zy
r[opkDh frnkB s'A e'ok BIo nkT[Adk j?. nkgDh fwjBs dh ewkJh b[N/o/
bhvoK s/ oki;h nkr{nK nZr/ Y/oh eo oj/ jB. Xowh u'fbnK ftZu fbgN/
b[N/o/ ;kXK ;zsk d/ uoBK ftZu nogD eo oj/ jB. fJ; nk; Bkb fe
wkfJnk fdZfsnK ;ko/ dZ[y eb/P ysw j' ikDr/. ihtB ;cb j' ikt/rk.
;kvk p/Vk roe eoB bJh fJsB/ ekoD eh ekch BjhA jB< fJ;
bJh jh ;kvk p/Vk v[Zpdk ik fojk j?. ekP e'Jh wbkj pD e/ uZg{ bk d/t/.

[[[[

(35)
g[oksB p'bh-;z;feqs iK gzikph <
fgSb/ bzw/ ;w/A s'A jo ftP/ Bkb ;pzXs g[;seK gVQd/ ofjDk
fIzdrh dk nN[ZN fjZ;k pD frnk. fJ;/ ekoB fdwkr ftZu pj[gZyh ftZukoK
dk Gzvko fJeZmk j'Dk ;[Gkte jh ;h. gzikph d/ pj[s ;ko/ GkPk ftfrnkBhnK
(GkPk d/ wkfjo) dhnK fbysK eJh eJh tko gVQhnK. ftofbnK ƒ SZve/
pj[fsnK B/ gfjb'A fBoXkos “;Zu” jh fpBK fMie fpBK fdwkr ƒ y/ub
fdZfsnK, d[jok fdZsk. o/s dh ezX tork “;Zu” fJj Gh T[ukfonk frnk.
“ny/ gzikph fbZgh r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih B/ fsnko ehsh. fJ;/ ekoB fJ;
dk Bkw “r[ow[yh” fgnk.” e[ZM fJZe j'o “f;nkDg” ftykT[AfdnK fby rJ/
jB fe gzikph fbZgh r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ pDkJh, fbyh s/ gquZbs
ehsh.” y[dk y?o eo/ fJj fe;/ ekoykB/ ftZu xV/ ikD tkb/ f;Ze/ iK GKv/
BjhA jB, fe tXhnk uwedko fij/ pDk e/, ;;s/ Gkn fteD bJh piako
ftZu ;[ZN fdU, b'eh MZN yohd b?Dr/. fJj e'Jh BtK c?PB BjhA ;h fe
t/yfdnK t/yfdnK jh xo xo g[Zi ikt/rk. p'bh pDfdnK, fte;s j[zfdnk,
fbZgh fsnko eofdnK br wkso s/ T[ukoD fBoXkos j[zfdnK, d; thj
;kb BjhA, ;" d' ;" ;kb Gh BjhA, jikoK ;kb dk bzwK ;co s?j eoBk g?Adk
j?. fJj e'Jh fwZ;hnK o'NhnK, rzYk s/ bZ;h dk frbk; Gh BjhA ;h, fe r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp B/ nkJ/ doPB nfGbkyhnK ƒ MZN gZN Sek fdZsk.
gzikph p'bh ns/ r[ow[yh fbZgh dk gqwkfDe ;o{g ;kƒ r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp ftZu'A sK fwbdk jh j?. ;r'A pkothA ;dh ftZu j'J/ pkpk cohd ih dh
fbys ftZuA' Gh gqkgs j?. r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ftub/ ;p{s ;" gqshPs ftPtkP:'r
jB. fJ; w[ekpb/ j'o jo fbys PzektK Bkb fxoh j'Jh j?. pkpk cohd ih
dh fbys d/ doPB eo', i' s/jothA ;dh ftZu fbyh^p'bh iKdh ;h ^
! cohdk w? G'bktk gr dk ws w?bh j'fJ ikfJ]
rfjbk o{j Bk ikDJh f;o[ Gh fwNh ykfJ] (1379)

(36)
! ezXh T[s? o[yVk feuoe pzB? Xho]
cohdk eu? GKv? oyhn? feuo[ skJh Bho[] (1382)
! ;/y j:ksh ifr B e'Jh fEo ofjnk]
fi;[ nk;fD jw p?m/ e/s/ p?f; rfJnk] (488)
;zB 1947 sZe ;kok wkMk bZrGr fJjh m/m gzikph p'bdk ;h. nZr'A
gkfe;skB ftZu ub/ rJ/ fJbke/ Gh fJjh p'bh p'bD tkb/ ;B. fJ; s'A
gfjbK (B"thA ;dh ftZu) r'oy BkE dhnK fbysK fwbdhnK jB. T[jBK ftZu
Gh gzikph Gko{ “;X{eVh” GkPk tosh rJh j?. Bw{Bk^
wK ej/ w/ok g{s ftnkfjnk. ekY dkw pkxD b/ nkfJnk.
frbh bZeV e' x[D ykfJnk. (r'oy dh ouBK)
gzikp d/ e;fpnK, fgzvK ftZu nZi sZe pkDhJ/ b'e tZyoh gSkD
tkb/ tjh yks/ oZyd/ jB. fJZE/ d[ekBdko b'e fjzdh, nzrq/Ih fbyD dh EKt/A,
nZi sZe fBozso i' fbys tjhnK ftZu fbZyd/ nk oj/ jB, T[; ƒ “bzv/”
nkfynk iKdk j?. fJ;d/ pkoK nZyo jB. br wkso e'Jh BjhA j?. tgkoh
b'e fJ;ƒ pky{ph fbyd/ gVQd/ ns/ ;wMd/ jB. bZrGr gzithA S/thA ;dh
s'A fJ;d/ gqubD dk ftPtkP ehsk ik ;edk j?.
gzikp s/ w[;bwkBh oki j'D eoe/ fJZE/ gzikph ftZu noph cko;h
s/ g;s' d/ Ppd pj[sks ftZu obd/ rJ/. T[AR fdZbh s'A b? e/ i/jbw sZe,
oki;EkB s'A b? e/ fPwb/ sZe, (;w/s izw{ d/) gzikph dk jh p'b pkbk ;h.
:kd oj/ fjwkub ns/ jfonkD/ dh nZi skJh e'Jh ;[szso fbZgh BjhA
j?.Gkos ftZu fjzd{ bkph Gko{ j'D eoe/ fJjBK ;{fpnK ƒ fjzdh p'bh tkb/
ipoh n?bkB eo fdZsk frnk j?. id'A fe fJjBK dh p'bh gzikph d/ tX/o/
BIdhe j?. 47 s'A wro'A Gkosh jkewK B/ ;'uh ;wMh ;kfiP sfjs gzikph
p'bh dk rb x[ZNDk P[o{ eo fdZsk. gzikph gqc[Zbs j'D Bkb r[opkDh dh ;[Zuh
(go pqkjwDh ohs^t?fde ohs dh fto'Xh) s/ wB[Zysk dh fjs?Ph, ftZukoXkok
tX/ c[b/rh. f;Zy fJfsjk; ikrqs j't/rk. fJ; soQK r[opkDh ftZu fusos
ehs/ rJ/ ;'jD/ ;wki dh f;oiDk j't/rh. i' fe fjzd{ fcoek gq;sK ƒ BjhA
GkT[Adk. fjzdh d/ tkX/ Bkb t?fde ohsK o;wK tXD c[ZbDrhnK. GKt/A

(37)
fJB;kBhns dk xkD j[zdk oj/, go pqkjwD ns/ yZsoh dhnK ;Zs/ y?oK
j'DrhnK.
nkT[ j[D Iok fjzdh d/ fgS'eV ns/ g[oksBsk pko/ ftZuko eohJ/.
;kv/ e'b oftdk; ih, epho ih ns/ Bkwd/t ih tor/ gow g[oyK dh pkDh
w"i{d j?. fJ; pkDh ƒ fjzdh d/ B/V/ s/V/ nkfynk ik fojk j?. r[o{ s/r
pjkdo ih dh ouBk ƒ Gh fjzdh obh p'bh nkfynk ik fojk j?. id'A fe
fJj ;" gqshPs M{m j?. n;b ftZu fJj p'bh i' ;ko/ GrsK ns/ r[o{ s/r
pjkdo ih B/ tosh j?, fJj “;X{eVh” p'bh j?. Gkt fe jo fJZe ;kX{
nkgD/ fJbke/ d/ PpdK dh pj[sks ns/ pkeh ;kX{nK tZb'A tos/ iKd/ ;KM/
PpdK dh tos'A eoe/, nkgD/ ftuko gqrN efonk eodk ;h. T[jBK
;fwnK ftZu, fjzdh dk feXo/ Bkw' fBPkB Gh BjhA ;h. n;b ftZu j'fJnk
fJ; soQK fe e[ZM EktK s/ fjzd{ w[yhnK tZb'A 1835 ftZu, nkgD/ Xow ns/
;fGnkuko ƒ ;zGkbD bJh nzrq/i ;oeko nZr/ p/Bsh ehsh. r'oh ;oeko
B/ wzr gZso T[fus Yzr Bkb, ft;Eko ;fjs fsnko eoe/ d/D bJh fejk.
fjzd{ w[yhnK B/ i' wzrK oZyhnK, T[; ftZu d/P dh ;KMh ;zgoe p'bh dh wzr
Gh ehsh rJh. feT[Afe nfijh e'Jh p'bh Gkos ftZu BjhA ;h i' ;GBk ƒ
gotkB j[zdh. p; T[;/ “;kX GkPk” (;X{eVh) ƒ gotkBrh d/D dh rb
ehsh. T[;/ dk Bkw wro'A nk e/ fjzdh oZy fbnk frnk. fjzdh fe;/ ;{p/ dh
p'bh BjhA ;h, Bk j?.
nrbh fJZe Gkosh p'bh ;h T[Vd. feT[Afe nzrq/IK dk oki d[BhnK
Go ftZu c?fbnk j'fJnk ;h. e[dosh j? fe d[BhnK d/ e'B/ e'B/ ftZu'A B"itkBK
ƒ c"i ftZu Gosh ehsk iKdk ;h. J/Phnk wjKdhg d/ c"ih nkg; ftZu rZb
pks eoB bZfrnK, nkgD/ fJbke/ d/ PpdK dh pj[sks tkbh cko;h p'bD
dh e'fPP efonk eod/ ;B. cko;h ftZu “T[Vd” c"ih ƒ nkfynk iKdk
j?. “T[Vd pikoh” c"i ƒ efjzd/ jB. fJ; soQK c"ihnK dh nkg;h ;zgoe
p'bh ƒ “T[od{” fejk ikD bZr fgnk. T[od{ fJ; bJh fe fJzrfbP ftZu
“V” nZyo BjhA j[zdk. T[E/ “o” Bkb ezw ubdk j?. id'A fjzd{nK B/, fjzd{
;fGnkuko ƒ pukT[D bJh d[jkJh fdZsh, sd'A jh (1835 ftZu) w[;bwkBK

(38)
B/ Gh, nkgDh ;zgoe p'bh T[Vd{ ;theko eotk bJh. fJj :kd oj/, nZi
sZe T[Vd{ fe;/ ;{p/ fyZs/ dh wkso p'bh BjhA j?. d/P d/ pNtko/ s'A pknd
Gkosh jkewK B/, gkobhw?AN ftZu, fJZe GkPk pko/ fpb gk; eotkD bJh
fbnKdk. we;d fJj ;h fe d/P dh ;zgoe p'bh fjzdh j't/ iK fJzrfbP.
gkobhw?AN w?Apo nZX' nZX tzv/ rJ/. fe;/ gk;/ c?;bk Bk j'fJnk. pVh id'A
ifjd s'A pknd “;oekoh ;kXB tose/” frL r[ow[y f;zx w[;kfco s'A
fjzdh d/ jZe ftZu fJZe fBoDkfJZe t'N gtke/ Gkos Go ftZu fjzdh ;zgoe
p'bh pDk fdZsh rJh.
;z;feqs dh g[oksBsk fpnkB eoB s'A gfjbK, fJsBk e[ fgS'eV
dZ;Dk Io{oh ;h. j[D d[pkok fJ; B[es/ s/ fXnkB e/Ados eo', fe cko;h
p'bh ƒ fgnko eoB tkb/ oki;h skes tkb/, w[;bwkB b'e,fJZe jIko ;kb
sZe, Gkos ftZu oki eod/ ofjD d/ pkti{d cko;h p'bh ƒ b'eK dh o'IkBk
p'bukb tkbh p'bh BjhA pDk ;e/. fbysh ezw Gkt/A ;kok jh cko;h ftZu
j[zdk ;h. cko;h d/ Ppd b'e p'bh ftZu gqt/P Gh eod/ ik oj/ ;B, go wK
p'bh dk doik cko;h ƒ gqkgs BjhA j' ;fenk. fe;/ Pfjo e;p/ iK fgzv
ftZu ;w[Zu/ b'eK dh o'iawok dh p'bukb tkbh p'bh cko;h Bk pD ;eh.
ekoD < feT[Afe fJj Gkosh b'eK dh nkgDh p'bh BjhA ;h, pd/P s'A nkJ/
b'eK dh p'bh ;h. ;zB 1600 ftZu Jh;N fJvhnk ezgBh ebZes/ ftZu
;Ekgs j' u[Zeh ;h. ;kY/ fszB ;" ;kb sZe pzrkbh b'e fJzrfbP d/ y{p
wkfjo pD rJ/, cokN/dko nzrq/Ih p'bd/ ;B. go fe;/ fJZe Gh pzrkb tk;h
dh wks p'bh fJzrfbP BjhA pD ;eh. fJ;/ soQK pkeh Gkos ftZu nzrq/Ih
pko/ ;wMDk ukjhdk j?.
pqkjwD B/ gouko d/ i'o Bkb gZEo d/ N[efVnK ƒ “GrtkB” pDk
e/ ;dhnK sZe b'eK ƒ w{oy pDkfJnk s/ T[jBK dh g{ik eotkJh. ;dhnK
s'A ekbgfBe d/tfsnK ƒ G'b/ b'eK d/ wB w;sZe ftZu m'f;nk s/ b[ZN e/
ykXk. jikoK ;kb s'A ;z;feqs ƒ “d/t pkDh” j? dk Y'b pj[s T[FZuk fgZfNnk
frnk. fit/A d/ts/ ebfgs jB, fst/A T[jBK dh pkDh dh g[oksBsk ebfgs
j?. Gkos ;oeko B/ ekbiK, :{Bhtof;NhnK ftZu, ;z;feqs ftGkr y'jb/

(39)
j'J/ jB. eo'VK o[g? dk pZiN gqtkB ehsk iKdk j?. ;z;feqs ftZu g[;se$b/y
fbyD tkb/ ƒ ftP/P fJBkw ;BwkB fdZs/ iKd/ jB. o/vhU NhHthH s/ yk;
;fwnK s/, ;z;feqs ftZu ypoK s/ j'o gq'rokw fdZs/ iKd/ jB. fJsBk e[ZM
eoB d/ pkti{d, ;z;feqs nkyoh ;kj frD ojh j?. g[okD/ rqzE gVQ ;eD
tkbk e'Jh ftobk ftnesh bZGdk j?. w/o/ nkgD/ iZdh fiab/Q, gfNnkb/ ftZu,
d' fgzv nfij/ jB, fiBQK dh p'bh m/m gzikph BjhA j?. pj[s jZd sZe
jfonkDth p'bh Bkb fwbdh i[bdh j?. ;dhnK phs rJhnK fJjBK d't/A
fgzvK (ebtkD{z d/XBk) dh wks p'bh BjhA pdbh. feT[AFe iBw s'A jh pZfunK
ƒ wksk fgsk d[nkok fJjh p'bh ;[DB ƒ fwbdh j?. gzikp d/ ftZueko
ofjzfdnK Gh, fJjBK dh nkgDh p'bh nZi sZe m/m gzikph BjhA pDh. gsk
BjhA fezBk tes gfjbK, fJjBK fgzvK d/ tv/o/ fe;/ nfij/ fyZs/ ftZu'A nke/
gfNnkb/ fIb/ ftZu fJjBK d' EkJhA fgzv t;k bJ/. p'bh T[jh, fiE'A T[FZm e/
nkJ/ ;B, nZi sZe gquZbs j?.
gzikph ƒ gSkVB d/ p/nzs isB j'J/, gfjbK fJZe jIko ;kb sZe
dcsoh p'bh cako;h pDkJh rJh. nzrq/Ih oki d"okB dcsoh ;oekoh p'bh
fJzrfbP pDkJh rJh. i' nZi sZe Gh dcsoK ftZu tosh fbyh ik ojh j?.
d/P tzv s'A pknd gzikph ƒ fjZe d/ skD fjzdh dh d[p/b pDkfJnk ik fojk
j?. gkfe;skBh gzikp ftZu gzikph ƒ e'Jh wkBsk BjhA. r[ow[yh fbZgh ƒ
gkfe;skB' d/; fBekbk fwfbnk j'fJnk j?. fco Gh T[j b'e gzikph p'bd/
jB. nfij/ pdso jkbks ftZu Gh d'tK gzikpK dh gzikph p'bh ihts j? s/
ihts oj/rh. b'V tes Gkos ftZu pj[s ;ko/ b'e fJzrfbP p'bd/ jB.
fJzrfbP gVd/ fbyd/ jB, pj[s ;ko/ nypko o;kb/ s/ g[;seK nzrq/Ih ftZu
SgdhnK jB. fco Gh ;ko/ Gkos ftZu fe;/ fJZe Gh fgzv iK ftnesh dh
wks p'bh fJzrfbP BjhA j?. ekoB < fJj Ugoh p'bh i[ j'Jh.
nZi sZe g{oh skes bk e/ goukfonk frnk j? fe Gkos dh ;G s'A
g[oksb p'bh ;z;feqs j?. ;z;feqs g[oksB GkPk sK Gkt/A j't/ go Gkosh p'bh
sK jofrI BjhA j?. i/ fJj p'bh Gkosh j[zdh sK Gkosh fyZs/ ftZu e'Jh fJZe
;{pk sK nfijk pfunk j[zdk, fiZE'A dh fJj wks p'bh j[zdh. e'Jh fJZe

(40)
Pfjo, iK fJZe fgzv sK ;ko/ ftPkb d/P ftZu j[zdk, fiZE/ t;d/ ;ko/ b'e,
o'IkBk ;z;feqs p'bd/, gVQd/ fbyd/. d[BhnK Go ftZu fJZe Gh wB[Zy nfijk
BjhA fwb/rk, i' ;z;feqs ƒ wks p'bh d/ s"o s/ p'bdk j't/. feT[Afe ;z;feqs
ftZu pqkjwDh eoweKvh rqzE fby/ j'J/ jB. i/ ;z;feqs E'V/Q pj[s ;kj b?Adh
ojh sK gkyzvhnK dk gkyzv ubdk oj/rk. GftZy d/ wB[Zy ƒ ;z;feqs e[ZM Gh
d/D s'A n;woE j?. t/bk ftjk u[Ze/ ftuko, ;z;feqs rqzEK ftZu pE/o/ fwb
ikDr/. fit/A i/s{ w[;bwkBK B/ Gkos ftZu ofj e/ g[;seK fbyhnK noph
cko;h ftZu. T[j feskpK ikDekoh sK e'Jh d/ ;edhnK jB. go ;kvh
nkgDh p'bh ftZu BjhA jB. fJ;/ soQK pj[s ;ko/ r'fonK B/ nzrq/Ih ftZu
feskpK fbyhnK. T[jBK ftZu frnkB fwbdk j?, go ;kvh p'bh ftZu BjhA
jB. fJ;/ soQK ;z;feqs fJ; d/P dh p'bh BjhA j?. jikoK ;kb gfjbK fi;
fyZs/ ftZu'A jwbkto ephb/ T[FZm e/ nkJ/ ;B, nkgD/ Bkb e[ZM ohsh fotki
s/ e[ZM ezw ubkT{ ;z;feqs fbysh rqzE fbnkJ/. i/ ;z;feqs T[jBK b'eK dh
wks p'bh j[zdh sK T[j wodh ed/ BK. d[BhnK ftZu e[ZM ephb/ nfij/ Gh jB
fiBk dh nkpkdh e[ZM jIko sZe jh ofj rJh j?. fco Gh T[jBK dh wks
p'bh ihts j?.
g[oksBsk dk Y'b pj[s tZi frnk j?. fit/A d/ts/ edh Xosh s/ BjhA
nkJ/, fst/A Gkosh Xosh dh “d/t pkDh ;z;feqs” nkgDh BjhA j?. r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ d/tfsnK dh pk^dbhb n;bhns ;kv/ ;Bw[Zy oZy fdZsh
j?. pqkjwD d/ gkyzv ns/ ;dhnK s'A ehsh ik ojh nzBQh b[ZN dk GKvk u"okj/
ftZu GzB fdZsk j?. t/dK dh ftukoXkok B/ wB[Zysk ftZu tzvhnK s/ ftjbVg[Dk
gk fdZsk j?. nfijh f;Zfynk dh nZi e'Jh ehws BjhA j?. ;fsr[o{ ih B/
nkgDh gktB pkDh r[ow[Zyh$gzikph ftZu T[ukoD eoe/ “d/t pkDh” ;z;feqs
ƒ rb'A bkj fdZsk j?. d[BhnK ftZu gzikph p'bD tkb/ bZrGr thj eo'V wB[Zy
jB. s/ d/tpkDh ƒ p'bD tkbk e'Jh fJZe gfozdk sZe BjhA. ;z;feqs dk Mzvk
u[Zeh fco oj/ b'e Gh fJ; ƒ wksp'bh tKr BjhA p'bd/. eK;h dh ftfdnk
pko/ r[o tke ^
! eKPh s/ X[fB T[gi? X[fB eK;h ikJh]

(41)
ek;h c{Nh gzfvsk X[fB ejk ;wkJh] (857)
! Bk ek;h wfs T[gi? Bk ek;h wfs ikfJ]
;fsr[o fwfbn? wfs T[gi? sk fJj ;'Mh gkfJ]
fJj[ wB[ ek;h ;fG shoE f;fwqfs ;fsr[fo dhnk p[MkfJ]
nm;fm shoE fs; ;zfr ojfj fifB jfo fjod? ofjnk ;wkfJ] (491)
pV/ d[Zy dh rZb j? w[;bwkB s/ fjzd{ gzikphnK B/ pVh p/j:kJh
Bkb gzikph wK p'bh s'A w{zj w'V fbnk j?. p'bh B{z Xow Bkb i'V fdZsk
j?. e[ZM pj[s/ “wkvoB b'e” brksko oN bkJh ik oj/ jB fe n;hA
“gzikph e"w s/ gzikph p'bh”, gzikph ;ZfGnsk B{z gqc[Zbs eoB dk
:sB eo oj/ jK. p'bh B{z “Xow dh e?d” ftu BjhA ofynk ik
;edk. ;fBwo p/Bsh j? fe nro gzikph ihtB ftu'A f;ZyK dh
;{owrsh eZY d/JhJ/, ;fsr[o{ ih tZb'A ehs/ T[geko ft;ko d/JhJ/, sK
gzikp ftu nokiesk, p/gsh, ekfJosk ns/ rdkohnK s'A f;tkJ/ j'o
eh j?< fJ; gzikph p'bh B{z ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkgDh gktB pkDh fbye/
nwo pDk fdZsk. BZuD rkT[D tkb/, GzvK tork ihtB pshs eoB
tkb/ gzikph f;Zyh XkoB eoe/ ;z;ko d/ f;ow"o ;{ow/ j' fBpV/. i/
f;Zy gz i kph s/ gz i kp B{ z BK ngDkT[ A d/ sK nZi sZe fJj
d't/A jB/ohnK r[cktK ftu roe rJ/ j[zd/. f;Zy nfeqsxD BjhA pD/.
nkgDk coi pky{ph fBGkfJnk. gzikph p'bh ns/ f;Zyh B{z nbZr
oZfynk jh BjhA ik ;edk fJj d't/A fJZe' f;Ze/ d/ gk;/ jB.

[[[[

(42)
nzfwqs eh j? <
;z;ko ftZu g?dk j'fJnk e'Jh iht woBk BjhA ukj[zdk. nDfrDs
e'fPPK eoe/ j'o tX/ok ;wK fiT[Dk b'udk j?. iht izs{nK B/ nfijh ;'u
iK ftXh fte;s BjhA ehsh fe T[j fpwkoh iK w"s ƒ Nkb ;eD. wkBf;e
gZXo ewI'o j'D eoe/ (PkfJd) iht izs{ w"s s'A wB[Zy fizBK vod/ Gh BjhA
jB. fJB;kB B/ w"s ƒ NkbD dh wB;k Bkb ikd{ wzso jE"b/ N{D/ nkfd s'A
ftek; eoe/ dtk dko{ dk ;jkok fbnk. wkBf;e gq/PkBhnK s'A puD tk;s/
“Xow” dk nk;ok fbnk. Pkwh XowK ftZu nkp/j:ks dk fynkb T[FZGoe/
;kfjs ftZu Sk frnk. fjzd{ g"okDe rqzEK ftZu d/tfsnK s/ okyPK ob e/,
;w[zdo foVfenk s/ nzfwqs eZfYnk. fJj ghDk fe;/ ƒ B;hp Bk j'fJnk.
nzfwqs dh tzv eofdnK d'tK fXoK dh y{Bh izr j'Jh s/ ;kok nzfwqs v[Zb
frnk. id'A ;oho dh Bk;tkBsk o'eh Bk ik ;eh sK nkswk dh nwosk
dk ;zebg g?dk j'fJnk. g[Bo iBw d/ ftZuko fgZS/ Gh fJj' fJZSk ezw eodh
;kc BIo nkT[Adh j? fe eh j'fJnk i/ w?A j[D ;oho eoe/ wo fojk jK, w/oh
nkswk nwo j?, S/sh jh fe;/ j'o ;oho okjhA d[pkok iBw bt/rh. nfij/
j'o Gh pj[s ;ko/ N[ZNt/A ftuko ;z;ko ;kfjs ftZu'A fwb iKd/ jB.
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp d/ gqrN j'D Bkb o[e/ j'J/ ftukoK ƒ, ;kfjs
ƒ, fJfsjk; ƒ, XowK ƒ, wB[Zyh ihtB gZXsh ƒ fJZe Bt/ebh rshPhbsk
gqkgs j'Jh. yV's dk fPeko j' uZ[e/ wB[Zyh tosko/ ƒ fiZE/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ j'o
pj[s e[ZM T[FZsw doi/ dk pyfPP ehsk, T[E/ nwosk pko/ Gh Bt/ebk
fdqPNhe'D g/P ehsk. r[opkDh B/ vze/ dh u'N Bkb n?bkB eo fdZsk ^
i?;k ;[gBk o?fB ek s?;k ;z;ko]
fdq;fNwkB ;G[ fpBf;n? fenk brfj rtko]
fJfe ukb/ fJfe ukb;fj ;fG ngBh tko]HHH (808)
nzfwqs dh gfoGkPk r[opkDh ftZu pky{ph w"i{d j?. ftP/ tzv w[skpe
nzfwqs d/ pj[s ;ko/ tZy' tZyo/ noE ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;wMkJ/ jB. nkT[ fJZe
(43)
fJZe eoe/ r[opkDh dh neZN rtkjh gqkgs eoe/ nzfwqs pko/ ikBD dh
e'fPP eohJ/ ^ ekfJBks d/ wkbe ƒ r[opkDh dh p'bh ftZu nzfwqs fejk
frnk j?, Gkt fe T[;dk “Bkw” jh nzfwqs j? ^
1H nzfwqs Bkw[ fBXkB[ j? fwfb ghtj[ GkJh]
fi; f;wos ;[y gkJhn? ;G fsyk p[MkJh] (318)
r[opkDh i' ;fsr[o{ ih B/ gqG{ dh f;cs ;bkj ftZu T[ukoD ehsh
j?, fi; d[nkok wB[Zy wkso ƒ fIzdrh fiT[D dk tZb nkT[Adk j?, T[;
r[opkDh ƒ Gh nzfwqs dh ;zfrnk fdZsh j? ^
2H nzfwqs pkDh jfo jfo s/oh]
;[fD ;[fD j't? gow rfs w/oh] (103)
i' ;fsr[o{ gftZso T[gd/P okjhA wB[Zysk ƒ ;'Mh d/t/ ;oho okjhA
goT[geko eo/ T[j y[d Gh nzfwqs dk ;'wk j?. gktB tke jB ^
3H ;fsr[o ftfu nzfwqs Bkw[ j? nzfwqs[ ej? ejkJ/]
nzfwqs pkDh ss[ j? r[ow[fy t;? wfB nkfJ] (1423)
r[opkDh dh p'bh ftZu oZph j[ew ƒ Gh nzfwqs fejk frnk j?. fit/A
X[o dorkj'A r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp nekb g[oy d/ xZb/ nkJ/ ;B. fJ;/ soQK nZr'A
y[dkJh ofjws ;dek f;ZyK ƒ r[osk gqkgs j[zdh ojh s/ T[j r[o{ pD ftZuo/.
fw;kb bJh^
4H nwodkf; nwos Ssq r[o okwfj dhnT[] (1408)
id'A ifrnk;{ fJZe wB nekb g[oy ƒ :kd eodk j?, nkgDh
nkswk s/ gJ/ fteko X' d/D bJh r[o{ s'A ;'Mh gqkgs eodk j?, sd'A T[j
t/bkt\s Gh nzfwqs tKr j[zdk j?^
5H nzfwqs t/bk ;u[ BkT[ tfvnkJh thuko]
eowh nkt? egVk Bdoh w'y[ d[nko[] (2)
ub oj/ goeoD ftZu d[ZX ƒ Gh nzfwqs ;zfrnk fdZsh rJh j? ^
6H ;'fJB eN'oh nzfwqs Goh] b/ Bkw/ jfo nkr? Xoh] (1163)
fco wZyD sK dZ[X Bkb'A Gh fInkdk ehwsh j?, wZyD ƒ Gh nzfwqs
fejk frnk j? ^

(44)
7H o;Bk Bkw igj[ sp wEhn? fJB fpfX nzfwqs gktj[] (728)
fJB;kB dh nZy pj[s e[ZM t/ydh rfqjD eodh j?, uzrk Gh s/ p[ok
Gh. ;fsr[o{ p[okJh s'A o'e e/ B/eh tZb bkT[Dk b'Vd/ jB. j/ wB[Zy` s/oh
fdqPNh nzfwqs torh pD ikt/^
8H ;{e/ jo/ ehJ/ fyB wkj/] nzfwqs fdq;fN ;zfu ihtkJ/] (191)
eoskg[oy ihtK s/ ;dk ofjws eodk ofjzdk j?, j'o nB/e poesK
d/ Bkb Bkb ;'e/ s'A pknd whAj g?Dk Gh nzfwqs dh poyk j' ojh gqshs j[zdh
j? ^
9H fMfw fMfw to;? nzfwqs Xkok] wB[ ght? ;[fB ;pd[ phukok] (102)
y[dktzd eohw B/ feogk ehsh nzdo'A jh T[;d/ doPB j' rJ/. puB
jB ^
10H nzdo[ bGk okw Bkfw nzfwqs Bdfo fBjkb] (48)
nrb/ jtkb/ ftZu nBzs r[DK tkb/ T[Fu Z / oZp ih ƒ ;dk :kd oZyD pko/
j[ew j? ^
11H fijt/ nzfwqs jfo r[D rkT[] (1219)
fwZm/ puBK ƒ Gh nzfwqs nkfynk frnk j? F
12H fij gq;kfd p'bfj nzfwqs o;Bk] (269)
;[nkdb/ gdkoEK ƒ Gh nzfwqs ;zfrnk fdZsh rJh j? ^
13H fij gq;kfd Sshj nzfwqs ykfj] (269)
t/yDk ;[DBk s/ ykDk gftZso nzfwqs tork jh j't/. ;r'A ;fsr[o{ ih
sK ;kƒ ;w{bfunK ƒ jh, nzfwqs pDk d/D bJh feogk eo oj/ jB ^
14H nzfwqs p'b? ;dk w[fy t?Dh] nzfwqs t/y? goy? ;dk B?Dh]
nzfwqs eEk ej? fdB[ oksh ntok nkfy ;[BktfDnk] (118)
uzr/ r[D XkoB eoe/ ;w[Zuk ;oho jh nzfwqs pD iKdk j? ^
15H nzfwqs ekfJnk oj? ;[ykbh pkih fJj[ ;z;ko']
wB[Zy f;Zfynk b? e/ ftek; eo ;edk j?. fJ;/ soQK ;[:'r sohe/
uhiaK dh tos'A nzrK dh tos'A eoBh f;Zy ikJhJ/. fJ; ftek; Yzr ƒ
nzfwqs nkfynk j? ^

(45)
16H fpy[ ;/ nzfwqs[ GJ/ r[owfs p[fX gkJh]
nej[ gowb gJ/ nzsfo tk;Bk t;kJh] (565)
uzr/ ezwK dk Bshik d/o ;t/o uzrk jh gqkgs jzdk j?, fJ; ƒ fJT[A
fpnkB ehsk j?^
17H r[of;yh jfo nzfwqs[ phfink jfo nzfwqs Bkw[ cb[ nzfwqs[ gkfJnk]
(304)
r[o{ dk Ppd iK pyfPnk Bkw fjod/ ftZu t; ikt/, GNeDk ;dk
bJh w[Ze ikt/^
18H J/e' t/yk nto[ Bphnk] r[o go;kdh nzfwqs ghnk]
r[o e? ;pfd fsyk fBtkoh ;ji/ ;[fy ;wktfDnk] (113)
nkfyo ftZu ;fsr[o{ ih c?;bk ;[Dk fdzd/ jB fe pkeh sK ;ze/s jB,
rb ;wMkD bJh, f;o/ dh rb sK fJj j? fe nzfwqs e/tb fJZe' jh j?. T[j
j? Gh fjod/ ftZu jh. fiBQK s/ tkfjr[o{ ih B/ ngko feogk eo fdZsh T[jBK
dk ihtB ;zto frnk. Bkw T[gd/P okjhA nzdo ukBD j' frnk ^
19H fiB tfvnkJh s/o/ Bkw eh s/ os/ wB wkfj]
BkBe nzfwqs[ J/e[ j? d{ik nzfwqs[ Bkfj]
BkBe nzfwqs[ wB? wkfj gkJhn? r[ogo;kfd]
fsBh ghsk ozr f;T[ fiB eT[ fbfynk nkfd](1238)
wB[yZ B/ nkgDhnK usokJhnK ubkehnK Bkb fJ; “Xosh Xow;kb”
T[s/ nk e/ pj[s B[e;kB ehsk j?. T[; ƒ fJZE/ ofjDk p;Dk jh BjhA
nkfJnk. nkgDh nbg p[ZXh ns/ y[droIhnK ekoB ;wki ftZu nB/e
gqeko d/ eb/P ehBk ;kVk b[ZN y'j nkw t/yD ftZu nk ojh j?. ;fsr[o{ ih
wB[Zy ƒ Xosh s/ nkT[D dk, nkgD/ T[FZu/ coiaK dk, pko pko u/sk eokT[Ad/
jB. fe GkJh s/ok ihtB ftekoK s'A ofjs j'e/, nzfwqs tork pDBk ukjhdk
j?. ;r'A fJZE/ iBw b?D dk wZ[y go:'iB jh j? fe p[okJhnK ƒ fjod/ xo
ftZu'A eZY d/t/A, s/ nzfwqs tork ;tZS ihtB pDk bt/A. sk jh s/ok nkT[Dk
;cb wzfBnk ik ;e/rk. tke jB ^
20H fi;[ ib fBfX ekofD s[w ifr nkJ/ ;' nzfwqs[ r[o gkjh ihT[]

(46)
S'vj[ t/;[ G/y us[okJh d[fpXk fJj cb[ Bk jh ihT[] (598)
T[go tofDs r[opkDh dhnK gktB gzeshnK fJ; rZb dk m'; ;p{s
jB fe ftP/ dh pDso iK uZb oj/ goeoD d/ w[skpe nzfwqs Ppd pj[s
;ko/ noEK ftZu tofsnk frnk j?. fJ; s'A pknd ;zB 1699 dh ft;kyh
ƒ i' ekoi d;w gkfsPkj ji{o B/ ehsk T[j e"se, f;Zy bfjo dh f;yobh
wzib ;h. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJj fBoDk Gh eo fbnk ;h fe nZr'A ykb;k gzE
dk w?Apo pDkT[D dk nfXeko w?A gzi f;zxK dh gzukfJs ƒ ;"Ag d/Dk j?. go
T[j fejV/ yk; ekoB jB fiBK eoe/ Bt/A f;foT[A f;ZyK ƒ e[M Z gqD eoD bJh
gkpzd ehsk frnk < nkT[ Iok T[jBK dh e[ZM e[ fBPkB d/jh eoB dk isB
eohJ/ ^
BzL 1H gfjbh pZio e[ofjs e/; jBl fJjBK ƒ oZph dks ikDe/
;fseko ;fjs oZyD dk j[ew ehsk frnk. dkjV/ e/;K tkbk GotK e[dosh
i[Z;k f;oiDjko B/ wB[Zy ƒ p\f;nk j?. e/; eNkT[D tkb/ b'e e[dos d/
fBnw dh T[bzxDk eo oj/ j[zd/ jB. d{ih rZb fe n"os wod dh ;ohoe
pDso tZyoh j'D dk pkjoh fuzB jB e/;. pj[ frDsh ihtK ftZu fJjh
e[ d osh fBnw gosZ y t/ f ynk ik ;edk j? . e/ ; K dh ;z G kb
tk;s/ f;o T[s/ ;z[do d;sko Gh Io{o ;ikJh iKdh j?. s/ d;sko e/tb
jkew fXo d/ b'eK ƒ ;ikT[D dk jZe ;h, r[bkwK ƒ d;sko ;ikT[D dk e'Jh
jZe BjhA ;h. g[oksB ;fwnK ftZu dkjVh e/; eZNDk, p/fJIsh dk gqshe
;h. ;G s'A fInkdk PowBke ;Ik ;h dkjVh e/; eZN d/D/ ns/ d;sko
T[skoe/ p/gZs eoBk s/ nZr'A bJh d;sko pzBD s/ o'e bk d/Dh. i/ jkew
N'bk i'o Ipo eo/ sK ;fsr[o{ ih B/ feogkB pyPh j? fJ; dh tos'A eoBh
ikfJI j?. fw;bK d/ fGnkBe d"o ftZu id'A e'Jh f;Zy frqcsko eo fbnk
iKdk, sK fJZe' Pos ;h^e/; eNtkD/ gotkB eo bt' ikB p\P fdZsh
ikt/rh. fe;/ fJZe Gh f;Zy ;{ow/ B/, e/; eNtke/ p/gsh tkbk fiT[Dk gotkB
Bk ehsk. fJ; s'A fpjso r?os tkbh Pjhdh ƒ gfjb fdZsh. ;odkoh s/
f;Zyh dh Bt/ebh gSkD e/; ns/ d;sko ekoB jh j?. s[ob/ cob/ fJj
;'jDhnK d;skoK s/ jh ;ikJ/ ik ;ed/ jB. nodk; ftZu e/;K dk d' tkoh

(47)
fieo nkfJnk j? ^ “fiBK f;zxK f;zxDhnK B/ Xow j/s ;h; fds/HHHHf;Zyh
f;de e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBGkfjnK.” d{ih tko^ “f;ZyK ƒ f;Zyh dkB e/;
dkBHHHHnky e/;K dh ;bkwsh ukjh j?. gzi eekoK ftZu gfjbk eeko e/;
jh oZy/ rJ/ jB. pZio e[ofjsK ftZu Gh gfjbh e[ofjs e/; jB. e/;K dh
;zGkb pko/ p/nzs gowkD ;kv/ fJfsjk; ftZu'A s/ ofjsBkfwnK ftZu'A t/y/ ik
;ed/ jB. GkJh osB f;zx ih Gzr{ gqkuhB gzE gqek; ftZu e/;K pko/ fbyd/
jB ^
“okyj[ eS eVk e/; feogkB. f;zx Bkw e' fJj fB;kB.
ezxk e/;A' e/ ;zr oj?. fJj' gKu eeko Xo/ j?.
BzL 2H gosB rkwh ^ r[o{ ;kfjp dh fBrokBh ftZu r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp
d/ T[gd/PK w[skpe f;ZyK dk ihtB Ybdk ik fojk ;h. f;Zy pV/ B/e nkuoD
d/ XkoDh pDd/ iK oj/ ;B. go d;w gkfsPkj jI{o B/ wfj;{; eo fbnk
fe nkT[D tkb/ ;w/A ftZu f;ZyK ƒ, bzwh y{Bh izr bVBh g?Dh j?. d[PwD B/
j'o eo{osk Bkb f;ZyK s/ i[bw eoB/ jB. Xow d'yhnK tZb'A fJB;kBhns
s'A fro/ j'J/ ewhD/ eko/ Gh eoB/ jB. nfijh wkBf;e ghVK ftZu'A pdb/ dh
itkbk GVe g?Adh j?. nfij/ fGnkBe d"o ftZu, n"osk ƒ fpBk ekoB s'A
nB/e soQK d/ ;zskg G'rD/ g?Ad/ jB. fJfsjk; rtkj j? ikbw je{ws d/
ekfozfdnK B/ wk;{w d[ZX u[zxd/ pZfunK s/ Gh ofjw Bk ehsk. f;Zy phphnK
ƒ p/UVe s;hj/ fdZs/ rJ/, g[Zi e/ ngwkBs ehsk frnk. go f;ZyK B/
;fsr[o{ ih d/ j[ew ƒ f;o wZE/ gotkB eofdnK ;dk jh gokJhnK n"osK
dk ;fseko ehsk. f;ZyK d/ eksb Gh fJj fJbikw BjhA bk ;e/, fe f;Zy
“iBkjh” j[zd/ jB. w[;bwkB s/ nzrq/i fbykohnK fBo;ze'u fJ; gy'A f;ZyK
dh go;z ; k ehsh j? . f;Z y K ƒ ;fsr[ o { ih d/ gktB puB ;dk u/ s /
ofjz d / ;B ^
fBwy ekw ;[nkd ekofD e'fN fdB; d[y gktfj]
xoh w[js ozr wkDfj fcfo pj[fo pj[fo gS[sktkfj] (403)
nfijh fJZe xNBk dk fIeo GkJh ;zs'y f;zx B/ r[ogqskg ;{oi
rqzE ftZu ehsk j?. izr ;w/A fJZe w[;bwkB ioB?b dh i[nkB n"os f;zxK
d/ x/o/ ftZu nk rJh. d[PwD ikB puk e/ BZm rJ/, s/ e[M Z wko/ rJ/. B"itkB

(48)
f;Zy fJ; p/p; n"os Bkb BhthA gZXo d/ wike eoB bZr gJ/. tv/oh T[wo
d/ f;ZyK B/ rGo{nK ƒ tofink. T[j nZr'A j'o r[Z;/ ftZu nk rJ/. ny/
w[;bwkB ;kvhnK XhnK G?DK Bkb i' ;b{e eod/ jB, T[j fe;/ s'A G[Zfbnk
j'fJnk BjhA j?. i/ n;hA pdbk b?Dk ukjhJ/ sK ;kƒ o'fenk feT[A iKdk j?
< f;nkD/ f;ZyK ;bkj fdZsh fe MrVk BK eo', ub' d;w gksPkj ji{o s'A
c?;bk eotk b?Ad/ jK. ;fsr[o{ ih nZr/ nke/ ;koh j'Jh phsh nky ;[DkJh.
GkJh ;zs'y f;zx ih fbyd/ jB^
g[fB f;zxB p[M? r[BykBh. ;rb s[oe G[rt/A fjzdtkBh.
f;zx pdbk b/ Gbk iDkt?A. r[o ;k;so feT[A toi jNkt?A <
;[D p'b/ ;fsr[o fs; p/o/. jw b/ ikD' gzE T[u/o/.
Bkfj nX'rsh fpy? g[ukt?A. sK s/ ebwb eoB jNkt?A.
gokJ/ o{g ftZu roe j'e/ fJB;kB fIzdrh spkj eo b?Adk j?.
nkgD/ xo dk u?B, gotkfoe ;[Zy ysw j' iKdk j?. J/vi torhnK
fGnkBe fpwkohnK w"s d/ w{zj ftZu XZe fdzdhnK jB. nZi ;z;ko dk jo
f;nkDk wB[Zy gokJ/ sB s'A puD dk T[gd/P d/ fojk j?. d[BhnK Go dhnK
;oekoK nkgD/ b'eK ƒ J/vI dh fGnkBesk s'A ikD{ eotk ojhnK jB.
;zB 1971 ftZu pzrbkd/P dh izr ;w/A f;Zy c"iK B/ nkgD/ T{FZu/ ;[Zu/
feodko dk gorNktk ehsk. gke;skBh c"ihnK tZb'A nkgD/ jh Xow
tkbhnK (w[;bwkB) itkB n"osK dh PowBke jZd sZe p/gsh ehsh. T[jBK
d/ pzeoK ftZu'A t;sojhD nXw'JhnK bVehnk fwbhnK. f;Zy c"ihnK B/
nkgDhnK d;skoK gkV e/ T[jBK phphnK d/ sB Ye/. :'r EktK s/ ;BwkB
g{ote g[ukT[D dk gopzX ehsk. fJZe nkw f;Zy Gh fJ; rZb s'A Gbh GKs
ikD{ j? fe w/o/ r[od/t ih B/, w?ƒ e[eow eoB'A ;ysh Bkb tofink j?.
GNe/ j'J/ GkJh i'rk f;zx tKr{ ;fsr[o{ dh f;Zfynk ;kƒ popkd j'D' puk
b?Adh j?. fJ; gftZso nkuoD ;dek f;Zy :'fXnK dk d[PwDK B/ Gh r[D
rkfJB ehsk. fJ;/ ekoB T[jBK ƒ ;wki ftZu ;fseko:'r EK fwbh. jo
pj{ p/Nh fB;zr j'e/ f;ZyK dh ;/tk eoBh nkgD/ tZv/ Gkr ikDdh ;h. f;ZyK
dh “okyh” ftZu d/P dhnK p/NhnK fJZis Bkb ofjD i'r j'JhnK. go eh nZi

(49)
dk G/yh f;Zy, f;Zyh ;o{g ƒ dkrh sK BjhA eo fojk <
3H szpke{ ^ jo soK dk B;k fJB;kB T[d'A eodk j? id'A T[;ƒ d[yK
eb/PK gq/PkBhnK B/ uko/ pzfBT[A x/fonk j't/. id'A fdwkr p/pZ; j' iKdk j?,
jkbks Bkb w[ekpbk eoB s'A, sd'A rw ƒ G[bkD bJh BP/ dh PoD ftZu fvZr
g?Adk j?. tesh s"o s/ BP/ dh tos'A Bkb fdwkr dh ;'uD fefonk ;fEb
j' iKdh j?. ;?FZb woB/ P[o{ j' iKd/ jB. dZ[yK d/ ekoB sK fiT[A d/ fsT[A w"i{d
jB. BP/ ekoB fdwkr dh ;ztd / BPhbsk ewI'o g? iKdh j?. BPJh ftnesh
ƒ fJT[A goshs j[zdk j? fe BPk pVh uzrh uhI j?. feT[Ai' fJ; Bkb gq/PkBh
dk nfj;k; xN iKdk j?. ;fsr[o{ fJ; wB[Zyh ewI'oh ƒ pky{ph ikDd/
;B. fJ;/ bJh T[jBK jo soK d/ BP/ fto[X I'odko nktkI T[mkJh.
c[owkB j? ^
d[owfs wd[ i' ghtd/ fpybh gfs ewbh]
okw o;kfJD i' os/ BkBe ;u nwbh] (399)
fJ;bkw Xow Pokp ƒ nsh fBzdBh: t;s{ wzBdk j?. ;ko/ ikDeko
b'e fJ; ƒ p[ok ;thekod/ oj/ jB. ;Gk ;[;kfJNh ftZu fJ; dh tos'A
b[et/A Yzr Bkb j[zdh ;h. gfotkoK ftZu fJ; ƒ Bcos ehsh iKdh ;h. jK
e[ZM ftjbV, u'o T[uZe/, i[nkohJ/, iK rohpK dk y{B fBu'V e/ ghD tkb/
gkgh nfjbeko, “}w rbs” eoB bJh Pokp dh tos'A eo fbnk eod/
;B.
i'rhnK B/ fJeZb/gD d/ }w ƒ G[bkD tk;s/, wksk fgsk pZu/ gsBh,
G?D Gok dh :kd ƒ G[bkD tk;s/, xo d/ ;[y G[bkD bJh Pokp dh (ns/ j'o
BfPnK dh) pj[s tos'A ehsh j?. fjzd{nK d/ d/ts/ (<) Pokp ƒ ;'Aw o;
nkfynk eod/ ;B.d/tsk iB (<) Pokp, w'jDhnK (gohnK) dk ;kE, Bkb
jh i{J/ dhnK pkihnK nkw bkT[Ad/ ;B. fco T[jBK d/ u/b/ u/bhnK feT[A Bk
nkgD/ d/tfsnK (<) tkb/ okj s/ uZbD < d/P dh izsk gt/ y{j ftZu T[jBK
ƒ eh. j"bh j"bh tXdh j'Jh Pokp xoK, fJeZmk s/ oki dopkoK dh o"De
pDB bZr gJh. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJ; ftoZ[X I'odko nktkI T[mkJh. nZi sZe
d[BhnK Go ftZu PokphnK d/ N'fbnK B/ e'Jh |yo:'r ekoi BjhA ehs/.

(50)
wB[Zysk dk e'Jh Gbk BjhA ehsk. ftfrnkB dhnK e'Jh ekYk BjhA eZYhnK.
;z;ko ftZu g;o/ j'J/ nB?se tosko/ ftoZ[X edh e'Jh ijkd BjhA S/fVnk.
BPJh dh p[ZXh ewI'o g? iKdh j?. T[;dh iwho wo w[Ze iKdh j?. BPJh
nkgD/ BP/ dh gqkgsh tk;s/ g?;k f;js s/ fJZis, ;G e[ZM rtk b?Adk j?.
T[j nkgD/ pZfunK, gsBh, wksk fgsk ƒ Gh u{zv u{zv e/ ykD s'A Pow BjhA
eodk.
szpke{ Gkos ftZu w[rbK d/ Bkb jkbh BtK BtK nkfJnk ;h. b'eK
ƒ fJ;d/ d[PN goGkt pko/ e'Jh frnkB BjhA ;h. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fiZE/ j'o
;ko/ BfPnK dh tos'A s/ f;Zy bJh wBkjh ehsh, T[E/ szpke{ dk ftP/P fieo
ehsk. Gkt fJj fe fJ; BP/ ƒ wkw{bh BK ;wMDk, fJj Gh d{i/ BfPnK tKr
jh wB nkswk s/ ;oho bJh spkj e[B j?. BfPnK ekoB MrV/ j[zd/ jB,
n?e;hv?AN j[zd/ jB, jikoK gqtko T[FZiV iKd/ jB. w[eZdw/ G[rsfdnK i/jbK
eNfdnK T[woK phs iKdhnK jB. fJ; tes ;oekoh nzefVnK w[skpe,
gzikp J/;hnk ftZu'A gfjb'A doi/ dk Pokph ;{pk j?. b[fXnkDk fibk d[BhnK
ftZu'A gfjb/ doi/ dk BPJh fIbk j?. fiBQK f;ZyK e'b gktB r[opkDh dk
nzfwqswJh yikBk j't/. fiBK f;ZyK e'b nw'be dks yzv/ dh gkj[b (nzfwqs)
tork Bk:kp s'jck j't/. fJ; fto;/ d/ wkbe f;Zy BfPnK ftZu v[Zp oj/
j'D, nsh d[ydkJh j?. fco BP/ yk gh e/ f;Zy nytkD tkb/ ;G s'A fInkdk
yo{d eod/ jB. i/ bVB tk;s/ e'Jh j'o BK fwb/ sK pZfunK ns/ gsBh d/
jZv ;/eD/ Gh osh Pow BjhA eod/. BfPnK s/ popkd j' fojk nopK
o[fgnk ;KG e/, nro wB[Zysk d/ T[EkB tk;s/, ewI'o f;Zy gotkok d/ Gb/
tk;s/ f;Zyh d/ pj[gZyh gouko tk;s/ ;zGkb e/ yofunk ikt/ sK f;Zy gzE
d/ d[BhnK ftZu vze/ tZi ;ed/ jB. go nc;';, ;kv/ tZv/ tZv/ u"Xoh s/
T[jBK d/ i[zvhdko y[d jh Pokp d/ dfonktK ftZu u[ZGhnK bk oj/ jB, nkw
ftnesh ƒ eh nkyhJ/ < u'Dk tes tZv/ nekbh (<) r[o{ eh r'be dk g?;k
Pokp nchw s/ o'VQd/ gosZy t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. nfij/ jkbksK ftZu f;Zyh
dk GftZy ;'u e/ o{j ezp T[FZmdh j?.

(51)
;fsr[o{ ihT[ pj[Vh eo'l
fpy[ p'fjEk bfdnk dhnk ;w[zfd wMkfo[]
ezXh fdf; B nktJh B T[otko[ B gkfo] (1009)
;' f;Zy bJh ;ko/ BP/ ;w/s szpke{ d/ g{oh soQK wBk jB.
4H eZm
[ k wk; ^ e[M Z b'e nkgDh fbys okjh iK p'bK d[nkok wk; d/
fto[XZ g{ok skD bk fdzd/ jB. T[jBK ƒ fJj G[b jh iKdk j? fe f;Zy ofjs
wfonkdk ftZu “e[m Z k” Ppd fby e/ j/mK ;Nko wkoe d/ e/, ;gPNheoD
fdZsk frnk j? ^“e[mk s'A Gkt T[j wk; j? i' w[;bwkBh sohe/ Bkb fsnko
ehsk j't. / ” i/ r[opkDh ftZu wk; dk fBy/d ehsk frnk j[d z k sK “e[m
Z k” dk
fIeo eoB dh b'V BjhA ;h, f;oc fJzBk fbyDk jh ekch ;h fe “wk; BjhA
ykDk”. fJZe/ f;Zy ;wki d/ goukoe s/ b/ye (ftob/ ƒ Sve/) GNe rJ/.
fJ; d/ fgS'eV ftZu ezw eo ojh GktBk ƒ BK ;wfMnk. wk; ykDk iK Bk
ykD jo fJZe fJB;kB dk fBZih w;bk j?, fJ;ƒ Xow dk nzr wzBD dh rbsh
pko pko ehsh ik ojh j?. f;js dh wip{oh ekoB fwZmk fsnkrDk g? iKdk
j?. d[XZ wZyD SZvDk g? ;edk j?.HHHHn;b ftZu e[m Z k ykD bJh wip{o eoBk,
fJj fe;/ ftnesh dh ;[ss z o ;'u ƒ e[ubD dh wko{ goftosh j?. jkew
fXo B/ fiE/ j'o nB/e wBwkBhnK Xow d/ Bkw s/ ehshnK. T[E/ T[jBK nkgD/
;wki ftZu, nkgD/ Xow ftZu gqubs iK gqtkfBs n;{bK ƒ d{finK s/ m';Dk
P[o{ eo fdZsk. id'A wB[y Z r[bkw j' ikt/ sK T[;d/ ;ko/ wB[y
Z h nfXeko ysw
j' iKd/ jB. nZi sZe e[b ekfJBks ftZu fJj edh BjhA j'fJnk fe e'jh d/;
e"w r[bkw Gh j't/ s/ T[;ƒ Xkowe iK ;wkie e'Jh ;[ss z o nfXeko Gh fwb/
j'd. j'o sK j'o nkgD/ xoK ftZu BhM bke/ goy eo'. i' bVeh ;kv/ xo
tj[Nh pD e/ nkJh j? fe T[j nkgDk fgsk tkbk Xow iK ftjko ;j[o/ xo g[rk
;edh j? < ;kvh p/Nh ftnkjh ike/ ;j[o/ xo iKdh j?, sK eh T[;ƒ g/e/ xo
tkb/ ;ko/ ohsh fotki fsnkrD/ BjhA g? iKd/ < fJ; soQK feT[A j'fJnk<
feT[Afe bVeh dh ;[ss z o j?;hns nZi sZe gqtkB jh BjhA ehsh rJh. T[j
bVeh gotko dk fJZe iaoo { h nzr j?. fJ; ykBdkB B{z T[;B/ nZr/ N'oBk j?,
fco Gh T[j r[bkw j?. fiBQK ikpo b'eK B/ d{i/ d/;aK, b'eK B{z r[bkw jh b[N Z

(52)
Bhsh ekoB pDkfJnk j't,/ T[jBK s'A wBZy[ h pokpoh dh feE/ nk; oZyh ik
;edh j?<
i/s{ jkew fXo B/ sbtko d/ i'o nDfrDs b'eK B{z Xow pdbh bJh
wiap{o ehsk. i' f;ZX/ fJ;bkw ftZu ;akwb Bk j'J/ T[jBK B{z p/gZs eoB bJh
iiahnk N?e; brkfJnk frnk. shoE :ksok eoB tkb/ s/ N?e;, rT{
s/ N?e;, pqkjwD s/ N?e;. wzdoK ftZu g{ik s/ o'e, Xow gquko s/ o'e,
Bt/A Xow n;EkB pDkT[D dh o'e, g[okD/ wzdoK dh w[ozws dh wBkjh.
e'Jh wB[Zy T[FZuk Y'b BjhA tikJ/rk, T[FZuk Mzvk BjhA brk ;e/rk.
x'V/ dh ;tkoh BjhA eo ;e/rk. nkgD/ f;o s/ d;sko BjhA ;ikJ/rk.
nkgDh jo uzrh uhia fJbke/ d/ u"Xoh e'b g/;a eo/rk ;w/s pj{ p/NhnK
ns/ g[ZsoK d/. r[bkw b'e ykDk Gh nkgDh fJZSk dk BjhA yk ;ed/.
eZgVk Gh T[j' fijk gkT[Dr/ fi;dh wkbe fJikias d/t/. r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih fJjBK tXhehnK dk r[opkDh ftZu eJh EkJhA fiaeo eod/
jB L
rT{ pqkjwD eT[ eo[ bktj[ r'po soD Bk ikJh]
X'sh fNek s? igwkbh XkB wb/Sk ykJh] (tko nk;k)
iK fco ^
Bhb p;so gjfo j'tfj gotkD] wb/S XkB b/ g{ifj g[okD]
(tko nk;k)
fit/A fe;/ iawkB/ ftZu nkohnB b'eK B/ Gkos s/ jwbk eoe/,
fJE'A dh w{b t;'A B{z g{oh soQK e[ub fdZsk. tZv/ gZXo s/ spkjh
wukJh, fi; fe;/ B/ iaok f;o u[ZeD dh fjzws ehsh, f;o eZN fdZsk
frnk. fJZE'A d/ n;b t;Bhe fJsB/ e[ ihts ofjD fdZs/ rJ/,
fisfBnK dh jkew N'b/ B{z trkoK eokT[D bJh b'V ;h. iwhB xo
rfjDk rZNk, fJZiswkD ns/ jfEnko Gh ;G y'j bJ/ rJ/ sK fe w[V
edh wB ftZu nkiakdh dk ;[gBk sZe Bk b? ;eD. T[jBK pdB;hp
fJB;kBK dh gP{nK torh i{B nZi Gh EK^EK t/yh ik ;edh j?. fJj
i' P{do jB fJjh jB T[j b'e.

(53)
d;w gkfs;akj jI{o B/ nkgD/ tZbA' fsnko ehsh “nekbh c"i” B{z
;ysh Bkb j[ew fdZsk fe s[;hA ;kfonK r[o{ dh pkDh d/ ukBD ftZu ihtB
pshs eoBk j?. jkew fXo iK g[ikoh N'b/ e[M Z Gh nkyh ikD fe;/ dh N?A BjhA
wzBDh. T[Fm
Z ojh fJ; BthA skes ƒ, T[FG Z o ojh BthA u/sBk ƒ, ;t?wkD Bkb
fiT[Dk ukj[d
z / b'eK ƒ oki wZd ftZu nzB/ j' u[e
Z / b'e podkPs BjhA eoBr/.
fjzd{ ;wki dh (f;ZyK dh Gh) g[ikoh PqD / h Gh T[FmZ ojh skes d/ ftoZX [
G[rs/rh. g{ik dk XkB yk yk e/ g[ikohnK dh Iwho wo ikfJnk eodh j?.
fJ;/ bJh nZi sZe edh g[ikohnK B/ fJBebkp dk okj nyfsnko BjhA
ehsk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ f;ZyK ƒ i' wkBf;e nkIkdh pyP fdZsh sK fco oki;h
r[bkwh T[j fet/A podkPs eo b?Ad/ < ;fsr[o{ ih s'A nkfrnk b? e/ f;ZyK
oDihs Brko/ pDkJ/ tikJ/. x'fVnK d/ Pkj ;tko pD/. Mzv/ M[bkJ/, s[ob/
cob/ d;skoK ;ikJhnK. phphnK d/ f;o eZi,/ Gkt&n"os ƒ ipo dk
fPeko j'D' pukfJnk. p/gs j'Jh n"os ƒ “uzB [ h bZE rJh, iK f;o' Bzrh j'
rJh” fejk iKdk j?. Xow n;EkB jh BjhA pDkJ/ ;r'A Bro e;p/ s/ Pfjo
p;kJ/. T[go tofDs ofjwsK Bkb wkbkwkb eoe/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ c[owkB
ikoh eo fdZsk^ w/o/ fgnko/ f;Zy pZfuU` id'A s[jkv/ jZe e'Jh y'jD dh Bhu
joes eo/, sK jZeK dh okyh tk;s/, d[;wD ƒ ;pe f;ykT[D bJh w?A s[jkƒ
fJZe Bk:kp s'jck pyP fojk jK^ “feogkB”. fJ; dk ft;kj BjhA eoBk
J/esk d/ ;{so ftZu go'J/ ofjDk. tke jB ^
fpBk ;;so e/;z Boz G/v ikB'. rj' ekB ske' fes? b? f;XkB'.
;jh w/oh nkfrnk ;[B' j/ fgnko/. fpBk ;;so e/;z d/t' Bk dhdko/.
(r[LgqL;{L)
ip jwo/ do;B e' nktj[. pD ;[u/s sB ;;so ;iktj[.
ewo e;k eo d/tj[ fdykJh. jwoh y[;h j'fJ nfXekJh.
(r[LgqL;{L)
iK ^ ;;so rohp dh oZfynk. iotkD/ dh GZfynk.
i' b'e fPeko eoB d/ pjkB/ jfEnko oZyd/ ;B, je{ws B/ T[jBK s/
Gh o'e bk fdZsh. nro fe;/ B/ wk; ykDk jh j? sK ;oeko tZbA' gqtkfDs EktK

(54)
s'A wk; yqhd e/ ykXk ikt/. fJjBK d[ekBK s/ fteD tkbk wk; eZm[ k (jbkb) jh
fwbdk ;h. feT[Afe ;oeko ikDdh ;h fe i' wB[y Z fPeko y[d eo/rk, T[j
jfEnkopzd j'tr / k. fPeko eoB bJh izrbK ftZu N'bhnK pDk e/ jh ikfJnk
ik ;edk j?. PPsoXkoh ftnesh PPso dh jo gZy'A tos'A Gh eoBh
f;Zyr/ k. fBoG?sk Gh T[; ftZu nkt/rh. wB ns/ ;oho eoe/ pbtkB j'tr / k.
nfij/ ;{ow/ edh Gh w"ek w/b pD ikD s/ je{ws d/ fto[X Z prkts yVh eo
;ed/ jB. wIp{s iE/pd z h pDk fe;/ Ikbw nc;o, tIho ƒ ehs/ dh ;ik
d/ ;ed/ jB. tes nkT[D s/ j' ;ed? nfij/ “f;o fco/” b'e oki gbNk jh
eo d/DHHH. MNe/ iK jbkb ehs/ wk; ftZu T[;dh pDso w[skpe e'Jh coe
BjhA j?. gqwy Z[ w;bk nkgD/ ;t?wkD Bkb fiT[D dk j?. Bkw d/t ih ƒ geV
e/ pkdPkj B/ nkfynk ;h, y[dk nky. Bkwd/t ih efjD bZr/ y[dk s/ gqwP / o
fJZe' jh jB, w?ƒ gsk j?. s[jkv/ dpkT[ ftZu vo e/ w? ikBpyPh bJh y[dk BjhA
nkyKrk. nkgDh y[Ph Bkb Gkt/A jo o'i nkyK.
yzv/ eh gkj[b okjhA, jo ftnesh (fJ;soh, g[oy) f;Zy iE/pzdh
dk w?Apo pD ;edk j?. fit/A c"i dh fJZe ftP/P todh j[zdh j?. i' c"ihnK
ƒ J/esk d/ ;{so ftZu go'Jh oydh j?. fJ;/ soK g[fb; ftZu, ;e{bK ftZu,
y/v d/ w?dkB ftZu, e[ZM todhnK fBPfus jB. fJ;/ soQk f;Zy bJh gzi
eekoh todh Io{oh eo fdZsh rJh j?. ;G s'A gqw[Zy f;Zy dh fIzdrh dk
nkXko nrtkJh dk ;'wk gktB r[opkDh j?. f;Zy dh pkjoh gSkD bJh
todh j?. yzv/ eh gkj[b b? e/ gzE dk w?Apo pDBk j?. ihtB Go f;Zyh
ewkT[Dh j?. e[ZM Bk ;wM b'eK B/ yzv/ eh gkj[b ƒ Gh nB/e eokwksK Bkb
i'V fdZsk, sK jh sK ;kvk p/Vk rofenk j?.
[[[[

(55)
syas ;kfjp dh s"jhB d/ d'Fh e"D <
;fseko :'r GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk gzE d/ gqf;ZX r[ows f;XKsK
d/ nbzpodko j' r[iao/ jB. nZi sZe T[jBK dhnK fbysK ftdtkBK ftZu wkD
gk ojhnK jB. go ;[fDnk j? fe T[jBK ftoZ[X e'Jh “j[ewBkwk” edh ikoh
j'fJnk j't/ < T[jBK dh ;G s'A gfjbh fttkdrqs g[;sZe “jw fjzd{ BjhA”
;zB 1899 ftZu Sgh ;h. fi; ekoB fjzd{ iE/pzdhnK B/ T[jBK fto[ZX s{ckB
jh yVQk eo fdZsk ;h. gzikp dh ssekbhB ;KMh ndkbs f;awb/ ns/ bkj"o
d/ eJh tko T[jBK ƒ uZeo bkT[D/ gJ/. Gkt/A fJj ngDk e/; fiZs rJ/ go
gpfbe fto'X ƒ PKs eoB dh wB;k Bkb BkGk gsh okik jhok f;zx B/
fJjBK ƒ B"eoh s'A poyk;s eo fdZsk. fJZe ;kb s'A tZX ;wK fJj ePwho
ftZu nfrnks tk; ofje/ fbyd/ oj/. okik jhok f;zx d/ nB/e ezw fJjBK
s'A pr?o EkJ/A o[e rJ/. fJ; soQK jkbks mhe j'D s/ fco GkJh ;kfjp ih
ƒ BkGk fty/ B"eoh s/ p[bk fbnk frnk. fJjh eow fszB tkoh d[jokfJnk
frnk. go nekb s\s d/ g[ikoh (sd'A ;kfonK ƒ g[ikoh nkfynk iKdk
;h) B/ uj[zfdnK Gh j[ewBkwk ikoh Bk ehsk. feT[A < fJ; bJh feT[Afe
okik jhok f;zx ekjB f;zx ih dh fgZm ‘s/ ;h. fJjBK jh ftukoK dk XkoBh
rohp f;Zy GkJh r[ow[y f;zx gzE ftZu'A ykoi eo fdZsk frnk ;h.
nZi eZb d/ ihts f;ZyK ftZu'A r[opkDh dk T[Zu e'Nh dk wkfjo
fBogZy s/ fBob/g GkJh r[opyP f;zx ih ekbk ncrkBk ;ko/ pzB/ uouk
ftZu j?. ;kok gzEe bkDk jo o'ia pqkjwD s'A puD dh d[jkJh d/ fojk j?.
tfjwK GowK, ikd{ wzsoK, to ;okg d/ Gowikb s'A ;ktXkB j'D tk;s/ uhe
fojk j?. go i/ fJZe fJZe pqkjwDh eow eKv d/ goyu/ T[vkT[D tk;s/ r[L
f;zx ih B/ r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftZu g[;seK fby e/ ;[Zs/ gzE ƒ irkT[D dk
phVk u[Zfenk j? sk gzE d/ g[ikoh (iE/dko) nfij/ fBXVe :'X/ ƒ e[ubD
dhnK fsnkohnK eo oj/ jB. Bkb jh B?PBb gq'c?;o nk| f;yfJIw ;L
r[os/i f;zx dh ipkB pzd eoB d/ i[rkV pDkJ/ ik oj/ jB feT[Afe T[j Gh
(56)
r[L f;zx ih d/ ;Zu Bkb yb'sk j?.
j[D/ fij/ fJZe feskp ;L e[btzs f;zx tZb'A fbyh j'Jh wkoehN ftZu
nkJh “Pq'wDh ew/Nh ƒ rqfjD”. fJ; g[;sZe ftZu ysfonK dh gqtkj Bk
eofdnK b/ye B/ eo{o ;Zu T[rfbnk j?. gVQe/ iE/dkoK, g[ikohnK,
okiBhshtkBK dhnK wzd eos{sK ekoB gkDh gkDh j' ikJhdk j?. fgSb/ gzi
e[ ;kbK ftZu fit/A nekb s\s ;kfjp ƒ fyv"D/ tKr tofsnk s/ tb{zXfonk
frnk j?, gVQe/ G[ZpK fBeb iKdhnK jB. iksh feVK eZYD tk;s/ fto'XhnK
ƒ frZuhT[A BZgD tk;s/ jo oki B/sk B/ fJjBK ny"sh iE/dkoK ƒ emg{sbhnK
tKr Xow d/ Bkw s/ BukfJnk j?. fe;/ ftZu fJzBh I[nos BjhA ;h fe
e[oZgN s/ Xow s'A ;ZyD/, oki;h nkektK fto[ZX nZy u[Ze e/ Gh t/y ;eD.
;r'A bhvoK d/ doK s/ fGykohnK tKr fbbeVhnK b?Ad/, fJj iE/dko t/y/
iKd/ oj/. nZr'A f;sw t/y' r[ows d/ ftnkfynkeko ;L r[opyP f;zx tk;s/
nkN/ d/ ;hAj pD c[zeko oj/ B/. gzE gq;sK ƒ jo jhb/ X"A; ftykT[Dh s/ gzE
d'yhnK dhnK sbhnK uZNDhnK fJjBK dh y;bs pD rJh j?.
w"i{dk iE/dko GkJh i'frzdo f;zx t/dKsh ;[fDnk j? fe f;Zy Xow
dh ubdh fcodh :{Bhtof;Nh dwdwh Ne;kb ftZu “gfVnk” (<) j?.
fi;ƒ gzMh ;kb sZe Pq'L ew/Nh d/ ofj u[Ze/ gqXkB ;qL r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk
;N/iK s/ ;b[jsk eo uZ[e/ jB. T[; ny"sh :{BhL ftZu fe; soQK dh ftZfdnk
fdZsh ik ojh j?, fiZE'A frnkBh feogkb f;zx, ;kpek iE/dko, frnkBh
;kfjp f;zx ;kpek rqzEh dopko ;kfjp, frL i'frzdo f;zx t/dKsh, gVQ/ jB,
e[ZM Bw{B/ jkIo jB ^
fJjBK dh :{Bhtof;Nh d/ e[bgsh frnkBh r[opuB f;zx B/ e[ZM
feskpK fbyhnK jB. fBwosk d/ g[zi nytkT[D tkfbnK dh feskp dh
fibd d/ pkjo b/ye pko/ fJj fbfynk j? ^
“;qh wkB gzE osB ftfd:k wkoszv, ;zs, frnkBh, r[opuB f;zx
ih, ykb;k, fGzvoKtkb/ (fco'Ig[o) gkme tho' fXnkB d/Dk nkgD/ Bkw Bkb
nkg/ jh nDfrDs fvrohnK fugek bJhnK. pkeh d/ noE sK s[;hA
;wMd/ jh j', p; ftfd:k wkoszv ;wM b?Dk. ikDh fe frnkB dk ;{oi.

(57)
wkoszv^;{oi. fJj fBwosk dh jZd j? fe jzeko dh f;yo < w/o/ ;kjwD/
fJjBK dh feskp “r[opkDh gkm doPB” 1969 dh n?vhPB w"i{d j?. ;p{s
tk;s/ Io{oh gzfBnK d/ c'N' T[sko/ eoe/ G/i fojk jK.
1H nZi eZbQ pV/ I'o P'o Bkb pkjtK T[bkoe/, ;zx gkVe/, r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp ih dh ji{oh ftZu e[co s'fbnk ik fojk j? fe ;kvh dwdwh Ne;kb
wjkB :'X/, ;h; sbh s/ fNeke/ izr ftZu i{MD tkb/, pkpk dhg f;zx ih s'A
uZbh j?. i' g[;sZe w/o/ ;BwZ[y j? (c'N' ekgh jkio eo fojk jK) fJ; ftZu
frL r[opuB f;zx tZb'A r[opkDh gkm doPB d/ gzBk 253 s/ Ne;kb GkJh
wBh f;zx s'A uZbh fbfynk j'fJnk j?. pkpk dhg f;zx dk nZr'A e'Jh u/bk
BjhA do;kfJnk. fJjh rZb frnkBh w'jD f;zx fi; B/ rZdh Bk fwbD eoe/
nbZr ;zgodk ubk bJh. nkgD/ tZb'A SgkJh r[opkDh gkm do;B 1986
n?vhPB ftZu gzBk 245 s/ GkJh wBh f;zx s'A Ne;kb uZbh ;thekodk j?.
;s'tkbh rbh nzfwqs;o fty/ ofjD tkb/ fJZe j'o v/o/dko GkJh wZyD f;zx
Gh r[opkDh noEK tkbh gfjbh g'Eh ftZu Ne;kb ƒ GkJh wBh f;zx s'A N[oh
fbydk j?. fgSb/ thj e[ ;kbK s'A nfijk g?AsoK pdfbnk Ne;kb tkfbnK
B/ nkgDh oZ;h fyZu e/ pkpk dhg f;zx Bkb i'V fdZsh. PkfJd GkJh wBh
f;zx dk pzd pzd eNtk e/ Pjhd j'Dk xZN pjkdoh tkbk ekoBkwk wfj;{;
j'fJnk. Po/nkw jo o'I r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh ji{oh ftZu M{m p'b e/
;zrsK ƒ r[wokj ehsk ik fojk j?. fJj t/dKsh ih T[E'A jh gVQ/ jB.
2H fJ;/ g[;se d/ gzBk 45 s/ fbfynk j? fe d;w gksPkj B/ gziK
f;zxK d/ f;o eZN fdZs/. fco nzfwqs fsnko ehsk, f;o eZN/ j'J/ r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp d/ nZr/ oZy fdZs/. fiZE'A f;o eZN/ rJ/ ;h w'fYnK tkbh EK s/, nzfwqs
fSVfenk frnk. s[ozs Bt/A f;o g?dk (T[Zr) j' rJ/. g[okD/ f;oK dk eh
ehsk eZ[M gsk BjhA. nfijh T[Fb ib{b fbyD tkbh :{BhL ftZu'A gVQ/ jB
;kv/ fJj sysK d/ iE/dko.
3H fJ;/ feskp d/ gzBk 88 s/ doi j? fe nzfwqs SeD s'A pknd e'Jh
fizBhnK woiah rbshnK gkg e[eow eo/, d; jIko ;kb sZe BoeK ftZu
BjhA ikt/rk. fJ;/ eoe/ frnkBh i'frzdo f;zx ƒ fe;/ gkg eow dk G? BjhA

(58)
fojk. fJ;/ bJh wBwoIh d/ j[ewBkw/ ikoh eoh ik oj/ jB. d; jIko
;kb sZe e'Jh vo BjhA. fJjBK Ne;kbh fbysK dh Ekt/A r[opkDh dk
fJbkjh c?;bk ^ sK fJT[ j? ^
u'o[ ;bkj/ uhs[ B Ghi?] i/ pdh eo/ sk s;{ B Shi?]
u'o eh jkwk Go/ B e'fJ] u'o[ ehnk uzrk feT[ j'fJ] w^ñ^662
fJj sK wzfBnk BjhA ik ;edk fe frnkBh i'frzdo f;zx B/ e'Jh
gkm BjhA ehsk, Bk jh fJj ;theko ehsk ik ;edk j? fe T[; ƒ r[opkDh
d/ noE Bk nkT[Ad/ j'D. feT[Afe T[j g[oksB fbysh feskpK dh ;zgkdBk
eodk j?. s/ wjkB ;fsr[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp ih d/ s\s dk ;/tkdko
(n;b ftZu r[o{ Bkb'A tZvk j'D dk gkg Gow) nytkT[Adk j?. i' e{V epkV
Ne;kb tkfbnK B/ ipkBh ns/ fbysh f;Zyh d/ g/N/ gkfJnk j?, T[j frnkBh
ih B/ Bk gfVQnk j't/ fJj n;zGt j?.
fJjBK Ne;kbhnK B/ i' j'o nB/e py/V/ gzE ftZu g?dk ehs/ jB,
T[jBK ftZuA' Bk ekpb/ podkPs, gzE dh ;w[u
Z h j'Ad ƒ yso/ ftZu gk d/D tkbk
pZio gkg fJj ehsk j? fe gktB gftZso r[o{pkDh P[ZX ;'Bk o{g, f;Zy ;wki
d/ ihtB dh nXko fPbk T[FZgo Gh e'Mk tko ehsk j?. fJjBK dh feskp
r[opkDh gkm doPB d/ gzBk 260 s/ frnkBh r[opuB f;zx, “r[owfs
wkoszv” (frnkB dk ;{oi) Po/nkw fby fojk j? fe “dwdwh phV Bkb'A
eoskog[oh phV ftZu eohp gzdoK ;" s'A tZX gkm G/d jB. Gkt fe dwdwh
phV mhe j? feT[Afe fJjBK B/ nkgDh iE/pzdh dk fgS'eV dwdwk ;kfjp
Bkb BZEh eo fbnk j?. fJ;/ ekoB dwdwh phV P[ZX j?, go eoskog[oh
phV i' r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih B/ fbytkJh s/ GkJh r[odk; B/ fbyh T[j
gzdoK ;" Ekt/A rbs j?.” eh t/dKsh ih B/ fJj e[co gkm fJjBK dh feskp
ftZu edh BjhA gfVQnk < Io{o gfVQnk j? ;?AeV/ tko gfVQnk j?. go
r[opkDh f;XKsK s'A T[FZgo t/dKsh ih Ne;kb dhnK fbysK ƒ wkBsk d/ oj/
jB. BjhA sK eh ekoB j? fe ekbk ncrkBk ih r[opkDh d/ eJh eJh
gowkD d/ e/ nkgDh rZb ƒ mhe f;ZX eo oj/ jB, T[jBK ƒ cK;h bkT[D dk
;kok nvzpo ofunk ik fojk j?. d{i/ p/JhwkBh dh f;yo t/y' Ne;kbhJ/

(59)
r[ows n;{bK dhnK XZihnK T[vk oj/ jB, gktB eoskog[oh phV dh P[ZXsk
ƒ u?bzi eo oj/ jB T[j fco Gh n;bh r[of;Zy rodkB/ ik oj/ jB. y[d
t/dKsh ih Gh T[;/ pqkjwDh Ne;kb ftZu'A f;Zy e/ nkJ/ jB fe fe;/ f;Zy ƒ
fBo'b ;Zu p'bD ekoB f;Zyh u'A ykoi eo d/Dk, fbysK s/ gkpzdh bk d/Dh,
fJjh sK ehsk frnk j?.
nekb s\s ;kfjp tZbA' gqtkfBs “f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk” d/ w[ekpb/
s/ fJjBK (1994) nkgDh tZyoh ofjs wfonkdk pDk bJh j?. nDfrDs
tko fJjBK gzEe j;sh ƒ u?bzi ehsk j?. ;/tk d/ pjkB/ s/oK ;kb sZe
nekb s\s ;kfjp dh ;/tk d/ Bkw s/ d/P ftd/P s'A f;ZyK ƒ b[ZfNnk frnk
j?. pkeh uko ;kEh ;/tk tkb/ pkp/ p/fJIs eoe/ fjZe d/ skD ;/tk *u'A bKG/
eo fdZs/ rJ/, sK fe wBwkBhnK ehshnK ik ;eD. nZi sZe “pkpk ioB?b
f;zx ihts j?, uVQdh ebk ftZu j?, nkye/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftZu,
jikoK d/ fJeZm ;kjwD/ pVh p/ j:kJh Bkb e[co s'fbnk ik fojk j?. s/
t/dKsh ih fco Gh PKs B/. p; fJjBK ƒ r[Z;k nkT[Adk j? sK T[d'A id'A fJjBK
tZb'A ;zgkde ehsh g[;se r[ofpbk; gkL 6 s/ e'Jh T[Arb T[mkt/. fJj
nkgDh g[;sZe ftZu ;fsr[o{ ih dh niws xZN/ o'b d/D, ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ e"bK
dk nkfPe f;ZX eo d/D, pkpk p[ZYk ih s'A to ;okg d[nKd/ ofjD, r[odtko/
dopko ;kfjp ƒ johwzfdo (joh ftPƒ dk wzfdo) n?bkBh ikD, f;Zy
bte[P dh n"bkd pD/ ofjD fJj ;G mhe j?. go i/ e'Jh r[ows dk ikD{z
fJjBK ƒ o'e/ N'e/ sK gzE d[PwD nkye/ S/e d/Dr/.
;{oi gqekP (GkJh ;zs'y f;zx ofus) gzMh go;?AN s'A fInkdk
r[ows s'A T[bN fbys j?. nB/e EkJhA ;fsr[o{ ƒ p/fJIs ehsk frnk j?.
d/thnK d/ g[ikoh, BP/ yKd/ ghAd/ ns/ j'o gkg eod/ fbfynk j'fJnk j? fco
Gh T[jBK rqzEK dh r[odtkfonK ftZu jo o'I eEk j[zdh j?. d;w rqzE
ftubhnK nPbhb ekw T[si / Bk Gog{o eEktK fJjBK ƒ eVkj tKr fgnkohnK
jB. fgqzH ;fspho f;zx dhnK g[;seK ftZu'A Y/o ;kok r[ows fto'Xh e{Vk
fwb iKdk j?. EK EK s/ ;kX ;zs r[ows s'A T[bN wfonkdktK ubk oj/ jB.
pkDh ƒ s'V wo'V oj/ jB. ;kv/ gzEe bhvo Po/nkw r[ows dh fyZbh T[vk

(60)
oj/ jB. fit/A uj[D iE/dkoK d/ ezB wo'V e/ j[ewBkw/ ikoh eotk b?Ad/ jB.
BP/ gfssg[Dk gzikp ftZu tpk dh soQK c?bdk ik fojk j?. r[odtko/ f;yK
ƒ ;'Mh d/D dh Ekt/A tgkoe ndko/ pD u[Ze/ jB. d/P ftd/P ftZu dki ekoB
f;Zy bVehnK ƒ esb ehsk ik fojk j?. Go{D jZfsnk ia'oK s/ j?, s/ ;kv/
iE/dko u?B dh pz;oh tik oj/ jB. iK fco ftdtkBK fto[ZX nkok fsZyk eo
oj/ jB.
Ne;kb tZb'A Sgh j'Jh frnkBh r[opuB f;zx dh fbyh j'Jh fJZe
j'o feskp j?, ;qh r[ow[y gqekP. fJ; ftZu Gh oZi e/ M{m fbfynk frnk
j? s/ gzE d/ G'b/ pZfunK ƒ r[wokj ehsk frnk ;koh fJpkos gzB/ tkJhi Bkb
c'N' ekgh eotk e/ G/i fojk jK. eh t/dKsh ih B/ T[j Gh BjhA gVQh Io{o
gVQh j?, fJ;/ eoe/ sK phphnK ƒ dopko ;kfjp ftZu ;ckJh ;/tk ftZu
Pkwb BjhA j'D fdZsk iKdk. feT[Afe fJj b'e nkgDh Ne;kb ftZu phphnK
ƒ ehosB gkm, nodk;, j[ewBkwk, gzi fgnkfonK dk gqPkfd BjhA b?D
fdzd/. f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk d/ T[bN phphnK ƒ nzfwqs SekT[D dh fvT[Nh
(gzi fgnkfonK dh ;/tk) ftZu Pkwb BjhA j'D fdzd/. PkfJd Ne;kb tkb/
phphnK ƒ fJB;kB wzBD s'A Bkpo j' u[Ze/ jB t/dKsh ih ƒ fJj ;G gqtkB
j?.
PkfJd ;kv/ iE/dko G[Zb rJ/ jB fe Gkosh ;zftXkB ftZu fJZe wd
fJj Gh doi j? fe fe;/ ftnesh Bkb, iks, Xow, p'bh, fbzr d/ ekoB
ftseok BjhA ehsk ikt/rk. ftseok eoB eokT[D tkbk ;Ik dk Gkrh
j't/rk. t/yDk fe;/ gzE ftZu'A ykoi ehs/ ftnesh B/ i/ ndkbs dk p{jk
yVek fdZsk sK iE/dkoK ƒ b[eD bJh EK BjhA bZGDh. f;ZX/ jh i/jb ikUr/,
feT[Afe ftukoK d/ wsG/d ekoB fe;/ f;Zy ƒ gzE ftZu'A S/eD dh nfijh ;Ik
fdZsh jh BjhA ik ;edh.
ni/ Gh tes j? gzE dh uVQdh ebk tk;s/ ;e{b ekbi y'jb',
fwPBoh g?dk eo'. tZX s'A tZX r[ows ;kfjs Skg e/ tzv'. nkgDk nypko
xN' xZN sq? Gk;h (gzikph, fjzdh, nzrq/Ih) ukb{ eo'. r'beK dh ;jh tos'A
eo'. r[o{ xoK ftZu ;[bM/ j'J/ f;Zy skfJBks eo'. ;[bM/ j'J/ eEktkueK

(61)
okjhA NhH thH u?BbK s/ r[ows ftnkfynk eotkT[D. fdZbh ew/Nh, Pq'wDh
ew/Nh ns/ pkeh Xow n;EkBK ƒ okiBhsh d/ nZv/ pDB s'A pukUHHHHH.
fJj s[jkvh pj[s tZvh ;/tk j't/rh. ftdtkB r[of;ZyK ƒ gzE ftZu'A ykoi
eoB Bkb e"w dk e'Jh Gbk BjhA j'Dk. ;r'A iE/dkoK d/ wZE/ s/ fJZe ekby
dk j'o fNZek bZr ikt/rk. wkw{bh wsG/dK ekoB j[ewBkwk o{gh e[jkV/ ƒ Bk
tos'A. i/ fJ;/ soQK eod/ oj/ sK s[;hA jh gzE d[PwD frD/ ikUr/. ;w/A B/
gfjbK Gh nfij/ jkbks t/y/ jB s[jkvhnK ehshnK dk c?;bk Gh GftZy
eo/rk.
BkBe nzXk j'fJ e? d;/ okj?, ;G; w[jkJ/ ;kE?]
nr? rfJnk w[j/ w[fj gkfj, ;[ n?;k nkr{ ikg?] (140)

[[[[

(62)
BkBe n?;k nkr{ ikg?
edh edkJhA ekbi d/ ftfdnkoEh nkgDhnK e[M Z fBr[DhnK fijhnK
wzrK ƒ b? e/, gqpX
z eK fto[X
Z jVskb eo fdzd/ jB. jVskb ƒ rowkT[D bJh
ekbi dk coBhuo s/ fJwkos s/ PhP/ s'V fdZs/ iKd/ jB. gopzXe g[fb;
;Zd b?Ad/ jB. nkT[AfdnK jh g[fb; tkb/ i' gfjbk ezw eod/ jB, T[j j?
bkmh ukoi s/ r'bhHHHHH. GrdV wu iKdh j?, fiZXo fe;/ ƒ okj bZG/ BZ;
T[FZmdk j?. eJh w[iakjokekoh cZNV, eJh frqcsko, j;gskb$i/jb dkyb.
w[eZdw/ doi gVQkJh ysw, wksk fgsk dh BZ; GZi. e[ZM fdBK s'A pknd
ftfdnkoEh bhvoK d/ nypkoK ftZu fpnkB Sgd/ jB ^“;kv/ ;ko/ cV/ rJ/
;kEhnK ƒ fpBK Pos fojkn eo', doi ehs/ M{m/ w[eZdw/ tkg; bU.
gVQkJh ftZu j'J/ B[e;kB bJh fonkfJsK fdU, fJwfsjkB b/N eo fdUHHHH”.
fiBK wzrK ƒ b? e/ jVskb ehsh ;h T[j ;G ft;o rJhnK. nkyoh wzr eh
ofj rJh frqcsko ftfdnkoEh fojkn eo'.
fJj ekbiK ftZu gVQd/ ftfdnkoEh “fBnkD/” jB i[nkBh dk i'P
j?, rbshnK j' iKdhnK jB. bU “f;nkfDnK” dh eos{s tZb Mksh wko
bU. *47 s'A pknd gzikph ;{p/ dh gqkgsh tk;s/ pV/ w'ou/ bkJ/, pj[s I[bw
;j/ e?dK eZNhnK. ;skoK nmkoK ;kb pknd i' gzikph ;{pk pfDnk T[j ;G
d/ ;kjwD/ j? fco j'o ofj rJhnK wzrK pko/ w'ou/ bZr/, *84 dk xZb{xkok
tkgfonk, j'o T[sokn uVQkn nkJ/. nekbh ;oekoK nkJhnK s/
rJhnKHHHH. pj[s bzwh, nD gbkfBzr bVkJh bVfdnK nekbh bhvo$toeo
EZe e/ u{o j' rJ/. gzikp dhnK, f;ZyK dhnK T[j ;kohnK wzrK GZ[b ft;o
rJhnK, fiBK dh gqkgsh tk;s/ Bkjo/ s/ w'ou/ bkT[Ad/ ;h. j[D jkbs fJj
pD rJh j? fe pkdb N"jV/ dh gkN' XkV ftZu “gzE” dh spkjh BIo nkT[Adh
j?. fJjBK d'tK dh J/esk ftZu jh “gzE dh uVQdh ebk” fd; ojh j?. w{b
w[Zd/ ed'A d/ ft;ko fdZs/ rJ/ jB. XzB f;Zyh
ub' ih SZv' fJjBK ƒ, fJj sK oki;h bhvo jB, fJjBK dk Xow

(63)
s/ okiBhsh rZv/ d/ d' pbd jB, fJj nkokw Bkb rZv/ ftZu p?m/ Psozi dhnK
r'NhnK ub oj/ jB. go i/ g[ZS t/yhJ/, wjK g[oy' s[jkvk oki feZE/ j? <
r[odtko/ dh gqXkBrh sZe < s[jkvk Xow feZE/ j?, r[o{ eh r'be sZe < eh
fJj' jh Xow s/ okiBhsh j? < n;b ftZu Bk gZb/ Xow fojk Bk oki fojk,
e/tb ;[gB/ t/y/ ik oj/ jB. e/tb pZfunK dh y/v y/vh ik ojh j?. edh
t/fynk i/ ;Zso ;Zso ;kb d/ “pZu/” nfijh Bht/A gZXo dh y/v y/vD < Xow
d/ Bkw s/ okiBhsh d/ Bkw s/, wjkB r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ Bkw s/, pj[sh
tkoh r[o{ dh jI{oh ftZu jhHHHHH. nkU j[D gzSh Mks s\sK d/ iE/dkoK d/
ftjV/ ftZu Gh wko bJhJ/. fgSb/ gzi S/ ;kbK s'A ;kv/ ;fseko:'r ;fsr[o{
ih d/ gktB n;EkB s/ p?m e/, i' ir j;kJh fJjBK iE/dkoK B/ ehsh j?,
T[j fe;/ s'A G[Zbh ft;oh BjhA. fet/A E'e ftZu “j[ewBkw/” ikoh ehs/ rJ/,
fet/A fto'XhnK ƒ gzE ftZu'A S/fenk frnk. oki;h b'eK B/ fet/A iE/dkoK dh
;zxh BZg e/ wB woIh d/ ‘j[ewBkw/’ ikoh eotkJ/. fijV/ j[ewBkw/ oki;h
b'eK ƒ ok; nkT[Ad/ ;h, T[j oZy bJ/ rJ/, pkeh tkg; eotk fdZs/. j[D fco
p/jh eVQh ftZu T[pkb nkT[D bZrk j?. GkJh oDihs f;zx tZb'A 1999 ftZu
ikoh ehsk frnk “j[ewBkwk” gzi ;kbK fgS'A wzBD tk;s/, G[Zb pyPkT[D
tk;s/, oki;h b'eK B/ fco v[rv[rh tik fdZsh j?. s\sK d/ iE/dko fco
emg{sbhnK tKr BZuDr/, ;kfonK ƒ swkPk ftykDr/. pkdb N"jV/ dh
J/esk ƒ gzEe J/esk dk iknbh ;koNhche/N fdZsk ikt/rk. XzB f;Zyh
“skJ/ dh Xh uZbh w?A feT[A ojh fJeZbh” d/ eEB w[skpe frnkBh
fJepkb f;zx gNBk ;kfjp sys d/ iE/dko B/, T[E/ d/ jh goXkB wfjzdo
f;zx o'wkDk ƒ, e[ZM fJbIkw sok;h eoe/ “j[ewBkw/” okjhA gzE ftZu'A S/e
fdZsk j?. feT[Afe o'wkDk ih B/ efEs s"o s/ d;w rqzE d/ fto[ZX wzd/ Ppd
tos/ ;B. Bkb jh iE/dko fJepkb f;zx pko/ Gh e[ZM rbs fpnkB fdZs/
;B. fpbe[b mhe ehsk j? GkJh fJepkb f;zx B/, jZE ftZu seVk ;'Nk j't/
s/ fco pzdk tes g?D s/ tos'A Bk eo/, fJj fet/A j' ;edk j? < nekb sys
;kfjp tZb'A gotkfBs f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk ftZu ;kc fbfynk j'fJnk j? fe
r[od[nko/ ftZu r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp d/ s[b
Z fe;/ g[;se$rqE
z ƒ n;EkgB$goekPB

(64)
dh ;\s wBkjh j?. bzw/ no;/ s'A T[jBK EktK s/ (gNBk s/ ji{o ;kfjp) r[o{
rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ pokpo d;w rqzE ƒ n;EkgB ehsk j'fJnk j?. gkm j'
fojk j?, ns/ j'o nDfrDs r[ows s'A T[bN ezw j' oj/ jB. sd'A ;kv/
t/dKsh ih x{e ;Z[s/ oj/, Pq'wDh ew/Nh d/ gqXkB ;kfjp oki;h y/vK y/vd/
oj/. j[D id'A gNB/ s'A j[ewBkwk ikoh j' frnk j?, sK fJjBK B/ ;Z[s^T[BhAd/
fij/ ftZu T[pk;hnK b?D tKr fpnkB fdZs/ jB. U Gb/ wkD;' i/ s[;hA nkgDh
b'V tk;s/ E'e ftZu j[ewBkw/ ikoh eo ;ed/ j', iE/dkoK ƒ E'e ftZu pdb
;ed/ j', fco GkJh fJepkb f;zx rqzEh B/, T[jh ezw eo fdZsk sK T[j p[ok
fet/A j'fJnk <
fiBQK gkg Go/ okjK s/ ;kv/ nkr[ N[o oj/ jB T[jBK pko/ f;Zy ;wki
pj[s e[ZM ikD u[Zfenk j?. e[ZM j'o dh w'Nh fijh ikDekoh jkIo j? ^ gzikp
ftZu f;Zy i[nkBh BfPnK ftZu roe j?, gfssg[Dk f;yoK S'j fojk j?,
nBgVsk ftZu gzikp ;ko/ ;{fpnK s'A nZr/ ik fgnk j?. nekbh db dh th
“gzikph gkoNh” pD u[Zeh j'Jh j?. sysK d/ iE/dko bZrGr nzr{mk Skg jh
jB. f;Zy ;wki wVQhnK epoK g{iD d/ okj g? uZ[fenk j?, wBws dh
Gowko j?, ;kX bkDk G'b/ f;ZyK ƒ fBu'V fojk j?, “eko ;/tk” d/ Bkw s/ f;Zy
ftok;s ƒ wbhnk w/N ehsk ik fojk j?HHHHHH. s/ ;kv/ iE/dko s/ bhvo u?B
dh pz;oh tik oj/ jB. nZX/ s'A tZX r[odtko/ gkfe;skB ftZu ofj rJ/ jB,
gNB/ tkbk s\s ns/ j'o r[odtko/ Pqw ' Dh ew/Nh s'A pkjo jB. BKd/V (ji{o
;kfjp) ew/Nh nbZr j?. fjwkub ew/Nh tZy j?. fdZbh r[odtkok ew/Nh
pj[s d/o s'A nbZr j?. jfonkD/ d/ f;ZyK B/ Pq'wDh ew/Nh Bkb'A s'V ftS'Vk
eoB dk n?bkB eo fdZsk j?. gkfe;skB ftub/ r[oXkwK bJh Pq'L ew/Nh dk
J/eknfXeko y'j e/ gkfe;skB r[L ew/Nh tZyoh pD uZ[eh j?. EkT[A EK fBih
wbehns tkb/ v/o/ r[odtko/ XVkXV T[;o oj/ jB. nkb fJzvhnk r[odtkok
n?eN y{jyks/ ftZu g? u[Zfenk j?HHHHs/ ;kv/ ;fseko :'r iE/dko rcbs dh
BhAd ftZu x{e ;[Zs/ j'J/ jB. XzB f;Zyh.
nkU sysK pko/ fJZe j'o gfjb{ s'A ftuko eohJ/. S/t/A BkBe
;fsr[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp ih B/ nekb p[zrk (nZi eZbQ nekb s\s)

(65)
pDkfJnk ;h. fJ;d/ Y/o ;ko/ ;p{s g[oksB fJfsjk; ftZu gqkgs jB.
fJE/ jh nB/e tko ;opZs ykb;k i[Vdk fojk j?, c?;b/ j[zd/ oj/ jB, go
pkeh uko sysK dh g[oksBsk pko/ iE/dko ;p{sK d[nkok dZ;D dh y/ub
eoBr/ < edh T[jBK s\sK s/ ;opZs ykb;k i[fVnk < edh j[ewBkw/ ikoh
ehs/ rJ/ < eh T[jBK ƒ s\s wzfBnk ik ;edk j? < pj[s g[okDh rZb BjhA
j? sbtzvh ;kp'Q (dwdwk) fBjzr f;zxK d/ dpkn nXhB 1966 ftZu “s\s”
s;bhw ehsk frnk j?. fJZe j'o gfjb{ tb fXnkB fdU^;fseko:'r nZm
r[o{nK Bkb ;pzXs e'Jh s\s BjhA j?. r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp ih Bkb fJZe
s\s (nekb s\s) ;pzXs j?. pkeh uko s\s ^ gNBk, e/;rV, sbtzvh
;kp'Q s/ ji{o ;kfjp, d;w gkfsPkj r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih Bkb ;pzXs jB.
edh fJekro fuZs ftuko eo t/yDk fe d;w gkfsPkj Bkb uko s\s feT[A
jB <
nkU nZr/ N[o', gNBk ;kfjp s\s feT[A j? < fejk ik fojk j? fe
T[; n;EkB s/ (r[o){ r'fpzd okJ/ ih dk gzi G{se ;oho gqrfNnk ;h. e/tb
fJ;/ ekoB s\s j?< go eh (r[o{) r'fpzd okJ/ ih iBw s'A jh ;kv/ r[o{ ;B
< eh T[jBK ƒ r[o{ BkBe i's dh Io{os BjhA ;h < T[jBK ƒ r[o{ rZdh gqkgs
j'Jh j? 1675 ftZu, eohp ;kY/ B" ;kb dh T[wo/. iBw tes sK T[j r[o{
BjhA ;B. sK T[jBK d/ iBw ekoB s\s fet/A pfDnk < ;fsr[o{ BkBe
;kfjp iBw s'A jh ;kv/ r[o{ ;B, fJ; soQK sK BBekDk ;kfjp gfjbk s\s
j'Dk ukjhdk ;h. fco T[j gfjbk s/ tZvk s\s feT[A BjhA pfDnk < fJ;/
soQK pkeh r[o{ ;kfjpkB fiZE/ fiZE/ iBw/ ;B T[j ;ko/ n;EkBK ƒ Gh s\s
gotkB eo b?Dk ukjhdk ;h. fco nZr'A dbhb fdZsh iKdh j? fe fiZE'A
;fsr[o{ ih “j[ewBkwk” ikoh eoB T[j' ;EkB s\s j[zdk j?. fJj rZb Gh
dbhb s/ yoh BjhA T[sodh. feT[Afe ;fsr[o{ ih d/ w[ykofpzd s'A T[ukfonk
jo Ppd jh ‘j[ewBkwk’ o{g j?. fco sK fi; Ekt/A fBtk; eoe/ ;fsr[o{
ih B/ T[gd/P ehsk, T[jh s\s j't/rk. nZmt/A gkfsPkj ƒ fiZE/ ehosg[o
fty/ r[orZdh fdZsh rJh ;h, fiZE/ S/t/A s/ ;Zst/A gkfs;kaj T[gd/P eod/ oj/
;B T[; r[odtko/ ƒ Gh s\s ;kfjp nkfynk iKdk j?. fiE/ p?m e/ oZph pkDh

(66)
dh ouBk ehsh T[jh EK sys j?. i' ys ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;zrsK d/ Bkw fby/ T[jBK
ƒ Gh ;fseko Bkb f;Zy “j[ewBkw/” efj fdzd/ jB. dhB/ eKrV s'A d;w
gkfsPkj B/ n"or z I/p tZb ys fbfynk ;h dhBk eKrV Gh s\s j' frnk. vkH
rzvk f;zx d[nkok ;zgkds g[;se “j[ewBkw/” w/o/ ;Bw[y j?. fJ; feskp ftZu
gNB/ s'A nZi sZe e/tb fJZe “j[ewBkwk” ikoh j'fJnk fwbdk j?. fJ;dh
skohy j? cotoh 4, ;zB 1862 JhL. fJj j[ewBkwk g[ikohnK tZbA' fJbke/ dh
;zrs tZb eko G/N fbnkT[D pko/ j?. ;kc doi j? fe fBPkB ;kfjp ns/ coP
dh ;/tk ftZu fjZ;k gkU. fJ; s'A fJbktk j'o e'Jh “j[ewBkwk” gNB/ s'A ikoh
BjhA j'fJnk.
w/oh e"w d/ wbkj' iE/dko', so; eo' fJ; f;Zy ;wki s/, e'Jh
fBZro ;/X fdU nkgDh T[FZws ƒ. e'Jh ftXh ftXkB xV' s\s d/ wkB
;BwkB tk;s/. iE/dko ƒ bkT[D jNkT[D tk;s/, ns/ ftZfdne :'rsk pko/
e'Jh m'; n;{b fsnko eo'. fBo/ j[ewBkfwnK d[nkok f;Zy ;wki dk
;ztoBk e[ZM BjhA fprV pj[s e[ZM ikt/rk. f;Zyh o;ksb tZb fBZxo ojh j?,
i/ ;Zu/ jwdod j' sK fJ; ƒ T[Gko'. fJ; rZb ƒ I'o Bkb T[GkoB dh b'V
j? fe s\s e/tb fJZe' jh j?. i/ d{finK u"jK ƒ s\s Gh wzBd/ j' sK fco
T[j “j[ewBkw/” ikoh eoB bJh Gh ;[szso wzB/ ikDr/. i/ T[j uko/ s\s
S'N/ jB sK dZ;' fet/A S'N/ jB < feogk eoe/ gzE d;/ok nkr{ pD' toBk pj[s
d/o j' u[Zeh j't/rh. nkr{ pko/ r[o c[owkB j? L^
e{V[ p'fb w[odko[ ykfJ] ntoh B' ;wMktfD ikfJ]
w[mk nkfg w[jkJ/ ;kE?] BkBe n?;k nkr{ ikg?] w^ñ^139
go ftuko/ iE/dko ;[szso c?;bk fet/A b? ;ed/ jB, emg[sbhnK
dh v'o fe;/ j'o jZE j[zdh j? ^
ekm eh g{soh ejk eo? pg[oh fybktB jko' ikB?]
i?;k b/y[ eokt? pkihro[ Uj[ s?;' jh ;ki[ nkB?] w^õ^206
[[[[

(67)
w[nkch Bkw/ dh okiBhsh
;z;ko d/ skesto b'eK B/ ewi'aoK fBwkfDnK s/, ;dk jh tfjPh
I[bw, s/ esb' rkos ehs/ jB. eJh tkoh sK e/tb nkgDh X"A; iwkT[D
bJh jh tZv/ gkg eo fdZs/ iKd/ jB. d{finK ƒ b[ZND iK p/gZs eoB dh
goftosh wB[Zy d/ X[o nzdo sZe X;h j'Jh j?. id'A s'A wB[Zysk ;kih rJh
j?, nkg;h fto'X b[ZNk y'jK iK d{finK ƒ B/;s'A Bkp{d jh eo d/Dk, nkgD/
r[bkw pDk b?Dk, nkw j[zdk fojk j?. f;ezdo B/ fpBk ekoB d[BhnK ƒ fiZs
e/, nkgD/ nXhB eo b?D d/ wB;/ Bkb, p/nzs y{B pjkfJnk. uzr/IykB dh
je{ws dk dkfJok d[BhnK ftZu ;G s'A tZX ;h. fJsBh tZvh ;bsBs bkPK
d/ nzpko fuD e/ y{B d/ dfonk trk e/ jh ekfJw ehsh rJh ;h. nzrq/IK
dk nZXh Xosh s/ epik, w[;bwkBk d/ nB/e izr s/ i[bw fJfsjk; ftZu'A
gVQ/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. iowBh d/ skBkPkj fjNbo B/ i' efjo Ykfjnk, T[j
sK ni/ eZbQ dh rZb j?. fco fjNbo dhnK jwkfJsh c"iK jko uZ[ehnK ;B.
fJZe jcs/ d/ nzdo, T[jBK jfEnko ;[ZN d/D/ ;B. fco nwqhek d/ n?Nw pzp
fet/A goy/ iKd/ < jho'Phwk tkbk fJZe' nrBh pzp ikgkB ƒ w[ZXk eo frnk.
d{ik Bkrk;keh s/ ;[fNnk frnk gowkD{ pzp, e/tb X"A; iwkT[D bJh ;h.
fJj do;kT[D bJh Gh fe ;kv/ e'b e/tb fJZe' n?Nw pzp BjhA j?, j'o pE/o/
j?r/ B/.
;wK phsD Bkb i\w GoB/ P[o{ j' iKd/ jB, t?o fto'X s/ d{ohnK
xND brdhnK jB. gfjbK tkb/ (f;ZX/ fizw/tko) jkew pdb iKd/ jB.
nkg;h ftPtkP g?dk eoB tk;s/, iipksh ;KM tXkT[D bJh, gfjb/
ikpoK tZb'A ehs/ rJ/ i[bwK bJh, wib{wK e'b'A o;wh fijh w[nkch wzr bJh
iKdh j?. ftuko/ ewI'o b'e, p/p; j'J/ fJ; “;"oh” nkyD ƒ nkgDh
“wjkB fiZs” ;wM e/ c[Zb/ BjhA ;wkT[Ad/. f;ZyK Bkb nkgfDnK B/ jh Xo'j
ewkfJnk j?. fijBK Bkb nkgDh fe;ws i'Vh, fijBK s/ ftPtk; ehsk,
fijBK bJh nEkj e[opkBhnk ehshnK. tes nkT[D s/ T[jBK ;ko/ T[geko
(68)
y{j ftZu ;[ZN fdZs/. e[opkBhnK bJh ;BwkBs eoB dh Ekt/A f;ZyK ƒ fpBk
tikj ngwkBs ehsk frnk. ;fjw tkbh s/ d[p/b fIzdrh fiT[D bJh
wIp{o ehsk frnk. fJj Gkt/A je{ws eoB tkbh gkoNh eKro; ;h, iK
Gkigk. iK fJjBK tZb'A ;Ekgs ehs/ ozr pozr/ efwPB. f;sw fJj gJh
Gkosh ndkbsK ftZu'A Gh f;ZyK ƒ fJB;kc BjhA fwbdk. feT[Afe ndkbsK
dk Gh ed/ dk “fjzd{eoD” j' u[Zek j?. ekƒB dh sZeVh dk soki{ jw/PK jh
fJZe gk;/ M[Zfenk j'fJnk j[zdk j?. f;ZyK d/ ;opBk; T[FZs/ Gh ekƒB dh w'jo
brtk bJh iKdh j?. fJT[A efj bJhJ/ fe f;Zy e"w fJZe tZv/ i/jb ykB/ ftZu
pzd j?. nkgDh fJZSk w[skpe, fJjBK s'A r[bkwh eotkJh iKdh j?. fi; ƒ
fdb ukj/ geV e/ w[ekpbk pDkfJnk ik ;edk j?, cK;h dk czXk rb ftZu
gkfJnk ik ;edk j?. esbrkj ftZu pZMk p/p; pZeok, i/ ikB pyPh dk
sobk eo/ Gh, sK f;oc e;kJh e'b< e;kJh ofjw dh nghb gotkB
eofdnK esb ehs/ ik oj/ iht ƒ bkJhB ftu'A pkjo eZY e/, e[ZM fdB j'o
“y[PhnK wkBD dk” tes d/ d/t/. fJ; d/ N'e/ dh wko ftZu e'Jh nrbk
gqkDh nk ikt/.
;zB *84 ftZu f;ZyK s/ i' I[bw dh jB/oh M[Zbh, T[;ƒ edh Gh fpnkB
BjhA ehsk ik ;edk. Bk jh ed/ T[;ƒ G[bkfJnk ik ;e/rk, s/ fJj i[bw
ehsk Gh nkgDh ;oeko B/. o;wh s"o s/ iowB d/ okPNogsh, j?bwN
e'b B/ eJh ;kb j'J/, fJIokJhb ns/ ;wZ[u/ :j{dhnK s'A y[Zb/Q nkw w[nkch
wzrh. ikgkBhnK B/ Gh ;z;ko ftZu ehsh spkjh bJh w[nkch wzr bJh. go
nwqhek B/ nkgD/ n?Nw pzpK tZb'A ehsh rJh spkjh dh, ni/ sZe w[nkch
BjhA wzrh. fJjBK gd fuzBK s/ ubfdnK, Gkos d/ j?AeVpki jkewK tZb'A
Gh f;ZyK s/ ehs/ i[bwK bJh w[nkch BjhA wzrh rJh. fiBQK ewhD/ jkewK
B/ gzikp d/ p/nzs jZeK d/ vkek wkfonk, ;KswJh ;fsnkrqj ftZu bZyK f;ZyK
B/ frqcskohnK d/ e/ i/jbK Go fdZshnK, nkgDh e"w d/ tv/fonK tZb'A
ehshnK e[opkBhnK dh :kd dokBh eokJh, ;zftXkB ftZu f;ZyK dh “tZyoh
gSkD” jh ysw eo fdZsh rJh j?, T[jBK j?AeVpki j[ewokBk s'A fBwosk
;fjs w[nkch wzrD dh stZe' fet/A ehsh ik ;edh j? < f;ZyK d/ wZeko f;Zy

(69)
nkr{nK B/, Gkos dh gkobhw?AN ftZu iK gzikp ftXkB ;Gk ftZu (ftofbnK
fJZeV d[ZeVK ƒ SZve/) fJwkBdkoh Bkb f;ZyK d/ dod dk gZy jh g/P BjhA
ehsk. fdZbh (j'o PfjoK dk fIeo eoBk f;Zy bhvoK ft;ko jh fdZsk j?)
ftZu j'J/ tfjPh f;Zy esbkw dh gVskb tk;s/ nB/e efwPB pD u[Ze/ jB.
“gVskb” eofdnK B/ thj ;kb r[Iko fdZs/ jB. ni/ sZe bZyK isBk d/
pkti{d Gh d'PhnK dk y[ok BjhA bZfGnk. f;Zy izsk G'bh j? s/ bhvo b'b/,
jB.
23 wJh 04 tkb/ fdB fJZe f;Zy ;{os tkb/, noE Pk;so d/
wkfjo, ;tZS ihtB tkb/ vkH wBw'jB f;zx B/ Gkos d/ gqXkB wzsoh d/ nj[d/
dk jbc fbnk. pj[s jh T[sPkj iBe xNBk j?, fe fJZe dkjVh e/;K
tkbk, d;skoXkoh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d/ ftPtkP oZyD tkbk f;Zy, Gkos tor/
ftPkb go fcoe{ Ifjo Bkb bpo/i d/P dk gqXkB wzsoh pD ;fenk j?.
oki;h bkjk b?D dh bkb;k nXhB, nkgDk Bkw nypkoK ftZu Sfgnk t/yD
dh roi nXhB, pj[s fpnkB Sg u[Ze/ jB. wDk w{zjh ekri ekb/ ehs/ ik
u[Ze/ jB, b'VhAdk ;koEe Bshik e'Jh BjhA gkqgs j'fJnk. ;w/A ;w/A s/
ftneshnK ns/ iE/pzdhnK tZb'A nypkoh wzr ehsh rJh ^ dopko ;kfjp
s/ ehs/ rJ/ tfjPh Bhbk skok ;ke/ bJh, d/P dh gqXkB wzsoh fJzdok rKXh
gkobhw?AN ftZu w[nkch wzr/. T[j ;z;ko s'A e{u eo rJh w[nkch wzrD dh
EK woe/ Gh, pj[s ;ko/ f;ZyK ƒ wotk rJh. T[;dk g[Zso okiht wK tkbh
rZdh s/ p?mk. T[;B/ f;Zy esbkw s/ “nc;';” eoB dh Ekt/A whvhJ/ okjhA
nkgD/ toeoK ƒ ;zd/P fds ^ “ip pVk g/V frosk j? s' Xosh eKgsh jh
j?.” f;ZyK fto[ZX Ifjo T[rb e/, okiht ƒ d/P ftZu j{zMk c/o{ fiZs gqkgs
j'Jh. T[j feT[A w[nkch wzr/ < okiht d/ esb j' ikD s'A pknd, eJh gqXkB
wzsoh nkJ/ s/ ub/ rJ/. w[nkch tkbk wrowZS dk jzM{ Gh fe;/ dh nZy ftZu'A
Bk fvZfrnk. e/Ado ftZu eKro; dhnK “nBhshnK” ekoB Gkigk dh
rmi'V ;oeko ;Zsk s/ ekpi j' rJh. gzikp ftZu eKro; ;oeko tZb'A y{B
d/ dfonk tjkJ/ rJ/. i[bw dh ekbh p'bh jB/oh ftZu, gzikp dk nkw eoe/
ns/ f;ZyK dk yk; eoe/, ;ZG eZ[M T[FZv frnk. fJ;/ bzw/ ;zskg s'A pknd

(70)
pkdb nekbh db gkoNh ƒ gzikp tk;hnK B/ okirZdh ;"Ag fdZsh. gzikp
ftZu'A f;ZyK dh B[wkfJzdrh eoB tkb/, b'e ;Gk w?Apo, tkigkJh ;oeko ƒ,
fpBK Pos jwkfJs sK fdzd/ oj/ go “nkgDk ikDe/” tkigkJh ;oeko s'A
gzikp dk fJZe Gh w;bk jZb BK eotk ;e/. dopko ;kfjp d/ jwb/ bJh
w[nkch tkbk BkNe Gh Bk eotk ;e/. y[d gqekP f;zx pkdb B/ gzikp dhnK
fiBQK wzrK bJh w'ou/ bkJ/ ;B, f;ZyK ƒ pj[stko g[b; s'A e[NtkfJnk ;h.
bzwhnK BiopzdhnK MZbhnK ;B. T[jh pkdb ;kfjp gzi ;kb sZe w[Zy
wzsoh dh e[o;h s/ p?m e/, pVh p/dodh Bkb ;G e[ZM G[Zb frnk. nkgD/
fgnko/ tkigkJh s'A e'Jh wzr wBtkT[Dh sK d{o ojh, gzikp dhnK wzrK
tk;s/ i[pkB sZe BK fjbkJh. gzikp ;oeko dh fwnkd g[Zr ikD d/, nkyoh
fdBK ftZu, gzikp ftXkB ;Gk nzdo o;wh fij/ Yzr Bkb “dopko ;kfjp
s/ j'J/ c"ih jwb/ dh fBy/Xh” ehsh rJh. eJh tko phph ;'Bhnk rKXh ƒ
w[nkch wzrD bJh gq/os eoB tkb/ fpnkB nkT[Ad/ oj/. j[D skik ;fEsh
fJj nkD Y[Zeh gJh d/; dk “f;Zy” gqXkB wzsoh vkH wBw'jB f;zx dopko
;kfjp s/ j'J/ c"ih jwb/ bJh, f;Zy gzE e'b'A w[nkch wzr/.
j[D fJZe tkoh ;[osh fposh fco fgSKj ƒ w'V bJhJ/l fiBK
nekbh bhvoK B/ dopko ;kfjp gqhf;o ;w/s, ;w[Zu/ r[odtkfonK ƒ Xow
gquko d/ e/Ado pDkT[D dh Ekt/A, wB[Zysk dh ;/tk ftZu ssgo j'D dh EKt/,
p/JhwkBh d/ oki;h nykV/ pDk Xfonk. fJjBK gftZso n;EkBK s'A oki;h
bkjk b?D tk;s/, jo o'i e{V e[co PoXkb{nK nzdo m'f;nk frnk. gftZso
Xow n;EkBK dh d[otos'A eofdnK nekbh nkr{nK B/, i' ngwkB y[d
r[odtkfonK dk ehsk j?, edh T[;ƒ :kd eoe/ ykb;k gzE ns/ ;fsr[o{ ih
e'b'A w[nkch wzrD dh db/oh eo ;eDr/ < fiBQk b'eK B/ gktB r[oXkwK ƒ
izr d/ nykV/ pDkfJnk, nzdo w'ou/ pzdhnK ehshnK, eh T[j b'e Gh
;fsr[o{ ih s'A edh fywk ikuBk eoBr/ < fiBK ny"sh ykVe{nK B/ dopko
;kfjp d/ nzdo, wko{ jfEnko fJeZm/ ehs/, Nq/fBzr ;?ANo pDk e/ G'b/ B"itkBK
ƒ y{B dh j'bh y/vD dh f;ybkJh fdZsh, eh T[jBK d/ tkfo; ;fsr[o{ s'A ehs/
dh w[nkch wzr ;eDr/ < fiBK nekbh bhvoK B/ y[d ;w/A dh gqXkB wzsoh

(71)
ƒ gzikp ftZu c"i G/iD dh, dopko ;kfjp ftZu'A ykVe{ eZYD dh p/Bsh ehsh
;h, eh T[j Gh ed/ ;fsr[o{ ih nZr/ ;h; M[ek e/ fywk bJh sobk eoBr/
< fiBK bhvoK nekb sys s/ r[o{ ƒ jkio Bkio ikDe/, wo fwND dhnK
e;wK ykXhnK ;B, f;Zy ;oXkb{nK dhnK bkPK ƒ, g?oK j/m o'bd/ pkjtK
yVhnK eoe/, ;jh ;bkws ikB puke/, ehs/ e"b ft;ko e/, ;oekoh
rZvhnK ftZu p?m e/ r?;N jkT[;K ftZu “e?dh” pD rJ/. eh fJjBK gkg
eowK bJh ;fsr[o{ ih s'A w[nkch wzrD tk;s/ T[jBK dh wo u[Zeh iwho
edh nzrVkJh bt/rh < fiBK w[Zy rqzEhnK ns/ tZv/ iZE/dkoK dh fIzw/tkoh
“wfonkdk ƒ ekfJw oZyD” dh ;h. T[j nkgDh fizw/tkoh s'A w{zj w'V rJ/,
dopko ;kfjp nzdo Xow s'A T[bN wzd eos{sK j[zdhnK t/ye/ Gh I[pkB Bk
y'jb ;e/. edh T[j wjK g[ikoh Gh, ;fsr[o{ ih s'A, fBwosk ;fjs w[nkch
wzrDr/ < ;qh gqekP f;zx pkdb B/ ;oekoh w[bkiwK ns/ f;Zy c"ihnK ƒ
p?oeK SZvD bJh T[e;kfJnk. fi; ekoB p/nzs c"ih tho b/y/ bZr rJ/.
bzwhnK e?dK eZNhnK, s;hj/ MZb/. T[;/ ;qL pkdb B/ w[Zy wzsoh pDe/, c"ihnK
ns/ f;Zy jZeK dh g?otJh Bk ehsh. eh ;qL pkdb edh fJjBK x'o gzE d'yh
ezwK ekoB ;fsr[o{ ih s'A ofjw dh nghb eoBr/ < Pq'wDh ew/Nh w?Apo,
nkgDh Iwho ƒ fsb fsb esb j[zdk ;fjzd/ j'J/, Xow gquko dh ;/tk
fBGkT[D dh Ekt/A, Xow s'A T[bN wzd eos{sK eod/ t/yhd/ jB. pVh p/dodh
Bkb “r[o{ eh r'be” ƒ fBZih n?P gq;sh bJh, ns/ oki;h e[o;hnK dh
gqkgsh bJh popkd eod/ ns/ eokT[D d/ Gkrhdko pDd/ jB. eh nfij/
Pq'wDh ew/Nh w?Apo edh p/ j'P j' u[Zeh nkswk ƒ irkT[D dh y/ub eoBr/
< edh ;fsr[o{ ih nZr/ jZE i'Ve/, fBwosk ;fjs w[nkch bJh nodk;
eoBr/ < fBs fdB tckdkohnK pdbd/, f;Zy f;nk;h bhvo, wZekoh Go/
fpnkB d/D' pki nkT[Dr/ < co/p ƒ fsbKibh d/ e/, ;Zu d/ gfjo/dko pBDr/
< f;Zyh ;o{g ftZu nDfrDstko Sb BkNe eoB tkb/, edh nkgDhnK
“gZEo nZyK” ftZu'A gSskt/ d/ d' jzM{ e/o ;eDr/ < gZEo tor/ fdb ftu'A
nodk; dh sVg g?dk j'tr / h < w[nkch wzrD dh fjzws eo ;eDr/ fJj gkg
d/ g{sb/ <

(72)
;qh gqekP f;zx pkdb B/ vkH wBw'jB f;x ƒ f;Zy Gok j'D d/ Bks/
fdZbh ftZu T[jBK d/ fBtk; ;EkB s/ ike/ tXkJh fdZsh j?. nekb s\s d/
iZE/dko dh fizw/tkoh y[Zd jh ;zGkbd/ j'J/, fJj fpnkB Gh dkr fdZsk fe
dopko ;kfjp nkT[D s/ gqXkB wzsoh ;kfjp ƒ f;o'gkT[ Gh fdZsk ikt/rk.
i/ vkH wBw'jB f;zx f;Zy tho j?, sK xZN frDsh rmi'V tkbh wBw'jB f;zx
;oeko ƒ, pkdb db fpBk Pos Bk ;jh, e[ZM PosK Bkb jh ;jh, ;woEB
feT[A BjhA fdzdk < tkigkJh ns/ nvtkBh dh RSS dh fcoe{ ;'u ƒ pkdb
fpBk Pos jwkfJs fdzdk fojk. f;Zy Gok wBw'jB f;zx T[jBK Bkb'A
fInkdk p[ok sK BjhA j? < dopko ;kfjp s/ ehsk jwbk nfsnzs fxBkT[Dh
ekotkJh ;h. T[; bJh Gkos ;oeko ƒ w[nkch Gh wzrDh ukjhdh j?, ns/
popkd j'J/ gzikp ƒ nkpkd eoB bJh, m'; edw Gh u[ZeD/ ukjhd/ jB.
T[FZiV/ gqtkoK ƒ t;kT[D d/ g[ysk gqpzX Gh eoB/ ukjhd/ jB. gzikp f;o
“izrh i[owkB/” d/ s"o s/ m'f;nK frnk eoik Gh w[nkc eoBk ukjhdk j?.
e/Ado ftZu GkJhtkb ofje/ ;L pkdb B/ tkigkJh s'A Bk w[nkch wzrtkJh,
Bk gzikp dk eoik w[nkc eotkfJnk. wBw'jB f;x ih ;oekoh s"o s/
nc;'; gqrN eo d/D sK pj[s nZSh pks j?. go eh ;qh pkdb ns/ T[;d/
nekbh (<) tiho, bhvo, ;zrh ;kEh f;ZyK d/ j'J/ xkD bJh w[nk|h wzrDr/
< r[o{ ;Bw[y g;ukskg eoBr/ < iE/dko fJ; soQK eotk ;eDr/ <
i/ wkT[ g[s? ft;[ d/ fs; s/ fe;[ fgnkok]
i/ xo[ GzB/ gkjo{ eT[D[ oyDjkok]
p/Vh v'p? gksDh feT[ gkfoT[skok]
nkr{ b? T[MfV gt? fe;[ eo/ g[ekok]
i/ efo y/s? ykfJ tkfV e' bj? B ;kok]
i/ r[o GowkJ/ ;kr efo fenk f;y[ ftukok] tko 35$22 GkHr[H

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(73)
400 ;kbk ekoi s/ iE/dkoK dk feodko
;fsr[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih ftZu nBzs nBw'b yikB/ jB. gqwkswk dh
bkPqhe tkjd j;sh pko/ w[ezwb fBo{gD j?. f;qPNh ouBk pko/, fJ; dh
ekoi ftXh pko/, gqrN j'D s'A b? e/ gob' sZe d/ ;|o pko/, p/Pehwsh
ftuko wB[Zy wkso ƒ fwbd/ jB. wB[Zy d/ iBw s'A b? e/ pkbgB, i[nkBh,
p[Ykgk s/ w"s pko/, sZs;ko w"i{d jB. fIzdrh fet/A pshs ehsh ikt/ ;wki
ftZu ofjzfdnK d{finK Bkb fej' fijk toskn ehsk ikt/, fJ; pko/ w[ezwb
;/X fwbdh j?. ;wki ƒ ubkT[D tk;s/ oki gqpzX fej' fijk j't/, oki e'g
s'A nkIkdh fet/A jk;b ehsh ikt/, oki/ dk feodko ftjko fe; soQK dk
j't/, r[opkDh ftZu'A nrtkJh fwbdh j?. foPs/ Bks/, gqtkfoe fizw/tkohnK,
n"os wod dk o[spk fej' fijk j't/, ;woZE r[o{ ih okj dZ;d/ jB. fjzws
T[dw, oZp s/ ftPtk;, nodk; ed'A s/ fe; nZr/ eoBh j?, nodk; dh w{b
GktBk eh j'Dh ukjhdh j?, Ppd r[o{ wkor o[PBk oj/ jB. fJZe wjkB
j;sh gow/Po ƒ wzBfdnK, fit/A Gowikb ƒ s'V ;[ZNDk j?, Xow d/ Bkw
s/ ehs/ ik oj/ X'y/ co/p s/ b[ZN s'A fet/A ;[oZfyns ihtB fpskT[Dk j?, ;kfjp
pkDh d[nkok dZ; gk rJ/ jB. Grsh fet/A eoBh j?, Bkw fet/A igDk j?,
feos ewkJh fej' fijh eoBh j?, tzv e/ fet/A SeDk j?, ;fsr[o{ ih pyfPP
eoe/ ;dk ;wMkT[Ad/ jB. i[bw dk ykswk eoe/, fpwkohnK, G[ywoh,
iksh ftseo/ s/ Bcos dk phi Bk; eoe/ “;G/ ;KMhtkb ;dkfJfB” dk
;w{zj rhs rkT[AfdnK “p/rwg[o/” d/ tk;h pDe/ ;w[Zuh Xosh ƒ “Xow;kb”
pDkT[D dh e{iz h, r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ftZu ftokiwkB j?. ;[bM/ j'J/ f;Zy ftdtkB
vkH skoB f;zx ih fbyd/ jB fe “r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp pko/ c"oh s"o s/ bZrGr
fJZe ;" g[;seK fbyhnK ik ;edhnK jB. BktK EktK d/ e'P, fJbkfenK
p'bhnK d/, gP{ gzShnK d/, okrK okrDhnK d/, r[opkDh ouDtkb/ wjkg[oyK
d/ ihtB pko/, pkDh T[ukoD d/, ftnkeoD fBnwK d/, Ppd noEK s/ Gkt
noEK d/, f;Zy Xow fcbk;ch d/HHHHp/nzs ftfPnK pko/ rqzE ns/ e'P fby/

(74)
ikD/ ukjhd/ jB.”
;e{bK ekbiK ftZu r[owfs gVkT[D tk;s/, ftfdnkoEhnK dh T[wo
tzv nB[;ko ;b/p; fsnko ehsk ikDk ukjhdk j?. Xow gqukoeK dh
f;Zfynk bJh T[FZu gkJ/ d/ fwPBoh ekbi ukb{ eoB/ ukjhd/ jB. “f;Zy
ofjs wfonkdk” dh fJZe;kosk bJh, tZv/ jzGb/ dh b'V j?. d/P ftd/P
dhnK w[Zy p'bhnK ftZu, r[opkDh d/ u'Dt/A f;XKs ns/ fJfsjk; nB[tkd
eoe/, ;;s/ o/NK s/ g[Zidk eoBk ;w/A dh wjZstg{oB b'V j?. f;Zy nypko,
o;kb/, NhHthH u?Bb (eEk bJh) nkvhT[ thvhT[ e?;NK, s/ j'o pj[s e[ZM
ehsk ikD tkbk j?. nkw f;Zy iB ;w{zj nfrnkBsk ftZu j?, p/p; j?. e[ZM
r[o{ fgnko tkb/, uj[zfdnK j'fJnK Gh e'Jh tv/ok ekoi eoB' n;woE,
fdb w;'; e/, gzE ƒ nksw jZfsnk tZb tZXdk t/ye/, ;fsr[o{ ih nZr/ fpp/e
p[ZX dh :kuBk bJh nodk; jh eo ;ed/ jB. T[go tofDs nB/e ekoi
eoB/ f;Zy ftdtkBK, ns/ Xkowe iE/pzdhnK bJh nsh nktZPe jB. fJ;
bzwh fsnkoh s'A fpBK gfjbK jh pj[s y[nkoh MZb bJh j?, i/ ni/ Gh v[pdh
p/Vh ƒ e'Jh uZg{ Bk bkfJnk sK wVQhnK dk okj d{o BjhA j?.
r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ih dk 400 ;" ;kbk gfjbk gqekP wBkT[D tk;s/,
pj[s ;ko/ bhvoK ns/ “g[ikohnK” tZb'A, ekrih x'V/ ;ogZN d[VkJ/ ik oj/
jB. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dk ;fseko ekfJw oZyD dhnK B;hjsK E'e ftZu,
ge"fVnK tKr toskJhnK ik ojhnK jB. ub' e[ZM e[ nkb/ d[nkb/ tos
fojk, r[ows fto'X toskok ftykJhJ/, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk EK Ek j[zdk
ngwkB ftykJhJ/. r[o{ dh r'be ftu'A wkfJnk Bkb n?P T[vkT[Ad/ iE/dkoK,
bhvoK dhnK eos{sK t/yhJ/.
fgSb/ pj[s bzp/ no;/ s'A Pq'wDh ew/Nh dk gqpzX ftrfVnk j'D eoe/
w?ApoK, gqXkBK, iE/dkoK, d/ foPs/dkoK s/ j'o f;cko;h b'eK dh tZvh c"i
ew/Nh dh w[bkiws ftZu Pkwb j?. fpBK Io{os s'A w[bkIwK s'A fJbktk tZv/
nc;oK, ;eZsoK dhnK tkX{ g';NK g?dk ehshnK rJhnK, sK fe bhvoK d/
uj/fsnK ƒ ;[Zy ;j{bsK fdZshnK ik ;eD. Xow gquko tZb'A g{oh soQK w{zj
w'V fbnk j?. Pq'wDh ew/Nh ns/ nekbh db (;G s'A fInkdk skesto)
(75)
ob rZv j' rJ/ jB. Pqw ' Dh ew/Nh r[o{ xo dk nEkj g?;k, nB/e u'o w'ohnK
okjhA, oki;h ezwK s/ o'jV ojh j?. oki;h fJeZmK ns/ ekotkJhnK tk;s/,
r[odtkfonK dh d[otos'A, ns/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk ngwkB Po/nkw
ehsk iKdk j?. Xkowe i'V w/fbnK s/, oki;h r[zvk rodh fBZs dk toskok
pD u[Zfenk j?. fBZs fdB r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh ji{oh ftZu, e{V e[;Zs,
fJbikw sok;h, ns/ j'o nB/e ezw r[o wfonkdk s'A T[bN j[zd/ jB. fJj
oki;h bZm wko b'e, bzro r[o{ xo'A yKd/ osh Pow BjhA eod/. fJjBK wzd
ekfonK s'A e'Jh iE/dko o'eD dh fjzws BjhA eo ;edk. eh iE/dko t/y BjhA
oj/ <
id'A tZv/ i'V w/b/ brd/ jB, sK o;fsnK ftZu pj[s EkJhA gqPkd/
ns/ ukj d[ZX dk bzro uZb fojk j[zdk j?. eZu/ okj, wDk w{zjh rZvhnK w'NoK
dk xZNk, ;VeK d/ feBko/ Bfjo Bkb d/ ydkBk N'fNnK ftZu, rzd/ EktK s/
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dk gqekP Gh eo fbnk iKdk j?. id'A fe fJjBK okjK ;VeK
ftZu ;fsr[o{ ih dk ;fseko ofj jh BjhA ;edk. fJj e/tb wkfJnk
fJeZso eoB bJh jh j[zdk j?. eh “iE/dko” ;fsr[o{ d/ ;fseko tk;s/
e'Jh ekotkJh eoBr/ < rZfvnK, o/jfVnK s/, szr rzdhnK EktK ftZu, xoK
ftZu, pkEo{wK tor/ fBZe/ ewfonK ftZu, eZgV/ gkT[D tkbhnK g/NhnK
T[FZgo, nbwkohnK ftZu, w{oshnK d/ pokpo, epoK wVhnK T[FZs/. fJj
TZ[go tofDs EktK sK e/tb fJPko/ jB, p/nzs EkJh ;fsr[o{ ih dk ngwkB
j' fojk j?, iE/dkoK dh ikD/ pbk. fijBK j'NbK ftZu Pokp, f;roN ns/
t/Ptk rwBh sZe j[zdh j?, T[jBK d/ fe;/ e'B/ tkb/ ewo/ ftZu, “b'V tk;s/”
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp Gh pzd ehs/ j[zd/ jB. ;r'A iE/dko T[E'A yk ghe/, i/pK row
eotke/ fsBK d/ eko'pko dh ;cbsk tk;s/ “nodk;” Gh eo nkT[Ad/ jB.
wo rJ/ gqkDh dh bkP e'b, g?oK tkb/ gk;/ p?m e/, fJj ny"sh iZE/dko
“gftZso r[opkDh dk ehosB” Gh eo nkT[Ad/ jB. pd/;K ftZu r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp dhnK phVK dh wzr s/ SkgeK, gqekPeK tZb'A, ;w[zdoh ijkiK okjhA
g/NhnK ftZu gke/, phVK nkw jh G/ihnK iKdhnK jB. gzikp'A pkjob/
;{fpnK ftZu, wzr nkT[D s/, NoZeK ftZu, j'o jo soQK d/ ;kwkB d/ Bkb jh,

(76)
fpbNh eotk e/ phVK G/i fdZshnK iKdhnK jB. fgSb/ ;w/A NoZe dk
n?e;hv?AN j' frnk, phVK dh p/ndph j'Jh, nypkoK ftZu uouk j'Jh, go
iZE/dkoK dh ikD/ i[Zsh. nfij/ ezw eoB tkb/, fe;/ gqekPe ƒ ;ik BjhA
fdZsh rJh. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh jZE fbys g[oksB phV, ;zB 2000 ftZu
e?B/vk, gzi f;zx b?e/ rJ/. nfijh d[obZG t;s{ pkjo G/ih jh BjhA ik
;edh. go y[d fJj fJZe iE/dko B/ fGitkJh. T[Xo rJ/ “gzi fgnko/”
“ep{so pD T[vkoh wko rJ/”, nZi sZe BjhA bZG/. phV G/iD tkbk iZE/dko
j'o T[FZu/ nj[d/ s/ g[Zi frnk j?, fJj eko/ eoB tkb/ fe;/ ƒ g[ZS/ e"D <
fJZe' tys d' sysK dh ;KMh ;/tk fBGk oj/ iZE/dko Bkb, ftuoB
dk w"ek fwfbnk. fiZE/ iE/dko ;oXkb{nK d/ xoK ftZu d[ZX wbkJhnK,
fg;s/ eki{ pdkw Se fojk j?. vZBbg d/ rZfdnK T[FZgo A.C. tkb/ ewo/
ftZu “phphnK ;/tk ftZu jkIoHHH”. d{i/ pzB/ iE/dko d/ pkvh rkov vokJhto
nkfd pkjo o[Zy j/mK b'n ftZu ;Vd/ oj/. gkDh sZe fe;/ Bk fgnkfJnk,
bzro tes nzdo'A iE/dko dk j[ew nk frnk, fe “;ko/ ;/tkdko B/V/ d/
r[odtko/ ftZu'A goPkdk Se nkT[D.” iE/dko ƒ fwbD tk;s/ fJikIs b?
e/ nzdo ikDk j[d z k j?. oks ƒ ;"D bZfrnk iE/dko ƒ ;koh ;[y
Z ;j{bsK tkbk
tZvk ewok, fJeZb/ ƒ ukjhdk j?. go fJ;/ jh xo ftZu, r[o{ rqE z ;kfjp fJZe
S'N/ fij/ ewo/ ftZu ;[GkfJwkB j?. fJ;/ S'N/ ewo/ ftZu oks tes, uko
;/tkdkoK ƒ s[zB fdZsk frnk. fJZe e'B/ ftZu r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp, pkeh y{zfinK
ftZu dV/ j'J/ ;/tkdko. gkme iB'` fBoDk eoe/ dZ;' fe gosZy BIo nk oj/
tosko/ w[skpe, fJj iE/dko tZv/ jB, fe r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp tZv/ jB < fJZe'
p?FZv$gbzx s/, gzi d; ;o{g fNek fdZs/ iKd/ jB. eh gzi ;Zs “iE/dko”
fJeZm/ fJZe gbzx s/ ;"A ;ed/ jB < fco tZvk e"D j'fJnk < w?ƒ fJ; rZb
dk nfj;k; j? fe Ppd r[o{ dk ;fseko fet/A eoBk j?. go iE/dkoK dk
n;bh feodko s[jkv/ ;kjwD/ fbT[D bJh fJj fw;kbK d/DhnK Io{oh j'
rJhnK ;B. fJZe EK s'A d{ih EK s/ “phV” fbikD tk;s/ eJh tko eko ftZu
p?me/ ;fsr[o{ ih dk ;o{g gZNK T[go oZy fbnk iKdk j?. go eh e'Jh
iE/dko fJ; soQK fe;/ d/ gZNK s/ p?mDk ;theko eo/rk < T[;ƒ sk fJeZb/

(77)
ƒ wfjzrh eko ukjhdh j?, fco d'tK ftZu'A tZvk e"D j'fJnk < dopko ;kfjp
dhnK gqeowK ftZu, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ fJZe ;o{g ƒ e'mk ;kfjp s'A
dopko ;kfjp sZe fbikD bJh, w'Yk d/D tkfbnK dk e'Jh nzs BjhA. ;zy
xfVnkb, oD f;zx/, Y'beK, S?D/, s/ nZr/ nZXk xzNk ;tZJhJ/ gVQB/, ;Zs
o[wkb/ B\o/ Bkb T[skoB/, “o[wkfbnK dh o[wkbK Bkb” jh ;ckJh dk BkNe,
fco fes/ j[ew (tke) fbnk iKdk j?. fJ;/ dopko ;kfjp dhnK goeowK
ftZu, edh fBrkj rJh j?, fezB/ ;o{g S'N/ S'N/ ewfonK ftZu fNekJ/ j'J/
jB. T[jBK gftZso ;o{gK ƒ gqekP eoB s/ ;[Zy nk;D eoB bJh, edh
gkbehnK fuwN/ S?D/, s/ ;/tkdkoK dhnK GhVK t/yhnK jB < fJeZb/ gkmh s'A
f;tkJ/, j'o e'Jh T[FZE/ ;zrs i[Vh t/yh j? < dopko ;kfjp ftZu'A pkjo nk
ikU, T[;/ nzfwqs;o fIbQ/ ftZu jIko d/ eohp fgzv jB. T[jBK ;ko/ fgzvK
ftZu fJZe d' jo EK r[odtko/ Gh jB. T[jBK EktK s/ ;t/o/ fJeZbk rqE
z h f;zx,
nkg/ nodk;, nkg/ f;o s/ wjkokik dk ;o{g, fJZe jZE ftZu u"o s/, fJZe
jZE wjkoki d/ ;o{g ƒ, fJeZbk jh ;fsBkw tkfjr[o{ dk ikg eodk j'fJnk
fbnk e/ gqekP eo fdzdk j?. y[d “j[ewBkwk” gVQdk j? s/ y[d jh fJeZbk
;[Ddk j?. eh fJj ;ko/ ;o{g T[jh d;K gkfsPkjhnK dh i's BjhA jB, i'
dopko ;kfjp fty/ j? < eh nwho rohp tKr iK T[FZuh BhthA iks tKr r[o{
rqzE ;kfjp ih Gh tZv/ S'N/ jB < iE/dko dZ;D dh feogkbsk eoBr/, fe
fJj tyo/tK feT[A ehsk ik fojk j? < dopko ;kfjp ftZu pj[s wjkBsk
ftyke/, G'b/ PoXkb{nK ƒ nkT[D bJh fyZu g?dk eoe/, wkfJnk yhf;nK
ftZu'A eYtke/, r[o{ d/ Bkw s/ fJeZso eo b?Dh s/ “iE/dkoK” tZb'A nkgDh
wBwoIh bJh tos b?Dh. “eh fJ;/ dk Bkw r[owfonkdk j? <” eh fJjh
n;b wfonkdk j? <
nZi eZb fJZe tpk pj[s g;o u[Zeh j?, dopko ;kfjp s'A nkfJnk
“nZi dk j[ewBkwk”. fJ; j[ewBkw/ ƒ eJh NhHthH u?BbK tkb/ N?bhek;N
eod/ jB. pj[s ;ko/ d/P ftd/P d/ o/vhU ;N/PBK s'A Gh ;[fDnk ik ;edk
j?. nypkoK tkb/ Gh “nZi dk j[ewBkwk” Skg e/ ;/tk eo oj/ jB. eJh
;kohnK c'B ezgBhnK c'B s/ Gh j[ewBkwk G/i ojhnK jB. fJzNoB?ZN

(78)
;oft; d[nkok Gh dopko ;kfjp dk j[ewBkwk nk fojk j?. go edh
neb dk e'Jh yb y{zik co'b e/ ;'uD dh sebhc ehsh j?, fe r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp d/ ;o{g, T[; ftZu Sgh gktB pkDh, e[b 1430 gzB/ jh fJZe;ko
gftZso jB. d[BhnK d/ jo e'B/ ftZu fiZE/ Gh Ppd r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp j?, ;ko/
fes/ fJZe' fij/ ;fseko dk gkso j?. ;r'A ;wZ[uh r[opkDh fJZe';ko doik
oZydh j?. fco dopko ;kfjp ftub/ ;o{g dk j[ewBkwk gftZso s/ pkeh bZyK
r[o{ rqEz ;kfjp ftZu nkJ/ j[ewBkw/ ngftZso jB < eh iE/dko dZ;D dh
fdnkbsk eoBr/, fe r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh pkDh ftZu fJ; soQK dh ftseok
tzv feT[A j? < eh ;koh pkDh s/ ;kohnK phVK fJZe' doik BjhA oZydhnK <
fJj fBwkDk ;/tkdko ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/PK ƒ fdb'A wB' ;thekodk
j'fJnk, ;ko/ nkg{z pD/ iE/dkoK ƒ pVh nXhBrh Bkb p/Bsh eoBh ukj[zdk
j?, fe e[ZM b'e y/sK ftZu wId{oh eoe/, NZpo gkbd/ jB. e[ZM ;VeK s/ o'Vh
e[ZN e/ g/N g{osh eod/ jB. e'Jh B"eoh s/ e'Jh d[ekB iK fpiB; eodk
j?. fJj ;ko/ g/N g{osh d/ ;kXB jB, i/ fJj efj fbnk ikt/ fe e'Jh jb
tkj[zdk j?, e'Jh N?e;h ubkT[Adk j?, e'Jh j'o pzd{e ubkT[Adk j?, s/ e'Jh y'sh
tkj[dz k j?, s/ e'Jh “g'Eh tkj[d
z k j?.” r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp wjkB jB, go ehosB,
gkm, eEk, Ykvh ns/ iE/dko, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih s'A o'ih o'Nh ewkT[D s'A
f;tkJ/, e'Jh ;koEe r[ow[yh ;/X Gh gqkgs eo oj/ jB < ;fji gkm, nyzv
gkm, ;zgN gkm, nsh ;zgN gkm, w'B gkm.” d;w ;qh r[o{ rqzE gkm, d;w
;qh r[o{ rqzE nyzv gkm, ehs/ eokJ/ gkm, ftP/P Ekt/A s/ ftP/P ftneshnK
tZb'A ehs/ pj[s wfjzr/ gkm. frnkoK, fJZeh, fJetzik iK fJZe ;" fJZe,
fJeZm/ fJZe' EKt/A ehs/ rJ/ nyzv gkm. gzE dh uVQdh ebk tkb/ gkm, ;opZs
d/ Gb/ bJh ehs/ rJ/ gkm, epoK s/ gkm, wzdoK ftZu gkm, ;VeK okjK ftZu
gkmHHHHH. eh ;kv/ “gzE tZb'A Ekg/” (<) ;fsr[o{ tZb'A fBtki/ “iE/dkoK” ƒ
fJj ;G r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh j' ojh p/ j[owsh edh BiohA BjhA gJh <
PkwbkN IwhBK s/ epI/ iwkT[D bJh, r[od[nko/ d/ d[nkb/ d[ekBK pDke/
feokJ/ s/ ukVQB bJh, Xow n;EkB dh tos'A j' ojh j?. fizB/ v/o/dko ;kX
jB, T[jBK tZb'A pDkJ/ bZrGr ;ko/ r[odtko/ (<) T[jBK dh fBZih ikfJdkd

(79)
jB. ;kX d/ woB sZe T[; ƒ e'Jh v/o/ ftZu'A fjbk BjhA ;edk. fJjBK
v/o/dkoK dh ofjs wfonkdk nkg' nkgDh wBwoIh dh j?. go wikb j?
fe;/ iE/dko dh, gJh fJjBK tZb'A ehshnK ik ojhnk r[ows s'A T[bN rZbK
ƒ mZb gk ;eD. ;r'A iE/dko fJjBK dhnK wBwsh ekotkJhnK ftZu y[d
Pkwb j[zd/ jB, T[jBK dh gq;z;k eod/ jB, wfonkdk gt/ YZm/ y{j ftZu. e[ZM
skesto oki;h b'eK B/ r[odtkok ew/NhnK Gzr eoe/, nkgD/ gfotkfoe
w?Apo gke/, coih “NoZ;N” pDk e/, r'beK s/ gZek epik iwk fbnk j?.
iE/dko fco Gh u?B dh pz;oh pik oj/ jB. XzB ;/tk, XzB f;Zyh, XzB
iE/dkoh.
GfoPNkuko d/ e/; ftZu T[bfMnk ;qh gqekP f;zx uko fdB i/jb
dh jtk SeD ubk frnk. d{yfBtkoB r[odtkok gfNnkb/ ftZu, pkdb
;kfjp dk iBw fdB wBkfJnk frnk. pkdb d/ ;/teK ƒ r[o{ xo dh r'be
ftZu'A ;g?Pb bzro (<) ytkfJnk frnk. pkdb ;kfjp nZ;h bZy o[g? dh
IwkBs s/ fojk j'e/, id'A dopko ;kfjp fty/ g[Zik, gfjbK jh gZpk Gko yV/
“iE/dkoK” B/ “gzE dhnK T[FZsw otkfJsK fBGkT[AfdnK” Xkn e/ pkdb
;kfjp d/ rb ftZu “f;o'gkT[ pyfPP” eo fdZsk. fit/A ;qh pkdb gzikp dk
gkDh, fpibh, okiXkBh iK j'o wzrK dhnK gzvK b?e/ gos/ j'D. nekbh c{bk
f;zx d/ tkfo; eh fJj' fij/ jh j'fJnk eod/ jB < eh fJjh n;b f;Zyh j?
<
j[D b'e ;Gk dhnK u'DK f;o nk gJhnK jB. T[FZXo Pq'wDh ew/Nh
dhnK u'DK ƒ ;wK T[go'A bzx fojk j?. fgSbhnK ykBdkBh otkfJsK dh
gkbDk eofdnK, iE/dko, bhvo b'e, nypkoh fpnkB pj[s dkrDr/.
p/nzs fe;w d/ gq'rokw T[bheDr/. nypkoK ftZu bzw/ fJPfsjko SgDr/.
ykb;k wkouK d/ Bkw j/m, PoXktkB f;ZyK ƒ ;VeK s/ d[VkT[Dr/. Bt/A ;e{b
ekbi y'jbDr/HHHHH. u'DK s'A pknd fpod pkD/ dh bki gkbfdnK, ;G ehs/
tknd/ T[bhe/ gq'rokw, dkr/ rJ/ nypkoh fpnkB, G[bk fdZs/ ikDr/. ;zB
1995 dk ;kb, ;szpo wjhB/ dk nkyoh jcsk, ftPt f;Zy ;zw/bD. p/nzs
f;zx w[Zy wzsoh gzikp d/ i[bw s'A sfofjzfdnK ;kok gzikp ;kj^;Zs jhD

(80)
j'fJnk fgnk ;h. r[o{ eh tvkbh s'A nBzdg[o ;kfjp sZe, s/ jfor'fpzd g[o/
s'A sbtzvh ;kp' sZe d/, d' “ykb;k wkouK” B/ b'E pD uZ[e/ nekbh dbK s/
x[ofBnK ftZu tVhnK c?vo/PBK ƒ ;VeK s/ nkT[D dk pjkBk fdZsk. fJj
;h 1994 dk ;kb. fco ehsk ‘ftPt f;Zy ;w/bB’ fi;s/ bZrGr gzikj
eo'V o[g? r[o{ eh r'be ftZu'A T[vk fdZs/ rJ/. Bshi/ d/ s"o s/ u'DK ftZu fiZs
:ehBh pD rJh. fco ;wK nkT[D s/ “ftPt f;Zy e"A;b” dk fBowkD ehsk
frnk. i;fN; e[bdhg f;zx tork ;{MtkB f;zx T[;dk w[Zy ;/tkdko
Ekfgnk frnk. ;kv/ neb d/ e'N iE/dkoK ƒ pj[s d{o dh ;[ZMh. T[jBK
;'funk, Pq'wDh ew/Nh S'N/ fij/ gzikp sZe ;hws, fdZbh ew/Nh fdZbh sZe,
gzikp dk w[Zy wzsoh nkgDh ;zftXkBe ;hwK nzdo. go nkj iZi, eZbQ dh
G{sBh ;kƒ ;kfonK ƒ eZu/ bkj frnk, pD p?mk “ftPt Go d/ f;ZyK dk
gqXkB.” fJj sK fco S.G.P.C. d/ w?ApoK s'A Gh T[go, iwKdo{ gqXkB
S.G.P.C. ;qL N"jVk s'A Gh TFZ[go s/HHHH. fJj tZvk ubke pfDnk fcod?,
bkj' fJj ƒ gqXkBrh s'A, N[eV/ N[eV/ eo fdU fJj dh ftPt f;Zy e"A;b
d/HHHH. f;Zy eh j'fJnk i/ neb dh rZb eo ikt/ <
j[D fco fJj PskpdhnK nkT[DrhnK, ekoK d"VBrhnK, fpnkB
SgDr/, i?eko/ r{ziDr/, bzro pBDr/, d/rK ;iDrhnK, thvhU fcbwK
pBDrhnK, eo'VK nopK o{g? d/ fpb gk; j'Dr/HHHHH. fJjBK ;ko/ wjkB
gq'rokwK ftZu f;Zy gzE dh uVQdh ebk s'A fpBK j'o ;kok e[ZM j't/rk. f;ZyK
dk nypko, NhHthH u?Bb (r[ows f;XKsK bJh) fgzv gZXo s/ r[ows
f;Zfynk e/Ado, ofjs wfonkdk dh fJZe;kosk, fJfsjk;e rqzE ;'X e/ xZN
ehws s/, i/jbK ftZu'A f;Zy B"i[nkBK dh fojkJh, gzikp ns/ f;ZyK d/ j'o
Io{oh w;b/ ;oeko s'A jZb eotkT[D/, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ;z;ko dhnK wZ[y
p'bhnK ftZu Skge/ tzvD/. pj[s ezw jB, go BkjfonK i?ekfonK s'A fpBK
PkfJd j'o e[MZ ;kv/ gZb/ Bk gt/. n? iE/dko ih. feogk eoe/ gzE dh pj[Vh
eo', ;L r[opy; f;zx iK ;L i'frzdo f;zx “;g'e;w?B” ƒ gzE ftZu'A S/e
d/D Bkb e"w dk e[ZM BjhA ;ztoBk. n;hA ;ko/ T[jBK d/ Bkb jK, i/ ckj/
bkT[Dk j? sK ;kƒ T[jBK d/ jw?sh nZm d; jiko, “26 dh eBt?PB” tkb/

(81)
f;ZyK ƒ ;kfonk ƒ jh S/e fdU. fJjh s[jkvh “gzEe ;/tk” wzBh ikt/rh,
;kƒ e'Jh }w BjhA j't/rk.
w[okd g{oh j'Jh 21^10^06 B{z iE/dko B/ v/oktkdhnK d/ nky/
“ssekb” ;/tk eofdnK b/ye fto[X Gh j[ewBkwk ikoh eo fdsk j?. fpBk
;[DtkJh s'A fJe sock c?;b/ e'Jh n"ozri/p iK uzr/i ykB jh eo ;edk j?.
Xowh g[oy edh nfijk gkg BjhA eo ;edk.

[[[[

(82)
Xow n;EkBK dh e[tos'_
fgSb/ fdBhA GkJh fJepkb f;zx gNBk ;kfjp d/ g[ikoh ns/ GkJh
w[fjzdo f;zx o'wkDk (gqXkB) dh wfonkdk pko/ e[ZM rzGho sby ebkwh j'Jh
n\pkoK ftZu Sgh. o'wkDk ih B/ nekb s\s ;kfjp tZb'A gqtkfBs f;Zy
ofjs wfonkdk d/ jZe ftZu ftuko gqrN ehs/, Bkb T[jBK fJj Gh fejk fe
pqkjwDh eoweKv, X{cK, i'sK, NZbhnK, xfVnkbK r[o{ xoK ftZu tofis
jB, go ;kv/ iE/dko fJjh pqkjwDh eow eo oj/ jB, Bkb jh i' gNBk
;kfjp s/ ji{o ;kfjp fty/ r[o{ rqE z ;kfjp ih d/ pokpo d;w rqE z dk gqekP
ehsk iKdk j?, T[; dh eoVh nkb'uBk ehsh. fJ;/ ekoB GkJh fJepkb
f;zx T[Fp
Z b gJ/. T[jBK nkT[AfdnK jh gNBk ;kfjp s'A \s fby e/ (j[ewBkwk
<) o'wkDk ih ƒ f;ZXk jh f;Zyh ftZu'A ubdk eo fdZsk. id'A o'wkDk ih B/
nzfwqs;o nghb ehsh sK nekb s\s d/ ;/tkdko B/ fJepkb f;zx dh
fuZmh s/ o'e bk fdZsh. rZb eh fJ; xNBk eow B/ f;Zy gzE dh ;ow;koh
ftZu j'o tkXk eo fdZsk. fe t/y' ;kv/ g[ikoh (iE/dko) feZE/ yb's/ jB.
fJ; r[ows fto'Xh gkg eow ƒ mhe f;ZX eoB bJh fJepkb f;zx
ih B/ g{ok skD bkT[AfdnK j[D j'o eZd{ ftZu sho wko fdZsk j?. T[jBK B/ e[ZM
g[okD/ rqzEK d/ jtkb/ d/D dh e[u/PNk Goh pdBhsh okjhA fJj f;ZX eoB dh
e'fPP ehsh j?, “ny/ gNBk ;kfjp sK r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ jh s\s pDk
fdZsk ;h id'A ;kb;okJ/ ƒ wzih s/ fpmk e/ d;sko pyP fdZsh.” U GZdo
g[oy'` feT[A d[ZX ftZu eKih gkT[D bZr/ j' < fJ; soQK ehfsnK Bk sK s\s
pDdk j? Bk sys dk iE/dko pDdk j?. T[j ;ko/ (;kb; okJ/ s'A b?e/ pknd
sZe) Xow gqukoe ;B, s\s ns/ iE/dko dk sd'A Bkw' fBPkB BjhA ;h.
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ pj[s ;ko/ f;ZyK ƒ Xow;kb pDkT[D bJh j[ew
ehsk. XowPkb pBD s'A pknd fJZe w[yh f;Zy ;ko/ ezw ƒ ;ozikw fdzdk.
fJ;/ soQK GkJh bkb' ƒ ;?dg[o ftZu wzihdko Ekfgnk. ;ZiD (mZr) ih ƒ
s[bzp/ dk wzihdko pDkfJnk. GkJh wB;[y ƒ bkj"o dk gqukoe pDkfJnk.

(83)
rZb eh irB BkE g[oh, ekPh, bzek, fjwkbk gops, fsZps, B/gkb, wZek
wdhBk, fiZE/ Gh ;fsr[o{ rJ/, goukoe Ekg/. wzihnK p\PhnK, eh T[j
;ko/ n;EkB s\s wzB bJ/ ikDr/ < edh Gh BjhA, fco sK ;fsr[o{ BkBe
;kfjp dk iBw n;EkB sbtzvh jh ;G s'A gfjbK s\s ;theko eoBk
gt/rk. fJZE/ jh rZb BjhA w[e/rh, ;r'A ;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih B/ j'o pkJh
wzihnK dh pyfPP TFZ[sw ihtB tkb/ f;ZyK ƒ ehsh s/ tZy'^tZy fJbkfenK
ftZu gqukoe Ekfgnk. fco fJj pkJh f;Zy ;/te Gh iE/dko nytkT[Dr/ <
s/ fJjBK d/ ;ko/ n;EkB “sys ;kfjp” pD ikDr/ < T[jBK pkJh f;ZyK d/
Bkw wjkBe'P d/ gzBk BzL 847 s/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. fi; Ppd dk fIeo
GkJh fJepkb f;zx B/ ehsk j? T[; ftZu (990 tkbk) wzih s\s iK iE/dkoh
dk feXo/ fIeo BjhA j?. fizadrh d/ ;[Xko tk;s/ jh ;koh r[opkDh T[ukoD
ehsh rJh j? fe;/ ƒ “s\s” s/ fpmkT[D Bkb x;hN e/ BK i'Vh ikt/. fJ;/
soQK d/ Ppd eK;h, rfJnk, bzek, s[bzp/, ;?dg[o, bkj"o nkfde nB/e EktK
s/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ T[ukoD ehs/ jB. eh T[j ;ko/ EK s\s pDk bJhJ/ <
;fsr[o{ ih fe; n;EkB s/ fezBk ;wK oj/ fJ; Bkb e'Jh coe BjhA g?D
bZrk. sbtzvh eohp thj ;kb oj/, ;[bskBg[o nmkoK ;kb oj/. eoskog[o
Gh bZrGr ;fsr[o{ thj ;kb fpoki/ sK eh fJj ;ko/ s\s pD rJ/ <
;/tkdko sK ;ko/ jh f;Zy jB. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ fJfsjk;e ;EkB ;ko/ jh Gb/
jB go “s\s s/ iE/dko” fJ; soQK BjhA pDkJ/ ik ;ed/. fco Yke/ dk
G{whnk u'o, e"vk oky;, B{oPkj ikd{roBhHHHH fJj Gh ;ko/ s\sK d/
iE/dko ;B <
r[o{ jfor'fpzd ;kfjp ih B/ gNB/ dh ;zrs dk ekpb dh ;zrs tk;s/
“w/ok ykb;k” \sK ftZu fbfynk j?. eh \s ftZu ykb;k fbyD Bkb jh
s\s pD iKdk j? < T[jBK B/ s/ j'o Gh pj[s \s fby/ ;B <
GkJh fdnkb dk; ƒ B/e fJB;kB gftZso ihtB tkbk ikDe/
;fsr[o{ ih B/ w[Zy ;/tkdko gNBk fty/ bk fdZsk mhe j?. go GkJh fJepkb
f;zx ƒ ;fsr[o{ B/ B/e ubDh dk e'Jh ;koNhche/N BjhA fdZsk. fdnkbdk;
dh gdth nkgD/ Bkw fyZu e/ i'VBh fejVh fdnkBsdkoh j? <

(84)
j[D d/y' M{m d/ g?o BjhA j[zd/ tkbh rZb, “fJ; s\s dk Bkw eoD
d;w gksPkj B/ ehsk” GkJh fJepkb f;zx fbydk j?. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
s'A b? e/ d;w gksPkj sZe fJj EK fpBK fe;/ Bkw s'A jh ubh nkT[Adh ;h <
nrbh rZb fJepkb f;zx fbydk j? fe wksk ;[zdoh ih B/ GkJh bkb gkbk
s/ GkJh ;zr' ih ƒ j[ewBkwk d/ e/ G/fink. eh r[o{ BkBe s/ r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx
ih tkb/ j[ewBkw/ ;wK ftjk rJ/ ;B < wksk ;[zdoh ih ƒ gzE dh r[osk BjhA
fdZsh rJh, fco T[jBK ƒ j[ewBkw/ ikoh eoB dk nfXeko gqkgs fet/A j'
frnk < efjzd/ jB iK sK pzdk M{m p'b/ jh Bk i/ p'bD bZr jh fgnk sK tZv/
s'A tZvk M{m p'b/ wkVk XhVk feT[A p'b/ < GkJh fJepkb f;zx B/ sK fJj Gh
fby wkfonk fe nekb s\s ;kfjp e/tb gzikp sZe ;hws j?. pkeh ;koh
d[BhnK sK gNBk ;kfjp d/ nXhB j?. tkj GkJh ih tkj. fiZE/ ;opZs
ykb;/ i[Vd/ oj/, fiE/ t?oh pko pko jwb/ eod/ oj/, fiZE/ S/tA/ gksPkj c"iK
s'A BIokB/ b?Ad/ oj/, fiE/ tZv/ tZv/ Btkp pkdPkj M[Zed/ oj/, T[j s\s S'Nk
j' frnk s/ gNBk ;kfjp fi;dh e'Jh ;orow G{fwek BjhA ojh T[j ;koh
d[BhnK dk e/Ado X[ok <
GkJh fJepkb f;zx dh nrbh fbyh gzesh gV'Q ^ “r[o{ s/r pjkdo
;kfjp ih ƒ T[; ;w/A jfowzdo ;kfjp nzfwqs;o d/ ;/tkdkoK B/ dopko
;kfjp ftZu dkyb Bk j'D fdZsk. Bk jh nekb s\s nkT[D fdZsk, 50 ri
dh d{oh s/ p?m e/ tkg; ub/ rJ/.”
r[o{ dh wjkB gdth d/ wkbe'` eh fJ;/ ekoB nekb sys S'Nk j'
frnk fe r[o{ s/r pjkdo nzdo BjhA ik ;e/ < gNBk ;kfjp r[o{ nzrd,
r[o{ nwodk;, r[o{ okwdk;, r[o{ jfor'fpzd, r[o{ jfookfJ, r[o{ jfo feqPB
ftZu'A e'Jh Gh ;fsr[o{ BjhA nkfJnk. id'A (r[o{) r'fpzd okJ/ dk iBw
j'fJnk ;h sd'A T[j f;ZyK d/ r[o{ BjhA ;B. ;kY/ B"A ;kb dh T[wo ftZu 1675
ƒ T[j r[o{ pD/ ;B s/ r[o{ pDB s'A pknd ed/ gNB/ nkJ/ BjhA eh itkp j?
fJ; rZb dk < i' e[ZM nekb s\s s/ j' fojk j?, T[jd/ ftu'A pj[s e[ZM rbs
j' fojk j? go gNBk ;kfjp fty/ Gh sK pj[s e[ZM rbs j' fojk j?, ;'u' <
frnkBh fJepkb f;zx ih gNBk ;kfjp sZe ;hws ofjzd/ sK pj[s

(85)
uzrk ;h. T[j sK jI{o ;kfjp d/ Gh wkbe pDd/ BIo nkT[Ad/ jB. fiZE/
d;w fgsk e[ZM wjhB/ oj/ T[j s\s fet/A pD frnk < e'Jh ;p{s BjhA fdZsk
frnk. “;G f;yB e' j[ew j? r[o{ wkfBU rqE z ” p; fJzBK tke efj d/D Bkb
jh s\s pD frnk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fiZE/ p?m e/ Gh T[gd/P ehsk fco sK T[jh
sys pD ikt/rk. gfjbK ;ko/ gk;/ jh nBzs r[odtko/ w"i{d jB. j[D fco
fJjBK ;kfonK dk Bkw pdb e/ “s\s” oZy d/JhJ/ < mhe j? < go GkJh
fJepkb f;zx sK ;koh f;Zy e"w ƒ gzE ftZu'A “S/eD” bJh fsnko BIo
nkT[Ad/ jB.
fezBk uzrk j[zdk i/ GkJh fJepkb f;x fe;/ nfij/ g[oksB j[ewBkw/
dk fIeo eod/ i' gNBk ;kfjp d/ iE/dko B/ ykb;k gzE tk;s/ ikoh ehsk
j[zdk. iK fe;/ ƒ gzE ftZu S/eD tkb/ g[okD/ j[ewBkw/ dk jh fIeo eo fdzd/
go BjhA eo ;e/. T[;/ feskp ftZu vkH rzvk f;zx B/ nZi sZe fJZe
j[ewBkwk ikoh j'Dk fbfynk j?. ;r'A T[j T[rokjh dh nghb j?, j[ewBkwk
BjhA j?. ;zB 1862 cotoh 4 ƒ fJbkek fBtk;h ;zrsK ƒ fejk frnk j? fe
coP ns/ fBPkB ;kfjp dh ;/tk ftZu fjZ;k gkU. j'o e'Jh j[ewBkwk fJZE'A
(gNBk) iK ji{o ;kfjp s'A ed/ ikoh BjhA j'fJnk. g[oksB fbysK ftZu
iE/dko fw;bK d/ w[yh ƒ fejk iKdk ;h r[o{ xo d/ rqzEh ƒ iE/dko BjhA
fejk iKdk ;h. ;G s'A tZvh ;[gqhw e'oN d/P ftZu fJZe jh j'fJnk eodh
j?. s/ jkJhe'oNK pj[shnK j' ;edhnK jB. gsk BjhA GkJh fJepkb f;zx
gzE dk eh ;ztkoBk ukj[zd/ jB fJjBK j[ewBkfwnK d[nkok. nDfrDs ys
(j[ewBkfwnK d/ Bkw nXhB) nekb sys ;kfjp s'A nkgD/ fto'XhnK ƒ
BhtK fdykT[D tk;s/ ikoh j' uZe [ / jB. oki;h b'eK B/ iE/dkoK ƒ ns/ nekb
s\s ƒ nkgDhnK fBih b'VK tk;s/ tofsnk j?. r[ows s'A ;ZyD/ nDgVQ
ftnesh f;ZyK d/ g"g pD/ BIo nkT[Ad/ jB. r[o wfonkdk s'A T[bN uZbD
tkb/ okiBhse pdfdnkBsdko bhvoK ƒ, ns/ gkyzvh bkD/ ;kXK ƒ BZE
gkT[D tk;s/ ny"sh iE/dkoK B/ ed/ e'Jh m'; ekotkJh eoB dh i[noZs BjhA
ehsh. Xow gquko tZb edh fXnkB BjhA fdZsk iKdk. gzE o;ksb tZb
roedk ik fojk j?, nkg' Xkgh gJh j'Jh j?. tZy' tZyohnK wfonkdktK pDk

(86)
bJhnK jB. BP/, gfss g[Dk, pqkjwDh eoweKv nkfd ƒ o'eD tk;s/ edh
fe;/ g[ikoh (iE/dko) B/ fXnkB jh BjhA fdZsk. go id'A e'Jh f;Zy neb
dh rZb efj d/t/ sd'A jh g[ikohnK ƒ pj[s r[Z;k nkT[Adk j?. ;pzXs
ftnesh ƒ gzE ftu'A S/e e/ pj[s tZvh “;/tk” eo oj/ j[zd/ jB. ekP fe
sys fJe' j't/ ykb;k gzE B{z fJwkBdko okiBhsh dk gkm gVkt/. iE/dko
Xow dk w[i;wk ns/ ;z;ko gEo dh okiBhsh dk wkfjo j't/. p/JhwkB
nkuoDjhD oki;h b'e f;y Xow dh d[otos'A Bk eo ;eD. ;ko/ f;Zy
fJZe' wfonkdk ftZu pZM ikD. Xow gquko dh BthA bfjo ubk d/D. gzE
dh J/esk tk;s/ ;koEe T[gokb/ eoB s/ i' rZb eoBh j't/ dbhb ftuko
Bkb eoB. fJj' i'dVh j? fJj' nodk; j?.

[[[[

(87)
;/tk s/ gftsosk dk xkD
Gkosh ;wki ftZu pqkjwDh Xow B/ i' ftrkV g?dk ehs/ jB, T[jBK
dh cfoPs pj[s tZvh j?. jEb/ b/y d[nkok e/tb feos Bkb ;pzXs e[ZM
ftuko ;KM/ ehs/ ikDr/. fJ; d/P d/ Xow rqzEK (<) B/ i' gqukfonk
phfink, T[jh g?dk j'fJnk, G[rfsnk. pqkjwD Xowr[o{, g[ikoh sK g{iD
:'r pD p?mk, feosh ekwk, fwjBs eoB tkbk, ;kfonK dhnK b'VK g{ohnK
eoB tkbk, ezwh ezwhD s/ P{do pDk fdZsk frnk. ;G s'A fInkdk fwjBsh
(jZEhA feos eoB tkbk) jh ;G s'A BhtK XZe fdZsk frnk. T[j ezw sK ihn
ikB wko e/ fdB oks eo/. pdb/ ftZu wzr/ e[ZM Bk, tZN/ ftZu fwbDr/ i{m/
N[eV/, gkN/ g[okD/ eZgV/, fBZs fdB fsq;eko, fcNekoK rkbQK. T[FZuk jT[ek
sZe b?D dh nkfrnk BjhA. fJ; nsh xNhnk tosko/ ƒ, Xow dh ukdo
gfjbK fdZsh rJh. “Xow rqzEK dk gftZso T[gd/P rodkfBnk frnk.”
fJ;/ ekoB Gkos ftZu feos dh tfvnkJh nb'g j' rJh. b'ehA ezw s'A
ihn u[okD bZr/, ekwk fJB;kB Bcos dk gkso pDdk ubk frnk. y/sh
eoB tkbk rowh ;odh ftZu, d[Zy MZbe/, nzB g?dk eoB tkbk P{do
nytkfJnk. egkj g?dk eoB tkbk, p[DB sDB tkbk, ozrkJh f;bkJh
tkbk, ;ko/ Bht/A P{do pDk fdZs/. w[cs dk nzB yke/ veko wko ikD tkbk
w[cs ftZu eZgV/ gqkgs eoe/, gfjB b?D tkbk, rohpK d/ jZeK s/ fBZs vke/
wkoB tkbk T[FZuh e[b, T[FZuh iks tkbk, g{iDi'r pD p?mk. nfij/ w[cs y'o/
ftjbV ƒ jo EK fcNekoK g?DhnK ukjhdhnK ;B. f;sw fJj fe fjZe d/
skD nB/e jE ezfvnK d[nkok fsnko ehs/ wko{ f;;Nw w[skpe fJj
goihth (gokJ/ iht dk y{B ghD tkbk) ;r'A g{iD:'r pD p?mk. feosh b'e
fwjBs Gh eoB, nkgDh feos dk e[ZM fjZ;k fJjBK d/ nZr/ G/Nk oZyD s/
uoBK s/ f;o oZye/ Bw;ekoK Gh eoB, j? Bk jB/o rodh <
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ feos eoB ƒ, goT[geko eoB ƒ

(88)
Xow Bkb i'V fdZsk. ftjbVK dh r[o{ xo ftZu edh ;'Gk BjhA ehsh rJh.
r[opkDh r[oT[gd/;K s'A nrtkJh b? e/ f;Zy fjzwsh, feosh, go T[gekoh,
iKpkI i'X/ pDe/ T[FZGo/. bzwh izr bVh, w[;hpsK d/ jV okj o'ed/ oj/, go
f;Zy nZr/ jh nZr/ tXd/ ub/ rJ/. ;fsr[o{ ih dk Ppd gV'Q^
;/t ehsh ;zs'yJh fiBh ;u' ;u fXnkfJnk]
UBh wzd? g?o B ofyU efo ;[feqs Xow ewkfJnk]
UBh d[Bhnk s'V/ pzXBk nzB[ gkDh E'Vk ykfJnk]HHHHH
tfvnkJh tvk gkfJnk] (467)
fiE/ d[fBnkth ekoi f;Zy ;wki B/ g{oh sBd/jh Bkb eofdnK
ezrkbh ƒ xo'A eZY fdZsk, T[E/ Bkb jh b'VtzdK dh ;/tk bJh Gh yk; soQK d/
T[gokb/ nkozG/. MkV{ g'uk bkT[Dk, wbw{so dh ;ckJh eoBh P{doK dk
“ykBdkBh” ezw fwfEnk frnk ;h. j[D fJj ezw “;/tk” dk Gkr pDk fdZsk
frnk. posB ;kc eoB/, bzro gekT[Dk Gh S'NhnK iksK tkfbnK dh
“fe;ws” ftZu fby fdZsk frnk ;h. r[o{ xo ftZu fJj ezw Gh ;/tk dk
gftZso nzr pD frnk. gP{ ;KGD/, xkj gZmk toskT[Dk, d[ZX u'Dk, x'V/
pbd gkbD/, fJj ;kfonK dk ;KMk ekoi pD frnk. e'Jh frbkBh BjhA,
Bcos BjhA, BhtKgD BjhA.
feos dh tfvnkJh r[o{ xo ftZu fJsBh gqpb o{g XkoB eo rJh
fe f;ZyK B/ w[Yb/ n;{bK ftZu feos ƒ Pkwb eo fdZsk frnk. i/ gqwkswk
ƒ :kd oZyDk Io{oh j?, sK feos eoBh Gh Io{oh j?, s/ fco tzv e/ SeDk
Gh Io{oh j?. fJ; ƒ fJT[A wkD gqkgs j? ^ “Bkw igDk, Xow dh feos
eoBh, s/ tzv e/ SeDk”. ;sr[o{ ih d/ gktB puBK ƒ f;o wZE/ ;theko
eofdnK, nDfrDs r[o{ e/ bkbK B/ ;/tk d/ y/so ftZu :'rdkB gkfJnk j?.
tzv e/ Gh Sfenk j? s/ tfjr[o{ dk P[eokBk Gh eod/ oj/ jB. ;'jDhnK,
nwhoIkdhnK G?DK, r[o{ xoK ftZu ;fseko ;fjs posB ;kc eodhnK,
goPkd/ pDkT[AdhnK, toskT[AdhnK, nkw t/yhnK ik ;edhnK jB. MkV{
g'uk bkT[Dk, ib SekT[Dk b'VtzdK dhnK b'VK g{ohnK eod/ r[of;Zy thoK

(89)
ƒ jo o'I t/fynk ik ;edk. i'V/ ;KGD/ ;kc eoB/, eZgV/ X'D/ Gh ;/tk dk
jh fJZe fjZ;k ;theko ehs/ rJ/ jB. r[opkDh gVQBh ftukoBh sK f;Zy bJh
j? jh nsh Io{oh. ;/tk eoB dh gq/oBk r[opkDh ftZu'A jh sK gqkgs j[zdh j?.
xo ftZu iK r[o{ xo ftZu fes/ Gh w"ek pD nkt/, f;Zy B/ r[opkDh dk gkm
eoBk iK ;[DBk jh j?. ;fji gkm, nyzv gkm, ehosB eEk, eVkj gqPkd
s/ fBsB/w dhnK pkDhnK, fJj ;G sK f;Zy dh fIzdrh dk nfBZyVtK nzr
jB. g[oksB ;w/A s'A jh f;Zy pkDh gVQd/ j'J/ ;fseko Bkb ;/tk eod/ nk
oj/ jB.
brgr 1960 s'A P[o{ j'e/ fJZe ni/jh wko{ jtk ubk fdZsh rJh fe
f;Zyh ;/tk dhnK BhjK fjZb rJhnK. id'A ;zs cfsj f;zx s/ wk;No skok
f;zx B/ fJZe d{i/ ƒ gSkVB dh Bhns Bkb, gzEe wzu s/ Sb BkNe ehsk
s/ nekb s\s, ns/ T[;d/ ;/tkdko ƒ fit/A fdb ehsk BukfJnk. fJj
fJZe bzwh d[ydkJh dk;skB j?. ;zB 1960 s'A pknd jh wk;No skok f;zx
s/ ;zs cfsj f;zx B/ tkoh tkoh woB tos oZy/. pVh p/j:kJh Bkb fpBk
e[ZM gqkgs ehs/ nXtkfNT[A tos s'V fdZs/. fco nekb s\s s/ nrB e[zv
pDkJ/ rJ/. d't/A bhvoK ;w/A ;w/A ;V woB dk r[ows fto'Xh eow ehsk,
n?bkD eoe/ w[Zeo woB s'A iKd/ oj/. f;Zy gzE d/ r[Z;/ s'A puD tk;s/ nekb
s\s d/ iE/dko ƒ tosd/ oj/. “iE/dko ih ;kƒ posB ;kc eoB, i'V
MkVB, MkV{ c/oB s/ gkm eoB dh “;Ik” bk fdT[. pj[sh Bk bkT[Dh p;
gzdoK thj fdBK s'A tZX Bk j't/. fJ; soQK ;kv/ r[Bkj w[nk| j' ikDr/ s/ G'b/
Gkb/ f;Zy mzY/ mko j' e/ fco ;kv/ wro i?eko/ rikT[Ad/ uZb g?Dr/.”
emg[sbh B[wk iE/dko ih B/ fJjh e[ZM ehsk. fJZe B"eo, wkbe ƒ ;ik
bkT[D dk y/yD eo fojk ;h. go wkbe ƒ g[ZS g[ZS e/, fJj gzEe otkfJsK
s'A Gr"V/ b'e (bhvo) ;Ik G[rs oj/ ;B, dopko ;kfjp ftZu posB ;k|
eoe/, pkDh gVQ ;[De/.
T[d'A s'A b?e/ nZi sZe fJjh toskok r[ows dk b/pb bke/ fBozso
toskfJnk ik fojk j?. ;zB 1977 ftZu gzikp dh nekbh ;oeko ftZu fJZe

(90)
f;o eZYt/A f;Zy ;qL nkswk f;zx wkb wzsoh d/ fXnkB ftZu fbnKdk frnk
fe gNtkoh s'A b? e/ T[FZgo sZe wfjew/ dk jo tZvk S'Nk nc;o$eowukoh
fo;ts ftZu v{zxk XZf;nk j'fJnk j?, fJjBK ƒ BZE gkT[ fGqPNK ƒ ;Ik
fdT[HHHH.
;qL nkswk f;zx dk i[nkp ;h ^“jK s[;hA mhe efj oj/ j', w?A
Xkowe nkdwh jK, fJ; bJh fJjBK ƒ Xkowe ;Ik jh fdnKrk. nZr'A
tk;s/ fJjBK s'A gqD eotKtkrk fe p/JhwkBh, foPtsy'oh s'A pki nkT[D.”
g[ZSD s/ nkyD bZr/ tIho ;kfjp fe “fJjBK ;kfonK ƒ w?A nghb eodk
jK fe dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o ikD, ;wZoEk w[skpe d/r eokT[D, gqeowk
ftZu ;/tk eoB s/ gkm ;[BD. jcsk d; fdBK dk gq;ukskg eoe/ fco gqD
eoB fe nZr'A foPts BjhA btKr/, sK w?A ;kfonK d/ fgSb/ ehs/ j'J/ r[Bkj
w[nk| j'J/ ;wM btKrk. fJ; puekB/ nypkoh fpnkB ekoB ;qL nkswk
f;zx dh bzw/ ;w/A sZe fyZbh T[FZvdh ojh ;h. gZsoekoK fJj Gh nkfynk ;h
gJh fco g[bh; ns/ ndkbsK dh eh b'V j?, bZ[NK y'jK eo', foPtsK bJh
ikT[, d[BhnK Go d/ e[eow eoB s'A pknd edh edkJhA dopko ;kfjp ik
e/ d/r eokT[, fJPBkB eo', pkDh ;[D', s/ ;ko/ r[BkjK s'A w[esh gkT[.
fpbe[b fJ;/ soi s/ uZb oj/ jB ;kv/ bhvo s/ iE/dko. fgSb/
bzw/ no;/ s'A t/yd/ nk oj/ jk, fizB/ tZv/ woIh pZio gkg eod/ ikT[, r[o{
ehnK r'beK bZ[N', Xow d/ BK s/ f;ZyK ƒ e[okj/ gkT[, b[ZN e/ ykT[ t'NK wzr'.
r[odtkfonK ƒ oki;h nykV/ pDk fdT[, u"XoK s/ r'beK pdb/ fJZe d{i/ d/
f;o gkV', gZrK T[sko', dkjVhnK g[ZN', ndkbsK ftZu r[o{ ehnK r'beK ƒ
o'jVd/ ub/ ikT[. M{m p'b', PokpK ghT[, PokpK fgnkT[, n|hw G[Zeh dh
pb?e eo' s/ t'NoK ƒ SekT[. ;ko/ r[oXkwK s/ c"iK ukjV fdT[, jIkoK
B"itkBK ƒ e'j e'j e/ wko fdT[.nekb s\s Ykj fdT[ (p{Nk f;zx, frL i?b
f;zx) nekb sys pDk fdT[ (;zsk f;zx fBjzr w[yh) nekb sys d/ Bkw
s/ wkfJnk pN'o bt' (Ne;kb) nekb sys dh d[otos'A eo bt'. nodk;K
eoe/, e;wK yke/ (nekbh db d/ woihtV/) w[Zeo ikT[, r[o{ ƒ fgZm d/

(91)
ikT[, gzE ƒ y{j ftZu ;Z[N fdT[, ;G w[nkc j' ;edk j?. Gkt/A e'Jh ;zs pkD/
ftZu pbkseko eo/ (XBtzs f;zx, PwP/o f;zx ir/Vk, wkB f;zx gj'tk)
Gkt/A ;zs b'e y[d v/o/ d/ nzdo (BkBe;o eb/oK tkb/) epi/ tk;s/ r'bhnK
dh tkSV Bkb d{i/ ;zs ƒ G[zB d/D. ;G w[nk| j' ;edk j?, p; fJZe tkoh
dopko ;kfjp nkT[ iE/dko ih nZr/ “g/P” j't'. T[j d'Ph ƒ eoVh ;ik
d/Dr/. Gbk eh < ikT[ goeowk ftZu MkV{ bkT[, posD wKi', i'V/ ;kc eo',
gkm ;[D' eo', brksko fJZeh fdB iK fJeZsh fdB. fco d/r eokT[Dh, r'be
ftZu wkfJnk gkT[Dh s/ gzE ftZu tkg;h dh nodk;, G[ZbK pyPD dh
nodk; eoe/ ;ko/ r[Bkj X' fdZs/ ikDr/.
nkfyo ftZu rzGho j'e/ Mksh wko'. P[o{ ftZu fIeo ehsk frnk ;h,
fe r[o{ fgnko tkb/, wkJh GkJh jEhA ;/tk eoBh XzB Gkr ikDe/ efonk
eod/ ;B$jB. fJjBK nzdo r[o{ fgnko r[opkDh dk ;fseko, ;/tk dk
T[sPkj mkmK wkodk gosZy t/fynk ik ;edk j?. GkJh r[odk; ih ;/tk pko/
fby oj/ jB ^
r[of;yK r[of;y ;/tk bkfJnk]
;kX ;zrs efo ;/t ;[y cb gkfJnk]
sgV MkfVnk ftSkfJ X{Vh BkfJnk]
e'o/ wN nDkfJ Bho GokfJnk]
nkfD wjK gq;kfd tzfv y[nkfJnk] (Gkr[ L 20$10)
;zg{oD r[o{ rqzE ftZu fes/ fJZe fsb wkso fIeo BjhA fwb/rk fe
r[opkDh gVQBh ;[DBh e'Jh “;ik” j?. ;r'A nfij/ j[ew p/nzs jB fe f;Zy
B/ ;dk jh r[opkDh s'A nrtkJh ;/X b? e/ fIzdrh p;o eoBh j?. fco ;kv/
ny"sh iE/dko G[Zb pyPD bZfrnK pkDh gVQB dh “sBykj” feT[A bkT[Ad/ jB
< r[o{ xo ftZu ;/tk eoBh gftZso ekoi j?, wkJh GkJh PoXk nXhB y[Ph
Bkb fBZs eod/ t/yhAd/ jB. go G[Zb py;kT[D tkfbnK ƒ fJjh ;/tk eoB
dh “;Ik” feT[A fdZsh iKdh j? < eVkj gqPkfd ;zrsK o'IkBk jh eokT[AdhnK
jB, fco d/r eokT[D dh “;Ik” fet/A j'Jh < n;b ftZu f;Zyh dhnK

(92)
gftZso GktBktK ƒ tb{zXfonk ik fojk j?. pj[s jh ;zt/dBPhb gktB r[o
j[ewk ƒ “sBykj iK ;Ik” ftZu spdhb eoe/ esb ehsk ik fojk j?.
tZvhnK rZdhnK d/ fpokiwkB, p"D/ wB[Zy, r[of;Zyh dh ;fsekos Ppdktbh
ƒ d{fPs ns/ ebzes eo oj/ jB. i/ r[opkDh gVQBh ;[BDh ;Ik j? sK e'Jh
f;Zy y[Ph Bkb pkDh feT[A gVQ/rk < i/ ;/tk eoBh ;Ik j? sK e'Jh r[o{ fgnko
ftZu fGZie/ ;/tk feT[A eo/rk <
n;b ftZu fJj “sBykj iK vzv” sK j? jh BjhA, go oki;h b'eK
dh fwbh G[rs eoe/ iE/dkoK B/ ;/tk ƒ vzv ftZu pdb fdZsk. feT[Afe pj[s/
iE/dko :'rsk d/ nkXko s/ BjhA nkT[Ad/ pbfe gqXkBK (gqXkB S.G.P.C. s/
gqXkB nekbh db) dh ih ji{oh eoe/ fJjBK nj[fdnK s/ brd/ jB. ;kok
;wK fJjBK dh y[Ph jk;b eoB ftZu jh phs iKdk j?. b/ye fBih s"o s/
rtkj j?, fe ny"sh iE/dko gqXkB ƒ g[S
Z e/ c?;b/ eod/ jB. i/ ;Zu w[u
Z fe;/
f;Zy B/ rbsh ehsh j? sK ;G s'A gfjbK T[;ƒ T[; nj[d/ s'A posoc eoBk
ukjhdk j?. ehsh rJh rbsh w[skpe fJZe ;kb gzi ;kb (iK xZN tZX) sZe
T[;ƒ fizw/tkoh tkb/ o[sp/ s/ nbZr eo fdZsk ikt/. T[j ftnesh wB[Zysk
dh, f;Zy gzE dh, r[o{ xo dh fit/A fdb eo/ ;/tk eodk oj/. T[; tZb'A ehsh
rJh ;/tk, f;Zyh ftZu ftPtk;, r[opkDh dk noEK ;fjs frnkB, fJfsjk;
dh ikDekoh, f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk dh gogZesk, ns/ fBZih ihtB ftZu
nkJh spdhbh dh uzrh soQK goy ehsh ikt/. ;jh okj s/ nk ikD s'A
pknd ;w[Zu/ f;Zy gzE ns/ nekb g[oy s'A fywK ikuBK eodk j'fJnk
;pzXs ftnesh nZr'A bJh nfijh fe;/ rbsh s'A pfunk ofjD dk gqD
eo/. ftPtk; j' ikD s'A pknd jh T[;ƒ fe;/ fizw/tkoh tkb/ nj[d/ s/ bZrD
dh fJIkis fdZsh ikt/. eh iE/dko s/ oki;h bhvo, gzEe nj[d/ ns/
gzEe ;N/iK dh d[otos'A eoB s'A pki nkT[Dr/ < eh gftZso ;/tk ƒ ;Ik
pDk e/ jh ;kj b?Dr/ < i' wkJh GkJh pkDh gVQ oj/ jB s/ f;de fdbh Bkb
;/tk eo oj/ jB eh T[j ;ko/ fe;/ ehs/ e[eow dh ;Ik G[rs oj/ jB <
feogk eoe/ ;/tk ns/ ;Ik ƒ nbZr nbZr ofjD fdT[. f;Zy gzE ftZu

(93)
;fsekos Ppdktbh s/ ;fsekos GktBktK dk xkD Bk eo'. e[eowh s/
p/JhwkB oki;h b'eK tk;s/ (i/ eo ;e') ;Zuw[Zu dh e'Jh ;Ik fBPfus
eo'. iE/dko ih, eh fJ; soQK eoB dh ;'jDh fgos gk ;e'r/ <
e'Jh g[s[ f;y[ ;/tk eo/ ;fsr[o{ eh fs;[ ekoi ;fG ;tko/]
i' fJS? ;' cb[ gkfJ;h g[s[ XB[ bywh yfV w/b/ jfo fB;sko/]
(308)

[[[[

(94)
epho dh iziho fet/_ N[ZNh <
;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB ns/ ;fseko:'r r[opkDh ou?sk GrsK B/, wB[Zy
wkso B{z ihtB Yzr f;ykT[D tk;s/ pj[s i[rsK toshnK. fiZE/ T[jBK dk
ihtB ukBD w[Bkok ;h, T[FZE/ f;Zfynk T[gd/P th bki[nkp ;B. T[gd/P B{z
o"ue pDkT[D bJh eftsk dhnK nDfrDs tzBrhnK r[opkDh ftZu toshnK
rJhnK jB. pj[s ;kohnK f;ZfynktK B{z T[dkjoDK d/ e/ ;wMkT[D dh e'f;a;a
ehsh rJh j?. eJh rZbK nkgD/ nkg s/ Y[ek e/ fbyhnK fwbdhnK jB.
fJjBK r[zMbK d/ G/s ;wMkT[D tkb/ f;ZyK d/ brGr ;ko/ Xkofwe ndko/
okiBhsh dh dbdb ftZu roe j' u[Ze/ jB. r[ows d/ w"fbe f;XksK B{z
;Bw[Zy oZye/, Bk fJfsjk; fbfynk frnk j?, wkjo ftdtkBK dhnK ew/
NhnK pDke/ Bk r[opkDh d/ noE ehs/ rJ/ jB, fisBh fe;/ ;ZiD dh ;wM
;woZEk ;h, T[;/ Yzr Bkb r[opkDh d/ noE eo fdZs/ rJ/. ;ko/ Nhekeko Gkt/
A r[opkDh gqsh pj[s ;fseko oZyd/ j'D, go fco Gh T[jBK d/ ehs/ noEK
ftZu wko{ jZd sZe wsG/d jB, NeokT[ jB. r[opkDh ftubh ‘e/Adoh
ftukoXkok’ s'A pj[s/ b/ye nDikD jB. w[ZYb/ n;{bK B{z ;wMkT[D tk;s/
e'Jh e/Adoh ew/Nh nkfd th BjhA j?. r[opkDh ftnkeoD d/ B/wK B{z ;BwZ[y
oZy e/, tkX{ dhnK ;kyhnK ftZu bg/ND s'A fpBK, ;gZ;aN Yzr Bkb gq'H ;kfjp
f;zx ih B/ noE eoe/ BthA P[o{nks ehsh ;h. T[jBK tZb'A ftykJ/ rJ/,
ftfrnkBe sohfenK B{z Pq'wDh ew/Nh tZb'A nZi sZe wkBsk BjhA fdZsh
rJh. fiZE/ T[jBK ezw SZfvnk ;h, T[; s'A nZr/ N[oB pko/ sK Pq'wDh ew/Nh
B/ edh ;[gBk th BjhA fbnk.
gq'H ;kfjp f;zx s'A gfjbK fiBQK b/yeK B/ Nhekekoh d/ y/so ftZu
ebw ubkJh ;h (ikD/ iK nDikD/ ftZu) T[jBK B/ noE eoB bZfrnK, fpBK
tiQK ;apdK Bkb ;kyhnK i'V fdZshnK. id'A fe ;kyhnK dk ;apd dh w{b
GktBK Bkb d{o dk th tk;sk BjhA j?. Grs oftdk; ih, Bkwd/t ih, epho
ih dh pkDh ns/ ihtB Bkb p/^f;o g?o dhnK pj[s ;kyhnK i'VhnK ik
(95)
u[ZehnK jB. fiBQK ftZu'A ‘nZi dh fiazdrh’ pko/ e'Jh ;koEe ;/X BjhA
fwbdh. fJj ;kyhnK ftfrnkBe BiaohJ/ Bkb t/fynK th ‘yohnK’ BjhA
T[sodhnK. pkDh ou?sk wjKg[oyK dh tfvnkJh sK fes/ ojh, ;r'A fJjBK
dh s"jhB eoB s[Zb jB. r[o{ ehnK ;zrsK, gqpzXe s/ gqukoe jB fe
nfrnkBsk ekoB, Xkowe ;N/iK s/ ;G e[ZM ‘r[o{ ek gqPkd’ ;wM e/ gqtkB
eoh ik oj/ jB. r[opkDh sK wB[Zy wkso B{z Gog{o frnkB pya;a ojh j?,
nfrnkBsk B{z T[vk ojh j?. c[owkB j?L^
d/y" GkJh rQkB eh nkJh nKXh..
;G? T[vkBh Gow eh NkNh oj? B wkfJnk pKXh.. (331)
epho ih ;wMk oj/ jB ^ t/y' GkJh ` nkswe wzvb ftZu frnkB
dh jB/oh tr gJh j?. id'A mkmK wkodk frnkB dk ukBD T[FZwv gt/ fco
nfrnkBsk, tfjw Gow ns/ jo gqeko d/ pzXB, ‘frnkB eh nKXh’ nZr,/ eZyK
ekfBnK tKr T[FZv iKd/ jB.
T[AR sK r[opkDh ou?sk wjKg[oyK pko/ pj[s ;kohnK xNhnk s/
n;aoXe eEktK gquZbs jB. ;w/A f;o T[jBK pko/ th ftuko ehsk
ikt/rk. nZi epho ih d/ fJZe ;apd dh ftuko ehsh ikt/rh. nZr'A nfij/
rbs noEK ekoB i' wko{ gqGkt f;Zy ;wki s/ g? fojk j?, T[j fpnkB s'A
pkjo j?. nkT[ gfjbK ;apd ns/ noE gVQhJ/ L^
rzr r[;kfJfB rfjo rzGho.. iziho pKfX efo yo/ epho..
wB[ B fvr?, sB[ ekj/ eT[ vokfJ..
uoB ewb fus[ ofjU ;wkfJ.. ojkT[..
rzrk eh bjfo w/oh N{Nh iziho.. fwqrSkbk go p?m/ epho..
efj epho e'T{ ;zr Bk ;kE.. ib Eb okyB j? ox[BkE.. (1162)
fJ; ;apd d/ noE eoB tes gq'H ;kfjp f;zx ih fe;/ wiap{oh
ekoB Gkt noE ;gZ;aN eoB s'A y[zM rJ/ iK feBkok eo rJ/. nZyoh noE
T[jBK fJT[A ehs/ jB L^
‘(j/ GkJh`) fi; wB[Zy dk wB gqG{ d/ uoBK ftZu bhB oj/, T[; dk
wB (fe;/ ePN t/b/) v'bdk BjhA, T[;d/ ;oho B{z (e;aN d/ e/) vokT[D s'A

(96)
e'Jh bkG BjhA j' ;edk. ojkT[.’
(fJj fto'Xh b'e) w?B{z (epho B{z) izihoK Bkb pzBQ e/ v{zxh rzGho
rzrk wksk ftZu (v'pD bJh) b? rJ/, (Gkt T[; rzrk ftZu b? rJ/ fi;B{z fJj
‘wksk’ nkyd/ jB). T[; wksk e'b'A w?B{z ikB'A wotkD dk ngokX eoB bZr/
.1. (go v[ZpD d/ EK) rzrk dhnK bfjoK Bkb w/oh iziho N[ZN rJh. w?A
(epho) T[; ib T[FZs/ fJT[A soB bZr fgnk fit/A fwqrSkbk T[FZs/ p?mk j'fJnk
jK.2. epho nkydk j? (j/ GkJh` s[jkv/ fwZE/ j'J/ eoweKv iK shoE
fJ;aBkB) e'Jh Gh ;zrh BjhA pD ;ed/. gkDh s/ Xosh jo EK, fJZe
gowkswk jh oZyD i'r j?. r[o{ rzqE gzBk^1162, dogD g'Eh 8^446 rzrk
fJZe dfonk j? nkw dfonktK tork, fit/A d/ ;sb[i, fpnk; jB.
pqkjwDh rqzEK ftZu rzrk dfonk B{z pVk tfuZso ns/ e"seh o{g fdZsk j'fJnk
fwbdk j?. ny/ r';tkwh dh gsBh fJjh rzrk ;h. ny/ f;at B/ rzrk B{z
ngDk ‘thoi’ nogD ehsk. T[;B/ XkoB Bk eoe/ pkjo ;[ZN fdZsk. ;[ZN/
rJ/ thoi B{z pqjwk B/ rzrk ;w/s nkgD/ b'N/ ftZu ;zGkb fbnk. pj[s bzw/
;w/A wro'A GrhoE dh p/Bsh gqtkB eofdnK rzrk B{z Xosh g[o ubh ikD dh
nkfrnk j'Jh. Xosh s/ T[;B{z ;KGD tkbk e'Jh Bk fBsfonk. fco f;at ih
B/ nkgDhnK iNK (f;o d/ tkb) ftZu T[soB dh fJIkis d/ fdZsh. jzekoh
j'Jh rzrk jikoK ;kbK sZe f;at dhnK iNK ftZu T[bMh ojh, pkjo nkT[D
dk okj Bk bZG/. nzs GrhoE dh p/Bsh s/ rzrk T[FZgo so; yk e/ f;atih B/
nkgD/ e/;K d/ i{V/ ftZu'A rzrk B{z pkjo fBebD dh fJIkis d/ fdZsh. ftuko/
GrhoE B/ fJ; rzrk wJhnk ftZu nkgD/ wo/ pI[orK dhnK n;EhnK
(;[nkj) gkJhnK fco T[jBK nGkr/ ihtK B{z ‘;tor’ ftZu gqt/P gqkgs
j'fJnk. fJjh rzrk nZr'A ;aksB{z oki/ dh gsBh pDh dZ;h rJh j?. fi; s'A
nZr/ e"otK gKvtK dk pz; uZfbnk. ftnkj eotk e/ pZu/ g?dk eoe/, fe;/
ekoB Bkoki j' e/ fJj rzrk fco dfonk pD e/ tfjD bZr gJh. pqkjwD
ih dk bki[nkp uwseko j? fe ;dhnK s'A fJjh puekBhnK, nDj'DhnK
w{oysk Gog{o ejkDhnK Xow d/ b/pb bk e/, iB ;w{j d/ nzdo XZehnK
ik ojhnK jB. fe;/ B{z I[pkB y'jbD dh nkfrnk BjhA j?. fezs{ gqzs{ iK ;aZe

(97)
eoB s/ tZvh s'A tZvh ;Ik fdZsh ik ;edh j?, ‘Xow eosp’ ikDe/. ;ko/
p'b/ rzrk wJhnk eh i?, i? wJhnk eh.
fJ; eowksh ‘phph rzrk’ ftZu nDfrDs b'e v[Zp e/ wo u[Ze/ jB.
po;ks d/ w";w ftZu pkeh dfonktK tKr fJ; ftZu Gh y{p jVQ nkT[Ad/ jB.
p/nzs ikBh wkbh spkjh jo ;kb j[zdh j?. PfjoK dk rzd wzd (wbw{so)
ns/ nDfrDs ekoykfBnK dk d{f;as gkDh, rzrk ftZu fvZrdk j?. fi; dh
pd"bs fJj gkDh ghD i'rk sK fes/ fojk t/yD B{z fdb BjhA eodk. pkeh
;ko/ dfonk T[FZu/ gjkVK ftZu pV/ ‘gftZso’ jB.
fJ;/ soQK rzrk Gh foPh e/P d/ n;EkB sZe ‘gftZso’ (;kca) tfjzdh
j?. nr'A fJ; ftukoh dh pj[s d[ors j[zdh j?. eJh EktK s/ Gkos ;oeko
B/ PoXkb{nK B[z ‘w[esh’ fdtkT[D bJh gkDh ;kca eoB d/ nfsnzs wfjzr/
fcbNo nkfd bkJ/ j'J/ jB. fco th fJj b'eK dh w?b ‘gkg’ X'Adh j'Jh
fJzBh w?bh j' rJh j? fe ftd/;ah ‘;kpDk’ (izsoK) Bkb o'I fJ;aBkB eodh
j?, ‘p/ukoh rzrk wksk’.
gq'H ;kfjp f;zx ih B/ fJ; ;apd dh rfjokJh ftZu ik e/, goy BjhA
ehsh. T[jBK dhnK wiapo { hnK e'Jh Gh j' ;edhnK jB. izihoK ftZu iefVnk
ftnesh i/ gkDh ftZu ;[N Z fdZsk ikt/, T[j ntZ;a jh v[Zp wo/rk. gkDh Gkt/
A rzrk, iwBk, r'dktoh iK okth dk j't/, jo EK gkDh dh sk;ho fJZe' jh j?
‘H2O’. rzrk ftZu nfijh fejVh goT[gekoh or cVe gJh fe epho ih
dhnK izihoK s'V d/t/. fco fe;/ uwseko d[nkok fwqr nk;D (fwqr dh
yZb) xZb d/t/. epho ih u"AeVk wko e/ T[; eokwksh yZb T[go p?m rJ/.
T[j fjoB dh yZb Gh sK e'Jh p/Vh iK fePsh BjhA ;h fe nkokw Bkb gko
eotk fdzdh. fJZe wB[Zy dk Gko u[Ze e/ fwqr dh yZb jofri gkDh s/ BjhA
s?o ;edh. fco i' b'e epho ih B{z v[p' e/ wkoB bJh jh fbnkJ/ ;B,
T[jBK d[pkok v'pD dk feT[A isB Bk ehsk< ‘eh rzrk d/ noE e/tb rzrk
dfonk jh jB.’
r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih B{z nB/e s;hj/ d/D s'A pknd, okth dfonk
ftZu o'jfVnk frnk. T[j gkDh ftZu v[Zp rJ/, gkDh B/ e'Jh fbjkI Bk

(98)
ehsh. gkDh nkgD/ nNZb fBnw w[skfpe ezw eodk j?. T[; B{z tZv/ S'N,/
nwho^rohp, ;kX iK u'o Bkb e'Jh b?Dk d/Dk BjhA j?. fiBQK ihtK d/ nzdo
;kj b?D bJh c/cV/ bZr/ j'J/ jB, gkDh ftZu v[ZpD s/ T[jBK d/
c/cfVnK ftZu gkDh Go iKdk j?. e[dos tZb'A y[;ae EktK s/ ofjD tkb/
ihtK d/ ;oho ftZu c"oh s"o s/ gkDh pkjo eZYD dk e'Jh gqpX
z BjhA j?. fJ;/
ekoB gqkDh dh w"s jz[dh j?. gkDh ftZu ofjD tkb/ ihtK d/ ;oho ftZu c/
cV/ Bjh, ‘rbcV/’ bZr/ j'J/ jB. fiBQK okjh nzdo frnk tkX{ gkDh, Bkb'
Bkb pkjo fBebdk ofjzdk j?. b'VhAdh nke;hiB gkDh ftZu'A b? e/ tos
bJhdh j?. r[o{ noiB ;kfjp B{z gkDh B/ Bk pyfPnk, epho ih ;akfJd tZX
eokwksh ;aeshnK tkb/ ;B< d;w/ gkfs;akj ih dk ;kok gfotko ns/
f;Zy, fJZe po;ksh Bkb/ nZr/ p/pZ; j' rJ/. ;o;k Bdh feBko/ nZr'A gkDh
dh wko, fgZS/ d[;awD dh wkoHHHH. fJZe S'Nk fizBk Bkbk d;t/A BkBe ih s'A
ekp{ Bk nkfJnk< fJ; s'A wro'A th izrK :[ZXK ftZu f;Zy bVd/ oj/. id'A
dfonk gko eoB dk ;pZp pDdk sK pj[s ;ko/ (i' s?oB d/ wkjo BjhA ;B)
vZ[p e/ wo iKd/. nZi sZe gkDh dh sk;ho BjhA pdbh, pdbD dh ;zGktBk
th e'Jh BjhA j?. gkDh B{z nkgDhnK b'VK bJh tosD dh iKu f;ZyD s'A fpBK
fJ;B/ ;ztkoBk e[ZM BjhA, ftrkV pj[s d/t/rk.
nkT[ j[D n;b w[Zd/ tZb goshJ/` T[j fejVh iziho ;h i' epho ih
B/ s'V fdZsh< T[j fejVhnK p/VhnK ;B i' epho ih B{z ieVB bJh
toshnK rJhnk< T[j fejVh rzrk ;h fi; ftZu epho ih B{z v'fpnk ik
fojk ;h< HHHH jikoK ;kb s'A pqkjwD B/ fJ; Gkosh G{yzv ftZu j'o e'Jh
;[szso ftukoXkok gBgD BjhA fdZsh. id'A fe;/ B/ pqkjwDh ;'u Bz{ tzrkoB
tkbh Iok e[ ;[o T[FZuh ehsh sK ‘gzfvs ih’ dk gkok ;Zst/A nkek;a sZe ik
g[Zfink. nkgDh wkD fgqfsPmk Gzr j[zdh BiaohA nkJh. g{iD i'r T[FZuk
wokspk fwZNh ftZu o[bdk fd;dk. yhoK, eVQkj, frohnK pdkw jZEK ftu'A
y[Z;d/ fdZ;d/. ftjb/ ofj e/ gkb/ j'J/ ;oho y/sK ftZu fwjBs eod/, fwZNh
Bkb fwZNh j[zd/ fd;/. g{ik dk nfwDtk XkB nb'g j[zdk BiohA nkfJnk.
‘;aoXktkB’ ;/teK dhnK pj[^p/NhnK Bkb wBw'je Biako/ T[FZvd/ fd;/HHH.

(99)
;aKsh d/ g[zi pqjw foyh, Xosh T[FZs/ oZp ih dk ;keko o{g gzfvs ih d/ e'wb
j'mK ftZuA' nrBh d/ GKpV fBebD bZr. / ‘Xow dh wfonkdk’ B{z tzrkoB tkb/
B{z jkEhnK nZr/ ;[NtkfJnk frnk, nZrK ftZu ;kfVnk frnk, gkDh ftZu
v'fpnk frnk, ezBK ftZu f;Zek Ykb e/ gkfJnk frnk, nZyK d/ v/b/ eZY fdZs/
rJ/, jZE g?o eZND/ sK wkw{bh eow ;h. id'A ih ukj/ f;o ebw ehsk ik
;edk ;h. ;D/ pZu/ e'jb{ ghV/ ik ;ed/ ;B. ‘jw ;akg d/ eo G;w eo
d/Ar/A’ n?t/A efjD wkso BjhA ;h. fJ; dk noE Gkt ;h fe Xkowe g[ikoh
fe;/ ftnesh fto[ZX i' puB w{zj'A eZYdk ;h ;w/A dk jkew (okik) T[;B{z g{ok
eodk ;h. n;b ftZu ;aokg Bkb T[At fe;/ dk tkb th ftzrk BjhA j'fJnk
eodk. id'A ‘Xow w[yh’ efj d/t/ ^ ‘w?A fJ;/ G;w eo d{zrk’ ;pzfXs
nfXekoh dk fJj ‘Xkowe coI’ ;h fe T[; ftnesh B{z ;Zu w[Zu jh nZr
ftZu ;kV e/ G;w (;[nkj) eo d/t/. id'A g[ikoh fe;/ yk; ekoB ;/te s/
y[;ah gqrN eodk ;h sK fJsBk efjDk jh ekcah ;h. ‘fuoziht oj', s[wQ/ nzB
XzB eh eGh ewh Bk nkJ/, f:j w/ok todkB j?.’ e/tb E'E/ todkBK Bkb
edh GV'b/ BjhA God/, fJ;dk f;ZXk wsbp ;h nwe/ pzd/ B{z okik ;koh T[wo
r[ikoB i'rk XB d/t/ s/ okik d/ fdzdk ;h, fJjh ;h todkB.
pqkjwD, t/d ns/ gZEo d/ ‘GrtkBK’ fto[ZX Gkt/A pj[s gfjbK
wjkswk p[ZX ih B/ ‘prkts’ ehsh ;h. pqkjwDh b[ZN B{z eokoh ;ZN wkoh
rJh ;h. go fJj sK phs/ :[Zr dhnK rZbK j' fBZpVhnK ;B. p[ZX wZs jko
u[Zfenk ;h pqkjwD dk fPezik fco T[;/ soQK wB[Zy wkso s/ eZf;nk ik
u[Zfenk ;h. B/Vb/ fJfsjk;e ;w/A ftZu gfjb/ fBoG? :'X/ Grs Bkwd/t ih
B/ ‘prkts’ dk Mzvk u[fenk. Bkwd/t ih dh Bt/ebh ;'u, ;w/A s'A pj[s nZr/
;h. pVk fto'X j'fJnk, go T[jBK dh fbys (pkDh) nkgDk ozr ftyk ojh
;h. fJB;kBhns d/ gfjo/dko oftdk; ih epho ihHHH fJ;/ ;'u B{z b? e/
nZr/ tXD bZr. / r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ ;kfonK B{z fJZe' wzu godkB eoe/, fJ;
wZXw ;[o B{z p[bzdhnK s/ gj[zuk fdZsk.
rzrk ib dhnK bfjoK Bkb Bk edh jEeVhnK p/VhnK N[ZNhnK
jB. Bk jh nZr'A edh N[ZNDrhnK. i' b'e fJ; soQK ;'ud/ jB T[jBK dh

(100)
neb s/ so; jh ehsk ik ;edk j?. n;b ftZu T[so gqd/P (:{HghH)
pqkjwDh ;fGnsk d/ gqc[Zbs j'D dk fJj pj[s jh ;[yktK fJbkek ;h. Bk
pj[sh ;odh Bk rowh, egV/ gkU iK Bk gkU, e'Jh coe BjhA g?Adk. fizB/
pqkjwDh ntsko j'J/ dZ;hd/ jB, ;ko/ jh :{HghH ftZu gqrN/ jB. dfonktK
d/ ftueko ^ rzrk, iw[Bk, ;[jktDk w";w, ykD ghD bJh fJE/ ;G e[ZM fwb
iKdk ;h. fJ;/ ft;akb T[gikT{ fJbke/ B{z ‘rzrk dh xkNh’ iK ‘rT{ xkNh’
th nkfynk iKdk fojk. ;dhnK gfjbK i' nkohnB jwbkto ephb/ Gkos
ftZu ;G s'A fInkdk fes/ fNe/ sK fJjh ;[jktDh rT{ xkNh iK rzrk xkNh
;h. fJ;/ xkNh d/ T[gob/ gjkVK ftZu fJjBK nkohnkBK d/ bVke/ ioB?b
gBkj b?Ad/ ;B s/ nkT[D tkb/ ;w/A bJh izr dh fsnkoh eod/ ;B. fiBQK
B{z nZi d/ts/ fejk ik fojk j? fJj n;b ftZu c"ih ioB?b, Xkowe w[yh
iK fJbkfenK d/ u"Xoh jh ;B. pj[sk g"okDe ;kfjs fJ;/ ;EkB s/
fbfynk frnk. wzB{z f;fwqsh th fJXo jh fe;/ EK fbyh rJh. g[oksB
;fwnK ftZu nkgD/ nkg B{z ;[oZfyns oZyD dh fJjh fJZe uzrh EK ;h. ghD
bJh ;kca gkDh, b'V w[skpe ykDk. d' BdhnK (rzrk^iw[Bk) ‘ykJh’ dk ezw
eoB. fgZS/ T[FZso tZb gjkVK dh nfiZs ezX. ;kjwD/ e/tb fJZe' pkjh pkeh
ofj rJh. nkT[D tkb/ d[;awD B{z fJZe pkjh s'A o'e b?Dk, e'Jh w[;aeb BjhA
;h. fJE'A jh nkgD/ fto'XhnK B{z dpkT[D tk;s/ w[fjzwK uVQdhnK ;B. fJE/
jh r[bkwK B{z e[ubD tkb/ c[owkB ikoh j[zd/ ;B. fJ;/ jh ;{p/ ftZu pqkjwDh
ftZfdnk dk e/Ado ‘ek;ah’ pDkJh rJh. skes ns/ neb d/ ia'o fJE'A d/ w{b
fBtk;hnK B{z pVh p/ofjwh Bkb e[ufbnk iKdk fojk.
jIko pzd;aK d/ pkti{d epho ih B/ T[FZu ftZfdnk gVQh. ;ko/
pqkjwDh rqzEK dk v{zxk nfXn?B ehsk. g[ikohnK dhnK ukbkehnK B{z uzrh
soQK ;wfMnk. fJjBK tZb'A ehsh ik ojh b[ZN ns/ fJB;kBhns gqsh
p/ofjwh tkbk tshok gofynk. t/dK Pk;soK ftZu fbyh spkje[B ftukoXkok
B{z ;wM e/ vze/ dh u'N Bkb n?bkB eo fdZsk^
epho pkwB[ r[o{ j? irs ek GrsB ek r[o Bkfj..
nofM T[ofM e? gfu w{nk ukoT[ p/dj[ wkfj. (237)

(101)
g{oh us[okJh ns/ skes d/ pbp{s/, pqkjwD Gkosh b'eK dk iBw
s'A jh r[o{ ;h. e'Jh fJZe th ftnesh fJBeko eoB dh fjzws BjhA eo
;edk ;h. epho ih B/ db/oh Bkb n?bkB eo fdZsk fe fJ; d/; (T[jBK
g[oksB ;fwnK ftZu jkbh d/P Grsh dk e'Jh ;zebg BjhA ;h. fJj Gkosh
G{yzv ;?AeV/ d/;aK dk iwxZNk fijk ;h, fJ;/ bJh ;apd ‘irs, d[BhnK,
;z;ko’ tofsnk j?) d/ pkeh b'eK dk r[o{ Gkt/A pqkjwD j't/ go
w/ok (epho) r[o{ BjhA j?. fJj sK y[d jh t/dK dh rbs f;Zfynk dk f;aeko
j' u[Zfenk j?. uko/ t/dK d/ eoweKv, pbh, j'w, :Zr nkfd ftZu T[bM frnk
j?. wB[Zysk bJh sK fJ; B/ e[ZM th BjhA ehsk. j'o t/y' ^
epho wkfJ w[zvT[ fsj r[o{ eh ik s/ Gow[ B ikfJ..
nkg v[p/ uj[ p/d wfj, u/b/ dhJ/ pjkfJ.. (1370)
n?;/ gkyzvh frnkB jhD/ M{m/ r[o{ nytkD tkb/ dh wK dk f;o w[zB
d/Dk ukjhdk j?, i' y[d sK rbs ftukoXkok ftZu v[Zfpnk jh ;h, ;r'A fgS
bZr u/b/ th t/dK dh rbs f;Zfynk ftZu v'p fdZs/. epho ih sK ;r'A ;gZ;aN
nky oj/ jB, fe w?B{z s[jkv/ rqzEK ftub/ T[gd/P dh b'V BjhA j?. ;r'A s[;hA
fjzd{ s/ w[;bwkB w/o/ s'A yoh gs/ dh rZb ;[D' s/ ihtB ;[Xko'. tke jBL^
ejs epho okw r[B rktT[.. fjzd{ s[oe d'T[ ;wMktT[..(429)
ejs epho Gb/ n;tkok.. p/d es/p s/ ojfj fBokok..(329)
wjkB eoKsh ekoh ;{ow/ epho ih id'A pqkjwD dh iVQ, t/d B{z jh
wkBsk BjhA d/dA/ sK T[j g[ikoh pqkjwD B{z nkgDk r[o{ feT[A ;theko eoBr/< ;r'A
epho ih sK m'e tik e/ nky oj/ jBL^
jwok Mrok ojk B e'T{.. gzfvs w[bK Skv/ d'T[..
gzfvs w[bK i' fby dhnk.. Skfv ub/ jw eS{ B bhnk..(1158)
epho ih B/ ;ko/ MrV/ w[ek e/ ;kc efj fdZsk fe n;hA pqkjwD iK
w[ZbK dh e'Jh f;Zfynk gqtkB BjhA eoBh. i' e[ZM fJjBK B/ ;wki B{z b[ZND
tk;s/ ‘Xow g'EhnK’ ftZu fby Xfonk j?, w?A T[j ;G Beko fdZsk j?. w/
ok nkgDk fiT[D Yzr j?, w?B{z j'o fe;/ dh r[bkwh ;theko BjhA j?.
pqkjwD tZb'A ‘Xow dh Sso SkfJnk ftZu’ ;dhnK s'A wB[Zysk s/ i'

(102)
nefj I[bw ehs/ rJ/ epho ih B/ T[jBK B{z pVh p/pkeh Bkb Bzr/ ehsk j?.
y{B ghDhnK o;wK B{z g{oh soQK oZd eo fdZsk j?. c[owkB jBL^
epho v{pk Ek g? T[pfoT[ ‘r[B eh bfjo’ Mpfe..
ip d/fyU p/Vk ioiok sp T[sfo gfoU jT[ cofe..(1368)
;ko/ Grs ;kfjpkB B{z (nS{s j'D eoe/) pqkjwDh rqzEK ftZu Bcos
Goh fBrkj Bkb t/fynk iKdk ;h. fiE/ pokpo dk ;fseko jh Bk j't/, T[;
Bkb'A s'V ftS'Vk jh fpjso j?. fJ; bJh epho ih B/ ;kc efj fdZsk ^
‘fJj pqkjwDh ftuko o{gh p/Vk pj[s d/o sZe uZb uZ[fenk j?. fJ; tes
fJj v[ZpD B/V/ jh j?. w?A fJ; vZ[p oj/ p/V/ ftZu feT[A ;tko ojK< fJ;/ bJh
w?A pkjo SbKr brk fdZsh.’
epho ih B/ n?t/A o'; gorN BjhA ehsk m'; dbhbK s/ ;p{s g/P
ehs/ jB. j/ gzfvs ih ;[D' fXnkB Bkb` n;hA fwjBs wiad{oh eoe/, jZe
jbkb dh o'Nh ykJhJ/ sK Bhu s/ P{do rodkB/ ik oj/ jK. go s[;hA jokw
dhnK yk e/, iks gksh tzvhnK gk e/, edh jEhA fwjBs Bk eoe/, g/N
g{osh eoB tkb/ uzr/ s/ T[FuZ / fet/A pD p?m<
/ s[;hA b'e sK ‘Xow n;EkBK ftZu
Xow g[;seK ftZu'A Xow wzso gVQe/, wB[ZyK B{z nkfonK Bkb uho e/ d'ckV
eo fdzd/ j'. fco th nkgD/ nkg B{z T[FZu/ o[sp/ tkb/, w[Bh d/ts/ nytk oj/
j'.’ uzr/ pDB bJh uzr/ ezw eoB/ iao{oh jB. c[owkB jBL^
‘gzvhnk etB e[wfs s[w bkr/..
p{vj[r/ gotko ;eb f;T[ okw[ Bk igj[ nGkr/..’
p/d g[okB gVQ/ ek fenk r[B[ yo uzdB i; Gkok..
okw Bkw eh rfs Bjh ikBh e?;/ T[sof; gkok..
ihn pXj[ ;[ Xow[ efo Ekgj[ nXow[ ejj[ es GkJh..
nkg; eT[ w[fBto efo Ekgj[ ek eT[ ejj[ e;kJh.(1102)
epho ih g[eko g[eko e/ efj oj/ jB fJjBK pqkjwDh rqzEK B/ Gkos
tk;h ;ko/ fJB;kBK d/ g?ohA p/VhnK, jZEK B{z jZEeVhnK gk e/, g{oh soQK
r[bkwh ftZu ieV fdZsk j?. Bkwd/t ih s'A b? e/ d;w gkfs;akj jI{o sZe,
fJ; wkBf;e r[bkwh d/ ;zrb s'VB tk;s/ pj[s isB ehs/ rJ/. fJzB/ izr

(103)
oki;h r[bkwh B{z yasw eoB bJh BjhA bV/ rJ/ fizB/ Xkowe r[bkwh yasw
eoB tk;s/ bV/ rJ/ jB. go fJj r[bkwh ni/ th fe;/ Bk fe;/ o{g ftZu
fiT[A dh fsT[A poeoko j?. j'o fe;/ ;p{s dh b'V BjhA j?, epho ih s'A jh
g[ZShJ/L^
p/d eh g[sqh f;fwqfs GkJh.. ;Keb i/toh b? j? nkJh.
eNh B eN? s{fN Bj ikJh.. ;k ;kgfB j'fJ ir eT[ ykJh..
jw d/ys fifB ;G[ ir[ b{fNnk.. ej[ epho w? okw efj S{fNnk.. (329)
fJj pqkjwDh ftukoXkok dh nwo t/b fJzBh ysoBke j? fe
r[opkDh torh bk;kBh ftukoXkok ;Bw[Zy j'D d/ pkti{d f;Zy gzE g{oh soQK
fJ; dh ieV geV ftZu cf;nk j'fJnk j?. pj[s fte;s :{oghB w[beK
ftZu ofjD tkb/ f;Zy th fJ; pqkjwDh eoweKv ftZu g{oh soQK T[bM/ j'J/ t/
y/ ik ;ed/ jB. gzikp d/ fi; fJbke/ ftZu'A e'Jh ftnesh gotk; eoe/
pd/P frnk j?, j'o tiB sK Gkt/A ijki ftZu bZd e/ BjhA fbik ;fenk, go
v/od/ koh ;kXtkd Bkb iaoo { b? e/ frnk j?. :{oghB w[beK ftZu ofj oj/ f;ZyK
s'A T[whd ;h fe gzikp B{z p"fXe nrtkJh d/Dr/. ;r'A T[bNk uZeo fJj uZb
frnk j? fe pd/;ak ftub/ pj[^frDsh f;Zy, p"fXe gy'A gzikp Bkb'A pj[s
gSV rJ/ jB. ykb;/ d/ fBnko/gD dhnK vhrK wkoB tkb/ r[opkDh dh
ftukoXkok B{z fgZm d/ e/, d;w rqzE d/ g[ikoh pD rJ/ jB. ny"sh dwdwh
Ne;kb (wfjs/ u"e tkb/) nkgD/ nDG'b pZfunK s'A jtB eokT[Ad/ oj/ jB.
fJjBK d/ ‘pqjw frnkBhnK’ tZb'A fbyhnK g[;seK f;ZyK B{z yko/ ;w[zdo ftZu
v'pD bJh ekcah jB. gzikp ftZu rZvhnK d[VkJh x[zw oj/, nDfrDs ‘pqjw
frnkBh’ Ne;kb dk M{m Bzrk eoB bJh ;Zu Bk p'b ;e/. e'Jh fJZe
‘pqjwfrnkBh’ jh fJzBh db/oh eoe/ nky fdzdk fe ‘GkJh ioB?b f;zx
;ajhd j' uZ[fenk j?. s[;hA e[co Bk s'b', iK dZ;' fe; G{nk dh e[ZSV ftZu
p?mk j?<’
ekch ;wK gfjbK w[;bwkBK ftZu nkJh froktN B{z t/yfdnK fJepkb
B/ fJZe jT[ek Gfonk ;h. fi; d/P ftZu w[;bwkB dkyb j'J/ T[E/ jh nkgDh
je{ws ekfJw eo bJh. jo jhbk tos e/ ;ko/ b'eK B{z iK s/ w[;bwkB pDk

(104)
fbnk iK esb eo fdZsk frnk. p; fJZe fjzd';skB jh nfijk d/P j?,
fiZE/ nk e/ w[;bwkB wks yk rJ/. Gkt/A gkfe;skB s/ pzrbk d/P ftZu eohp
shj eo'V w[;bwkB fjzd{nK s'A pD/ j'J/ jh ofj oj/ jB. Gkos ftZu th
gzdok eo'V w[;bwkB w"i{d jB. edh th nkgD/ bJh tZyok d/P b?D dh wzr
T[mk ;ed/ jB. go fJepkb B{z d[y Z fJ; rZb dk j? fe ;w[u Z k Gkos fJ;bkw
d/ Mzv/ j/m feT[A Bk nk ;fenk< fJ;bkwe p/V/ Bz{ roe eoB tkbh dbdb
pVh fGnkBe j?. fijVk fJZe tkoh ‘eztb d/ ;'jD/ c[b’ gqkgs eoB tk;s/
dbdb ftZu dkyb j' frnk T[j fco edh tkg; gos e/ BjhA nkfJnk.
T[j dbdb j? ‘rzrk dh xkNh pqkjwDh ;fGnsk’ f;ano j?L^
:/j dhB/ jikih ek p/pke p/Vk, B i/jz{ w/A nNek Bk ;/jz{ w/A mfjok.
ehJ/ gko fi;B/ E/ ;ks'A ;w[d
z o, t'j ‘v{pk djkB/ w/A rzrk e/ nkeo’.
(fJepkb)
fJZE/ p[ZX wZs dw s'V frnk, fJZE/ i?B Xow nzsw ;kjK s/ j?. fJZE/
epho gzEhJ/, Bkwd/t gzEhJ/ nkgDh ftbZyDsk r[nk u[Ze/ jB. fJE/ f;Zy th
fBrfbnk jh frnk ;wM'A. fJZe tkoh rKXh B/ (ny"sh ok;aNo fgsk) vkH
nzp/deo B{z ebkpkiah ftykT[Afdnk fejk ;h ^ ‘jw fjzd{ b'r nS{s'A e/ ;kE
pqkpoh tkbk fttjko eo/Ar/. d/P eh nkiakdh e/ pknd, nkge/ GkJhT[A e'
e'Jh f;aetk BjhA oj/rk.’ sK vkH nzp/deo B/ eokoh u'N eofdnK w'VtK
jZbk p'fbnk ^ ‘rKXh ih` w?A nkgeh I[pkBh ejh j{Jh pks go :ehB BjhA
eo ;esk. fiB sEkefEs, Xkowe rozE'A w/A jw P{do'A e/ bhJ/, esb eo
d/B/ tkb/ T[gd/P fby/ j'A< T[B ;G eh J/e J/e gqsh b/ eo pVh GhV e/
;kjwD/ uKdBh u"Ae fdZbh w/A, ngB/ jkE'A ;/ nkr brk eo ibk d/A. w?A ;wM
b{zrk fe nkg tkeJh fJB;kBhns e/ gy;a w/A j?. rKXh fubkfJnk ^ “n?;/
BjhA j' ;esk”
;' epho ih B/ p/VhnK s'VhnK ;B T[j ;B pqkjwDh ftukoXkok
dhnK p/VhnK jEeVhnK. T[jBK B/ jo fJZe o;w' fotkia, B{z eoweKv B{z
g{oh soQK oZd eo fdZsk, i' wB[Zy B{z fe;/ d{i/ dk r[bkw pDkT[Adk j't/. sK
fco rzrk xkNh ftZu gqtkB uVQh pqkjwDh ftukoXkok o{gh ;zrb oZ;/ (pzXB)

(105)
epho ih B/ s'V fdZs/. fJjBK t?fde ns/ wB{z f;fwqsh ftZu i' Xow b/pb
bk e/ wko{ nkd/P s/ b[ZN e/ ykD tkb/ j[ew fby/ j'J/ jB T[jh jB wB[Zysk
d/ rb gJ/ pzXB fiBQK B{z epho ih B/ s'V fdZsk j?, ;kB{z g{oh soQK w[es wkor
s/ uZbD dk okj gZXok ehsk j?. nrb/ gzB/ s/ p/dK dh n;bhns fpnkB
eod/ e[ZM gowkD fby/ ik oj/ jB, sK fe fe;/ B{z
G[b/yk Bk oj/ fJj p/dK s/ ntskoK pko/ r[opkDh dk eh c[owkB j?L^
! ;k;s f;fwqs p/d ukfo w[ykro fpuo/..
sg/ sgh;o i'rhnk shofE rtB eo/..
yN[ eowk s/ d[rD [ / g{ik eosk BkfJ..
ozr[ B br' gkopqjw sk ;ogo Boe/ gkfJ.. (71)
! pj[ ;k;sq pj[ f;fwqsh g/y/ ;op YzYf' b..
g{if; Bkjh jfo jo/ BkBe Bkw nw'b.. (265)
! n;w/X irB/.. s[bk g[oy dkB/.. gqkr fJ;BkB/..
sT[ B g{ifj jfo ehofs Bkwk..
rfJnk fgzv Gosk.. pBkof; nf; p;sk..
w[fy p/d us[o gVsk.. ;rb Xow nfSsk.. (873)
! ukfo p/d fijt GB/.. d; n;N yN; ;qtB ;[B. /
BjhA s[fb r'fpzd Bkw X{B/ (229)
! wfjwk B ikfBfj p/d.. pqjw/ BjhA ikB? G/d..
ntsko Bk ikBfj nzs. [ . gqw;/ o
[ [ gkopqjw p/ns
z .
[ . (894)
! g[B
z gkg[ ;G[ p/fd fdqVkfJnk, r[ow[fy nzfwqs[ ghi? j/. (1050)
! ;k;sq p/d g[zB gkg phuko.. Bofe ;[ofr fcfo fcfo nT[sko.. (385)
! d; nm bhy/ j'tfj gkf;.. uko/ p/d w[ykro gkfm..
fpB[ p{M/ ;G yVhnf; pzfX.. (1169)
! eEk ejkDh p/dh nkDh gkg g[B z phuko..
d/d/ b?Dk b? b? d/Dk Bofe ;[ofr ntsko. (1243)
t?fde ftukoXkok iK pqkjwDh Gowikb B{z r[opkDh g{oh soQK oZd
eodh j'Jh wB[Zy wkso B{z ;[szsosk godkB eodh j?. fJj p/VhnK s/

(106)
jEeVhnK ftZu ieV e/ fJeZb/ epho ih B{z jh ‘rzrk dh bfjo’ (fjzd{
;ZfGnsk) ftZu BjhA roe ehsk frnk. ;r'A tZv/ tZv/ Xow, ;aesh;akbh oki/
, ;'jD/ ;wki, fJ; ‘rzrk dh dbdb’ ftZu roe j' rJ/ jB. fJ;/ soQK
fBnkok ykb;k gzE, pqkjwDh yZv ftZu nZi th v[Zfpnk eb th v[Zfpnk. j?
e'Jh nfijk f;nkDk wbkj, i' v[Zpd/ v'bd/ gzEe p/V/ B{z uZg{ bk e/ feBko/
bk d/t/< BjhA sK ;kvk p/Vk rofenk jh ;wM'.
p/Vk pzfX B ;feU pzXB eh t/bk..
Gfo ;oto[ ip T[Sb? sp soD[ d[jb
/ k.. (794)

[[[[

(107)
f;zx G'iB
;fsr[o{ ;kfjp ih B/ gftZso r[opkDh okjhA i' T[gd/P fdZs/, T[j
;opd/Ph s/ ;opekbh jB. e'Jh ftuko r[opkDh ftZu nfijk BjhA
fwb/rk i' fJZe wB[Zy dh fizdrh B{z ok; nkT[Adk j't/, s/ d[i/ B{z w[nkce Bk
p?mdk j't/. fw;kb bJh t/y' r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ b'V tes T[dk;hnK t/
b/ gfjbK r/o{J/A (Grt/A) p;so gfjB/. fjwkbk gops tZb dh c/oh tes,
feT[Afe pockBh fJbke/ dh :ksok eoBh ;h, uwV/ d/ ;{N p{N fsnko
eotkJ/, gfjB/. wZe/ tZb dh :ksok tes ‘Bhb p;so Xko/ pBtkoh’, Gkt
jkih w[;bwkBK tkbk gfjoktk gfjB fbnk. jZE ftZu wip{s vKr, w'Y/ s/
;kwkB tkbk E?bk, fBtki gVQB tkbk w[;Zbk (egVk) nkfd. tkg; gos
e/ ‘gfjo ;z;koh egV/ wzih p?m ehnk ntskok’, d/ tke w[skpe nkw
d[Bhnkdko frq;sh b'eK tkb/ egV/ gk bJ/, s/ wzih s/ fpokiwkB j' e/ ;zrsK
B{z T[gd/P eoB bZr gJ/. fJ;/ bJh f;ZyK T[go gzi eekoK dh todh dk
XoBh j'Dk sK bkiwh j?, go pkeh gfjokt/ pkps e'Jh gkpzdh BjhA j?. i/
nfijh gkpzdh nkfJd eo fdZsh ikt/, sK d[BhnK d/ g"D gkDh w[skpe,
w";w nB[;ko, f;Zy bJh ihtB pshs eoBk efmB j' ikt/rk. fJ;/ soQK
ykD ghD s/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ e'Jh gkpzdh BjhA bkJh. jK Bf;anK dh ;ys
wBkjh ehsh rJh j?, feT[Afe fJj fiazdrh spkj eo fdzd/ jB. ykD ghD
pko/ ;G s/ bkr{ j'D tkbk ;fsr[o{ ih ek c[owkB j?L^
nfXe ;[nkd o'r nfXekJh, fpB[ r[o ;ji B gkfJnk.. (1255)
r[opkDh Bkb ;pzXs ns/ fJfsjk; pko/ ;?AeV/ ft;a/ nDS'j/ gJ/
jB. fiBK dh ftnkfynk bJh nDfrDs feskpK fbyhnK ik ;edhnK
jB. fw;kb bJh ^ r[opkDh ou?sk GrsK wjKg[oyK pko/ shj g[;seK,
ekw, e'qX, b'G, w'j, jzeko, fo;as/ ns/ n"os dh pokpoh. Xow gquko
pko/, f;Zy okiBhsh pko/, d/P ftd/P ftub/ f;ZyK d/ w;fbnK pko/, ;z;ko

(108)
B{z r[opkDh eh ;KMk T[gd/P fdzdh j? nkfd< nc;'; fe fJ; gk;/ fe;/ B/
y/ub BjhA ehsh. jK wk; pko/ jZe ns/ fto'X ftZu eohp gzi g[;seK
fbyhnK ik u[ZehnK jB. fJT[A gqshs j[zdk j? fe f;Zy ;wki (BjhA f;Zy
b/ye<) ;ohoh gZXo s'A T[FZgo BjhA T[FZm ;fenk. fJZehthA ;dh, ezfgT{Noh
i[Zr, d[BhnK okeN dh ;ghv Bkb nZr/ tZX ojh j?, s/ n;hA jkbh sZe g[okD/
rZv/ s/ jh ;tko jK. f;Zy gqukoeK s'A g[ZS/ ikD tkb/ ;tkb Gh pV/ p"D/ fij/
jh j[zd/ jB. fco T[jBK d/ i[nkp d/D tkb/ feZE'A r[owfs gVQe/ nkJ/ jB<
Xkowe ns/ d[BhnkthA ftZfdnk fe; gZXo dh j?< fJj gZy BK jh S'fjnk
ikt/ sK fpjso oj/rk.
;fsr[o{ ih dh ftukoXkok B{z Ugoh Bio/ BjhA rfjokJh ftZu T[so
e/ ;wMD dk isB eohJ/. wjKg[oy B/e ihtB tkb/ Grs oftdk; iks gZy'A
uwko, wo/ gP{ Y'D tkb/. T[jBK pdp{ wkod/ w[odk gP{nK dhnK yZbK
T[skod/ b'eK dhnK i[ZshnK pDkT[Ad/, w[odk gP{nK dh ofjzd y{zjd, jZvhnK
nkfd b/y/ bkT[D tkb/. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B{z T[j Bhu Biao BjhA nkJ/,
fgnko ebkt/ ftZu fbnk, T[jBK d/ puBK (pkDh) B{z nkgDh pkDh Bkb
T[skok eoe/ fjZe Bkb bk fbnk. Grs ;XBk ih ikBto wko e/, wk; t/
uD dk ezw eod/ ;B, wk; dh d[ekB, b'eK B{z wk; t/ud/ j'D, s/ y[d Bk yKd/
j'tD< ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJ; feZs/ ekoB ;XBk ih Bkb e'Jh Bcaos BjhA
ehsh. ;fseko ;fjs T[jBK dh pkDh dk T[skok eoe/ ;KG fbnk. pkpk
P/y cohd ih, gZe/ w[;bwkB, jbkb ehsk wk; ykD tkb/, ;aoQk d/ gkpzd,
;fsr[o{ ih B{z pj[s uzr/ brd/ jB, T[jBK dh pkDh Gh nkgD/ e'b ;KG bJh.
P/y GhyB ih gZe/ ;aoQJh w[;bwkB T[j Gh ;fsr[o{ ih Bkb fpokiwkB jB.
;wK nkT[D s/ fJjBK dh gftZso ouBk r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk ns[ZN nzr
pD ;eh. ;kJhA whnK who ih (gqubs otkfJs w[skpe) r[o{ xo ftZu
;fseko:'r jB. fJZe gZe/ w[;bwkB jbkb ehsk wk; ykD tkb/, gzit/A
BkBe B/ p/nsz ;fseko fdZsk T[jBK B{,z dt?s okJh wkso Gh BjhA. g?Ad/ ykB
S/t/A BkBe ih dk Biao/ eow fojk, T[jB{z ;kohnK w[;bwkBh ohsK fBGkT[D
dh g{oh nkiakdh ;h. w[fj;BckBh S/t/A ;fsr[o{ ih dk pj[s ;fseko eodk

(109)
;h. ;fsr[o{ ih T[; Bkb uzr/ d';s tork ftjko eod/ ;B. Gkos dk
;wokN nepo s/ ijKrho r[o{ xo ftZu wkD gkT[Ad/ oj/ jB. eJh tkoh
T[jBK tZb'A r[o{ xo B{z G/NktK Gh nogD ehshnK iKdhnK ;B. o'gV B/V/
fgzv e'Nb/ dk tk;h fBjzr yK, B"t/A ;fsr[o{ ih dk ;/te ;h. d;t/A gks;akj
dh ;bkwsh tk;s/ fJ; B/ pV/ ezw ehs/. fBjzr yK d/ g[Zso d/ ftnkj tes,
d;w gks;akj eJh fdB fJ; d/ xo mfjo/, f;ZyK d/ iZE/ ;w/s. GkJh
pfuso f;zx ih 1705 d;zpo ftZu, ;o;k feBko/ izr ftZu ;yas iaywh j'
rJ/ ;B. fBjzr yK d/ xo eJh fdB sZe fJZE/ jh fJbki eokT[Ad/ oj/,
gqPkdk gkDh Sed/ oj/. ;aZe g?D s/ r;ash N'bh B{z nkgDk dkwkd dZ; e/ fJ;
dh ikB pukJh. fJ;/ gq/wh fBjzr yK d/ ;e/ GkDi/, Bph yK rBhyK d;w
gks;akj ih B{z ysfonK ftZu'A ;jh ;bkws puk e/ b? rJ/ ;B.okJ/ e'N fty/
fiZE/ ;fsr[o{ eJh fdB mfjo/ ;B, T[j okJ/ ebk fBjzr yK d/ pfjB'Jh ;h.
;fsr[o{ ih fJjBK Bkb fgnko Gfonk ;b{e eod/ oj/. gho p[ZX{ ;akj ;fsr[o{
ih dk nfBB ;/te, nkgD/ g[ZsoK ns/ ;/teK B{z toQdh nZr ftZu M'e fdzdk
j?. ;fsr[o{ ih T[; B{z (nZXh d;sko d/ e/) Gok pDk b?Ad/ jB, Bcos dk
fes/ Bkw' fB;akB BjhA. B/e fJB;kB P/o w[jzwd yK, wb/oe'Nbk, ;fsr[o{
ih bJh ns/ ;ko/ f;Zy irs bJh g{ik dh jZd sZe gotkB j?, feT[A i' T[;B/
I[bw d/ fto[ZX ia'odko ntkia p[bzd ehsh ;h. T[; tZb'A ehs/ rJ/ j'o nB/
e I[bw Biao nzdki eo fdZs/ rJ/. fJj ;ko/ ns/ nDfrDs j'o w[;bwkB
r[o{ xo ftZu ;fseko gkT[Ad/ oj/. nZi dh f;sw iohch t/y'` wk; Bk ykD
tkbk f;Zy, wk; ykD tkb/ f;Zy B{z Bcos Gh eodk j? s/ T[;B{z f;Zy Gh BjhA
;wMdk. j? Bk fBo'b Bk ;wMh ns/ XZe/;akjh dk toskok<
;kvk ;kok fJfsjk; ;{oi ts o";aB j? fe ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB y[d
f;aeko eod/ oj/. ikBtoK B{z wko ;[ZNDk e'Jh P"e BjhA ;h, nfijh
;w/A dh b'V ;h T[; s'A pknd f;Zy :'X/ f;aeko eod/ oj/. wjhfBnK pZXh
st/ dh gZeh o'Nh B;hp BjhA jz[dh ;h. i' Gh izrbh iht jZE nkfJnk G[zB
e/ yk b?Dk, fJZe nkw toskok ;h. wkX' dk; B/ d;w gks;akj nZr/ fJZe
f;aetk ehsk ;h, fe w/o/ gkbs{ ikBto, fjoB pZeo/ f;ZyK B/ MNek bJ/

(110)
jBHHH fJj pj[s tZvk gkg j' frnk. j[D w?A fJ; Xow n;EkB ftZu Grsh
fet/A eoKrk< iht jZfsnk j' rJh, nfijh ngftZso EK Bkw ftZu wB fet/
A fNe ;edk j?< ;fsr[o{ ih nkyD bZr/, ‘wkX' dk; j';a eo, ikr`
s/o/ v/o/ ftub/ gkbs{ ikBto woB ekoB gkg j' frnk, go Gkos ftZu tr
ojhnK y{B dhnK BdhnK s?B{z Biao jh BjhA nkJhnK< ;koh Xosh y{B Bkb
ozrh j'Jh s?B{z BjhA fdZ;h< pZfunK p[ZfYnK phphnK dk v[ZfbQnk y{B s?B{z y{B
jh gqshs BjhA j[zdk< bZyK b'e nikJhA wko fdZs/ rJ/, Xow ;EkB Yfj Y/
oh eo fdZs/ rJ/, s{z fJ; v/o/ dh gftZsosk dk Gow gkbh p?mk j?A<HHH wkX'
dk; dk fjodk ezp T[FZfmnk, jZE i[V rJ/, ;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoBhA Yfj fgnk.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ r[owfs gVQkJh, yzv/ eh gkj[b SekJh, jfEnko gfjBkJ/,
f;ZyK dk ioB?b Ekg e/ Bkw pzdk f;zx oZye/, iakbwK B{z ;'XD tk;s/ gzikp
tZb ftdk eo fdZsk.
nro Bk ;wMh ekoB ikBto wkoB tkb/ gkg g[B z d/ uZeoftT{ ftZu
c; rJ/ sK fBeb BjhA ;eKr/. r"o eo'` w[;bwkB b'e ;{o B{z SZve/ pkeh
;G soK dk ykD i'r wk; yk b?Ad/ jB. d[BhnK dk ;G s'A tZvk d{ik Xow
fJ;bkw j?. ;kv/ nB/e Gok nop d/;aK ftZu o'iah ewkT[D iKd/ jB, jbkb
wk; ykD tkfbnK d/ nXhB. T[;/ ewkJh ftZu'A r[odtko/ G/Nk nogD eod/
jB, fi; G/Nk ftZu'A nZr/ j'o eJhnK dhnK b'VK g{ohnK j[zdhnK jB. T[;/
ewkJh ftZu'A pZfunK dh gkbDk eod/ jB, fco fet/A nkyhJ/ fe fJj fBo'b
;akekjkoh jB< d{i/ pzB/ r'o/ b'e ;{o ns/ rT{ ;w/s ;G soQK dk wk; yk b?Ad/
jB. wk; B{z Bcaos eoB tkb/,bZyK o[g? you eoe/ nB/e gkgV t/b e/, wk;
ykfDnK d/ d/;aK tZb BZ;/ ub/ ik oj/ jB, ;w/s ny"sh ;zsK pqjw frnkBhnK
d/. ftd/;aK ftZu pj[s tZv/ tZv/ ;N'o jB, fJZe' d[ekB ftZu'A jo soQK dk ;wkB
fwb iKdk j?. T[jBK d/ ;N'oK ftZu pj[s fe;w dk wk; fsnko eoe/
oZfynk j[zdk j?. eJh EkJhA fiT[Ad/ e/eV/ wZShnK nkfd Gh oZy/ j[zd/ jB,
s[ozs jh b'VhAdk ;wkB yohdd/ jB. wk; ykD tkb/ r'fonK d/ d/P ftZu sK
wk; fto'XhnK B{z ikDk jh BjhA ukjhdk. r'fonK d/ nXhB B"eoh sK ed/ Gh
BjhA eoBh ukjhdh. wk; ykD tkb/ fJ;kJh b'eK dh frDsh d[BhnK ftZu

(111)
;G s'A fiankdk j?. wk; ykD tkfbnK jh d[BhnK s/ oki ehsk j?. i/ wk;
ykDk gkg j? sK fJjBK b'eK B{z fJj gkg feT[A BjhA bZrdk< fJjBK wk; ykD
tkfbnK B/ jh ftfrnkB dhnK p/nzs bZGsK bZGhnK jB. wk; fto'XhnK B{z
fJjBK dh tos'A Gh fco BjhA eoBh ukjhdh.
Gkos d/ b'e jIkoK ;kbK sZe jo soQK dk wk; yKd/ oj/, ;w/s rT{
wk; d/. fort/d wzB{z f;wqsh, wjKGkos, owkfJD nkfd fJ; rZb d/ fbysh
;p{s jB. :Zr eoB tes rT{ wko e/ wzso gVQfdnK, T[j wk; fsnko
ehsk iKdk ;h. fco gq;akd o{g ftZu ;kfonK B{z toskfJnk iKdk ;h. fJ;
B{z efjzd/ ;B ‘rT{ w/X :Zr’. fJ;/ soQK x'Vk wko e/ i' :Zr ehsk iKdk ;h
T[j ‘n;atw/X :Zr’ nytkT[Adk ;h. j'o f;sw t/y' wB[Zy B{z wko e/ T[; dk
wk; fsnko eoe/ ;kfonK B{z y[nkfJnk iKdk ;h ‘Bow/X :Zr’. nzrq/ih
;oeko tZb'A 21 BzH Xkok okjhA ;zB 1845 ftZu Bo pbh s/ gkpzdh bkJh rJh
;h, go fJj ekB{zB g{oh soQK bkr{ BjhA j' ;fenk. nZi sZe fjzd{nK d/ p/
nzs wzdoK ftZu eZ[eV, G/v{, pZeo/, M'N/ nkfd dh pbh fdZsh ik ojh j?. nZi
sZe fBZehnK pkbVhnK wzdoK B{z nogD eo fdZshnK ik ojhnk jB.
nfrnkBsk d/ u;aw/ T[sko e/ edh t/yDk, fijBK tos'A tkbhnK uhiK B{z bzw/
;w/A sZe tos'A :'r oZyDk j[zdk j?, sK eh eohdk j?< N[ZE g/;NK, eohwK,
gkfb;aK, g/AN;, dtkJhnK, ;kpDK, s/b nkfd ftZu gP{nK dh uoph
fwbkJh iKdh j?. wB[ZyK T[go dtkJh N?;N eoB s'A gfjbK, gzShnK,
gP{nK s/ niwkJh iKdh j?. fJj iht pj[s ;ko/ wo iKd/ jB, Beko/ iK
nzrjhD j' iKd/ jB. nkgD/ ofjD bJh wB[Zy d/ irQk pDkJh, izrb eZN/ s/
izrbh iht ysw. fJj gkg fe; B{z bZfrnk< g?ohA i[Zsh, p?bNK, nN?uh,
e'N, Y'beK i'VhnK, ;kozrh nkfd ;G gP{nK dh yZb s'A jh pDd/ jB. i'
r[o{ xoK ftu toshd/ jB.
nkT[ j[D nkgD/ xoK nzdo Gh Mksh wko t/yhJ/. gfjb/ ;fwnK
ftZu fJZe n"os eJh eJh pZfunK B{z iBw d/ fdnk eodh ;h. nZi eZbQ
fJZe d' pZfunK s'A tZX feT[A iBw BjhA b?Ad/< c?wbh gbkfBzr. :kBh
pZfunK B{z iBw b?D s'A o'eD dk ftfrnkBe Yzr. pZu/ B{z iBw jh Bk b?D

(112)
d/Dk, eh fJj wB[Zyh esb tork ngokX BjhA< wk; d/ fto'Xh G?D Gok, oZp
dh oiak ikDe/ pZfunK B{z iBw fdzd/ ikDr/< edh ;'ue/ sK t/yhJ/. f;Zy
nytkT[D tkfbnK ftZu fJZe j'o pVh fGnkBe fpwkoh tpk tKr c?b u[Zeh
j?. roG ftZu N?;N eotk e/ gsk bk b?Dk, bVek j? fe bVeh. i/ g/N
nzdo bVeh j? sK ysw eo fdU. pZio gkg. ‘sT[A feT[A w[orh wko/’,
nky e/ wk; dk fto'X ehsk iKdk j?, go d[BhnK ftZu edw oZyD s'A gfjbK
jh pkb ezfBnktK B{z e[ub fdZsk iKdk j?. nro epho ih nZi w[V e/ nk
ikD sK ;akfJd fJ; soQK nkyD bJh wiap{o j' ikD ^ ‘fsT[A feT[A bVeh
wko/’< pqkjwD tZb'A e{V gqukfonk frnk fe wk; ykD tkbk BoeK ftZu r's/
ykt/rk. d{i/ gk;/ pqkjwDh rqzE wk; ykD dh jwkfJs eod/ jB. d/ts/ nky/
ik oj/ ;ko/ jh wk; yKd/ jB. w[;bwkBK d/ oki ftZu fJjBK B/ e[ZN yk e/
wk; dk fto'X P[o{ ehsk. fJ;/ goEkfJ wbQko dh tko ftZu r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih dk fJZe pj[s bzwk ;apd$;b'e j?. e[ZM gzeshnK jB
^ fJ;sqh g[oy fBgifj wk;j[, gkfs;kj[ ;[bskBk.
i/ UfJ fd;fj Bfoe iKd/, sK T[BQ ek dkB[ B b?Dk..
d/Adk Bofe, ;[ofr b?Ad/, d/yj[ J/j[ fXCkDk..
nkfg B p{M?, b'e p[MkJ/, gKv/ yok f;nkDk.. (1290)
n"os wod oki/ wjkoki/ ;ko/ fJB;kB, iht, wk; s'A g?dk j[zd/
jB. fJjBK nwhoK tiahoK okfinK s'A dkB dZSDk d/ pjkB/, nzB XzB b? e/
yk fojk j?. i/ oki/ wk; ykD eoe/ BoeK ftZu ikDk wzB bJhJ/, sK T[jBK
s'A g{ik dk XkB b? e/ s{z fet/A ;[orK B{z ubk ikt/Ark< fJ; bJh s?B{z T[jBK
s'A osk wk;k dkB BjhA b?Dk ukjhdk. j/ gKv/ s/ok fJj XZeVg[Dk BjhA uZbD
bZrk. s{z y[d e[MZ BjhA ikDdk, s/ b'eK B{z T[gd/P eoB uZb fgnk j?< eh wk;
fto'Xh f;ZyK B/ fJjBK rfjokJhnK sZe ;'u ftuko ehsh j?< eh ;z;ko Bkb'A
wk; d/ tyo/t/A ekoB Bksk s'fVnk ik ;edk j?<
fiZE'A sZe r[opkDh ftZu'A nZX/ nX{o/ ;apd uZ[e e/ gowkD fdZs/ iKd/
jB, T[j ikfJia BjhA feT[Afe g{ok ;apd gfVQnK jh n;b wiaw{B ;kjwD/
nkT[Adk j?. i/ r[opkDh okjhA iht jZfsnk fto[ZX gowkD d/ e/ nfjz;k gow'

(113)
Xow dk e'Jh XkoBh pDB dk :sB eo/ sK BjhA pD ;e/rk. f;Zy P/o (f;zx)
j?, s/ P/o dh y[oke ;ko/ b'e uzrh soQK ikDd/ jB. f;Zy B/ rkso/ feogkB
gkJh j'Jh j?, e/tb g{ik eoB bJh BjhA tos'A bJh j?. c;bK s/ ;pihnK
s/, ehV/ wko dtkJhnK dh nkw tos'A ehsh iKdh j?. i/ T[jBK ihtK B{z Bk
wkfonk ikt/, sK T[j ;kohnK c;bK uZN ikDr/, wB[Zy B{z G[Zyk ofje/ woBk
gt/rk. xoK ftZu nB/e ehV/ ekY/, u{j/, fNZvhnK nkfd g?dk j' iKd/ jB,
i/ T[jBK B{z Bk wkfonk ikt/, sK wB[Zy bJh e[ZM BjhA pu/rk. fco Gh i/ fe;/
ftnesh dk wB wk; ykD bJh okiah BjhA sK e'Jh rZb BjhA, T[j Bk ykt/.
b/feB wk; ykD tkb/ Bkb Bcos Bk eo/. r[opkDh sK wB[y Z K B{z wkoB s'A Gh
o'edh j?, Gkt I[bw fe;/ s/ BjhA eoBk. fjzd{ ws dh fJZe gozgok dk jtkbk
d/ e/ ;fsr[o{ ih ;wMkT[Ad/ jB^
‘dkBz gok g{op/D G{uz s/ wjhg s/..
fpgohs p[Xz wkos b'ej BkBe fuozekb d[y G'rs/..’ (1356)
Gkt (fjzd{ ws w[skpe) dkB eoB eoe/ nrb/ iBw ftZu uzr/ o[sp/, oki
fwby gqkgs j' iKd/ jB. nwhoh ekoB n?P tkbh fiazdrh pshs eofdnK,
neb B;aN j' iKdh j?. fco T[jh nkdwh wB[Zysk B{z nB/e sohe/ b[ZNDk gq/
;akB eoBk, wkoBk P[o{ eo fdzd/ jB. fJjBK gkg eowK ekoB fco Boe
ftZu ik fvZrd/ jB.
fJj Gh ftuko bJhJ/ fe e/tb wk; dk fsnkr eoe/ eh Xowh
pfDnk ik ;edk j?< j'o pj[s ;ko/ fteko fit/A ekw eq'X b'G w'j jzeko,
d{Jh dt?P nkfd yzG bk e/ T[FvZ iKd/ jB< wk; ykD tkb/ b'e Gh pV/ fwjBsh
(fJ;kJh w[;bwkB) fJwkBdko, jo soQK d/ fJB;kBh r[DK Bkb Gog{o jB.
e/tb wk; dh tos'A ekoB Bcos eoBh ikfJia BjhA j?. d{ik gZy ftuko'`
yho ykD tkbk pqkjwD (ftofbnK B{z SZv e/) pVk Ikbw j?. jZEhA feos BjhA
eodk, d{finK dh ewkJh s/ gbdk j?. b'eK B{z e[okj/ gkT[Adk j? b[ZN e/ Gh
yKdk j?, g{iD:'r Gh pfDnk p?mk j?. ftofbnK B{z SZv e/, d[ekBdko
(pkDhnK) w{zrh dh dkb ykD tkbk, ;"dk xZN s'bdk j?. fwbktN Gh eodk
j?, tZX Gkn Gh bkT[Adk j?. i/ e'Jh o[gJ/ ftnki s/ b? bt/ sK ;G e[ZM b[ZN

(114)
e/ nkgD/ g/N/ gk b?Adk j?. w{zrh dh dkb ykD tkbk pj[s em'o fuZs j?, osk
so; BjhA eodk, fe;/ dk tYKrk eoB bZfrnK.
bZrdk j? fe f;Zy ;wki dk pj[sk fjZ;k, jkbh sZe ;ohoh sb s'A
nZr/ ;'uD d/ ;woZE BjhA j'fJnk. ykD ghD gfjBD sZe jh ;[os B/ ;co
s?j ehsk j?. r[opkDh ftZu'A T[FZusw ftukoK gqkgs eoe/ frnkBtkB pDBk,
ihtB ftZu'A ftekoK dk ykswk eoBk, n;b we;d ;h f;Zy dk. e'Jh
ftobk gq/wh j? fi; B/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp, noEK ;w/s ftuko e/ gfVQnk j't/
. pkeh sK o;w g{osh ehsh ik ojh j?. wk; fto'Xh Gh T[jBK jh n"rDK
ftZu v[Zp/ t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB, fiBQK ftZu wk; ykD tkb/ skohnk bk oj/ jB.
T[;/ soQK MrV/, f;o gkND/, gZrK bZEDhnK, r'beK dh d[otos'A eoBh ;G
pkd;s{ o ikoh j? . fez B k uz r k j[ z d k nro fJ; ci{ b fij/
Mw/b/ dk fsnkr eoe/ gzE dh uVQdh ebk bJh ;koEe T[gokb/ ehs/ iKd/.
;fsr[o{ ih n;bh t?;aB{z T[;B{z wzBd/ jB, i' ;ko/ ftekoK dk g{oB fsnkr
eo d/t/. tke j? ^
;' p?;B' j? ngo ngko.. ej[ BkBe fsB si/ fpeko.. (199)
i/ wB[Zy B/ p[okJhnK s/ ekp{ Bk gkfJnk sK T[j fJ; ftekoK dh i[nkbk ftZu
;Ve/ ;[nkj j' ikt/rk c[owkB j? ^
jz; j/s[ b'G[ e'g[ uko/ BdhnK nfr..
gtfj dMfj BkBek sohn? eowh bfr.. (147)
fiBK pjkdoK dk f;Zy nodk; ftZu cyo Bkb jo o'ia Bkw gVQd/
jK, fiBQK eJh ghjVhnK izrbhA tk; ehsk, fijBK dh pd"bs n;hA oki
Gkr d/ wkbe pD/, T[j ;ko/ f;Zy ;{ow/ wk; ykD d/ MrV/ edh BjhA gJ/. Btkp
eg{o f;zx, iZ;k f;zx nkjb{tkbhnk, ;qH uVQs f;zx, joh f;zx Bb{nk, P/
o/ gzikp wjkokik oDihs f;zx, ;akw f;zx nNkoh tkbk,;ko/ jh wk; yKd/
;B. gzE gqtkBs ‘f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk ftu’ e[Zmk wk; ykD dh wBkjh j?.
fBjzr f;zxK d/ S"fDnK ftZu nZi sZe wk; dh nkw tos'A ehsh iKdh j?.
nkgD/ xo ftZu pZfunK Bkb XZek, gsBh B{z fcNekoK, wksk fgsk dk
fBokdo eoe/ wB nzdo dfJnk nfjzdk g?dk BjhA j'Jh, peoh dk b/bk

(115)
e[eVh dk u{uk t/y dfJnk dk BkNe pj[s EktK s/ j[zdk t/fynk ik ;edk
j?.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih wZe/ dh gquko c/oh bJh uZb gJ/. e'Jh r?o
w[;bwkB, jkihnK d/ G/y XkoB eoe/ BwkiaK ndk eofdnK jh jZi bJh ik
;edk ;h. ;' ;fsr[o{ ih B/ jkiahnK tkb/ Bhb/ t;so gfjB bJ/. jZE ftZu
;'Nk geV fbnk, ;wkB tkbk E?bk w'Y/ s/ bNek fbnk. Bwkia tes tos'A
ftZu nkT[D tkbk eZgVk (w[;Zbk) th Bkb b? fbnk. w[;bwkB jkiahnK d/
fJZe ekcab/ ftZu ;akwb j' rJ/. id'A w[;bwkB Bwkia ndk eod/ ;B, sK
;fsr[o{ ih fJBeko BjhA eo ;ed/ ;B, fe w?A Bwkia ndk BjhA eoKrk.
Bwkia th y[dk dh pzdrh dk fJZe Yzr j?. nkw b'ehA fJjBK ekcab/ tkb/ b'eK
dk pVk ;fseko eod/ ;B. fJjBK dh sB'A wB'A ;/tk eoBh ngDk Xkowe
coi ikDd/ ;B. T[; bzw/ ;cao ftZu ;fsr[o{ ih B{z d' ;kb s'A tZX ;wK
r[ikoBk fgnk. fJj Gh :kd oj/, fe T[jBK fJbkfenK, d/;aK ftZu e'Jh
fjzd{ f;Zy sd'A BjhA ;h, i' ;fsr[o{ ih bJh nbZr G'iB dk gqpzX eo fdzdk.
;kXkoB fijh rZb j? fJzB/ bzw/ ;w/A tk;s/ gkDh gq;akdk Bkb pzBQ b?Dk n;zGt
;h. eh fJj wzB fbnk ikt/ fe r[o{ ih B/ ykDk ykXk jh BjhA, fJzBk ;wK<
w[;bwkB b'e jkiahnK d/ ekcfbnK B{z oks tes, ;woZEk w[skpe
gzi^gzi, d;^d; B{z nkgD/ xoK ftZu fbik e/, ;/tk eod/ ;B. fJ;aBkB,
p;so, ;ckJh o;s/ bJh ykD ghD bJh e[ZM d/Dk, g[zB (;tkp) ikDd/ ;B.
wk; ykDk w[;bwkBK ftZu Xkowe s"o s/ gqtkB j?. id'A ;aoXkb{ xoK ftZu
fJjBK jkiahnK B{z ykDk go';d/ ;B, sK ;ko/ fJeZm/ p?m e/ ykDk yKd/ ;B.
fJ; tes ykD/ ftZu wk; dk ;akfwb j'Dk nkw rZb j? s/ T[j wk; i' jbkb
sohe/ Bkb fsnko ehsk iKdk ;h. v{zxkJh sZe ;'uhJ/. eh T[; tes
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp fJj rZb efj ;ed/ ;B, fe w?A wk; BjhA yktKrk<
w?A w[;bwkB BjhA jK. fJ; bJh jbkb ehsk wk; sK fpbe[b BjhA yktKrk.
fi; we;d bJh ;fsr[o{ ih, bzw/ g?Av/ bJh uZb/ ;B, fco T[j g{ok BjhA
j'Dk ;h. i/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp b'V tes w[;bwkBK Bkb p?m e/ wk; tkbk
ykDk yk ;ed/ jB, sK nZi d/ wk; fto'Xh fJ; dbhb dk eh i[nkp

(116)
d/Dr/< GkJh wodkBk ih ;fsr[o{ ih Bkb gzikj ;kb s'A tZX ;wK fojk ;h,
eh ;fsr[o{ ih T[; Bkb GoktK (GkJh) tork fgnko Gfonk toskn BjhA
eod/ j'Dr/< T[;B{z nbZr GKv/ u[ZeD bJh oZyD bJh wiap{o eod/ j'Dr/<
fco p/Bsh j? fe fJjBK tkX{ Mw/fbnK s'A feBkok jh ehsk uzrk j?. r[opkDh
noEK ;w/s gVQhJ/ ;ko/ ;aze/ nkg/ jh d{o j' ikDr/.
yk; B'N L gzBk 1289 s/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp d/ ;b'e dk noE
eofdnK P'qwDh ew/Nh tZb'A Sgh ‘PpdkoE’ g'Eh u"Eh s/ fJ; soQK noE
ehs/ rJ/ jB ^ “fJj ;b'e e[oy/so d/ shoE s/ gzfvs BkB{ gqsh T[uko/` r[o{
;kfjp B/ T[; ;w/A wk; fozfBnk. gKv/ Bkoki j' e/ r[o{ ih s/ jwbk eoB
bJh nkJ/. r[o{ ih pV/ Xhoi s/ ftuko Go/ Yzr jk;^o; ftZu T[jBK d/
c'eN fB;funK d/ pyhJ/ T[X/Vd/ jB.”
;w[uk GktL T[FZgo j'Sh ws B{z SZve/ ;jh wZs nyfsnko eoBk
dZf;nk ;h. i' ;Zu/ r[o{ s'A fwbdh j?. fJZE/ gzfvsK d/ fJZe G[b/y/ B{z d{o eod/
jB. T[j wk; ykD B{z p[ok ;wMd/ ;B. r[o{ ih T[jBK B{z dZ;d/ jB fe wk;
fJZe nfijh t;s{ j?, fi; Bkb ;kB{z jo t/b/ tk;sk g?Adk j?.n;hA fJ; B{z
fe;/ Bk fe;/ ;aeb ftZu iao{o tosd/ jK. fco gzfvsK dhnK Xkowe
g[;seK ftZu fJ; d/ ykD dk fiaeko nkT[Adk j?. fJZe fBzds uhI d/ s"o s/
BjhA, ;r'A d/tfsnK dh wB g;zd uhia d/ s"o s/. i/ fJj dbhb wzB bJh
ikt/ fe wk; ykD Bkb iht jZfsnk j[zdh j? ns/ ;kr ykD Bkb BjhA sK th
mhe BjhA feT[Afe fizadrh dk w{b wkdh ekoD sK gkDh j?. fi; s'A nzB cb
nkfd ykD dhnK uhiK g?dk j[zdhnK jB. i/ g{oB t?;aBt pDBk j? sK fJj
uhiK Gh SZvDhnK g?DrhnK. “;pdkoE L g'Eh u"Eh gzBk 1289 Skge
gqek;ae Pq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh, nzfwqs;o, Skg 1979H
frnkBh r[opuB f;zx dh fbyh, Ne;kb tb'A Sgh feskp “r[opkDh
gkm do;aB” ftZu wk; ykD pko/ fJ; soQK fbfynk j'fJnk j? ^ “ykb;k
fjzd{ w[;bwkB e;kJh (fJ;kJh<) t?PB' ;G s'A ofjs j?. ykb;k nekb
g[oy eh c"i j?, i/ fes/ Xow dh oZfynk eod/ j'J/ izr ftZu nzB nkfd BK
fwb/, sK gqKDK dh oZfynk tk;s/ ykDk gt/ sK jZEhA MNek eoe/ yk bt/, gqkD

(117)
pukJ/. T[j ph sK i/ fuZs ukj/ sK. T[AM th SeDk j't/ sK th jZEhA MNek
eoe/ ykt/.” (gzBk 74 Skg 1969)
GkJh ;zs'y f;zx ;{oi gqek;a rqzE ftZu fbyd/ jB fe r[o{ nzrd
;kfjp ih d/ ;w/A bzro ftZu wk; pDdk ;h fpBK ;ze'u ykXk iKdk ;h.
fbys fJ; soQK j? ^
gjfs Gks (dkb u"b) pos:' gqEw, g[B nkfwy (wk;) nktk.
fJe fd; gzefs wfj d:', sp fJB do;ktk.(gzBk^1375)
wfjwk gqek;a g'Eh dh fbys w[skpe wk; ykDk nkw rZb ;h. r[o{
nzrd ;kfjp d/ ihtB pko/ fbfyfdnK ;o{g dk; GZbk fJT[A fbydk j? L
“uo poB T[jK ;w;o/. wkNh posB G'iB eo/.
ftfX fBy/fX (wk; fto'Xh Gowh b'e) ike/ wB j'Jh.
n?;' sjK B ikt? e'Jh.
nik (pZeok) wk; G:' f;ZX o;'Jh. nto? dkb Gks Gh j'Jh.
rKt s/ f;Zy e'T{ sfj nkfJnk.
nkfrnk GJh wSbh sb fbnkfJnk.
;fsr[o sjK ehB go;kd. d:kb j'fJ ej:' Gb' ;[nkd.”
(jtkbk g[;se r[ows wkovzv, gzBk^763, GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk)
fe;/ fjzd{ d/ “ifrU gths” (izi{) o;w t/b/ nkJ/ ;e/ ;pzXhnK
bJh, wk; fozBQ e/ ykDk ytkT[Dk nkw toskok ;h. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp fJ;dh
rtkjh God/ jB ^
pqkjwD nkg wk; yke/ fco ;G B{z fJikis fdzdk ;h fe j[D
;kfonK B{z tosk fdU.
“sr[ egkjj[ eshn? pkwD[ tN/ nkfJ..
e[fj peok fozfB ykfJnk ;G[ e' nky? gkfJ..” (471)
pqkjwD b'e wk; s' e'Jh goj/i BjhA eod/ ;B. ;r'A jbkb ehsk
wk; Gh nkw jh yKd/ jB. fJ; wk; tkb/ G'iB B{z gftZso G'iB nkyd/ ;B.
r[otke fJT[A jB ^
“nGkfynk ek e[mk peok ykDk.. uT[e/ T[gfo fe;/ Bk ikDk..” (471)

(118)
T[jh ykDk, ghDk, gfjBDk, ;tkoh eoBh, s/ ;"Dk Gbk j?, fi; Bkb
;oho B{z sebhc Bk j't/. wB nzdo p[o/ ftuko g?dk Bk j'D. r[o{ c[owkB
j? ^
pkpk j'o[ ykDk y[;h y[nko[..
fis[ ykX? sB[ ghVhn? wB wfj ubfj fteko.. (16)
wk;[ g[okDh wk;[ es/ph uj[ ir wk;[ ewkDk]
izR eki thnkj[ ;[jkt? T[E? wk; ;wkDk] (1290)

[[[[

(119)
nebh gfVQ e? p[Mhn?
i' th fbys, fJfsjk; iK eEk ejkDhnK, Pqh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp, tkoK
GkJh r[odk; ih ns/ GkJh Bzd bkb ih dh ouBktbh tkbh e;tZNh s/
g{ohnK BjhA T[sodhnK, T[jBK ƒ Bk wzBD bJh jo f;Zy ƒ g{ok g{ok
nfXeko j?. f;ZyK bJh fJj jh fJZe' fJZe goy dh e;tZNh j?. i' e[ZM Gh
fJ; goy nB[;ko mhe BjhA T[; wro bZrD ƒ f;Zyh s'A fvZr ikDk, d{o j'
ikDk, w[Beo j' ikDk, fpqEk iBw rtkT[Dk, fpgoh ukbK ftZu c;Dk, iK r[o{
s'A p/w[Zy j'Dk jh fejk ik ;edk j?. rbsh iK fe;/ e[ohsh ƒ ;[XkoBk jh
f;Zyh j?. nzX ftPtk;h j'Dk, e[dos d/ T[bN uZbDk, frnkB s'A feBkokePh,
nkgD/ nkg ƒ jh iBkT[Dk w{oyskJh s'A fpBk j'o eh j' ;edk j? < gqekP,
frnkB, ;Zu iK o"PBh Gkt/A T[j nzsqht j't/ Gkt/A pkjoh, T[;ƒ jk;b eoBk
s/ d{;fonK ƒ godkB eoBk jh f;Zy dk Xow j?. goekP i' ;"yh soK j'
;e/, frnkB i' nk;kBh Bkb ;wfMnk$;wMkfJnk ikt/, fJ; dk fto'X
iƒBh b'e jh eod/ jB. fw;kb d/ s"o s/ dopko ;kfjp ftZu fpibh bkT[D
t/b/ ns/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ ;Nhe iK gd^S/d eoB t/b/ pVk fto'X
j'fJnk, i' ni/ th ikoh j?.
e?Eb d/ okik T[d? f;zx tZbA' GkJh ;zsy' f;zx ih ƒ r[o gqskg ;{oi
rqzE dh ouBk bJh fBih ;ogq;sh s/ wkbh ;jkfJsk fdZsh iKdh ;h. rqzE dh
ouBk s/ ;'X ;[XkJh bJh th uko gzfvsK dh fJe N'bh Ekgh rJh ;h. T[BQK
gzvsK ƒ GkJh ;zsy ' f;zx fto[XZ ;G s'A tZvk fJsokI, fJBQK dk pqkjwD iksh
ftZuA' Bk j'Dk, go ;z;feqs rqE
z K dh uouk eoBk, ns/ r[o fJfsjk; fbyd/ ;w/A
;BksB Xowh ;z;ekoK d/ nB[eb { eEB Bk eoBk ;h.
eth ;zs'y f;zx fbyd/ jB fe ;{oi gqekP rqzE ouBk ;w/A, T[jBk
d[nkb/ wzd wZs M'N/ nfVzrd/ ;B, ;{o x[oed/ ;B, y's/ jhArd/ ;B s/ e[Zs/
G"Aed/ ;B. fJj gP{ wzvbh T[BQK dh ‘;ko^;wZroh’ ƒ ‘d{fPs’ eoB bJh

(120)
g{oh soQK gqfsfrnk^pZX ;h. ekP fe fijVhnK T{DskJhnK GkJh ;zs'y
f;zx ih t/b/ T[BQK dh ‘;ko^;wZroh’ ftZu fpgoK B/ gkJhnK ;B, T[BQK ƒ d{o
ehsk iKdk, go fJ; s'A n?B T[bN, T[BQK dh nkPk d/ fto[ZX, T[; ‘d{fPs
;wZroh’ ƒ nXko pDk e/ pVk eZM [ fbfynk frnk j? f;ZyK d/ fJfsjk; ftZu.
frnkBh r[opuB f;zx fGzvoK tkb/ dk fbfynk ‘;qh r[ow[y gqekP’
ns/ r[opkDh gkm doPB fi;ƒ T[j ;zs ;[zdo f;zx ih dk gftZsq ihtB
efjzd/ jB, Gh fJe nfijh fbys j?, i' fpZgoh ukbK dh ofj rJh ewhA ƒ
g{ok eodh j?. fJ;/ fbys ƒ nXko pDk e/ dwdwh Ne;kb B/ nkgDh
wfo:kdk pDkJh j'Jh j?, fi;dk gzEe ‘f;Zy ofjs wfo:kdk’ Bkb B/V dk
th tk;sk BjhA. Ne;kb dh fJj wfo:kdk nro sK T[BQK d/ nkgD/ dkfJo/
ftZu jh oj/ sK e'Jh rZb BjhA, go id'A Gh fJ;ƒ ;ko/ gzE T[go m';D d/
:sB ehs/ iKd/ jB, sK gzE dh J/esk ns/ fJe;kosk ƒ Ykn bZrdh j?,
s/ pj[s soQK d/ c[ZN gkT{ MrV/ T[sgzB j[zd/ jB.
Bkw igDk, feos eoBk, tzv SeDk f;Zyh d/ w[ZYb/ ns/ ;[Bfjoh
n;{b jB. rqfj;s^XkoB eoBk ;G s'A tZvk Xow j?. gqwkswk dh oIk
ftZu okIh ofjDk, e[dosh d[Zy ;[Zy ;w/A nv'b ofjDk, f;Zfynk pZu/ s'A th
b? b?Dh go nzX ftPtkPh j'e/ fe;/ p[ZY/ wro Gh BjhA bZrDk, fe;/ th
;wZf;nk ƒ ftukoK eoe/ jZb eoBk, r[opkDh ƒ gVQBk, ;wMDk, ftukoBk
ns/ T[; s/ nwb eoB dh e'fPP eoBh, ;wkfie p[okJhnK ƒ fsnkrDk,
ihtB ƒ wzfIb BjhA wkor ;wMDk, wkor^gKXhnK Bkb ;'jDk ftjko,
fwbtosD ns/ ;jkfJsk b?D$d/D dk Bkw jh f;Zyh j?.
f;Zyh ;kvh iK s[jkvh BjhA. fJj sK fi;B/ ;kih, iK fBGkJh,
T[;dh j?. jK fJ; ƒ y'ok bkT[D tkbk, fJ;d/ ;[Bfjoh f;XKsK ƒ wbhnk^w/N
eoB tkbk, fJ; ƒ o'Ih^o'Nh dk t;hbk ;wMD tkbk, nkw izsk ƒ ;IK d/
fojk fpgo spek j?. gfjbK sK T[j Xow d/ BK s/, G/y ns/ gyzv eoe/
b[ZND dk ;kXB pDkT[Adk j? s/ fJ; s'A tZvk nBoE fJj fe f;Zyh tZb'A d{o
eoe/ g[Zm/ o;s/ s'o fdzdk j?. fJj fJ; soQK j? fe e'Jh nzBQ/A ƒ y{j ftZu
fvZrD s'A pukT[D d/ EK, ikD p[ZMe/ ftZu XZek d/ fojk j't/. fe;/ ƒ ;ohoe

(121)
s"o s/ ysw eoB tkb/ ƒ d[BhnK Go dhnK ndkbsK ;Ik fdzdhnK jB, go
fijV/ fe;/ ƒ nksfwe s"o s/ wko fdzd/ jB, T[BQK ƒ ;Ik sK eh fwbDh j?,
;r'A XowhA, nkr{, ;fseko:'r, iK goT[gekoh eoe/ ikD/ iKd/ jB. jB/
o ;kJhA dk.
wZX dhnK nodk;K eoB tkb/ fJj b[ZNd/ Gh wZX tor ƒ jh jB,
feT[Afe T[gobk (ftdtkBh) spek fJBQK dhnK ukbK ftZu BjhA c;dk, s/ EZb/
tkb/ (rohpK) e'b fJBQK ƒ d/D bJh e[ZM BjhA j[zdk. fJj ftdtkBK Bkb
ftuko r'PNh BjhA eo ;ed/, ns/ rohpK dh nfsnksfwe s"o s/ e'Jh
wZdd eoBh BjhA ukj[zd/. eJh ;ZiD fJj Gh efjzd/ jB, fe “ih fJj th
gouko sK f;Zyh dk jh eod/ jB.” fJ;ƒ n;hA fJ; soQK ;wM ;ed/ jK
fe eVkj gqPkd sK eVkj gqPkd jh j?, go ftdtkB eVkj gqPkd ƒ gotkB
eoke/ r[o{ dh fwjo, r[o{ dh p\fPP, r[o{ dh feqgk ;wMe/ Sed/ jB. go
id'A T[;/ eVkj gqPkd ƒ ;hs^gqPkd (i{m) ftZu spdhb ehsk iKdk j?, sK
nZyK whNh Gkt/A e'Jh yk bt/, go d/y e/ wZyh fBrbDh pj[s emB j?.
;kv/ r[o{ ih eokwks ƒ efjo efjzd/ jB, iK tZX s'A tZX BkNe u/Ne
;wMd/ jB. ubhj/ eZND/, row iK mzY/ sg ;kXD/, w'B XkoB eoBk,
fJZSk^g{osh bJh (gkm) wzsq ikg, nzB dk fsnkr, ;wkXhnK bkT[DhnK,
;_or dk bkbu, BoeK dk G?, to iK ;okg wzBDk, Pqhoe gftZsqsk, gqsZy
doPB, fppkB uVQe/ ;Zu^yzv fgnkB/, rqfj;s XkoB Bk eoBk, jtBK
tke[o ;g?Pb ;wZrohnK dh wzr, fe;/ yk; irQK tZ;D eoe/ w[esh b'uDh,
e[M yk; ozrK dk fsnkr, r[o{ rqEz ;kfjp ih ftZuA' wB woIh Bkb gzB/ d/ nZr/
fgZS/ iK ftueko'A Ppd ƒ tXhnK iK eoVk wzB e/ u[DBk iK gVQBK, r[o{nK,
f;ZyK iK wksktK ƒ fgSb/ iBwK d/ ntskoh f;ZX eoBk, rqfj;sh ihtB ƒ
fsbKibh d/Dk, r[opkDh ƒ f;o| s/ f;o| gVQBk go ftukoBk BjhA,
nkoshnK T[skoBhnK, d/jXkoh doPBK d/ cb fwbD/, ;Zuyzv doPB,
f;o| nzfwqs^gkB eoB d/ ;z;eko ;w/A jh nksw frnkB j' ikDk, wzr e/
ykDk ns/ ;qh r[ow[y gqekP dhnK j'o pj[s ;kohnK T{DskJhnK fJj wzr
eodhnK jB fe ;kƒ j'o fiZE/ fes/ Gkt/A fcZN eo fdT[, go r[o{ d/ f;ZyK

(122)
B/ ;kƒ fe;/ ƒ Gh B/V/ BjhA Y[ZeD d/Dk.
f;Zy Xow ftZu nk u[ZehnK e[ohshnK ns/ wjzsK, ;kXK, g[ikohnK
okjhA c?bkJ/ ik oj/ fpgotkd ƒ mZb gkT[D bJh, f;zx ;Gk bfjo ns/ uhc
ykb;k dhtkB d/ ;KM/ :sBk ;dek thjthA ;dh d/ P[o{ ftZu ‘f;Zy ofjs
wfo:kdk’ pBkT[D d/ T[gokb/ P[o{ j'J/. :kd oj/ gzEe f;Zy ofjs wfo:kdk
g{o/ 13 ;kbK dh fwjBs pknd ;zB 1945 JhL ƒ B/go/ ukVQh rJh ;h. fJ;/
jh ;w/A 1933 JhL s'A b? e/ 1935 JhL sZe frnkBh r[opuB f;zx B/ ;qh
r[ow[y gqekP rqzE th w[ezwb eo fbnk ;h. frnkBh r[opuB f;zx 1921
JhL s'A b? e/ 1930 JhL sZe ;zs ;[zdo f;zx j'oK d/ Bkb ofj u[Ze/ ;B ns/
1930 JhL ftZu ;zs ;[zdo f;zx d/ nekb ubkD/ wro'A T[BQK dh rZdh s/
fpokiwkB j'J/. p/PZe wkfJnk d/ fbPekfonK ftZu T[bM/ v/o/dko, gyzvh
;kX, fJZE'A sZe fe nekb sys d/ iE/dko th ;qh r[ow[y gqekP dh ;bkj[Dk
G{fwek ftZu eod/ jB, go ;wMdko f;Zy ftdtkB ed/ th fJ; soQK dhnK
fbysK s'A gqGkfts BjhA j[zd/, ;r'A fJBQK dk yzvB eoB bJh :Ek^Pes
:'rdkB gkT[Ad/ ofjzd/ jB. v/o/ dk w[yh tZv/ ;zsK dh po;h fJ; bJh jh
wBkT[Dh ukb{ eodk j?, fe nrKj T[; B/ Gh nkgdh po;h wBkT[D dh fgos
gkT[Dh j[zdh j?.
frnkBh r[opuB f;zx, GkJh p[ZX f;zx ih ofus ‘ykb;k Pse’ gzL
521, ns/ ;zs fBjkb f;zx e/;oh dh ouBk gzL 475, nkgD/ Bkw EZb/ fby
e/, fbys u'oh eoB d/ i[ow s'A poh BjhA j' ;ed/. fJE/ fJj fpbe[b Bk
;wfMnk ikt/, fe n?t/A fe;/ ƒ BhtK fdykT[D bJh iK f;o| fezs{^gzqs{ eoB
bJh jh fbfynk frnk j?. fJj sK sZs frnkB ftZu roV^frnkB obkT[D
dhnK ukbK ƒ mZb gkT[D dk fBwkDk fijk :sB j?. fJj gVQe/ fi; ƒ th
n"fynkJh wfj;{; j' ojh j? iK e'Jh r[ow[y fgnkok fJj ikDBk ukj/ fe
fJj tkfenk jh ;Zu j? sK Bkb brkJh ik ojh ;{uh ftZu gzL BzL fdZs/ rJ/
jB, nkg d/yD$gVQB dh y/ub eo ;ed/ jB. fJ; ;{uh s'A fpBk j'o Gh
pj[s ewhnK jB, fit/A fe r[opkDh fbyD ftZu nP[ZXsk (gzL 130, 148,
598, 599), fJfsjk; y'iD s'A fpBk jh xNBktK fpnkB eoh ikDk. fit/A

(123)
fe r[o{ BkBe nkrwB eZs/ dh g[zfBnK ns/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/
;kEh pkbk torhnK rbs rZbK dk gquko nkfd.
;zgodkJh frnkBhnK ƒ fBwosk ;fjs fjdkfJs ehsh iKdh j?,
fe ;BksBh gqGkt ns/ ezB o;h tkbhnK c'ehnK ejkDhnK ƒ SZv e/, sZs
frnkB dk gquko eoBk, ns/ sZs ykb;k ƒ fJj ;{uBk d/ s"o s/ dZ; oj/
jK, fe n;bhns ftZu fezBk e[ZM Bebh obkfJnk frnk ;h$j?, s/ T[j Gh
f;Zyh d/ wjKoEhnK tZb'A. gqwkswk fwjo eo/ i' ;kƒ f;Zyh d/ T[FZu/ ns/
fBnko/ n;{bK dh ;'Mh j't/, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp T[FZgo PoXk ns/ ftPtk; j't/,
ykb;k gzE dh J/esk s/ wIp{sh bJh :sBPhb ofjzd/ j'J/ ihtB ;|bk
eohJ/.
frnkBh r[opuB f;zx dk fbfynk ;qh r[ow[y gqekP gVQe/ nkw
f;Zy pqkjwDtkd d/ T[; rfjo/ ;w[zdo ftZu roe j' ikt/rk, fiZE'A ;kƒ r[o{
ih B/ eZfYnk ;h. f;Zyh sK fJZe ihtB^iKu j?. fJ; ftZu brkJhnK
nDj'DhnK gkpzdhnK, Bk fBGD:'r^jZm eoe/ ehshnK o;wK, wB[Zysk ns/
f;Zyh s'A d{o eoB tkbhnK jB. fe;/ ƒ wkoB bJh Ifjo ƒ yzv dh gos
ftZu iK y[oke ftZu obkT[Dk j[zdk j?. fJ;/ eoe/ jh ;qh r[ow[y gqekP ftu
e[ZM rZbK pkps r[opkDh ns/ tkoK GkJh r[odk; ih ftZu'A Gh jtkb/ fdZs/ rJ/
jB, i' nkw fJB;kB dk wB N[zpd/ jB. fJ;d/ Bkb Bkb GkJh ;zs'y f;zx
ih d/ efjD w[skfpe ‘;ko ;wZroh’ ftZu ofbnk T[j ‘d{fPs wkdk’ ‘irQk
irQk’ ns/ ‘tko tko’ fbfynk frnk j?, i' ;XkoB f;Zy eo jh BjhA ;edk,
ns/ f;Zyh ftukoXkok dh fto'Xsk j[zdh j?, fi; Bkb c'ehnK ohsK, vo,
tfjw, GftZypkDhnK, Iks^gks, ;[Zu^i{m, gftZso^ngftZso torhnK
wko{ o[uhnK fdb ftZu ;wkXhnK bke/ p?m ikDrhnK.
fiBQK B/ f;Zyh gquko dk p[oek f;oc o'Ih^o'Nh dh \kfso iK b[ZND
dh ;ehw nXhB gkfJnk j?, iK fijV/ f;o| g{ik^dePDk (d/e/) Bkb
;[orK dh bkb;k eod/ jB, T[BQK ƒ sK p/PZe ;qh r[ow[y gqekP mhe bZrdk
j't/, go fijV/ r[ow[y nkg r[opkDh gVQ e/ Bkw, dkB, fJPBkB dh owI
;wMd/ j'J/, whoh^ghoh, d/}^s/}, ;zs^f;gkjh, Grsh^Pesh, oki^i'r

(124)
tkbh nt;Ek wkDd/ j'J,/ ihtB^w[es j'Dk b'ud/ jB T[j ‘;qh r[ow[y gqekP’
tkbh ‘d{fPs ;wZroh’ Bkb esJh ;fjws BjhA j'Dr/.
!!!!!!
;qh r[ow[y gqekP d/ e[ZM gzL BzL fiZE/ ‘d{fPs ;wZroh’ d/yh ik
;edh j?.
r[od[nko/ dk fBPkB ;kfjp ;[Bfjoh yzv/ dk L^ 10
r[o{ BkBe d/t ih dk iBw eZs/ dh g{oBwkPh ƒ L^ 16, 244
r[o{ BkBe d/t ih d/ ;kEh wodkBk ns/ pkbk L^18, 528
uoBK Bkb wZek c/oBk L^ 18
nzs ;w/A r[o{ BkBe d/t ih dh d/j BjhA fwbh L^ 19
pkb/ B/ iBw ;kyh fbyh L^ 22
wksk rzrk ih B/ pkp/ p[Y
Z k ih gk;'A g[s
Z o gqkgsh dk to fbnkL 31, 36
;tk bZy ig[ ih L^ 49, 123, 152, 153, 227, 422, 449, 599,
601, 603, 620, 621
SZsh bZy w{bwzsq L^ 48, 123, 128, 129, 449, 601, 619, 620, 624
r[o{ jfo feqPB ih ns/ okw okfJ ih dh goy ;w/A wzi/ d/ gkt/ ftZu ;{Jh y[G
Z Dh L^
54
n"or z / ƒ ;fsr[oK d/ doPBK dh irQk Xosh ftu s/V fd;Dh L^ 59
wZyD Pkj b[pkD/ dk ijkI L^ 62
fpnk; ftZu'A 13 fdBK pknd r[opkDh d/ gzB/ ;[Ze/ fBebD/ L^ 63
d/ru/ ftu'A ;{o fBebD/ L^ 69
s/r dk tko uZbD s'A gfjbK f;o XV Bkb'A i[dk j'Dk L^ 70
d;w/P ih B/ gkDh GodhnK BkoK dhnK rkroK s'VBhnK L^ 73
SZsh nZyok ikg (wjK^wzso) L^ 76, 267, 326
G/N ehs/ nzpK ƒ fco fpqSK Bkb i'V d/Dk L^ 77
fPeko ehs/ ihtK ƒ fco fIzdk eoBk L^ 77
ehoshnk d/ fgsk ƒ foZS i{B s'A S[vkT[Dk L^ 77
nzfwqs$gskfPnK tkbk fuVk fuVh :[ZX L^ 78

(125)
‘e?’ dh irQk ‘e/’ efjD s/ swkuk L^ 80, 457
i'rk f;zx dh okyh L^ 81
r'v/ ns/ g?o i'V e/ w{s/ ns/ E[Ze/ sK vo fwN/ L^ 81
285 S/eK tkbk rzrk;kro L^ 87, 542
r[o{ B/ f;ZyK ƒ e/;K s'A cVQe/ BoeK ftu'A eZYDk L^ 91
fpd/jh Ne;kbhJ/, ekDk fdU eZYDk, r?o nzfwqsXkoh d/ jZE'A gqPkdk Bk
SeDk L^ 93
B"jo fgzv wo/ ep{so fIzdk eoB/ L^ 93
;[jt/ k fgzv ftZu izv ƒ fgZgb ykJ/ sK ykb;k oki j't/ L^ 93
ib ftZu yVQe/ sg eoBk L^ 101
wksk ;kfjp d/tK fgSb/ iBw ftZu oki/ ;s;zX dh Xh ;h L^ 101
d;w/P ih dk x'V/ ;w/s ;Zuyzv fgnkBk L^ 103
25 fpp/eh f;Zy gyzvtkd L^ 107
X{c, e[zG, ib, dhtk, fxU[ Io{oh L^ 108, 381
gzi fgnko/ gzi GrsK d/ ntsko ;B L^ 112
wzrs/ ƒ dkB s/ gzShnK ƒ gkDh L^ 125
Pokp d/ Bkb Bkb wk; dk pzXB L^ 123, 476
shoE GowD L^ 126
r'fJzdtkb ig[ih gkm eoe/ u[ok;h eZNDh L^ 127, 346, 541, 619
fJe bZs Gko j'e/ ;[ywBh gVQBk L^ 129, 449
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftZu'A tke nkgDh fJZSk nB[;ko b?Dk L^ 130, 148, 236,
598, 599, 615
izwd/ ;ko eZS s/ eVk gkT[Dk L^ 131
d' ;kb dk rkso/ feqgkB, fdB oks tkfjr[o{ ikg L^ 132
;Zst/A ;kb br ezBk ftuko e/ gkm eoBk L^ 135
pkb bhbk ;wkgsz L^ 138
ukbh fdB r[o wzsq, ukbh fdB w{b wzsq L^ 143, 441
dtkJh BjhA tosDh L^ 145, 256

(126)
G{s Gfty d/ ikBDjko/ L^ 147
GKfvnK dh i{m ghDk L^ 150
wZShnK dh oh; eoe/ gkDh ftZu sg eoBk L^ 151, 247
;fsr[oK d/ gosZy doPB L^ 155, 601
;Zu yzv doPB L^ 166, 379, 573, 590
fppkB uVQe/ ;Zu yzv fgnkBk L^ 173, 399, 579
nzfwqs SeD ;w/A jh nksw^frnkBh j' ikDk L^ 177
r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp d/ G'r^T[gszq fco ig[ih Io{oh L^ 180, 282, 383
d;w/P ih tKr jh pkwQD d/ mke[o o'VQB/ L^ 181
gZuh fdB w'B XkoB eoBk L^ 181, 253, 277, 356, 403, 441
;zs ;[zdo f;zx bJh Bkw d/Dkl w[oko/, ;qh ;zs, dhB fdnkB, r[;kJhA,
;[nkwh, nzsoikwh, jfo ;zs, ;zs nrkX ngko, ;zs f;oski,
nekb^o{g, gqG,{ BkE, ;kJhA, jfoih, wfo:kdk gqPs ' w, ;[nkwh
L^ 346, 355, 378, 398, 435, 436, 442, 411, 433,
453, 459, 496, 501, 519, 520, 540, 583, 593
w{bwzsq dk ;zgN bke/ gkm eoBk L^ 204, 362,m 363, 460, 584,
604, 612
ukbh f;zxK B/ ukbh fdB ;tk^;tk bZy w{bwzsq ehsk L^ 205
ofjok; gzi rqzEh nB[;ko gVQBh j? L^ 210
iZE/ d/ Ppd rkfJB ;w/A o[y
Z K s'A o; u'Dk s/ gzShnK B/ o[eDk L^ 24
;[d
z o f;zx ƒ 1914 JhL ftu eByb fty/ 243 ;kb d/ ;zs Bkb fwbkgL^ 231
nzfwqs d/D ;w/A d;w/P ih B/ ;h; eZN e/ jZE ftZu cVQ/ L^ 232
gmkDK ƒ Pjhd fdZ;D/ s/ gkrb j'e/ eZgV/ ckVB/ L^ 250
dfonk dh SZb dk gkDh Bht/A EK frnk Bjha T[FZu/ EK uVQ frnk L^ 251
r[o{ nwodk; ih B/ feZbh cVQ e/ sg eoBk L^ 260
;[ywBh ;[D e/ ;Zg B/ wo ikDk L^ 264
phph ih dh fJj tfvnkJh ;h fe Pkdh Bjha ehsh L^ 269
nyzv gkm ;w/A ;g?Pb ;wZroh L^ 271

(127)
feos Bk eoB ƒ ;bkj[Dk L^ 275
101 nyzvgkm eoB/ L^ 275, 436, 440, 463, 465, 621, 636
gkm ;[BD wro'A fpqeshnK B/ sB d/ p;sq bkj[D/, e[Nhnk gkT[DhnK,
pBtk; b?Dk L^ 282, 286
r[o{ d/ y{j s'A wkPeh gkDh Bk GoB d/Dk ns/ p'ek gkDh L^ 314, 328
jok, bkb, GrtK, ;{jk ozr fsnkrDk L^ 321, 475
r[o{ e/ bzro ftZu ;kX{nK dh gzrs nbZr bkT[Dh L^ 345
nodk; wro'A nkosh L^ 352
S/ wjhB/ dhnK ;wkXhnK bkT[DhnK L^ 355
;fsr[o eh ekPh t;D dk cb L^ 370
f;Zy B/ nzp okj ftu u{g b?Dk s/ r[mbh b? ikDk L^ 380
;[ywBh gVQB Bkb ;G ;[y fwbD/ L^ 402
gZuh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp fJeZm/ gqekP eoB/ L^ 413, 414, 416
(wjksw gzL 419)
;Zs nyzv gkm eokT[D/ L^ 418
gzdoK nyzv gkm eokT[D/ L^ 444
wZX dh nodk;$eEk L^ 421
;[u? d/ noE ;[Zu dh irQk ;'uDk eoB/ L^ 423
w[esh^bkVh ftnkj[Dk L^ 428
;zs^do; cb L^ 430, 436, 523
wj'S/ eoe/ ftjbV ;kXK ƒ y[nkT[Dk L^ 434
fwqse o;w d;t/A w[ekt/ L^ 444
wkbk wzsq L^ 457
wBh f;zx ƒ ;zgodkfJ ubkT[D ƒ fejk L^ 458
p/Bsh u"gJh sho ;sZdqt sZe thuko/ L^ 471
nzfwqs SekT[D ;w/A w{bwzsq gT[Vh ;w/s gVQkT[Dk L^ 471
Pohoe gftsqsk L^ 504
PzsK d/ fJPBkB ib Bkb okih j'Dk, oki/ B/ L^ 523

(128)
nekb e[Nhnk, r[o{nK ƒ ntskoh f;ZX eoBk L^ 543
SZph nyzv gkm gqekP eoBk L^ 554
jz; ;wkB fpqsh gkDh SZv d[ZX SeDk L^ 555
;gskfje gkm L^ 561, 601
jo g{oBwkPh ƒ nyzv gkm L^ 570
r[o^Ppd dh ftnkfynk s'A gfjbK eZuh pkDh tkbk wzrbkuoB Io{oh L^ 574
jo o'I w{bwzsq dh 33 wkbk, iK gzi ;[ywBh, iK 25 ig[ih, iK gzi rqzEh,
iK 25 jIko tkfjr[o{ wzsq igDk eo' L^ 577, 615
eSfjo/ T[go t;s{ BjhA gkT[Dk L^ 577
jZE ftZu sho oZyDk L^ 577
gkmh dh ngftsqsk eoe/ o'r Bk jNDk s/ T[; o'r ƒ nkgD/ T[Fg
Z o b? b?Dk L^ 580
w{bwzsq ;b'e ;w/s L^ 596
nyzv gkm s/ nk;k dh tko fJeZm/ uZbD/ L^ 597
rowh ;w/A o/s d/ fNZp/ s/, mzY ;w/A gkDh ftZu sg eoB ƒ d[Zy^;[Zy ;wsk
f;ZX eoBk L^ 601
f;Zy^gzE s'A tZyoh wfo:kdk EkgDh L^ 604
cohde'Nh Nhek L^ 617
r[o{ BjhA ;r'A f;zx oytkb/ L^ 623
;tk bZy tkfjr[o{ L^ 624
iE/ d/ f;zxK ƒ ;[Zy/ dh wBkjh BjhA L^ 631
fJj s/i ;[GkT[ s/ bVke/ th j' ;ed/ jB L^ 634
rIk eoBk$wzr ykDk L^ 634
fJj ;zgodkJh ohs j? s/ ;zgodkJh noE eoB/ jB L^ 640, 641
[[[[

(129)
Xow s/ okiBhsh - fJZe ;kfiFh rZmi'V
id'A dh ;[os ;zGkbh j? T[d'A s'A jh f;ZyK dk ‘Xow s/ okiBhsh’
fJeZmk j?, ;[Ddk nk fojk ;h. ;wK phsD Bkb ;kfjs fJfsjk; ns/
r[opkDh dk ;woZEk w[skpe nfXn?B ehsk. j"bh^j"bh gosK y[ZbQDhnK P[o{
j'JhnK fe r[opkDh w[skpe Xow eh j? s/ okiBhsh eh j?. fJj Gh
gqukfonk frnk fe f;ZyK dk, Xow s/ okiBhsh dk ;[w/b, S/t/A ;fsr[o{ jfo
r'fpzd ;kfjp ih s'A nkozG j'fJnk. id'A gftZso r[opkDh s'A ;tkb eohJ/,
sK i[nkp fwbdk j? fe Xow s/ okiBhsh, Grsh s/ Pesh, oki s/ i'r,
whoh s/ ghoh, nkfd r[o{, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih s'A nkozG j'JhnK ;B. i'
T[gd/P iK n;{b r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ T[ukoD ehs/, T[jBK d/ T[s
Z onfXekoh,
r[o{ ;kfjpkBK B/ T[jBK ƒ jh nZr/ gqukfonk, ft;Ekfonk. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp
ftZu'A oki i'r d/ ;[w/b d/ doPB eo'L^
r[o{ BkBe ih pko/ ^
efp eb ;[i;[ rktT[ r[o BkBe oki[ i'r[ fifB wkfDT[.. (1389)
r[o{ nzrd ih pko/ ^ oki[ i'r[ bjDk eo?.. (1392)
r[o{ okwdk; ih pko/ ^
f;fo nksgs[ ;u" sys[ i'r G'r ;zi[s[ pfb..
r[o okwdk; ;u[ ;b[ GfD s{ nNb okfi nGr[ dfb.. (1406)
r[o{ noiB ih pko/ ^
r[o noi[B ebuo? s? oki i'r o;[ ikfDnkT[.. (1407)
jo fJZe f;Zy ;dk u/s/ ftZu oZy/ fe d; gksPkjhnK (d; r[o){ fJZe
i's, fJZe frnkB, fJZe' ;o{g d/ wkbe ;B. S/t/A ;fsr[oK e'Jh ezw nfijk
BjhA ehsk, i' r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh ;Z[uh ftukoXkok ƒ tZyoh eodk j't/.
fco Grsh s/ Pesh S/t/A ;fsr[o{ jh ikoh BjhA ehsh, fJj sK r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih s'A jh gotkfjs j' ojh ;h. fe;/ eth dh eZuh ouBk dk ;jkok
(130)
b? e/ (r[o fpbk; gkL S/thA) gfjbK S/t/A ;fsr[o{ ƒ iBw tes pkpk p[ZYk
ih d/ ‘to’ Bkb iBw/ fbfynk. fco ftPƒ d/ ntsko pDk Xfonk. fiBQK
pqjwk ftPƒ fPt ƒ r[opkDh Brko/ dh u'N Bkb Beko ojh j?, T[jh ftPƒ
S/t/A gksPkj ftZu dkyb eo fdZsk frnk. gVQ' r[opkDh c[owkDL^
e'fN fp;B ehB/ ntsko.. e'fN pqjwzv ik e/ Xow;kb..
e'fN wj/; T[gkJ/ ygkJ/.. e'fN pqjw/ ir[ ;kiD bkJ/.. (1156)
izrK :[ZXK ftZu fJZe sbtko, fJZe Ykb s/ nkw toshAdh j?, nkj
d' sbtkoK tkbk nihp GkDk tosk fdZsk. ftPƒ B/ nkfynk ;h gJh fJZe
w/oh sbtko bVkJh ftZu BjhA tosDh, i' Grsh tkbh j?. j? Bk nihp
ejkDh< edh sbtko Gh Grsh ns/ Pesh dh nZv' nZv j'fJnk eodh j?<
sbtko fe;/ soQK dh j't/, tko eoB s/ T[jB/ ;oho ftZu X; jh ikDk j?.
fco j'o ejkDh xV bJh fe nekb sys d/ ;kjwD/ d' fBPkB ;kfjp bZr/,
Grsh s/ Pesh d/ gqshe jB. nZyK y'jb e/ t/yD s/ T[E/ jh fbfynk gVQ
bJhdk j?, fe fJZE/ gfjbK bZrk j'fJnk fBPkB g[okDk j' e/ fvZr fgnk ;h.
;zB 1843 ftZu wL P/o f;zx ƒ Gow gk fdZsk frnk fe fBPkB fvZrDk, f;Zy
oki bJh ‘nP[ZG’ j?. T[; B/ f;Zy oki dhnK ‘iVQK’ gZehnK eoB d/ ftuko
Bkb d' wIp{s fBPkB rvtk fdZs/. pJh nZr'A Bk edh fBPkB fvZrD s/ Bk
f;Zy oki v'b/. nc;'; fe fBPkB d't/A yb's/ j'J/ jB, oki dk sd'A (1849)
jh G'r g? frnk ;h. fJZE/ e/tb dopko ;kfjp dhnK goeowK ftZu, Grsh
s/ Pesh whoh s/ ghoh dk y{p P'o gkfJnk iKdk j?. pkeh Xow n;EkBK
ftZu Iok xZN j?. Grsh s/ Pesh i/ fJeZmh ;theko eoBh jh j't/ sK fJj
f;ZyK d/ nkfd r[o{, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp s'A ;theko eoBk jh r[ows j?.
nkgD/ IwkB/ d/ oki i'r d/ XkoBh, f:P{ w;hj Gh ;B. T[jBK ;w/A
dh Ikbw je{ws ns/ gkyzvh Xkowe nkr{nK fto[X Z I'odko nktkI T[mkJh.
fJ;/ ekoB T[jBK ƒ Pjhd ehsk frnk. fJ;bkw d/ pkBh jIos w[jzwd
;kfjp, w[;bwkBK d/ Xkowe w[yh Gh ;B, ns/ oki;h w[yh Gh ;B. eJh
izrK ftZu T[jBK w'joh j' e/ feogkB tkjh. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih pko/, Gkt/A
fJfsjk; ykw'P j?, go T[jBK dh fBXVe P\;hns s'A ;fji/ jh ftPtk;

(131)
ehsk ik ;edk j?, fe ;fsr[o{ ih feogkB Io{o jh oZyd/ ;B ns/ sd'A ;w/A
dh gqEw b'V ;h, jfEnkopzd j'Dk. gfjb/ gziK ;fsr[o{nK pkps r[opkDh
ftZu oki i'r ;gZPN fbysK nk u[Zehnk jB. fco e/tb S//t/A ;fsr[oK Bkb
jh xNBktK i'VB dk e[u/PNk Gfonk we;d ;gZPN BIo nk iKdk j?. r[o{
jfo r'fpzd ;kfjp ƒ r[o{ BkBe ftukoXkok s'A, nS'gb/ fij/ Yzr Bkb,
nbZr eoBk s/ ftPƒ Bkb fugek d/Dk feT[Afe r'fpzd Bkw ftPƒ dk j?,
fJZXo Gh jfor'fpzd j?. fJ;/ soQK dh d;w gkfsPkj ƒ r[o{ BkBe bVh s'A
tZy eo fdZsk frnk j?. fiZE/ fjwkbk gops dh u'Nh s/ ftPƒ fBtk; eodk
ebfgnk frnk j?, T[E/ jh d;w gkfsPkj jI{o ƒ fgSb/ iBw ftZu
sgZf;nk eofdnK d;w rqzE ftZu fby wkfonk. Bkw th r'fpzd, ftPƒ s/
r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx. p; ftPƒ Bkb Gkt/A fgSb/ iBw ftZu jh ;jh, go BZEh
Io{o eo fdZsk frnk.
ojh rZb Grsh s/ Pesh dh, ;ko/ jh r[o{ ;kfjpkB Grsh s/ Pesh
d/ wkbe ;B. ftP/P jkbks ekoB ;ohoe pb dk gq:'r eoB dh Gkt/A e[M
;wK Io{os BjhA gJh. Grsh s/ Pesh rJh fes/ BjhA. eh r[o{ BkBe
;kfjp ih dh db/oh s'A fJBeko ehsk ik ;edk j?< T[j jo ysoBke
ftnesh e'b rJ/. fBvosk Bkb nkgD/ ftuko oZy/. pkpo ƒ bbekfonk.
‘gkg eh izR’ nky bkjDsK gkJhnK. ‘y{B d/ ;'fjb/’ rkJ/. d{;o/ gkfsPkj
r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih B/ P/o Pkj ;{oh s'A jko yk e/ tkg; w[V oj/ fjwk:{z
ƒ, tes f;o yohnK efj ;[DkJhnK. r[o{ nwodk; ;kfjp, nepo Bkb
fBvosk Bkb g/P nkJ/. r[o{ okwdk; ih ƒ d' tko nepo d/ dopko ftZu,
f;Zy f;XksK ƒ p/^y"c g/P eofdnK t/fynk ik ;edk j?. gzit/A ;fsr[o{ ih
sK n;{bK s/ gfjok fdzfdnK, Pjhdh sZe gk rJ/. r[o{ jor'fpzd ;kfjp ih
ƒ ;kjwD/ wZE/ uko izr bVB/ gJ/ sK ikbw jkewK dh BhAd T[FZv rJh. B"t/A
;fsr[o{ ih B/ wIb{w dk gZy g{fonk, n"ozrI/p dh eZNVsk nZr/ Bk M[e/.
nzs fszB f;ZyK ;w/s, uKdBh u"Ae, fdZbh fty/ Pjhdh gk rJ/. d;w
gksPkj ih dk ;kok ihtB ;zxoP ns/ db/oh dh nB'yh fw;kb j?. d;/
gksPkjhnK Grsh ns/ Pesh ƒ fet/A gq:'r ftZu fbnkT[Dk j?, wB[Zysk d/

(132)
Gb/ fjZs, fe; tes fejVh oDBhsh nyfsno ehsh ikt/, uzrh soQK ikDd/
;B. ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB ih d/ rrB u[zGh ;'u wzvb ns/ p/UVe ;ohoe
;woZEk ƒ pko pko Bw;eko j?. T[j sK fJZe fBwkD/ ;/te Gh ;B s/ sys
d/ PfjBPkj Gh. T[j fJZe ;kXkoD f;gkjh th ;B ns/ nkgDhnK f;Zy c"iK
d/ ewKvo fJB uh| (ioB?b) Gh ;B. T[jBK e'b jo ekoi ƒ B/go/ ukVQ
d/D dh ;woZEk bki[nkp ;h.
j[D t/yDk fJj j? fe eh ;ko/ f;ZyK e'b fJj ;{M ;woZEk j?< eh nZi
dk f;Zy, Grsh s/ Pesh dk ;zs[bB poeoko oZyD d/ :'r j?< eh nZi d/
f;Zy e'b Grsh (Xkowe ihtB) d/ r[D w"i{d jB< eh f;Zy Pesh ftj{Dk
j'fJnk e/tb jzM{ e/o fojk j?, uheK wko fojk j? fe ;Zuw[Zu T[; ƒ Pesh
ftj{Dk j'D dk T[do/tK j?< fJj ftuko eoBh fBjkfJs Io{oh j? fe Grsh
(Xow) ns/ Pesh (oki) dh w[V gqkgsh tk;s/ f;Zy nkr{ ;[fjod ;{MtkB
s/ db/oh oZyd/ jB< fiBQK d/ fjod/ ftZu Xow jh Bk j't/, T[jBK s'A fe;/ B/e
ezw dh nk; ehsh ik ;edh j?< nkU fJjBK B[efsnK ƒ fJZe^fJZe eoe/
ftukohJ/L^
fjzd{ ;wki ftZu okw uzdo (dPoE g[Zso) dk pVk wkD ehsk iKdk
j?. T[j nkgD/ fJbke/ n:[ZfXnk dk oki w[yh Gh ;h. pkbh s/ oktD Bkb
izr bVdk j?, jfEnkoK dh y{p tos'A eodk j?. ftPƒ (ny"sh) dk ntsko
j'D eoe/ Xow w[yh Gh ;h. d[nkg[o d/ fJZe oki/ feqPB ih ƒ, ftPƒ dk
ntsko j'D dk wkD gqkgs j?. d{i/ pzB/ T[jh feqPB izrK :[ZXK ftZu w'joh j'
e/ bVdk j?, Xow w[yh j?. jios w[jzwd ;kfjp w[;bwkBK d/ Xow w[yh
;B, id'A izr bVBh j[zdh sd'A y[d izrh ioB?b Gh j[zd/, w'joh j' e/ d[PwD
d/ nkj{ bkj[zd/. T[jBK ;GBK B/ nkgD/ fIzw/ bZrh ;/tk pk^y{ph fBGkJh.
;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB Grsh s/ Pesh dk soki{ ;ktK oZyD d/ ;woZE jB.
pknd ftZu fw;bK d/ ;w/A Gh f;Zy w[yhnK B/ :'r Yzr Bkb, nkgD/ coIK
ƒ fBGkfJnk. go nZi feZE/ j? f;ZyK dh Grsh s/ Pesh< IwhB d/ fJZe
fJzu N[ZeV/ s/ f;ZyK dk epIk BjhA j?, fi; ƒ fJj nkgDk efj ;eD. fco
fe; oki iK Pesh dh rZb ehsh ik ojh j?< fJT[A efj bJhJ/ fe r[odtkok

(133)
ew/Nh dk e'Jh nj[d/dko pD ikDk, r'be s/ epIk iwk b?DkHHH fes/ fJjh
sK BjhA j? f;ZyK dh Grsh s/ Pesh< ;t/o Pkw (wPhBh Yzr) e[M pkDh dk
gkm eo b?Dk. r[odtkfonK ftZu fpBK ;zrs s'A ;gheoK dh T[FZuh ntkI
Bkb xo'A xohA pkDh g[Zidh eo d/Dh. e[M ;fji gkm, nyzv gkm, ;zgN
gkm, gkmK dhnK bVhnK, ehosB dopko, ykb;k wkou, Bro ehosB,
bzro nodk;HHH fes/ fJjh sK BjhA j? f;Zy ;wki dk wzfBnk ik fojk
Xow< r[opkDh d/ r'ji Gkt, b{z ezv/ yVQ/ eo d/D tkbk ;{owrsh dh rkEk
tkbk fJfsjk;, fes/ gfVQnk gVQkfJnk ik fojk j? fe BjhA< ;e{bK,
ekbiK, r[odtkfonK, xoK ftZu'A ‘;w/A dk jkDh’ yIkBk BjhA fwbdk. BP/
gfssg[Dk, eoweKv f;yoK S'j oj/ jB. bhvo b'e Grsh s/ Pesh dhnK
cVQK wko oj/ jB. T[; dodBke nt;Ek ƒ t/y$wfj;{; eoe/ jzM{nK dh
Xkok tfj N[odh j?. wB e[obkT[Adk j?, nkswk ftbedh j?, id'A pd/PK
ftub/ ‘ykfb;skBh’ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ƒ f;o s/ u[Ze e/, (;[y nk;D ;w/A)
Y'behnK S?fDnK Bkb Ppd Gh gVQd/ jB s/ ‘;[y nk;D ;EkB’ nZr/ yb' e/,
nkgD/ v/Y ;" ;kb gfjbK y[Z; rJ/ oki ƒ tkiK wkod/ jB. fpbe[b T[;
:shw s/ nBG'b pZu/ tKr, fi;dk d[BhnK ftZu e'Jh ;jkok BjhA. pkjo
d[PwDK dhnK tkjoK jB. xo ftZu ykD bJh r[iko/ bkfJe e[ZM BjhA j?.
Bk fJj ;wM j? fe nZr'A eh ehsk ikDk ukjhd?< fJj d[ydkJh nt;Ek j?
;kv/ ‘ykfb;skB fIzdkpknd’ d/ nzdo tVe/ i?eko/ bkT[D tkfbnK dh. id'A
GftZy pko/ nfBPusk j't/, o{g o/yk T[bheD dh :'rsk Bk j't/, Xow pko/
v{zxk frnkB Bk j't/. ;z;ko ;kfjs ftZu'A fJBebkph bfjoK s'A oki;h dkT[
g/u Bk gVQ/ ngDkJ/ j'D. fco nfijh nt;Ek ftZu fJB;kB, wfwnk
;edk j?, vfvnk ;edk j? jzM{ e/o ;edk j?, s/ ;wK gk e/ r[bkwh Bkb
;wM"sk eo b?Adk j?.
Xow d/ n;{b wB[Zysk d/ Gb/ tk;s/ j'fJnk eod/ jB. nkw t/yD
ftZu fJjh nkfJnk j? fe Xow ƒ wB[Zysk dk xkD eoB tk;s/ Gh pj[s tkoh
tofsnk frnk j?. fjzd{nK d/ ny"sh Xkowe rqzE, wB[Zysk T[FZs/ Ykj/ rJ/
efjo, ehs/ rJ/ I[bwK dk w{zj p'bdk gZek ;p{s jB. i' GftZy ftZu Gh fJ;/

(134)
soQK ehs/ rJ/ nDwB[Zyh i[bwK ƒ ‘Xow dk Io{oh nzr’ rodkBd/ ofjDr/.
w[;bwkB jkewK B/ r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih ƒ Pjhd ehsk, sK e[onkB ƒ
Ykb ti'A tofsnk frnk. r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih s/ fszB f;ZyK ƒ p/nzs
s;hj/ d/ e/ Pjhd ehsk frnk. T[; tes Xow g[;se e[onkB ftZu'A jtkbk
d/ e/ ;Ik sIthi ehsh rJh. S'N/ ;kfjpikfdnK ƒ Pjhd eoB tes,
e[onkB s/ ekIh Pkwb ;B. fJ; s'A pknd th id'A id'A f;ZyK ƒ x'o s;hj/
fdZs/ rJ/, esb ehsk frnk, sK jw/PK Xow dh ukdo T[Zgo skD bJh
rJh. nkw w[;bwkB ƒ, izr ftZu Pkwb j' e/ fto'XhnK ƒ \sw eoB
tk;s/ id'A Gh T[e;kfJnk frnk sK ‘ijkd dk’ (Xow:[ZX) Bkjok p[bzd
ehsk frnk.
nDfrDs gkg eowK ftZu v[Zp/ oki;h b'e, nkgD/ frod, r[bkw
ifjBhns tkb/ Xow d/ u'b/ gkJh p?m/, fteD bJh fsnko ny"sh (n;b
ftZu Xow d/ d[PwD) Xkowe N[ZeV p'uK ƒ, gkb b?Ad/ jB. fJj ‘Xowh’
oki;h r[zfvnK dh gqPz;k d/ ;zx gkV e/ p/;[o/ rhs rkT[Ad/ jB. fJjBK ƒ
fBjebze dZ;d/ jB, fgSb/ ehs/ ikg, dkB g[zB dh pd"bs oki ;[y G'rD
dk, okr nbkgd/ jB. fJjBK s'A w'NhnK oewK gqkgs eoe/, ehs/ rJ/ gkgK
dh Bftosh bJh ‘wzso’ gVQd/ jB, gkm ikg eod/ jB. B/sk ih fJjBK d/
ikjok s"o s/ uoB S{zjdk j?. fJj ‘ewhD/ Xowh’ nzdoyks/, B/sk ih d/
uoBK s/ f;o oZy fdzd/ jB. fJ;/ bJh oki dopkoK ftZu Pkjh ekih, Pkjh
fJwkw, oki gq'fjs, oki r[o{ s/ oki eth nkfd dhnK T[gkXhnK Bkb
Btkfink iKdk j?. Gkos d/ fJZe okPNogsh vkH okfizdo gq;kd B/ Xowh
j'D dk y/yD eofdnK okPNogsh GtB ftZu frnkoK pqkjwDK ƒ ;Zd e/,
fsBQK d/ g?o X' e/ y[d ‘uoB^nzfwqs’ ghsk. neb d/ nzBQ/ b'eK B/ okPNogsh
ƒ tZvk Xowh g[oy wzB fbnk. nypkoK B/ ;'fjb/ rkJ/. tkj okiBhsh s/o/
o{g jIko. nDfrDs pZio gkg eoB tkb/, gkyzvh okiBhfse ftnesh,
eow uzd rKXh ƒ ‘Xowh g[oy’ g/P eoB tk;s/ nDfrDs gkgV t/b/. bZyK
o[g? youD/ gJ/, bzr'Nh XkoBh gJh, g{ik nouDk, shoE :ksok nkfd
eoBh gJh, fco fes/ T[;ƒ ‘wjkswk’ pDkfJnk ik ;fenk. go fdbh

(135)
ftu T[j jw/;k fpobk ;/m d/ xo mfjodk ;h.
rohpK dk y{B fBu'V e/, T[jBK dk jZe y'j e/, r[bSoo/ T[vkT[D tkb/
oki;h b'e, Xow n;EkBK ƒ wkfJnk d/ y[Zb/ rZc/ ‘dkB’ eod/ jB. pdb/
ftZu Xkowe b'e, fJjBK dh b'e gob'e ftZu i? i? eko j'D dh b[GktDh
nodk; eod/ jB. oki;h rZdhnK gqkgs eoB tk;s/, Gkt/A wzdo w;fid
d/ g[okD/ w[od/ g[ZND/ g?D, Gkt/A ebfgs noiD dk wy"Nk gfjB e/ oE
:ksok eoBh gt/. p/PZe dopko ;kfjp s/ N?AeK s'gK s/ c"iK Bkb wko{ jZbk
p'bDk gt/. Gkt/A ‘ykb;k wkou’ eZYD/ g?D iK fco ‘gftZso ;q'to dh eko
;/tk’ eoBh gt/. nZi f;ZyK dh dPk J/Bh fBZxo rJh j? e'Jh ftnesh
r[od[nko/ nk e/ ;" o[g? oZy d/t/ sK MZN gZN T[;ƒ ‘f;o'gkT[’ pyP fdZsk iKdk
j?. fe;/ B/ ;fji gkm, fe;/ nyzv gkm eotkfJnk bT[ ih f;o'gk. i'V/
;KGD, bzro, ehosB, eEk tkfbnK ƒHHHH f;o'g/ E'e ftZu tzv/ ik oj/ jB.
j[D s/ gzE d'yhnK ƒ Gh f;o'g/ feogkBK xoh ik e/ fdZs/ ik oj/ jB, T[j
Gh tZv/ iE/dkoK tZb'A. ;fsr[o{ ;[wZs pyP d/D. gktB c[owkB j?L^
ihn pXj[ ;[ Xow efo Ekgj[ nXow ejj[ es GkJh..
nkg; eT[ w[fBto efo Ekgj[ ek eT[ ejj[ e;kJh.(1102)
ethnK ;kfjsekoK ƒ ;BwkB ns/ ;j{bsK d/D dk we;d n;b
ftZu fJjh j?, fe fJj b/ye ;oeko dhnK b'e fto'Xh BhshnK ƒ u[Zg ukg
nzfwqs dk x[ZN ;wMe/ gh b?Dr/. jo uhI ƒ ;BwkB tkb/ ozrhB uPw/
(n?Be) ftZu'A dh t/yDr/. nypkoK NhHthH u?BbK dh nkgDh ehws j?. fe;/
dh xZN fe;/ dh tZX. i/, n?wHn?bHJ/H s/ n?wHghH b'V tes tZvh ehws sko
e/ yohd/ ik ;ed/ jB sK r[od[nkok ew/NhnK d/ w?Apo (;w/s n?;HihHghH;hH)
fteD s'A fet/A fJBeko eo ;ed/ jB< T[j sK ftuko/ pj[s/ jh P[;hb jB,
‘Xkowe ftnesh’ i[ j'fJ.
yohd t/u dk fJj Xzdk fJsB/ ;fji Bkb uZb fojk j?, nkw
ftnesh PZe sZe BjhA eo ;edk. fJZe pj[s tZv/ ftnesh ƒHHH ;zs ih
B/ w[bkeks bJh ;Zfdnk. ‘v{zxhnK gzEe ftukoK pzd ewo/ ftZu j'JhnK.’
s[;hA jo ;zroKd tkb/ fdB d' xzN/ ;kv/ v/o/ nkfJnk eo', ;zs ih B/ fejk.

(136)
‘go w/oh fIzdrh pj[s o[M/ftnK Goh j?, w/o/ bJh nkT[Dk w[Peb j?,’ tZv/
pzd/ B/ i[nkp fdZsk. s[jkv/ d' xzN/ fezB/ e[ ehwsh jB< d' xzfNnK d/ thj
jIko o[g?. mhe j? w?ƒ gotkB j?, s[;hA ;zroKd tkb/ fdB r[opkDh ;[D'
ihtB ;cbk eo'HHH. ;"dk s?j j' frnk, s/ ;zs ih d/ rkjeK ftZu Y/o ;kok
tkXk j' frnk feT[Afe fJZe u'Nh dk tZvk ftnesh pkpk ih ƒ Bw;eko eoB
nkT[Adk j?, b'eK dhnK tjhoK feT[A Bk nkT[D< d't/A ckfJd/ ftZu, :koh
gZeh.
fJZe j'o ;odko ih d/ uko fJZNK d/ GZm/ jB, d; e[ NoZe Gh fJZNK
g[ukD bJh oZy/ jB. pV/ gZe/ r[of;Zy jB, fe;/ ;kX nZr/ BjhA M[ed/.HHH
pkpk ih B/ fwbD dh fJZSk gqrN ehsh. eJh tko c'B eoB s'A pknd
;odko ih nk rJ/, ezw g[ZfSnk. ;zs ih p'b/ ‘r[ow[y fgnko/ ihU, n;hA
r[odtko/ dh BthA fJwkos fsnko eo oj/ jK, d' NoZe fJZNK dh ;/tk eo'.’
‘d' NoZe sK eh w?A frDsh dhnK d' fJZNK Gh fe;/ ;kX ƒ BjhA fdnKrk’.
w?A ikDdk jK s[jkv/ ;[Gkn ƒ. d' NoZe fJZNK dh ehws fezBh pDdh j?<
fJjh e'Jh gzdoK e[ jIko< w?A s[jkƒ d' NoZe fJZNK dk shj jIko o[fgnk
fdnKrk, s/ Bkb s[jkvh ;/tk dh go;z;k eoKrk. Go/ dhtkB ftZu ;o'gk d/
e/ n?bkB eoKrk ;qH ih B/ r[o{ xo tk;s/ d' NoZe ;/tk eokJh j?, p'b/ ;'
fBjkbHHHH. ;kX ;zrs s[;hA Gh y[Zb/ fdb ;/tk eo'. ;/tkdkoK dk sKsk P[o{
j' frnk, fJZe dh gq;z;k d{i/ dh nkwdBh
s[w gfts gktB g[oy gqG ;[nkwh, jw feT[A efo fwbfj i{mkoh..
jwo? ihfJ j'o[ w[fy j'o j's j?, jw eowjhD e{fVnkoh..
jwoh w[dq Bkw[ jfo ;[nkwh, fod nzsfo d[;N[ d[;Nkoh.. (528)
bzw/A ;w/A s'A G'bh fijh ;kX ;zrs ƒ nB/e Yzr sohe/ tos e/ y{p
b[ZfNnk j?. r[ows dk frnkB sK T[FZek jh BjhA fdZsk frnk. Iok ;'u'`
nro dkB g[zB Bkb ;wki dk e[M ;ztoBk jzdk, sK ;dhnK s'A dkB g[zB j[zdk
nk fojk j?. j[D sZe sK ;G gqeko dhnK p[okJhnK fteko \sw j' ikD/
ukjhd/ ;h. jK g[ikohnK dk pj[s e[M pD ;zto frnk j?. vZek d{jok eoB
s'A fpBK, fizadrh dhnK ;G ;j{bsK G'r oj/ jB. nkw fJB;kB ƒ ;\s

(137)
fwjBs s'A pknd w;hA oZithA o'Nh B;hp j[zdh j?. ftjbV g[ikoh N'b/, d[ZX
wbkJhnK, frohnK pdkw Se oj/ jB. fJj g[ikoh s/ Xow n;EkB
oki;h r[zfvnK d/ epI/ ftZu jB. fJj fJZe pj[s ftPkb skDk pkDk j?, fe;
B/ feZE/ ‘fPeko’ dh T[vhe ftZu czdk bk e/ p?mDk j?, gfjbK jh fBPfus
j'fJnk j[zdk j?. gof;ZX eth fJepkb dk fJoPkd j?L^
jt; e/ pzd/ tck e' p/u d/s/ j?A.
y[dk e/ xo eh fenk ejhJ/, f:j y[dk e' p/u d/s/ j?A.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ ;?AeV/ ;kbK dk gbkB fsnko eoe/, nkgDk
ezw P[o{ ehsk ;h. bzwh xkbDk s'A pknd fes/ ;wki dk w{zj wZEk ;ztfonk
;h. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ fJZe fJPko/ s/ ;G e[M tko d/D tkfbnK dk ekcbk wzIb
tZb uZb fgnk ;h. f;oK dh pkIh bk e/ I[bw dk ykswk ehsk ;h. nZi
d[ZX ghD/ wiƒ, J/H;hH dhnK jtktK ftZu ;tor d/ fwZm/ ;[gB/ b?D tkb/,
r[ows dh jo gqhfynk ftZu'A c/b b'ehA, jZEhA m{m/ cVhA, dhB JhwkB t/u e/
e[o;hnK bJh bkbQK ;[ZNd/, ;k| BIo nk oj/ jB. g[oksB ;fwnK ftZu ‘w?A
gfjbK ;h; tko fdnK’ dh gftZso ;'u ;h. nZi ‘w?A gfjbK e[o;h s/ p?mK’,
fJjh fBZxfonk j'fJnk okr ;[DkJh d/ fojk j?. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/
Xosh d/ N[ZeV/ s/ oki BjhA ehsk, go eo'VK b'eK d/ fdbK s/ ;dhthA oki
ehsk j?. nZi f;Zy bhvo Xosh d/ N[ZeV/ s/ oki eoB bJh sob'wZSh fdZ;d/
jB. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp tZbA' pyP/ T[s Z w r[DK s'A ykbh ;ZyD/. nro Xow pu
frnk, fjod/ ftZu fNe frnk, sK oki dh nk; ehsh ik ;edh j?. Xow
jh Bk fojk s/ oki e?;k s/ fet/A nkt/rk< Xow ftj{Dk< Xow s/ okiBhsh
fJeZmh dh v"Avh fgZND tkb/, Xow ƒ pdBkw eo oj/ jB, oki fJjBK e'b
nkT[Dk e'Jh BjhA. e/tb Xow ƒ e[u/PNk Go/ Yzr Bkb tosfsnk ik fojk
j?. gktB pkDh dk p'X j'Dk sK d{o dh rZb, fJZE/ sK f;ZyK d/ w[yhnK B/ f;Zy
j'D dh gfjbh Pos ^ yzv/ dh gkj[b Gh g{oh BjhA ehsh. fiBQK nD;od/
ƒ rb feogkB bNekJh j?, T[j Gh gkyzvh r[o{nK, v/fonK s/ BZe orVd/
t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB. fsbe, w[eN, jtB, rb bkb u[zBhnK gkJh, p/Powh
Bkb x[zw oj/ jB. tkfjr[o{ ih ek ykb;k, ‘okw ih eh cs/’, p[bk e/ r[o{

(138)
r'fpzd f;zx ih dk ngwkB eo oj/ jB. j? e'Jh o'eD tkbk< r[otke jBL^
ekdh e{V[ p'fb wb[ ykfJ.. pqkjwD Bkt? ihnk xkfJ..
i'rh i[rfs Bk ikD? nzX[.. shB/ T[ikV/ ek pzX[.. (662)
n;b rZb sK fJj ;h fe okiBhsh ns/ Xow, d't/A jh b'ekJh d/
Gb/ fjZs j'D/ ukjhd/ jB. jkbks dh wIp{oh ekoB ;theko eo b?Ad/ jK fe
oki;h b'eK s'A jZe ;Zu dh T[whd BjhA oZyh ik ;edh. fJjBK oki;h
r[zfvnK ƒ Xow n;EkBK dh d[otos'A eoB'A sK o'fenk ik ;edk j?. go
id'A u'o s/ e[Zsh nzdo yks/ fJZe j'D sK xo ;[oZfyns fet/A ofj ;edk j?<
ny"sh Xow w[yh b'e Gh sK ftuko/ fJ;/ ;wki ftZu izw/ gb/, s/ gotkB uVQ/
jB. fco ;wki ftZu tos oj/ tosko/ s'A, T[j fet/A nfGZi ofj ;ed/ jB<
coI eo' fJZe f;Zy vkeNo j?, T[j tekbs BjhA eo ;edk, GtB
fBowkD iK j'o nfij/ ezw BjhA eo ;edk, fi;dh T[;B/ f;Zfynk Bk bJh
j't/. eo/rk sK rbs eo/rk. tehb fe;/ wohI dk fJbki BjhA eo ;edk,
feT[Afe T[; dh f;Zfynk nbZr fe;w dh j?. nDfrDs feZfsnK ftZu wkjo
f;Zy fwbDr/, go f;Zfynk ekoB ezw nZv' nZv j'Dr/. fJ;/ soQK ;kv/ g[okD/
;w/A d/ pI[orK B/, Pq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh, r[o{ xoK dh ;/tk ;zGkb
tk;s/ pDkJh ;h. Xow gquko bJh B"itkB fsnko eoB/, f;Zy ;kfjs Skg
e/ tzvDk, d/P ftd/P d/ f;ZyK dhnK w[PebK d{o eoB ftZu ;jkfJsk eoBh.
nypko o;kb/ ukb{ eoB/, f;ZyK ƒ fJZe e/Ado, fJZe' ftukoXkok ftZu go'
e/ oZyDk nkfd. Pq'wDh nekbh db dh fIzw/tkoh ;h, fe f;ZyK d/ oki;h
jZeK tk;s/ isBPhb ofjDk. i/ edh w"ek fwb/ sK gzikp ftZu nekbh
;oeko pDkT[Dh. j? sK d't/A fXoK f;Zy ;B, go ekoi y/so dh tzv ehsh
rJh ;h. ;w/A B/ eotN pdbh fe d't/A fxT[ fyuVh j' rJ/. r[o{ xoK ftZu
PoXk Bkb nogD ehsk g?;k, oki;h ezwK s/ c{fenk ikD bZrk. Pq'L ew/Nh
w?Apo n?wHn?bHJ/H s/ n?wHghH pDB bZr/. y[d r[ouoB f;zx N"jVk, nkyoh
;[nk;K Bkb, ‘Xow s/ okiBhsh fJeZmh fBG/’ s/ g{ok T[sfonk. i' d[odPk
Xow s/ T[Zsw n;{bK dh, p/JhwkB oki;h b'eK B/ ehsh j?, T[; s'A j[D e'Jh
nDikD BjhA j?. fJjBK y[droI b'eK B/, fiZE/ okiBhsh ƒ fJZe i{nk pDk

(139)
Xfonk j? sK Xow ƒ x'Vk. fJZe wjkB fcbk;co ybhb fIpokB d/ puB
;[D' ^ ‘w?A d[BhnK t/yh, izrbK s'A PfjoK tZb, M[ZrhnK s'A wfjbK tZb,
tXfdnK t/fynk. w?A oki GtBK ekbiK, wzdoK pbhp/dhnK (esbrkjK)
s/ frnk. w?A t/fynk wId{o nwho dk r[bkw j?. nwho f;gkjh dk
r[bkw j?. f;gkjh ioB?b dk r[bkw, ioB?b oki/ dk r[bkw. okik
gkdoh dk r[bkw j?. gkdoh fJZe w{osh dk r[bkw j?. i' fwZNh dh pDh
j'Jh j?, fi; ƒ P?skB B/ y{B ftZu r[zB e/, w[odk y'gVhnK d/ Y/o T[Zs/,
fNekfJnk j'fJnk j?. p[okJh s/ gkg dk pdp{dko rzdk phi, e"wK nZr/
s'A nZr/ n"bkd d/ Bkw, t;hns eo fdzdhnK jB. e'Jh nkdwh ykBdkBh
gstzsk BjhA jz[dk, p/nzs b'e jB, i' ekfsbK d/ T[FZso nfXekoh jB.
i' ftnesh nZi izIhoK ftZu iefVnk j'fJnk j?, Io{oh BjhA T[j
ngokXh j't/. eJh tkoh fJj izIhoK ;'B/ d/ jkoK Bkb'A pj[s ehwsh
j'fJnk eodhnK jB. ‘;fsr[o{ ih d/ uoBK ftZu nodk; j? Xowh
fbpk; tkbk, nzdo'A Gh Xowh j't/. Xow dhnK NkjoK wkoB tkbk
Xow n;EkBK s'A d{o oj/, iK fco B/e okj s/ uZb gt/.’
;uk Xow[ g[zB[ Gbk eokJ/.. dhB e? s';? d[Bh B ikJ/..
dhB[ SvkJ/ d[Bh i' bkJ/.. d[jh ;okJh y[Bkwh ejkJ/..(743)
nZi f;ZyK e'b Xow d/ Bkw j/m pj[s ;ko/ eoweKv jB, o;wK
ohsK jB. tfjw Gow jB, fIzdrh ;Zu/ Xow tZb'A ;ZyDh gqshs j' ojh j?.
g?;/ dh nzBQh d"V B/ Xow n;EkBK ns/ Xow rqzE ƒ ewkJh d/ ;kXB ti'A
tosDk P[o{ eo fbnk j?. r[opkDh tZb'A gqukfonk ;Zu wkB'A yzG bk e/ T[FZv
frnk j?. d{i/ gk;/ d' uko gqkDh T[Zmd/ jB, nB/e jop/ tosd/ jB, s/ BthA
oki;h gkoNh ƒ iBw d/ fdzd/ jB. gzE d/ Bkw s/, gzE dh fgZm ftZu S[ok
y'GD tkb/ t'N s/ B'N dh wzr eod/ edh BjhA PowkT[Ad/. n? ;fsr[o{ ihU`
s[;hA ;woZE ;hr/, Xow s/ okiBhsh ƒ s[;hA wB[Zysk d/ efbnkD fjZs
pky{ph tofsnk fBGkfJnk. nkgD/ f;ZyK ƒ nkd/P fdU` fJj nkgDk Xow
s/ nkgDh okiBhsh nbZr nbZr eo b?D. toBk Bk Xow gZb/ ofjDk j?, s/
Bk jh oki fwbDk j?.

(140)
d[pXk w/ d'BA' rJ/, Bk wkfJnk fwbh, Bk okw.
wkD; ykD/ efoj fBtki] S[oh trkfJfB fsB rfb skr]
fsB xfo pqkjwD g{ofj Bkd] UBk fG nktfj Ujh ;kd]HHH
;ow Xow ek v/ok d{fo] BkBe e{V[ ofjnk Gog{fo] (tko nk;k)

[[[[

(141)
ebo[ y/s[ b? e{V[ iwkfJnk HHHHH
jo f;Zy dk ns/ jo fJZe f;Zy ;z;Ek dk, fJj Xkowe coI pDdk
j? fe ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/PK ƒ r[opkDh ftZu'A gVQ/, ;wM/, ftuko/, fco fes/
;zrsK sZe g[ukD dh e'fPP eo/. fpjso fJj j? fe Pq'wDh ew/Nh nfij/
wkfjo f;Zy ftdtkBK dk, fJZe p'ov pDkt/. f;Zy Xow Bkb ;zpzXs jo/e
feskp T[jBK tZb'A gk; ehsh j'Jh jh gqwkDhe wzBh ikt/. pd fe;wsh Bkb
nfijk BjhA ehsk frnk. jo ftnesh nkgDh wBwoIh Bkb r[opkDh d/
noE eo fojk j?. fJfsjk; ƒ s'V wo'V e/ g/P eo fojk j?. e'Jh g[ZSD
tkbk BjhA j?. ;r'A ;kv/ iE/dko s/ bhvo b'e T[jBK v/fonK Ne;kbK ftZu
ik e/ fsBQK dh gq;z;k d/ g[b pzBQ nkT[Ad/ jB. fgSb/ bzw/ ;w/A s'A dwdwh
Ne;kb pko/ g/sbh fijh ikDekoh ;h. ;zB 1983^84 ftZu pkpk ioB?b
f;zx dh uVQs ;w/A T[jBK Bkb w[bkeksK dk nt;o Gh fwfbnk. 84 dk
xZb{ekok tkgoB s'A pknd Ne;kb fco uouk ftZu ojh. fJjBK d/
gqukoeK ƒ ;N/iK s/ p'bfdnK eEk eofdnK Gh ;[fDnk. fJj b'e e/tb
nzBQh PoXk dhnK rZbK jh eod/ fd;/, frnkB soe s'A ykbh. i/ e'Jh
ftuko eoBh ukj/ sK woB wkoB s/ T[so g?Dk, fJjBK dk ;[Gk j?. w/o/
;Bw[Zy frnkBh r[opuB f;zx dh fbyh g[;se “r[opkDh gkm doPB” gJh
j?. fJj GkJh feogkb f;zx itkjo f;zx, wkJh ;/tk nzfwqs;o tZb'A 1969
ftZu Sgh ;h. fJ;/ g[;se ftZu'A r[ows s'A T[bN ;wZroh gkmeK d/ ;kjwD/
oZy fojk jK. pJh fet/A fJj b'e ;zsfroh dk b/pb bk e/, G'bhnK f;Zy
;zrsK ƒ e[okj/ gk oj/ jB. r[opkDh d/ rbs noE eo oj/ jB. eokwksh
p/^f;o g?o dhnK ejkDhnK r[o{ xo ftZu x[;/VhnK ik ojhnK jB.
nfijhnk g[;seK gVQ e/, fJB;kB dk ihtB fej' fijk j't/rk< fBnko/
ykb;/ ƒ fJj fe; pqkjwDh dbdb ftZu ;[ZN oj/ jB, edh fe;/ B/ ;'funk
sZe BjhA. f;ZyK ftZu wko{ jZd sZe eoweKvK ƒ dkyb eoB tkb/ fJjh b'e

(142)
jB. p'dh tkb/, X'sh tkb/, pqkjwDK dk o{g pdb frnk, e/;K i{V/ tkb/
pqkjwD, eSfjo/ tkb/, u'fbnK tkb/ pqkjwD, s[jkƒ E'e ftZu fwb ikDr/,
feZE'A < Ne;kb ftZu'A. nkT[ fJjBK dh g[;sZe ftZu'A r[ows s'A T[bN e{V
;wZroh d/ y[Zb/ doPB dhdko/ eohJ/^
1H frnkBh r[opuB f;zx B/ nkgD/ Bkw Bkb i' e[M fbfynk j'fJnk
j? gVQ'^ eosk^“;qhwkB, gzE osB, ftZfd:k wkoszv, ;zs,
frnkBh, r[opuB f;zx, ih, ykb;k”. j? Bk fBowkDsk dh
f;yo, nZm ftP/PD nkgD/ Bkw Bkb y[d jh bk bJ/.
ftZfdnk wkoszv dk noE j? frnkB dk ;{oi. ;{oi Bkb'A tZX
ukBD fe;/ dk BjhA, s/ fJjBK Bkb'A tZX frnkB fe;/ dk BjhA,
j? Bk < (gzBk^1)
2H r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ nkgD/ fgsk, wfjsk ekb{ dk Gh nkgDh
fbys r[opkDh ftZu fIeo BjhA ehsk. T[j ;op f;qPNh dk eosk,
;KMk fgsk nekb g[oy ƒ wzBd/ ;B. okw uzdo d/ g[Zso e[P{ Bkb
T[jBK edh nkgDh ;KM BjhA do;kJh, go Ne;kbhJ/ r[o{ BkBe
ƒ e[P{ dh n"bkd rodkB oj/ jB. gzBk^1
3H ;kohnK fbysK ftZu (pkb/ s'A f;tkJ/) r[o{ BkBe dk iBw ft;ky dk
jh fbfynk j? (;w/s GkJh wBh f;zx dh iBw ;kyh d/, eh GkJh
wBh f;zx th rbs jB <) go Ne;kbhJ/ eZse dh g{oBwk;h bJh
pfiZd jB, feT[A < 9
4H r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih ƒ okwuzdo d/ Gok, bSwD d/ p/N/, sZy d/
ykBdkB Bkb i'V fdZsk frnk, feT[A < 10
5H r[o{ nwodk; ih okw d/ Gok, GoE d/ g[Zso GZbD dh pz; ftZu'A g?dk
j'J/ fby wkfonk, feT[A < 11
6H r[o{ okwdk; ih bT{ d/ g[Zso, ekb okJ/ dh pz; ftZu'A ;B, fet/A gsk
bZrk < ;p{s < nZrA' ;ko/ r[o ftneshnK ƒ fJ;/ ;'Yh pz; Bkb BZEh
eo fdZsk. 12
7H r[o{ jfo okfJ ih d/ nZm ftnkj j'J/ fby wkfonk, feT[A < 15
8H r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih B/ r[orZdh fdZbh s'A G/ih ^ fet/A < (fJfsjk; s'A
(143)
;ZyD/) 18
9H ykb;k gzE d;w gksPkj B/ ubkfJnk < (gfjb/ B"A r[o ftnesh fco
eh eod/ oj/ <) BkBe fBowb gzE ubkfJnk < dk eh i[nkp j? < 19
10H GkJh dfJnk f;zx (fgnkok) bT{ d/ ntsko ;B < 19
11H GkJh Xow f;zx (fgnkok) XzBk ih d/ ntsko ;B < 19
12H GkJh fjzws f;zx (fgnkok) us[oG[ih d/ ntsko ;B < (ebgs us[oG[ih) 19
13H GkJh w'jew f;zx (fgnkok) Bkwd/t ih d/ ntsko ;B < 19
14H GkJh ;kfjp f;zx (fgnkok) ;?D ih d/ ntsko ;B < 19
15H wkJh ;/tK “gsh pqsk Pesh” dh tos'A eoe/, jo o'I ekp[b s'A
r'fJzdtkb ;/tk eoB nkfJnk eodh ;h < (Uj UE'A jh Pesh Bkb
;/tk feT[A BjhA eodh ;h <) 21
16H fJZe phph dk gsh wo frnk, T[; gshpqsk Pesh tos e/ ;{oi
uVQBA' o'eh oZfynk id'A GrtkB B/ gsh ihts ehsk sK jh ;{oi uVQB
fdZsk < 22
17H ;fsr[o{ ih B/ bkb ozr d/ eZgV/ gkT[D s'A wBkjh ehsh j?. fJj
Ne;kbh efjzd/ jB.
go r[o c[owkB sK fJj j? ^
Bk w?bk Bk X[zdbk Bk Grtk Bk eu[]
BkBe bkb' bkb j? ;u/ osk ;u[] (1089) 23
18H w{b wzso (wzrb) BkBe j';h Gh ;u[ sZe j?, (rbs, fJj r[o
gq;kfd sZe j?, nkfd ;u ;b'e j?) 24
19H id'A pZuk roG ftZu j't/ sK fJj ftP/P Ppd gVQB Bkb oZfynk j[zdh
j? < (wBws) 25
20H woki fgzv (fibQk pfmzvk) fty/ GkJh i?d fJ; eoe/ pj[sk pbtkB
;h, feT[Afe wksk B/ P/o dk ne; gkDh ftZu t/fynk. ;t/o/ ;[Zsh
T[FZmD tes ;{oi wZE/ bZrk < (tkj` feZvk M{m fco sK ikBto jh
izwDk ukjhdk ;h). 25
21H i?d Bkw/ f;Zy s/ ekb/ yK B/ tko ehsk, sK S/t/A gksPkj B/ eokwksh

(144)
Pesh Bkb tko o'e fbnk < (eokwks Bkb r[o{ ih B/ d[PwDK ƒ
wkfonk feT[A BjhA<) 25
22H pkpk ;[zdo f;zx d/ fgsk yikB f;zx g[Zso dh gqkgsh tk;s/ jo o'I
fJZe g?o s/ yb' e/ ;[ywBh ;kfjp dk gkm efonk eod/ ;B sK ;zd[ o
f;zx dk iBw j'fJnk (gkyzv eow Bkb<) 26
23H yikB f;zx dh gsBh ;[zdo f;zx dh wksk, gzMh gkm ig[ih d/
o'IkBk efonk eodh ;h < (wBws) 26
24H ;[zdo f;zx d/ iBw tes ukbh gT[VhnK nBzd ;kfjp dh ehosB
ehsk, fJj j[ew shi/ gksPkj dk j? < (;p{s d/ ;e'r/ < Ne;kbhnK
dh wBws j?) 27
25H ;[zdo f;zx d/ iBw tes, xo ftZu gkm oykfJnk, pZu/ ƒ wZEk
fNekfJnk, Bkw oZfynk, fco wK dk d[ZX fgnkfJnk frnk < (t/yh
ub', fpBK f;o g?o d/ T[gd/P) 27
26H ;[zdo f;zx ƒ izwD;ko ;zg{oD ;fji gkm ;[Dke/, ukbh fdBK ftZu
G'r gkfJnk < (nDj'Dh rb) 27
27H nykV/ fgzv fJZe gqtko d/ pZu/ wo iKd/ ;B, fJZe f;Zy B/ feogkB
dk nzfwqs SekfJnk pZu/ ƒ iBw d/ e/ wksk wo rJh pZuk BjhA
wfonk < (tko/ tko/ ikJhJ/ neb d/) 28
28H pZu/ d/ iBw tes dkJh f;ZyDh jh j'Dh ukjhdh j? < (Ne;kbhJ/ j[D
eh eod/ jB < eh j;gskbK ftZu BjhA iKd/ <) 28
29H Bkod w[Bh B/ 75 jIko ;kb ftZfdnk gVQh < (tZvk rg"Vk) 30
30H t/d ftnk; frnkoK jIko ;kb sg eodk fojk < (rg"Vk) 32
31H ;s/ pbtzv ƒ ns/ GZNK ƒ eKPh d/ pqkjwDK tZb'A ;okg fwfbnk
j'fJnk ;h < (x'o gkg fby wkfonk) 33
32H nk;k eh tko pkDh 84 d/ r/V ftZu'A eZYdh j? < (s/ j'o pkDh eh
eodh j? <) 34
33H ;[ywBh ;kfjp d/ 24 jIko nZyo jB, u"th xzfNnK d/ 24 jIko
;[nk; jB, u"th n;NgdhnK jB, fJ; soQK gkm eoB Bkb u"th

(145)
jiko ;[nk; ;cb j[d z / jB < (eh ;koh r[opkDh fJZe;ko BjhA j?) 34
34H Xo{ Grs B/ 36000 ;kb sZe nNZb oki ehsk < (g"okDe eEktK d/
rZgK dk fJZE/ eh ezw<) 36
35H cohd ih d/ w[;b Z / j/mK PZeo, yzv, fwPoh d/ Y/o bZr/ t/y/ < 36
36H pkpk cohd ih, pkoK ;kb sZe izrbK ftZu sg eod/ oj/, gZs/ yKd/
oj/. (<) 36
37H cohd d/ i{znK g? rJhnK, wksk B/ eZYhnk, gZs/ ykD'A o'fenk <
(tZvk ngqkX) 36
38H cohd B/ s/oKQ ;kb y{j ftZu bNe e/ sg ehsk.(cohdk izrb izrb
fenk Gtfj tD ezvk w'Vfj] fJ; dk eh eo'r/ <) 36
39H cohd B/ pkoK ;kb sZe ekm (beVh) dh o'Nh fYZv Bkb pzBQ e/ oZyh <36
40H fJZe gzvs ;okg ekoB eKPh ftZu e[Zsk pfDnk j'fJnk ;h, r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ T[;dk ;okg eZfNnk< 39
41H Xowoki y[d :[fXZPNo dk fJwfsjkB b?D nkfJnk< (ebgDk) 40
42H r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih e'b fJZe r'ji eEk tkbh r[gs g'Eh j'fJnk eodh
;h < (e'Jh g'Eh Bjh ;h) 41
43H 1699 dh ft;kyh s'A gfjbK r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih s/oK wjhB/ sZe
fJeKs tk; ftZu oj/ T[E Z / e'Jh ;oho BjhA ik ;edk ;h < (Ne;kbhnK
ƒ ehjB/ dZf;nk < fBoh ebgDk) 42
44H GkJh dfJnk f;zx dk ;h; eZN e/ d;w gksPkj B/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp
nZr/ G/AN ehsk < 43
45H GkJh Xow f;zx, fjzws f;zx, w'jew f;zx, ;kfjp f;zx d/ f;o
eZN e/ r[o{ rqzE ih nZr/ G/AN ehs/, r'ji g'Eh ftZu fbfynk j? (Bk
r'ji g'Eh j? Bk e'Jh ;p{s j?) 45
46H GkJh fjzws f;zx ƒ fgSb/ iBw dk Pokg fwfbnk j'fJnk ;h, oZp
B/ fejk ;h, s?ƒ d;w/ ikw/ ftZu nk e/ f;o b? e/ w[nkc eoKr/
(GkJh fjzws f;zx dk x'o ngwkB) 45
47H fJjBK gziK d/ f;o eZN e/ T[FZgo nzfwqs fSVfenk, fiT[Ad/ ehs/

(146)
“Bt/A f;o T[Zr gJ/” (tkj tkj) 45
48H r[o{ ih B/ fuVh fuV/ ƒ nzfwqs gk e/ d/ fdZsk, T[j gh e/ bVfdnK
EKJ/ wo rJ/ (<) 46
49H r[opyP f;zx Bkwh f;Zy d"V e/ wksk ih ƒ ;Zd fbnkfJnk, T[jBK
nke/ gsk;/ gkJ/, sK nzfwqs PKsh dkfJe pfDnk < (wsbp fe r[o{
r'fpzd f;zx ih s'A rbsh j' rJh ;h < wksk ih B/ do[;s ehsh<)
46
50H gziK fgnkfonK fejk^ nzfwqs tZN/ eh fdUr/ < ;fsr[o{ B/ fejk
;opz; tko fdnKrk (eh fJj ;okg BjhA j? < i/ fgnko/ fJj wzrK
Bk oZyd/ fco ;fsr[o{ B/ ;opz; BjhA tkoBk ;h<) 47
51H gziK fgnkfonK fejk fit/A okw uzdo B/ pKdoK ƒ tfvnkJh fdZsh
;h, T[;/ soQK ;kƒ wkD d/ oj/ j' < (pKdoK torh tfvnkJh fXZeko
j?, ;w[Zu/ f;Zy gzE dh p/fJIsh ehsh j?) 47
52H nzfwqs pDkT[D bJh ib dfonk iK y{j dk jh tosDk, Bbe/ dk
BjhA. feT[A < 49
53H nzfwqs fsnko eoB t/b/ gzi fgnko/ pkDh gVQB, nfGbkyh f;zx
tkfjr[o{ wzso dk ikg eod/ ofjD (pkDh feT[A Bk ;[DB <) 52
54H gzi fgnkfonK dhnK dZ; nZyK, dZ; r[o{nK dk gqshe jB, dZ; jZE
Gh dZ; r[o{nK dk gqshe wzBhd/ jB. (fseVwpkih) 52
55H u"gJh^ sho ;s dqt rqE
z ;[Xkok sZe gVQBh Io{oh j? < (wB xVs) 52
56H nzfwqs nfGbkyhnK ftZu'A i/ gfjbK fe;/ dk nBzd ekoi Bk j'fJnk
j't/ sK d[pkok bktK gVQ e/ nBzd ekoi eoBk (i/ i'Vh d/ xo pZu/ g?dk
j' rJ/ j'D sK eh ehsk ikt/ < i/ gfjbK ftnkj rbs j?, fco sK pZu/
Gh izwD/ rbs jB. f;ZyK ƒ gkyzvh pDkfJnk ik fojk j?) 54
57H w{b wzso BkBe j';h Gh ;u[ sZe gVQBk, toBk cb BjhA fwb/rk< 56
58H ebeZs/ ftZu fJZe ;kX B/ eZuh szd Bkb f;Zy ƒ wkoBk ukfjnk.
f;Zy B/ w{b wzso gfVQnk s/ ;kX dh jh w"s j' rJh < (f;ZyK d/
d[PwDK ƒ w{b wzso gVQ e/ feT[A BjhA wkod/<) 56

(147)
59H wodkB/ ƒ gkDh ftZu v[Zpd/ ƒ pukT[D fjZs tkfjr[o{ wzso fdZsk,
wzso gVQ e/ wodkBk gkDh s/ N[oB bZr fgnk (tkfjr[o{ wzso r[o{ BkBe
B/ BjhA pDkfJnk, eh Ne;kbhJ/ j[D gkDh s/ N[o ;eDr/<) 57
60H nzrq/IK B/ bZyK o[g? you eoe/ r[opkDh ftZu fwbktN eotkJh, sK
jh skes xN rJh < 57
61H tkfjr[o{ wzso uko i[rK d/ uko d/tfsnK d/ Bkw s'A fbnk j? <
(r[opkDh i[rK d/tfsnK ƒ BjhA wzBdh) 57
62H nBzd ;kfjp ukbh gT[VhnK fszB tkoh gVQB s/ fprV/ ekoi ok;
nk iKd/ jB < (s[;hA gzE dh fprVh ;tko bU.) 59
63H r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp g[oh ftZu rJ/, T[ZE/ T[jBK ƒ ekb/ w{zj tkb/ b'e
fwb/, rodBK ftZu feZb m[e/ j'J/ b'e fwb/, ;{oK d/ w{j
z tkb/ b'e t/y,/
fgSKj ƒ w{zjK tkb/ t/y/, bVehnK nkdwhnK dk wk; tZY^tZY
yKdhnK t/yhnK < 60
64H jzeko ekoB ;z[B ;wkXh tkb/ b'e ;Zu yzv ftZu'A eZY fdZs/ iKd/ jB,
;Zu yzv ftZu ;'do[ dk gkm j[zdk j? < 61
65H fJZe nkiVh N[odk fcodk ;'fjb/ dk gkm eodk ;h, fJ;/ ekoB r[o{
BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ g?oK s/ MohNK nk rJhnK, y{B tr fgnk, fJ;
soQK N[od/ fcod/ gkm BjhA eoBk ukjhdk. (r[opkDh c[owkB sK
fJj j? ^ T[{ms p?ms ;'ts fXnkJhn?. wkofr ubs jo/ jfo
rkJhn?]) (386) 62
66H i/ eSfjok gkT[D ftZu rbsh j' ikt/ sK gzi f;zxK s'A nodk;
eokt/, gzi ig[ih d/ gkm eo/ (<) 62
67H ;"D tes ;'fjb/ dk gkm eo', d[nkb/ b'j/ dk febQk pD iKdk j?< 61
68H okw uzdo B/ y[P j' e/ jƒwkB ƒ eSfjok fdZsk, T[; s'A f;ZyK ƒ
fwfbnk < (r[o{ dh s"jhB) ;kƒ pKdo pDkT[D s/ s[b/ j'J/ B/
Ne;kbhJ/. 62
69H d;w gksPkj fPeko bJh rJ/, fPeko Bk fwfbnk, eekoK dh
gVskb ehsh rJh. fJZe f;Zy d/ e/;K ftZu ezxk BjhA ;h, fJ;/

(148)
bJh fPeko Bk fwfbnk (fPeko Bkb ezx/ dk eh ;pzX) 64
70H feogkB dh X{g dhg nkfd Bkb g{ik eoBh ukjhdh j? <66
71H fJZe foPh B/ ikB pukT[D ykso wzso gfVQnk, d[nkb/ b'j/ dh ezX
T[;o rJh (wzso eh j? <) 70
72H fco fJ;/ foPh B/ szpke{ gh fbnk, ;ko/ ig ns/ PeshnK ysw
j' rJhnK, febQk Bk pfDnk, fJZe bVeh B/ fJ;dh fJZIs b[ZNh (sq?
ekb fJj rZbK ;zGt BjhA jB) 70
73H szpke{ dh g?dkfJP ekwX/B rT{ d/ g?oK ftZu br/ shoK ekoB tr/, y{B s'A
j'Jh j? < 71
74H r' w/X iZr ;w/A rT{ fizdk Bk j'Jh, T[;/ e[zv ftZu'A szpke{ g?dk j'
frnk < 71
75H ebi[r tZSh pDe/ rko/ ftZu y[ZG frnk. fPt gkotsh B/ ezBK s'A
ns/ g{S s'A cV e/ fyZfunk, sK ezB s/ g{S g[ZN/ rJ/. g{S Xosh ftZu
dZp e/ T[Fg
Z o ezB bk fdZs/ ns/ fejk j[D fJ; s'A szpke{ pD/rk < (fJ;
soQK edh BjhA j' ;edk) 71
76H wk; ykD pko/ d[pXk tkb/ ftuko. nX{ohnK gzeshnK rbs noE
ehs/ rJ/ jB, PpdK d/ gzB/ BzL Gh BjhA fdZs/, fes/ wk; yk bT[ fes/
Bk ykT[, f;XKsK s'A ;ZyD/ ftuko) 74
77H Bhbk ghbk ekbk fuZNk, ykb;/ d/ fJjh ozr jB, j'o ozr BjhA gkT[D/
(eh ekoB < ;gPN eo') 79
78H Bkod foPh B/ nBb gzSh d/ yzG d;t/A gksPkj ƒ G/AN ehs/, sK jh
n?BhnK PeshnK ;B < (fJ; dk wsbp r[o{ ih e'b e'Jh Pesh
BjhA ;h < r[o{ dh s"jhB) 83
79H gykB/ ik e/ gzi tkoh fwZNh Bkb jZE wKiD/, GKv/ d' tkoh fwZNh Bkb
wKiD/< (;kpD Bkb feT[A BjhA) 83
80H GkJh fdnkb dk; dk bzro d;w gksPkj ih B/ Bk Sfenk,
feT[Afe T[j p/^nzfwqshnk ;h. T[j rZfvnK s/ bZd e/ wro fcodk
fojk. jcs/ fgS' nzfwqs SeDk wzB frnk. d;w gksPkj B/

(149)
nodk; eoe/ ehfVnK tkbk bzro ;Ziok pDk fdZsk. ;kfonK
Sfenk < 86
81H d;t/A gksPkj ih B/ ;'Yh e"b f;zx d/ fgSb/ iBwK tkb/ ;ko/ gkg
;okg fwNk fdZs/ (<) 87
82H dkB f;zx d/ g[ZSD s/ d;w/A gksPkj dZf;nk fe e/; fJ; tk;s/
oZyhd/ jB, e/;K s'A cV e/ BoeK ftZu gJ/ f;Zy ƒ pkjo eZY
btKr/HHHH < (f;ZyK dh p/fJZIsh) 87
83H fi; pzd/ B/ fJZe tkoh nzfwqs SZe fbnk Gkt/A fizBhnK woIh
rbshnK eoh ikt/, T[j d; jIko ;kb sZe BoeK ftZu BjhA gt/rk
< (u'o eh jkwk Go/ Bk e'fJ] u'o ehnk uzrk feT[ j'fJ] (662)
y'N/ yo/ goyhnfB ;kfjp e? dhpkD] (789) ^ edh fJjBK r[o{
j[ewK dh ftuko ehsh j? < 88
84H nzfwqs dh Pesh eoe/ fuVhnK B/ pki wko fdZsk < 88
85H GkJh dfJnk f;zx d/ ;h; d/D eoe/ f;zxK ftZu dfJnk nkJh < (fco
r[opkDh eh j?<) 89
86H Xow f;zx d/ ;h; d/D ekoB f;zxK ftZu Xow nkfJnk j? < (r[opkDh
eoe/ BjhA <) 90
87H fjzws f;zx d/ ;h; tkoB eoe/ f;zxK ftZu fjzws nkJh j? < (gfjbK
fjzws BjhA ;h<) (S/tA/ r[o{ t/b/ eh ;h <) 90
88H w'jew f;zx d/ ;h; d/D eoe/ f;zxK ftZu fNekU nfJnk j? < (gfjbK
p/uB? h ;h<) 90
89H ;kfjp f;zx d/ ;h; d/D eoe/ f;zxK ftZu ;kfjp g[Dk nkfJnk <
(gfjbK wzrs/ ;B) 91
90H pkDh xZN gVQB eoe/, nzfwqs ftZuA' Pesh xZN iKdh j?, u"gJh s/ nBzd tZvk
gVQ' (wBws) 93
91H phphnK ƒ nzfwqs fsnko eoB ;w/A ftZu Pkwb BjhA eoBk < (x'o
ftseok) ;' feT[A wzdk nkyhn?HHHH] 94
92H ;fsr[o{ B/ 84 bZy i{BKQ eZND tk;s/ nzfwqs fsnko eoe/ SekfJnk <

(150)
(r[opkDh ekjd/ bJh j? <) 94
93H deP foPh B/ ;Zs XhnK, fpBK BZe, ezB S/d/, fpBK rfjD/ gkJ/
ftnkjhnK, T[;ƒ pj[s g[zB bfrnk. fco T[; d/ xo d; jIko
XhnK izwhnK, rbs f;Zfynk ekoD bVehnK d/ BZe ezB S/d,/ rfjD/
gkJ/, ftnkjhnK, tZvk gkgh pfDnk < 95
94H ftnkj ftZu phphnK B/ frZXk BjhA gkT[Dk < (feT[A BjhA frZXk
gkT[Dk) 96
95H joh ;?B oki/ dh gsBh r[o{ dopko ftZu x[zv eZY e/ nkJh. ;fsr[o{
ih B/ g[ZfSnk, fejVh ewbh j? < s/ T[j sd'A jh gkrb j' rJh.
(r[o{ ih rbsh ekoB fe;/ ƒ gkrb BjhA pDkT[Ad/) 107
96H ewbh j'Jh okDh izrb ftZu Bzrh x[w z D bZrh, r[o{ nwodk; ih B/ ;uB
;Zu ƒ nkgDh yVKt fdZsh. wZE/ ftZu yVKt wkoB Bkb gkbrgD ysw
j' frnk. (eh fpwkoK d/ j[D Gh i[s Z hnK wkohJ/ <) 107
97H d;t/A gksPkj B/ f;ZyK ƒ G{sK gq/sK d/ M[zv ftykJ/. G{sK dZf;nk fe
j[D ;kvh frDsh xN rJh j?. id'A s'A u"E/ gksPkj B/ bktK T[ukoB
ehshnk jB i' gVQdk j? w[es j' iKdk j?. 109
98H ijKrho dh bVeh fJZe f;Zy, ;zs okw Bkb ftnkj eokT[Dk ukj[d z h
;h, f;Zy B"eoh SZv e/ d"V frnk. T[; f;Zy ƒ cVe/ f;o eZNe/
bVeh nZr/ oZfynk, bVeh S{jD bZrh sK eZfNnk f;o ;tk frZm T[u Z k
T[Zm frnk < (nDftfrnkfBe nDfJfsjk;e, ftuko) 116
99H fJZe gsh pqs Xow ftZu gZeh phph B/ pkoK fdBK sZe ;{oi Bk uVQB
fdZsk, d/tfsnK B/ T[;dk wfonk gsh fiT[Adk ehsk, fco T[;B/
;{oi uVQB fdZsk (;koh d[BhnK Gh ;{oi ƒ uVQBA' o'e BjhA ;edh) 118
100H phph oiBh B/ gsh pqs Xow dh skes Bkb e'jVh gsh ƒ szdo[;s
ehsk T[j gZNh dk okik pfDnk (BK gshpqs j'Dk e'Jh Pesh j?, Bk
e'jVh mhe j'fJnk, Bk gZNh ftZu e'Jh nfijk okik j'fJnk) 118
101H ftPƒ B/ ;sh dk ;s Gzr ehsk, ibzXo d?As dh skes xN rJh,
fco ftPƒ B/ T[;ƒ wkfonk gfjbK fe;/ s'A jkodk BjhA ;h.

(151)
(M{mhnK g"okDe eEktK dk r[ows ftZu e'Jh EK BjhA) 118
102H ncbks{B w{oshnK ftZu b[e frnk, T[;ƒ w"s Gh bZG Bk ;eh (w"s
s'A e'Jh BjhA pfunk) 135
103H gkDBh foPh jzeko ekoB gqs / pD frnk ;h, r[o{ BkBe ih B/ eKPh
fty/ T[;dk T[dko ehsk < 137
104H B"tA/ r[oK fdZbh e?d tes rzBk u{; e/ fSbek ;[fZ Nnk, gqs / B/ u{f;nk,
w[es j' frnk. ;oeko d/ pkrhnK sZe rzB/ fe; B/ gj[u z kJ/ < 137
105H GkJh jhok f;zx pkDh gVQdk wfonk ;h, nekP ftZuA' oE nkJ/, ;tko
j' e/ frnk < (nekP ftZuA' edh fe;/ tk;s/ oE BjhA nkJ/) 137
106H i/ pZio e[ofjshnk f;Zy wo ikt/ sK wo/ gJ/ ƒ nzfwqs SekU,
d{finK bJh nodk; jh ekch j? < (BtK gkyzv P[o){ 139
107H wo/ gqkDh Bkb tkX{ eSfjok, ezxk, nkfd Bkb pzBDk ukjhdk j? <
(gkyzv fefonk P[o){ 140
108H fiZE/ pzdk wo/ T[; EK d; fdBK sZe i?s;oh dh tko dk gkm j't/ <
(gkyzv) 142
109H T[;/ EK jo o'I ;j;feqsh d/ S/ S/ ;b'eK dh eEk j'Dh ukjhdh j? <
(gkyzv) 142
110H o'D ekoB woB tkbk jzMn { K ftZu v[p
Z iKdk j?, gko BjhA ik ;edk < 143
111H fJZe wkJh g[Zso wo/ s'A pj[s o'Jh, wo/ g[Zs B/ tkg; nk e/ dZf;nk
fe s/o/ o'D eoe/ okj ftZu jB/ok j'fJnk j? 143
112H n;EhnK ehosg[o iK r'fJzdtkb gkt' < (gkyzv) “i/ fwose eT[
ft;Nk wfj o[bkJh] sT[ fwose ek fenk xfN ikJh]” (1160)
eh r[opkDh M{m j? < 143
113H GKv/ fp;so/ nfd wo/ gqkDh Bfws rqE z h ƒ fdZs/ ikD (ro[V g[okD tkbk
pqkjwDh gkyzv) 145
114H gkmK dhnK fe;wK ^ ;kXkoB gkm, fwose gkm, y[Ph dk nyzv
gkm, ;zgN gkm, nyzv ;zgN gkm, ;XkoB ;zgN gkm, ;gskfje
gkm (fBok gkyzv gquko) d;w rqzE gkm, d;w rqzE nyzv gkm

(152)
nkfd. 150
115H gkmh f;zx eZuk fgnki iK bZ;D Bk ykD, i/ yk b?D sK uko gfjo
ji{oh ftZu Bk ikD f;ZyK ƒ gkyzvh pDk fdZsk. 151
116H gkmh Ne;kbh j'D, e/;h fJPBkB eoe/ ji{oh ftZu ikD < (gkyzv) 151
117H fizBh tkoh gkmh gykB/ ikD T[sBh tkoh fJPBkB eoB < (gkyzv)
i' rzd jo tes nzdo j? T[;dk eh eo'r/ < 151
118H eVkj gqPkfd wfonkdk Bkb Bk pDkfJnk ikt/ sK gkm dk cb BjhA
fwbdk. (gkyzv) 152
119H i's bJh d/;h fxU tofsnk ikt/, X{c jo tes X[ydh oj/ <
(gkyzv) 152
120H X{c ;wZrohHHHHHH (eJh jiko o[g? dh ci{b youh) fbyDh ;zGt
BjhA j? < (nzBh b[ZN) 152
121H nyzv gkm Bkb ig[ih oZyDk Io{oh (gkyzv) 153
122H fizB/ nkyzv gkm oZy/ T[B/ jh ig[ih Bkb oZy/ < (gkyzv) 153
123H nyzv gkm ns/ j'o ;ko/ gkmK Bkb fBsB/w s/ ehosB Io{oh j't/ <
(gkyzv) 153
124H G'r gk e/ nkosh Io{o eoBh < (gkyzv) 153
125H wZX dh nodk; Io{o eoBh < (gkyzv) 153
126H gkm Bkb i's, X{c, Bkohnb, c[Zb Io{o oZyD/ < (gkyzv) 154
127H d/r mzYh eoe/ G'r bkT[Dk row ƒ BjhA < (gkyzv) fes/ feogkB dk w{jz
Bk wZu ikt/ < 154
128H r[o{ noiB ih B/ r'fJzdtkb s'A g'EhnK fbnkT[D tes IwhB s/ p?m
e/ ehosB ehsk < (M{m) 155
129H r[o{ noiB ih r'fJzdtkb g'EhnK b?D Bzr/ g?ohA nkJ/ s/ tkg; Bzr/
g?ohA rJ/ < 155
130H r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftZu gikwk gk e/ BjhA ikDk, (gkyzv ohsh
fpBK dbhb ukb{ ehsh rJh j?) eh n"osK th nkgD/ gow fgsk ih
dh ji{oh ftZu T[go'es nB[;ko jh ikD < 160

(153)
131H r[o{ jfor'fpzd ih B/ gzi/ tkbk ;[Zek fgZgb uzdB fSVe e/ jok eo
fdZsk < 161
132H eVkj gqPkfd dh ohs sd'A uZbh, id'A r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp e'b f;ZX i'rh
fpoX o{g XkoB eoe/ nkJ/, s/ e[M ykD ƒ wzfrnk. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ sd'A
eVkj pDk e/ SekfJnk < (e'Jh ;p{s BjhA) 161
133H ;G s'A T[Zgo oZp dk Bkw, d{i/ EK r[opkDh, shi/ EK eVkj gqPkfd
wzBDk < (wB xVzs rZbK) 161
134H fJBQK ftP/P pkDhnK dk fszB tkoh gkm eoB s/ ekoi ;cb j'Dr/ <
(tfjw) 163
135H ekpb d/ fJbkfenK ftZu eVkj gqPkfd ƒ gzik bZrdk j?, i/ Bk bZr/
sK ekoi f;ZX BjhA j[zd/ (wBws) 164
136H fJZe f;Zy ekp[b s'A dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o nkfJnk d/r nogD
ehsh, gzik Bk bZfrnk, fJZE/ feogkB G/AN ehsh rJh. T[; d/ wB
nzdo ;z;k ikrh, sK jfowzdo ftZu'A r[gs nktki nkJh “f;Zyk
;z;k Bk eo, fJZE/ fJjh wfonkdk j?” < (gzik bZrDk ;zGt jh
BjhA,) 164
137H d/r gqtkB j't/ BjhA efjDk G'r bZr/ efjDk j?, bktj[ G'r jfo
okfJHHHHH (gkyzv) 164
138H G'r bZr/ ns/ gqtkB j't/ fby e/ fJZe tkoh gouhnK nzfwqs ;o'to
ftZu gkJhnk ;B, G'r tkbh gouh so rJh, d{ih v[Zp rJh, sd'A
s/ G'r p'bhdk j? < 165
139H fJZe f;Zy B/ e'jV d{o j'D dh ;[Zy ;[Zyh, GkJh ih B/ b'G eoe/ eVkj
pj[s yk fbnk fJ;/ GkJh ih ƒ jh e'jV j' frnk. (nB/e soQK
dhnK nodk;K dh G/NK r[o{ xoK ftZu nkT[Adh j?, Ne;kbhnK ƒ
e'jV ;G s'A gfjbK j'Dk ukjhdk ;h) 166
140H j[ewBkwk^;t/o/ yZp/ gzB/ s'A, d[fgjo wZX s'A, Pkw ƒ j/mK s'A bt' <
(Gow) 168
141H dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o ftZu ;s Pqh nekb dk i?ekok gzit/A

(154)
;fsr[oK ukb{ ehsk < (fJfsjk; s'A ;ZyD/) 168
142H wjkoki d/ o[wkb/ rowh ftZu gsb/ o/Pwh j'D, ;odh ftZu row
o[wkb/ j'D < (gkyzv) 172
143H rowhnK ftZu wjkoki ƒ fdB oks gZyk MZbDk, irQk mzYh oZyDh <
(gkyzv) 174
144H nodk; s'A pknd tkb/ fszB d'jo/ “nkfrnk GJhHHHHHH” r[o{ r'fpzd
f;zx d/ fby/ j'J/ jB < (fJfsjk; s'A e'o/ nDikD) < 175
145H mhe soQK wZEk N/eD Bkb g[mZ / b/y f;ZX/ j' iKd/ jB < (gkyzv) 176
146H ;fji gkm wro'A ig[ih gzi gT[VhnK, nyzv gkm wro'A ;kok ig[ih
gVQ' (gkyzv) 177
147H ;[ywBh gVQB Bkb ijKrho dh ib'Xo dh fpwkoh jN rJh ;h <
(ebgDk) 178
148H gzit/A gksPkj B/ nkgDh Pjhdh tes f;ZyK dhnK e[opkBhnK dh
GftZypkDh ehsh ;h < (ebgDk) 178
149H Jh;k s'A fpBK Jh;kJhnK ftZu j'o e'Jh e[opkBh tkbk BjhA j'fJnk <
(fJfsjk; s'A ;yD/) 178
150H Pjhdh tes gzit/A r[o{ e'b wdd tk;s/ ;ko/ d/ts/ nkJ/, u"ok;h
f;ZX i'rh ish nkJ/, T[jBK B/ nk e/ ;ko/ f;gkjh p/jP' eo fdZs/ < 179
151H puB ;[D e/ ;kJhA whnK who p/j'P j' frnk < 179
152H r[o{ jor'fpzd ;kfjp ih B/ fgsk r[o{ Bfws gkm eotk e/ pkpk p[ZYk
ih ƒ gkm G/Nk ftZu fJZe jkEh, gzi x'V/, gzi ;" w'jo, p/nzs g[Pke/
nkfd fdZs/ (fgsk woB dh fJzBh y[Ph wBkJh) fJj nkg bkbuh
ukj[zd/ jB ;kƒ J/BhnK G/Nktk fwbD. 180
153H r[o{ noiB d/t Bfws :Zr ehsk frnk, s/oK fdB gkm j'fJnK <
(r[owfs fto'Xh) 180
154H r[o{ jor'fpzd ;kfjp ih B/ r[o{ rqzE ftZu B" X[BhnK uVQkJhnK (fJj
X[BhnK y[d gzuw r[o{ B/ uVQkJhnK ;B.) 180

(155)
155H wo/ gqkDh Bfws gkm ehfsnK T[j ;Zu yzv iKdk j?, T[;ƒ ;[y fwbdk
j? < (gkyzv) 182
156H wo/ gqkDh Bfws G/Nk, eZgV/, fp;sok, posB i'Vk nkfd d/t/,
bzro ubkt/ < (ro[V g[okD ftZu fbyh pqkjwDh b[ZN dh jwkfJs,
r[opkDh s'A T[bN) 183
157H r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp B/ g[Zso gqkgsh bJh fsqp/Dh gq:kr fty/
nyzv gkm eotkfJnk sK g[s Z o iBfwnk (wsbp fe B"tA/ r[o{ ƒ oZp
s/ Go';k BjhA ;h, T[jBK e'b y[d e'Jh ;woZEk BjhA ;h, pqkjwDk s'A
g[Zso fbnk <) 184
158H d{ih tkoh d;w gksPkj B/ sbtzvh ;kp' nyzv gkm eotkfJnk <
(ebgDk) 185
159H r[opkDh dk nZyo brK, ezBk, fpzdh, r[o{ ih d/ nzr jB, id'A e'Jh
nP[ZX gkm eodk j? sK ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ sebhc j[zdh j? (id'A g'EhnK
r[Ne/ ;o{g ewI'o j' iKd/ jB, nrB G/N j[zd/ jB sd'A eh nkyhJ/
eh j[zdk j? <) 185
160H nkgD/ n;bh r[o{ j'D dk ;p{s d/D tk;s/ d;w gksPkj B/ ezm s'A
pkDh T[ukoB ehsh. fes/ f;Zy PZe Bk eo b?D. (i/ PZe j' frnk
w[es BjhA j' ;eDr/, ;fsr[o{ ih dk ngwkB) 186
161H fJZe d'fjok r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ftZu d;t/A gksPkj dk j?< “pb j'nk pzXB
S[N”/ 186
162H okik i? f;zx dh ;z;k Bftosh bJh, dwdw/ fty/ d;w gksPkj B/
nyzv gkm eotkfJnk, r[o{ ih B/ ;kok gkm yVQ/ j' e/ ;[fDnk.
(Ne;kbhJ/ yVQ/ j' e/ gkm feT[A BjhA ;[Dd/ <) 187
163H gkm ;[Dd/ j'J/ d;w r[o{ yb' e/ jh T[go gkDh g[nk b?Ad/ ;B. (r[o{ ih
ƒ gkrb Bk pDkU) 187
164H ji{o ;kfjp BKd/V fty/ d;w r[o{ ih B/ ;kok nyzv gkm fJZe' u"AeV/
;[fDnk < fJPBkB bJh T[E/ jh T[go gkDh gtk fbnk eod/ ;B< (r[o{
ih dh s"jhB) 189

(156)
165H nyzv gkm d/ G'r wro'A r[o{ rqE
z ;kfjp ih dk ;[y nk;D eo fdZsk ikt/
< (gkyzv) 194
166H ;zgN gkm, ;zgN jo Ppd s/ bkt', nsh ekoi j't/ sK s[e s[e s/ ;zgN
bkt', fiZE/ vzvhnK nk ikD T[E/ jh ;zgN bkt', w{b wzso s/ r[o wzso
;G s/ ;zgN bkt' < (gkyzv) 194
167H ;zgN tkbk ;fji gkm ukbh fdBk ftZu g{ok eo', i' ukj' ekoi f;ZX
j'Dr/ < (gkyzv) 195
168H ;zgN nyzv gkm wro'A nyzv gkm eoBk, fco ;fji gkm Io{o eoBk
< (gkyzv s/ b[ZN) 196
169H ;gskje gkm ftZu gkm fJZe' p?me ftZu 102 gso/ gVQ/ sK cb fwb/rk <
(gkyzv) 197
170H gkmh f;zx fe;/ Bkb rZb Bk eo/ w"B oZy/, f;zxDh Bkb “;KM” Bk
eo/, i/ ;[gB d'P j' ikt/, izrb gkDh ikt/ sK e/;h fJ;BkB eo/ <
(gkyzv) 197
171H fi; ftnesh Bfws gkm eoBk j't/, T[jh nzdo ikt/, j'o e'Jh Bk
ikt/, pZu/ phph fpbe[b Bk nkT[D < (phphnK dk tko tko fBokdo)
198
172H d;w rqzE gkm dh wfonkdk nyzv gkm tkbh j?, ig[ih dh EKt/ ikg[
;kfjp Bkb oZfynk ikt/ < X{c ;wZroh ;G T[jh j? < (r[o{ rqzE dh
s"jhB tZvk gkg ehsk j?) 201
173H ig[ih dk tZvk wjksw j?, fJj t/Jh gqtP / tes ;uyzv fty/ T[ukoB
ehsk ;h < 201
174H ig[ih d/ts/ th gVQd/ jB, fJ; d/ gVB Bkb ;ko/ ezw ok; nk iKd/
jB < 202
175H fJZe ig[ih gVQB s/ r[gkbk ih ƒ ;tk bZyh x'Vk ekmh ;w/s fwb
frnk ;h, tZX gVQB Bkb tZX cb feT[A Bk fwb{, fJ;/ bJh nyzv gkm
d/ Bkb oyhdk j?, cb pj[s j? < (gkyzv) 202

(157)
176H e[G
z oZyD dk wjksw i/eo i'sK s'A nZr bZr ikt/, sK gkDh gk e/ p[Mk
b?Dh < (gkyzv) 203
177H e[zG tkbk ib SeD Bkb o'r d{o j[zd/ jB < (frL) r[opuB f;zx s/
eosko f;zx B/ feT[A BK Sfenk < 203
178H nzfwqs;o fty/ ;q'to dk ib nzfwqs pD frnk j?, fJ;/ soQK e[zG dk
ib nzfwqs pD iKdk j?. (f;ZyK ƒ r[wokj ehsk frnk j?, xVk e?Bh,
;o'to tkbk gkDh nzfwqs BjhA pDdk. 203
179H Bkohnb ;h; G/N eoB pokpo j? < fco b'V g?D s/ Bkohnb jh
G/N eohJ/ < 204
180H d[opk;k foPh B/ o[ZyK ƒ pzd/ bk fdZs/, Bk ykD Bk ghD < oZp B/
o'fenk. (ioQk ;'u' edh o[yK ƒ pzd/ bZr ;ed/ jB cbK tKr < fJj
w{oysk dh fJzsjk BjhA sK j'o eh j? <) 204
181H i/ gkm ftXh g{ote j'fJnk j't/ sK Bkohnb dh froh ;VQ e/ ;[nkj
j' iKdh j? < 204
182H okr wkbk s'A fpBK phV fbyD tkb/ dh ihG ftZu nZm fdBk nzdo
ehV/ g? rJ/, fco okr wkbk fbyh s[ozs okih j' frnk (nkyzv
ehosBh iZE/ tkfbnK dk ed/ tkb ftzrk BjhA j'fJnk) 212
183H “fEo[ xfo p?;j[” Ppd dk fSbk eZfYnK ekoi ok; nk iKd/ jB <
(gkyzv) 214
184H okr wkbk pko/ GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk B/ rbs fbfynk j? < 216
185H s/ik f;zx G;"V tkbk id'A wfonk sK r[gs EK ehV/ g? rJ/ ;B, nZyK
ftZu ;[zvhnK g? rJhnK, ;ko/ ;oho ftZu'A pdp{ nkt/, feT[Afe okr
wkbk dk fto'Xh ;h < (M{m dh f;yo ;hwk) s/ frL r[opuB f;zx
13 ;kb fpwko ofje/ feT[A wfonk ;h < 216
186H ;zfBnk;h, fBowb/ ;kX ;zs wjzs v/o/dko gfjbK g{oh ofjok;
gVQd/ ;B, fJj rVQ rZi nekbhnK B/ xNk fdZsh < (wBwoIh dh
j?AeVpkIh s/ XZek) 222

(158)
187H xZN pkDh gVQB eoe/ g[zB dh EKt/ gkg d/ Gkrhdko pDd/ jK < 222
188H ;'fjb/ s'A gfjbK uko Ppd gVQ', nodk; eo', uko/ gk;/ b'j/ dk
febQk pD iKdk j?, ;t/o/ fJPBkB eoe/ ig[ih gfVQnK febQk jN
iKdk j? < 226
189H ig[ih ;kfjp f;ZyK dk wkbk wzso j? (r[opkDh wkbk s/ wzsoK dk
yzvB eodh j? fJj ihtB iku j?) 230
190H ;fsr[o{ ih B/ t/dK ns/ pqkjwDK d/ ntsko GZNK ƒ T[gd/P ehsk,
tkfjr[o{ T[ukoB ehsk. (eg'b ebgDk) 234
191H eosk g[oy ih B/ t, j, r, o dk B"A^B"A i[Zr ikg ehsk, sk tkfjr[o{
wzso fsnko j'fJnk. (s"pk s"pk) 235
192H ekwo{g dhnK fJ;sohnK B/ wodkB/ ƒ G/v{ pDkfJnk ;h < (wodkBk ih
dh s"jhB) 238
193H w{b wzso xNkT[D eoe/ f;ZyK dh skes xN rJh j? (Ne;kbhJ/
nkgDh skes feT[A BjhA tXk b?Ad/) 241
194H “r[opkDh gkm doPB” feskp ftZu fbfynk j? fe Ne;kb GkJh
wBh f;zx s'A uZbh j?. (gzBk 253), go j[D pkpk dhg f;zx s'A
Ne;kb uZbD dk g?AsVk pdb fbnk j?. id'A fe fJj d't/A rZbK e'ok
M{m jB. fe;/ fJfsjk;e rqzE s'A fJ;dh g[PNh BjhA j[zdh fe
Ne;kb dwdw/ s'A r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx B/ ubkJh. T[jBK XV/pzdhnK,
;zgodktK ysw eoe/ ykb;k pDkfJnk ;h. fe;/ ƒ tZX nfXeko
BjhA fdZs/. fJj f;ZyK Bkb Po/nkw X'yk j?.
195H eoskog[oh jZE fbys phV s/ Gh frL r[opuB f;zx s/ T[; d/
g?o'eko, wko{ tko eoB'A pki BjhA nkJ/. fJj ;G fBtkDk gko
eoe/ fJ;/ feskp d/ gzBk 260 s/ fbyd/ jB^ “eoskog[oh phV
ftZu seohpB 1500 s'A tZX rbshnK jB, fJzBk tZvk e[co < gkg
eow <” r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih f;Zy Xow dh nkXko fPbk jB.
Ne;kb tkfbnK f;Zyh f;XKsK n;{bK T[Zs/ sK e'M' tko ehs/ jh ;B,
fJjBK d; r[o{ ;kfjpkB ƒ Gh ngwkfBs ehsk j?. f;ZyK d/ f;ow"o

(159)
:'X/ ns/ goT[gekohnK ƒ Gh fJjBK fwZNh ftZu fwbk fdZsk j?.
gkyzv s/ e'ok M{m fbyD bZfrnk fJjBK edh Pow Bk ehsh. fpBk
;p{s s'A p/f;o g?o dhnK ejkDhnk xVBhnK fJjBK dk P[rb j?.
gkg eow dh f;yo sd/ ;keko ;kjwD/ w{oshwkB j[zdh j?, id'A
fJj eoskog[oh phV s/ Gh d[PwDk Bkb'A fGnkBe tko eod/ jB.
i/ eoskog[oh phV ftZu, ns/ dwdwh phV ftZu, Skg/ dhnK
rbshnK ekoB gkm G/d jB, sK fJ;ƒ f;Zy ftdtkBk dhnK
whfNzrK ftZu ftukfonk ikDk ukjhdk ;h. nkg;h ;fjwsh Bkb
nP[ZX gkm P[ZX ehs/ ik ;ed/ ;B. go fJj b'e ;[Xko BjhA ukj[zd/
f;ZyK dh fBT[A (nkXko fPbk) r[opkDh ƒ jh eZy'A j"bh eoB bJh
sZsgo BIo nkT[Ad/ jB. dopko ;kfjp d/ rqzEh s/ “iZE/dko” Gh
fJ;/ “ftZfdnk dh :{Bhtof;Nh” ftZu'A gVQ e/ nkJ/ jB. tkj w/oh
f;Zy e"w` s?ƒ e'Jh r?ph Pesh GKt/ puk bt/ toBk puD dk okj
e'Jh BjhA fojk. “eoskog[oh phV ftZu seohpB gzdoK ;" s'A tZX
rbshnK jB”. fJZvk tZvk gkg <
fJj b'e pkeh iZE/pzdhnK pko/ Ifjohbk gouko eofdnk ;G jZdK
pzB/ gko eo iKd/ jB. id'A r[opkDh T[ukoD dk w;bk nkT[Adk j? sK fJj
;zx gkV gkV e/ nkyDr/ pJh r[opkDh ftZu fpzdh, ezBk bkT[Dk x'o gkg j?.
d[i/ pzB/ f;sw Iohch t/y' fJ;/ feskp d/ 650 gzfBnK s/ r[opkDh T[ukoD
d/ Yzr sohe/ fby/ gJ/ jB. frL r[ouoB f;zx y[d fby fojk j?l fJE/ fpzdh
bkU fJE/ nZXe bkU, g?o ftZu nZXk jkjk bkU, ftPokw bkUHHHHHH < j?Bk
d'rbh Bhsh <
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dk ngwkB j'o fJj eh eoBr/ wfjs/ u"Ae fty/
fJjBK d;w rqzE ns/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp pokpo gqekP ehs/ j'J/ jB. “pkpk
ioB?b f;zx ihts j?” dk e[co fJeh ;kb s'A pVh YhmskJh Bkb p'fbnk
frnk. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftZu, jIkoK d/ fJZemK ;kjwD/, j? e'Jh
o'eD tkbk. pqkjwDtkd ƒ pkjo'A fes'A nkT[D dh b'V BjhA xo d/ nzdo,
pj[s/ r[odtkfonK ftZu, nfij/ pqkjwD (f;Zyh t/; XkoB eoe/) jh sK

(160)
ekpi jB. f;Zyh dhnk iVK ftZu s/b d/ oj/ jB. ;fsr[o{ jh puk b?D sK
puk b?D toBK fJjBK r[ows ƒ yko/ ;w[zdo ftZu v'pD dk g{ok gqpzX ehsk
j'fJnk j?. T[go tofDs 200 s'A tZX B[es/ gzBktko fJjBK dh g[;se
“r[opkDh gkm doPB” ftZu'A frL r[opuB f;zx d/ fby/ g/P ehs/ jB.
Ne;kb tkb/ fJjBK feskpK ƒ Skg e/ t/ud/ nk oj/ jB. fJj “g{oB pqjw
frnkBh, ykb;k, ;zs, gzE osB, ftZfdnk wkoszv d/ “gftZso” ftuko
jB.” tkj w/oh e"w d/ wbkj' fJjBK dhnK wBwkBhnK ƒ edh o'e'r/ <
pqkjwDh dbdb ftZu'A e"w ƒ edh eZY/r' <
fGzvoK Ne;kb tkb/ thj ;kb s'A ekoiekoh iZE/dko pkpk mke[o
f;zx, fet/A r[opkDh dk ngwkB eodk fojk j?, nZyhA t/fynk tkfenk ;[D'.
GkJh mke[o f;zx id'A fes/ iKdk j? sK fJZe “rVtJhA” b'Nk gkDh s/ s"bhnk
b? e/ Bkb ubdk j?. pkp/ B/ i[Zsh gkJh j[zdh j? s/ rVtJh Bzr/ g?oh uZbdk
j?. fJZe B"itkB jZE ftZu r[Nek b? e/ Bzr/ g?ohA ubdk j'fJnk, r[Ne/ ftZu'A
r[opkDh gVQdk j'fJnk pkp/ d/ fgZS/^fgZS/ N[fonk fcodk j?. pkpk gP{nK
ftZu ikt/, y/sK ftZu ikt/, ;?o eoB ikt/, fJj r[Nek gVQdk B"itkB Bkb
Bkb ofjzdk j?. pkpk fe;/ Bkb rZbK eo/, e'Jh ezw eo/, sK Gh gkmh gkm
eodk ofjzdk j?. j[D Iok ;'u/ fJZe pzdk pkDh ;fseko ;fjs ;[D jh BjhA
fojk, eJh o[M/ftnK ftZu j?, T[;d/ fgZS/ fgZS/ r[Nek b? e/ gkm eod/ ofjDk
feZE'A dh r[ow[yskJh j? < ;r'A gktB r[opkDh dk fJ; soQK tZvk ngwkB j?.
go fJj b'e bzw/ ;w/A s'A jh r[opkDh dk ngwkB eoB d/ nkdh j' u[Ze/ jB,
f;Zy' ikr' s/ ;'u'.
1H fJE/ ;fsr[o{ ih d/ puB fby d/Dk jh fpjso j't/rk, i' nfij/
b'eK bJh tZvh tzrko jB ^
gkyzv gkyzv efo efo Gow/ b'G[ gkyzv[ ifr p[fonko/]
jbfs gbfs d[ydkJh j'tfj, iwekb yVk f;fo wko/]HHHHH
ebo[ y/s[ b? e{V[ iwkfJnk ;G e{V? e/ ybtko/]
;kes Bo ;fG G{y G[ykB/, dfo mkY/ iw izdko/] (981)

(161)
2H fJj wB[ okik b'Ghnk b[GsT[ b'GkJh]
r[ow[fy b'G[ fBtkohn? jfo f;T[ pfD nkJh]
ebfo y/sh phihn? feT[ bkjk gkt?]
wBw[y ;fu B GhiJh e{V[ e{fV rvkt?]
bkbu[ S'vj[ nzfXj' bkbfu d[y[ Gkoh]
;ku" ;kfjp[ wfB t;? jT[w? fpy[ wkoh] (419)
nkyoh ftuko L^ Ne;kb d/ w[Zy p[bko/ “yzv/Xko” w?rihB d/
;zgkde frL w'jew f;zx B/ 3^12^03 ƒ w'jkbh d/ c/I S/ d/ r[odtko/ ftZu,
gzskbh e[ f;zxK dh jkioh ftZu ftPtkP fdtkfJnk fe Ne;kb ftZu r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp d/ pokpo d;w rqzE dk gqekP BjhA ehsk iKdk. fwsh 3^3^04 ƒ
;qL ;[yd/t f;zx w'jkbh s'A iZE/ ;w/s wfjs/ g[Zfink. T[E/ d' ;o{g t/y/,
j[ewBkwk b?D dh nkfrnk bJh. id'A tke bJh o[wkb u[Zfenk sK f;o
ueok frnk, jZEK s/ s's/ T[Zv rJ/, j?A n?vk tZvk nBoE < r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp
d/ pqkpo nPbhb eEktK Bkb Gog{o rqE z < T[s
Z A' frnkBh w'jew f;zx dk 45
f;zxK ;kjwD/ g{o/ ftPtkP Bkb p'fbnk frnk e'ok M{m < nfij/ b'eK s'A
edh uzfrnkJh dh stZi'A ehsh ik ;edh j? < tkfjr[o{ feogk eo' gkyzvhnK
ƒ ;[wZs pyP'.
T[gd/;[ eo/ efo b'e fdqVkt?] ngBk efjnk nkfg B ewkt?] (887)
jfo ihT[, nzsfoikwh ikB]
eos p[okJh wkB[y s/ SgkJh ;kyh G{s GtkB] (1202)
fJj j? nkg/ pD/ tZv/ s/ n;bh f;ZyK dk e{V gquko. p/y"c j' e/
feskpK Skg e/ fBowb p[ZX f;ZyK ƒ fGqPN ehsk ik fojk j?. eh r[opkDh
fJjh e{V e[;Zs f;ykT[Adh j? <
^ wfjsk u"e Ne;kb ftu 40 fdB jtB j'fJnk. 23H8H05 dhnK
nyapkoK t/y ;ed/ j'.
^ pkpk ioB?b f;zx B{z eKro;h d;D tkbh feskp joBkw f;zx
X[zwk B/ obhi ehsh. b/ye ;qH p{Nk f;zx
^ 21 ;kb se pkpk ioB?b f;zx ihts j? dk e[co, mke[o f;zx ns/

(162)
pkeh Ne;kb tkfbnK B/ p'fbnk. r[o{ eh ji{oh ftu. fJ; p'b/ rJ/ M{m
bJh oZp e'b'A, ;fsr[o{ e'b'A fJjBK w[nkch BjhA wzrh. gzE e'b'A w[nkch BjhA
wzrh. ny"sh iE/dko nfij/ M{m/ b'eK B{z yZp/ ;Zi/ bJh fcod/ jB. r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp ih d/ pokpo fJjBK B/ n;bhb ejkDhnK tkbk pfuZso BkNe
fNekfJnk ns/ T[;dk nyzv gkm ehsk. fJj b'e fBowb gzE B{z fwZNh ftu
fwbkT[D bJh g{oh tkj bk oj/ jB. fJjBK dhnK SkghnK feskpK e'Jh gVQ
e/ t/y/ sK ;jhHHHH.

[[[[

(163)
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp - ;wki Bt f;oiDk dk nkXko
w[ZYb/ o{g ftZu wB[Zy ;wkie gqkDh j?, fJ; ƒ d{;fonK d/ ;kE dh
b'V j?. fJeZb ftZu fIzdrh Bho; ns/ ne/t/A Goh j' iKdh j? go fIzdrh
pshs fet/A ehsh ikt/ < foPs/ Bks/ fet/A fBGkJ/ ikD < wB[Zy ƒ fJj fet/A
gsk bZr/ fe i' w?A eo fojk jK fJj ;jh j? fe rbs, w/o/ ihtB Yzr Bkb
w?ƒ y[d ƒ eh bkG j? < gotko ƒ eh ckfJdk j?, iK fco w?A ;wki ƒ eh
d/ fojk jK< T[FZgo tofDs ;tkbK ƒ jo fJB;kB y[d jZb BjhA eo ;edk.
wB[Zyh wB dh pj[sh xkVs, gqtko ftu, nfXnkge tZb'A ns/ ;wki tZb'A
;fji fefonk Bkb xVh iKdh j?. ;zg{oD ;wki dh ihtB P?bh ƒ i/ e'Jh
;G s'A fInkdk goGkts eoB d/ ;woZE j?, sK T[j j? “Xow”. Xow dh
f;Zfynk wksk fgsk tb'A, ftfdne ndkfonK ftu'A, Xow ;z;EktK ns/
;wki d/ sIop/eko ftneshnK okjhA nu/s iK u/sB o{g ftZu gqkgs ehsh
ik ojh j[zdh j?. fiBQK Xkowe w[yhnK B/ ;wki efbnkD fjZs goT[geko
ehs/, d[Zy s;hj/ MZb/, p/y'| j' e/ ipo d/ fto[ZX nktkI p[bzd ehsh, T[jBK
d/ T[gd/P s/ ihtB, b'eK bJh dzd eEktK pD ikfJnk eod/ jB. Xow ns/
gqwkswk fJB;kBh GkJhuko/ bJh, o{j dh ;zs[PNh d/ Bkb^Bkb nksw
nv'bsk p\Pd/ jB. Xkowe wjKg[oP iB ;w{zj bJh ukBD dk fwBko iK
fIzdrh dk wkvb pD e/ ;dk gq/oBk fdzd/ ofjzd/ jB.
i/ Xow fJB;kBhns ƒ ihtB iku, wB[Zyh GkJhukok, j"A;bk,
fdqVsk, goT[geko nkfde dh B/e f;Zfynk BjhA fdzdk sK T[j Xow
edkfus BjhA j' ;edk, j'o i' woIh fgnk j't/. fJ; Gkosh fyZs/ d/ b'e
e[M nfijhnK o;wK ohsK, tfjwK GowK ns/ g{ik nouDk ƒ jh Xow
;wM b?D d/ G[b/y/ dk fPeko j' u[Ze/ ;B. ekbgfBe d/th d/tfsnK tZb'A
Xosh s/ nk e/ jo soQK d/ ePN jo b?D dk Gow X[o nzfsP eoD ftZu
Xf;nk j'fJnk ;h. fi; ekoB ;w[Zuk skDk pkDk uowok u[Zfenk ;h. fJE'A
d/ gVQ/ fby/ e/tb “g[ikoh” pD u[Ze/ ;B, d{finK dh feos s/ gbD tkb/,
(164)
jo sohe/ G'b/ b'eK ƒ b[ZN e/ ykD tkb/ fJj ;B g[ikoh g[o'fjs. d{i/ i'rh
ns/ j'o ;fBnk;h ;kX{ fsnkrh p?okrh Gh fJ;/ okj ub oj/ ;B. fJj xo
gqtko oZp nk;o/ SZv e/, izrbK gjkVK r[cktK ftZu ik p?m/. fJj ;z;ko
wkfJnk j? d[ZyK dk xo j/, gqb'e ;ztkoB dh e{Vh nk; Bkb, fIzw/tkoh s'A
GZi T[Zm/ ;B. sh;o/ ;h yZsoh b'e fiBQK nkgD/ fIzw/ bZr/ “Xow” ƒ
fBGkT[AfdnK jfEnkopzd j' e/ d/P dh okyh eoBh ;h, fJj th coIK s'A w{zj
w'V p?m/. ;w/A d/ pkdPkj Ikbw pD u[Ze/ ;B, s/ T[jBK d/ nfjbeko oZs
ghD/ dfozd/. fJB;kc dh e[o;h s/ fpokiwkB ekIh (iZi) foPtsy'o j' u[Ze/
;B. fJj ;ko/ nkg' nkgDh Ekt/A ;wki ƒ T[ikV oj/ s/ e[okj/ gk oj/ ;B
gktB puB jB L^
ekdh e{V[ p'fb wb[ ykfJ] pkjwD Bkt? ihnK xkfJ]
i'rh i[rfs B ikD? nzX] shB/ T[ikV/ ek pzX[] (662)
ns/
ysqhnk sk Xow S'fvnk wb/S Gkfynk okjh]
f;q;fN ;G fJZe toD j'Jh Xow eh rfs rjh] (662)
wB[Zyh GkJhuko/ ƒ fJZe pZMt/A, ;[bM/ j'J/ sohe/ Bkb fiT{D tk;s/
;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ i' wkor doPB r[opkDh okjhA ;kƒ ;[MkfJnk j?, T[;
pko/ r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftZu'A e[M ftuko fJ; soQK jB L^
1H > ^ ;G s'A gfjbK ;fsr[o{ ih B/ oZph ;zebg s/ T[;dk
;o{g ;gZPN ehsk. fe n? w/o/ pZfuU` gqwkswk bk Pohe fJZe tkfjd
j;sh j?. T[;d/ w[ekpb/ j'o e'Jh Bk j? Bk j' ;e/rk. pZ; fJZe T[;/ ƒ wzB'
fXnkU s/ T[; d/ wjkB r[DK ƒ XkoB eo'. gP{nK gzShnK dh g{ik pzd eo
fdU. o[ZyK, fpoyK ƒ g{iDk w{oysk j?, gZEoK w{oshnK ƒ oZp nkyDk s/
wzBDk e[|o j?. oZph PeshnK ;kvh ;/tk ftZu jkIo j' e/ ;[y d/ ojhnk jB,
fco fJjBK dh g{ik feT[A eoBh j'Jh < wB[Zy Gh ;ko/ gzi sZsK d/ pD/ j'J/
jB, fJjBK ftZu'A e'Jh g{iD i'rh t;s{ BjhA j?. fJZe' gqwkswk d/ ;ko/ g?dk
ehs/ j'J/ jB, fJ; bJh e'Jh ftP/P s"o s/ g{iD :'r BjhA j?.
B d/t dkBtk Bok] B f;X ;kfXeK Xok]

(165)
n;fs J/e fdrfo e[Jh] J/e s[Jh J/e s[Jh]
B ;{o ;f; wzvb'] B ;gs dhg bj ib']
nzB gkT[D fEo[ B e[Jh] J/e s[Jh J/e s[Jh] (144)
2H wB[Zyk ihtB^ fJB;kB dh ;dk fJj ikBD dh fJZSk ojh
j? fe w/ok iBw fe; ekoD j'fJnk, fJ; ihtB dk wB'oE eh j?. nkgDh
nbg p[ZXh ekoB nDfrDs b'eK fJ; nw[Zb/ ihtB s'A T[fus bkG BjhA
fbnk. ykD ghD gfjBD sZe ;hws j'e/, T[wo fpsk fdZsh. id'A sZe e[M
;wM g?Adh j?, sd'A sZe pj[s d/o j' u[Zeh j[zdh j?. bzfxnk t/bk edh tkg;
jZE BjhA nkT[Adk. fit/A ;wMdko wksk fgsk pZfunK dh fIzdrh ;ztkoB
tk;s/ ykD gfjBD s'A pknd T[jBK dh uzrh ftZfdnk dk gqpzX eod/ jB sK
fe pZu/ tZv/ j' e/ nkgD/ g?oK s/ yVQ/ j' ;eD, nkgD/ bJh s/ gqtko dhnK b'VK
bJh e'Jh uzrk eko'pko eo ;eD. go ;fsr[o{ ih e/tb fIzdrh dk fJZe
gZy BjhA ;ztkod/. ;r'A T[j sK ;zg{oD wB[Zyk ihtB dh ;z[do xkVs xVe/,
fJZe Bw{B/ dk fJB;kB^ “r[ow[Zy” pDkT[Dk ukj[zd/ jB. fJ;/ ekoB r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp B/ wB[Zy ƒ pko pko skVBk ehsh j? fe n? fJB;kB` fJj ihtB fes/
w;hA B;hp j[zdk j?, fJ; s'A pj[sk ckfJdk bthA. ngDk Gh ;ztkohA s/ ;wki
dk Gh e[M ;ztkohA. fJ; ;oho ƒ x'V/ dh fBnkJh toshA s/ wB B{z ;tko
pDkJh. ;/tk s/ bkJhA goT[geko eohA, i/ goT[geko sfjs fJj ;oho b/y/
bZr ikt/ sK tZv/ Gkr ikDhA. ;wM bthA Xosh s/ nkT[Dk ;|b j' frnk j?.
r[otke jB L^
d/j x'Vh ih fis[ jfo gkfJnk okw]
fwfb ;fsr[o ih wzrb rkfJnk okw] (576)
;kX' r'fpzd e/ r[B rktT[]
wkB; iBw nw'be[ gkfJU fpoEk ekfj rtktT[] (219)
3H wksk fgsk d/ coI ^ wksk fgsk ngDh n"bkd ƒ fiZE/
;z;koh ftZfdnk d/D bJh ftP/P isB eod/ jB, T[E/ Xow ftZfdnk d/D tZb'A
nt/;b/ j' iKd/ jB. Xow dk fgnko ;fseko jh j?, i' pZfunK ƒ fJZe yk;
pzXB ftZu pzBQ e/ oZy ;edk j?. fiE/ d[Bhnk dh ftZfdnk us[okJhnK

(166)
f;ykT[Adh j? sK Xow ftZfdnk f;nkDg f;ykT[Adh j/. ;z;koh gVQkJh b[ZN
y'j, d{i/ dk jZe wkoBk X'yk co/p f;ykT[Adh j?, sK fBozekoh frnkB,
d{finK ƒ Gh ngD/ fij/ fJB;kB wzBDk f;ykT[Adk j?. jZe ;Zu B/eh
goT[geko dfJnk fywk ns/ ;ziw tor/ T[Zsw r[D, Xow d[nkok jh wB[Zy
nzdo ;zukos j[zd/ jB. i' nZi nkb/^d[nkb/ “Xow tosdk” n;hA gVQ ;[D
t/y oj/ jK, r[odtkfonK ftZu, gkm, ehosB j[zd/, ;[D, t/y oj/ jK, fJj
Xow BjhA j?. fJj sK e/tb “o'NhnK ekoD g{ofj skb” tkbh jkbs
j?. i/ fJjh Xow j't/ sk fco p[okJh ed/ dh \sw j' u[Zeh j'Dh ;h. fit/A
gkDh ƒ pzBQ wko e/ dfonk ftZu nikJhA ik fojk popkdh eo fojk gkDh,
BfjoK okjhA y/sK ƒ jo/ Go/ eodk j?. fJ;/ gkDh s/ v?w T[;ko d/ fpibh
fsnko eo bJh iKdh j?. fJ;/ soQK B"itkBk ƒ nkg w[jko/ j' e/ e[okj/ g?D
s'A o'fenk ikt/. T[jBK ƒ uzrh f;Zfynk d/ e/ ;wki T[;koh d/ ezwK ftZu
bkfJnk ikt/. fJZe ;wMdko fozr wk;No y{zyko ikBtoK s'A Gh ezw b? b?Adk
j?. eh n;hA f;nkDg Bkb pZfunK ƒ Xow ftZfdnk d/ e/ B/eh d/ okj BjhA
s'o ;ed/ < eh wksk fgsk B/ edh fJ; gk;/ fXnkB fdZsk j? < eh gqpzXeK
B/ e'Jh nfijh jh gbkfBzr pDkJh j?<
w/o/ okw, jw pkfoe jfo gqG e/ j? fJnkD/]
XzB[ XzB[ r[o{ r[o[ ;fsr[o[ gkXk,
fifB jfo T[gd/P d/ ehJ/ f;nkD/] (168)
g{sk, wksk eh nk;h;]
fBw[y B fp;oT[ s[w eT[ jfo jfo ;dk Gij[ irdhP] (496)
4H gsh gsBh dk foPsk ^ fJZe gk;/ jkew fXo (oki/
oJh;) ;[zdo itkB bVehnK ƒ nkgD/ jowK (iBkBykBk) ftZu Boe torh
fIzdrh fiT{D bJh wip{o eo oj/ ;B. d{i/ pzB/ B;wM b'e xo gqtko SZv
e/ izrbK r[cktK ftZu pqjwukoh^ish ;sh j'D dk y/yD eo oj/ ;B. d't/A
fXoK tZb'A I[bw ipo ehsk ik fojk ;h, p/p; n"os s/ i/ gsh Gok g[Zso
iK fgsk SZv e/ “Grsh” ftZu bhB j' frnk, sK Gh d[ZyK dk gjkV. i/
T[Xkbh rJh, i'o ipoh dh fPeko j' rJh, sK Gh fIzdrh spkj. fJ;

(167)
dodBke gZy tZb ;fsro{ ;kfjp ih B/ ftP/P fXnkB fdZsk. T[jBK gsh
gsBh d/ ihtB ;kE ƒ wkD fdZsk. frq;s Xow ftZu ofjzfdnK, B/e ewkJh
eofdnK, ;G fizw/tkohnK fBGkT[AfdnK jh Xowh pDB dk T[gd/P ehsk.
Grsh sgZf;nk iK w'eP izrbK r[cktK shoEK s/ GNeD Bkb gqkgs BjhA
j't/rh. ;r'A pZfunK dhnK b'VK g{ohnK eo' B/e fJB;kB pDkU. p; nkgD/
nkg ƒ p[okJhnK ftekoK s'A puk e/ oZy'. fJjh ;Zuk Xow j? L^
;s[ ;zs'y[ ;dk ;u[ gb? ;u p'b? fgo GkJ/]
BkBe ftS[fV Bk d[y gkJ/ r[owfs nzfe ;wkJ/] (764)
BkBe ;fsr[fo G/fNn? g{oh j't/ i[rfs]
j;zfdnk y/bzfdnK g?Bzfdnk yktzfdnK ftZu/ j't? w[efs](522)
5H ;wki gqsh tuB pZXsk ^ ;fsr[o{ ih wjkB T[geko
eofdnK jo fJB;kB ƒ nkg' nkgDh fIzw/tkoh g{oh fJwkBdkoh Bkb
fBGkT[D dh skehd eod/ jB. T[d'A s'A b? e/ nZi sZe ;ko/ pzB/ jcVk dcVh,
p/JhwkBh, foPtsy'oh dk pkIko row BIo nk fojk j?. j/mb/ S'N/ w[bkIw
s'A b? e/ T[Zgo f;o/ sZe jo e'Jh foPtsy'oh ftZu rofenk BIo nkt/rk.
nkgD/ jh G?D GoktK dk y{B pVh p/ofjwh Bkb, vheK bk e/ ghsk ik fojk
j?. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ GkJh bkb' ih, fJZe rohpV/ f;Zy ƒ Sksh Bkb
bkfJnk ;h. wbe Gkr' d/ ;[nkdb/ gdkoEK ftZu'A ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ rqhpK d/
jT[e/, jzM{ s/ T[jBK dk y{B BIo nkfJnk ;h. tZv/ fJeZm ftZu p/fJwkBh
tkb/ yho g{fVnK dk fGnkBe fgS'eV, ;G d/ ;kjwD/ p/god ehsk ;h.
;fsr[o{ ih B/ roIthA nktkI ftZu ;kfonK ƒ ;ktXkB ehsk ;hHHHHHHHH
“je[ gokfJnk BkBek T[; ;{no T[;[ rkfJ]
r[o{ gho[ jkwk sK Go/ ik w[odko Bk ykfJ]
rbh fG;fs B ikJhn? S[N? ;u[ ewkfJ]
wkoD ykfj jokw wfj j'fJ jbkb[ B ikfJ]
BkBe rbh e{VhJh e{V' gb? gkfJ]” (141)
6H ezw gqsh tckdkoh ^ g[oksB ;fwnK s'A uZb e/ nZi skJhA
;wki iK oki ftZu u[D/ j'J/ ftP/P ftneshnK ƒ fIzw/tkoh tkb/ pj[s jh

(168)
wjZstg{oB nj[fdnK s/ bkT[D tes e[M fJZe gqD eotkJ/ iKd/ ;B. ;w/A
d/ c/o Bkb gqD G[bk fdZs/ rJ/, e[M o;wK ohsK ofj rJhnK. nZi Gh tZv/
nj[d/ jk;b eoB tes o;wh s"o s/ d/P s/ ;zftXkB gqsh tckdkoh dh
e;w u[ekJh iKdh j?, gqD eotkfJnk iKdk j?. eJh tkoh jZE ftZu gkDh
gk e/ tZv/ fJeZm ;kjt/A, e[ZM wzso gVQ e/, o;w g{osh ehsh iKdh ;h.
;fsr[o{ ih fJjBK o;wK ohsK dh Ekt/A, gqwkswk dk fBowb GT[ d/ e/,
ngD/ fIzw/ bZrh ;/tk ƒ B/e Bhsh Bkb fBGkT[D dh jdkfJs eod/ jB ^
Xowh wB[Zy nzX ftPtkPh Bk j't/, frnkB Bkb Gog{o j't/. gsh gsBh
fJZe d{i/ gqsh tckdko ofjD. fJjh T[jBK dk ish j'Dk gqtkB j?. pqkjwD
;zs'yh j't/ b'eK d/ xo b[ZND tkbk Bk j't/. frq;sh wB[Zy ngDh feos
ewkJh ftZu'A d;tzX o{g ftZu, b'VtzdK dh b'V g{oh eo/. d/P dk okik (ns/
T[;d/ efozd/ nc;o iZi) ;jh wkfjfBnK ftZu goik ƒ fJB;kc d/D.
T[jBK d/ d[Zy d{o eoB s/ b'eK ƒ ngDh n"bkd tKr ;wMD. gfVQnk wB[Zy,
o[Zyk frnkB Bk u[Zeh fco/, fBoh jzeko dh gzv jh Bk pD ikt/. ftZfdnk ƒ
jZe ;Zu dk gfjo/dko pDkt/, ;wki ƒ uzrh wZs d/t/. fJ; soQK s[jkvk gqD
g{ok j'fJnk wzfBnk ikt/rk s/ ;wki dk w{zj w[jKdok ;zto ikt/rk. tke
fJT[A jB ^
BkBe u[bhnK ;[uhnK, i/ Gfo ikD? e'fJ]
;[os/ u[bh frnkB eh i'rh ek is[ j'fJ]
pqkjwD u[bh ;zs'y eh, frojh ek ;s[ dkB[]
oki/ u[bh fBnkt eh, gfVnk ;u[ fXnkB[]
gkDh fus[ B X'gJh, w[fy ghs? fsy ikfJ]
gkDh fgsk irs ek fcfo gkDh ;G ykfJ] (1240)
;fsr[o{ ih B/ T[ikV EK ftZu eoskog[o “t;kfJnk”. yv{o s/
r'fJzdtkb T[ZiV u[Ze/ EktK s/ w[V “t;kJ/”. nzfwqs;o xDh nkpkdh tkbk
tgko dk e/Ado, Xow dk e/Ado, f;ZyK dh okiBhsh dk X[ok, ;fsr[o{ ih B/
“t;kfJnk”. nZr/ soB skoB, jfor'fpzdg[o, eoskog[o (ibzXo),

(169)
ehosg[o, nBzdg[o, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ “t;kJ/”. fBZs T[ZiV fojk fjzd';skB
;fsr[o{ ih B/ w[V t;kfJnk. ;fsr[o{ ih dh gktB pkDh ftZu'A fJZe BtK
fJBebkp T[Zfmnk. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/P ftZu'A fJZe Bt/A wB[Zy dh xkVQs
xVQh rJh. gktB pkDh ftZu'A BthA ;fGnsk nzrVkJhnK b?D bZrh. jIko
;kb s'A Bw'Ph, ekfJosk, popkdh, b[ZN esb' rkos s'A pknd, fJ; Xosh
s/ BtK ;{oi ufVQnk. nfrnkBsk dh bzwh ekbh p'bh oks ftZu'A, BthA ;t/o
T[FZr gJh. iks^gks d/ ;zrb N[ZN rJ/, tfjwK GowK ƒ GkiVK g? rJhnK.
;h; tkoB tkb/ ;{ow/, ;kjt/A wZE/, fjZeK vkj e/ izr d/ i"jo ftykD bZr/.
gzikph p'bh ƒ gfjbh tko r[opkDh okjhA tv/ok wkD fwfbnk. BthA Peb'
;{os tkb/, tZyo/ ;[Gkn tkb/, wB[Zy Gh r[opkDh d/ ukBD ftZu'A gqrN j'J/.
g[oksB ;fwnK ftZu i/ r[opkDh gVQB ftukoB tkfbnK B/, pjkdoh ns/
goT[geko d/ bk;kBh ehoshwkB ;Ekgs ehs/ ;B, sK GftZy ftZu n;hA
fBok;sk feT[A ftykJhJ/. ewoe;/ eoe/ I'odko jzGbk wkoB dh b'V
j?, xo xo r[opkDh dk ukBD g[ukT[D dh Io{os j?, fco fJZe BthA
;t/o dk nkrwB j't/rk.
;fsr[o{ ih jo fJZe p'bh ƒ jo fJZe ;{p/ ƒ jo/e d/P ƒ jo/e Xow
ƒ ns/ ;ko/ Xowh b'eK ƒ fgnko eod/ jB. fJ; rZb d/ r[opkDh ftZu ;p{s
w"i{d jB. id'A pj[s ;kohnK p'bhnK, fyZfsnK, GrsK ƒ fJ; ftZu ;BwkB
gqkgs j?. go jK` ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ ftyktk s/ gkyzv T[FZek g;zd BjhA j?. n;hA
;ko/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftZu'A Xow pko/, ;wki pko/, okiBhsh pko/, coIK dh
gSkD pko/, wB[Zyh GkJhuko/ pko/, GkPktK pko/, eftsk pko/, okrK pko/,
nB/e goeko dh nrtkJh b? ;ed/ jK. fJ; ihtB d"okB fJZe tkoh,
noEK ;w/s gktB r[opkDh dk gkm y[d eoe/ t/yhJ/, nBzd jh tZyok
j't/rk. pj[s eok bJ/ w[Zb d/ gkm, j[D y[d ;fsr[o{ ih d/ doPB
eoe/, iBw ;cbk eohJ/.
g'Eh gow/Po ek EkB[]
;kX ;zfr rktfj r[D r'fpzd g{oB pqjw frnkB] (1226)

(170)
;kuh pkDh whmh nzfwqsXko] fifB ghsh fs; w'y d[nko](1275)
“gzikp ihtdk r[oK d/ Bkw s/” (g{oB f;zx)

[[[[

! (fJj y'i gZso 29^8^04 ƒ ;?eNo 46, uzvhrVQ, ykb;k gzukfJs tZb'A
eotkJ/ rJ/ ;?whBko ftZu gfVQnk frnk)

(171)
Xow dk ftF/F nzr - e/;
pj[s tkoh fJj ;tkb T[mkfJnk iKdk j?, e/;K dk Xow Bkb ;pzX
fet/A j? < eh gqwkswk ƒ gk b?D tk;s/ e/;kXkoh j'Dk Io{oh j? < fiBQK
nDfrDs b'eK B/ e/; BjhA oZy/ j'J/ (r?o f;Zy Gh) eh T[j gqw/Po dh gqkgsh
BjhA eo ;eDr/ < nkfd. gqkwswk Bkb fgnko ;KM gkT[D tk;s/ e/;K dk
f;ZXk e'Jh ;o'eko BjhA j?. go jo fJZe gqw/Po ƒ fgnko eoB tkbk wB[Zy
T[;dh feos ƒ Gh fgnko eodk j?. tkfjr[o{ ih B/ wB[Zy ƒ bzw/ e/; s/
o'jpdko ;[zdo dkjVk w[ZSK dh pyfPP ehsh j?. n"osK ƒ :'r ikDe/ e/tb
f;o s/ bzw/ e/; fdZs/ jB, dkjVh w[ZSK BjhA. id'A e'Jh fJB;kB T[fus
sohe/ e/;K dh ;zGkb eodk j?, d;sko, d[gZNk ;h; s/ ;ikT[Adk j? sK T[;dh
;[zdosk ftZu eJh r[Dk tkXk j' fojk j[zdk j?. i/ e'Jh e/;K dh p/ndph eo
fojk j? sK wkB' T[;ƒ gqwkswk d/ ehs/ s/ ftPtkP BjhA j?. e/; d/ e/, g?dk
eoe/ eh oZp ih s'A rbsh j' rJh j? < ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB B/ e/;K dh ;zGkb
eoBh nky e/ f;Zy ƒ e'Jh ;Ik BjhA fdZsh, ;r'A e[dosh sohe/ gqG{ dh oIk
ftZu okih ofjDk f;ykfJnk j?. ;fsr[o{ ih ƒ gsk ;h, fe gqwkswk e'Jh
ezw rbs BjhA eodk. f;qPNh d/ fe;/ iht ƒ wod torh dkjVh w[ZSK s/
e/; BjhA fdZs/. n"os wod dh f;ZXh gSkD tk;s/, shthA ƒ dkjVh BjhA
fdZsh e/tb f;o d/ e/; pyP/ jB.
e/;K dh ;zGkb eoB tkb/ wB[Zy gqwkswk dh gqkgsh dk dkntk sK
BjhA eo ;ed/, go fgnko/ dh fdZsh dks ƒ fgnko eoB dh rZb sK efj
jh ;ed/ jB. ;ko/ Grs ;kfjpkB r[o{ ;kfjpkB (r[opkDh d/ ou/sk) s/ j'o
r[o{ e/ f;Zy, e/;kXkoh ;B. nkgD/ fgnko/ dh y[Ph b?D tk;s/ n;hA T[j yKd/
jK, i' fgnko/ ƒ Gkt/. T[j gfjoktk gfjBd/ jK, i' fgnko/ ƒ uzrk bZr/.
T[j ezw eod/ jK fi; ftZu fgnko/ dh y[Ph j't/. T[j fwZm/ puB p'bd/ jK,
fiBQK d[nkok fgnko/ dk wB w'j bJhJ/. fgnko ftZu fGZie/ ;kvk gq/wh ;kƒ
e'Jh s'jck d/ d/t/, Gkt/A T[j tZvh ehws dk Bk jh j't/. go s'jc/ ƒ ;dk

(172)
;fseko Bkb ;zGkb e/ oZyd/ jK. s'jc/ dh p/ndph gq/wh dk fsq;eko wzBh
iKdh j?. pZ; fJ;/ soQK nekb g[oy ih tZb'A fdZsk frnk fJj nw[Zbk s'jck,
ns/ ;fsr[o{ ih tZb'A fJ; dh ;zGkb eoB dk fdZsk frnk j[ew, ;kv/ bJh
f;o wZE/ gotkB j't/. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ e/;K dh ;zGkb eoB dk nkd/P fdZsk
j?, fco n;hA nkgD/ fgnko/ d/ j[ew dh T[bzxDk fet/A eo ;ed/ jK <
i' b'ehA f;Zy gzE Bkb ;pzfXs BjhA jB, fiBQK ƒ T[jBK d/ Xow
w[yhnK B/ e/; oZyD dh ;ys jdkfJs BjhA ehsh, T[j Gh nkg' nkgD/ sohe/
e/;K dkjVh ftZu e[M spdhbh Io{o eod/ jB. Iok fJZe fJZe eoe/ r?o
f;ZyK d/ e/;K pko/ tsho/ ƒ t/yhJ/ ^
;kv/ r[nKYh fjzd{ Gok fe;/ ƒ nkgD/ Xow ftZu gqt/P eokT[D
bZfrnk fiZE/ izi{ nkfd gkT[Ad/ jB, T[ZE/ e/; eZN fdzd/ jB. f;o d/ ftueko
e[ZM tkb oZyd/ jB, fi;ƒ f;yk iK p'dh fejk iKdk j?. fjzd{nK ftZu jh e[ZM
no;/ s'A pknd, Bt iBw/ pZu/ e/ e/; eZNe/ fe;/ wzdo ftZu G/N ehs/ iKd/
jB. id'A fjzd{ gqtko ftZu'A e'Jh w?Apo ubkDk (woBk) eo ikt/ sK T[;d/
B/Vb/ foPs/dko nc;'; ftZu g{oh soQK orVt/A Yzr dkjVh e/; eNtk fdzd/
jB. g[oksB ;fwnK ftZu tZvh rbsh eoB s/ p/Powh dh f;yo s/ g[ukT[D
tkbh ;Ik fdZsh iKdh ;h, dkjVh e/; eZN d/D/. t?;/ fjzd{nK d/ g[oksB
pI[or ntsko ;ko/ jh e/;kXkoh j'fJnk eod/ ;B. fJ;sohnK dk sK e/;
eZND dk ;tkb jh BjhA ;h. jK e/tb T[; nGkrD shthA d/ e/; eZN
fdZs/ iKd/ ;B i' ftXtk j' ikt/.
d{i/ ;kv/ r[nKYh Gok w[;bwkB jB. fJjBK ftZu n"osK e/; BjhA
eNtkT[AdhnK. wod f;o d/ e/; eNtk fdzd/ jB. go w[ZSK ns/ dkjVh dh
fJZe ftP/P pDso pDkT[Ad/ jB, fi; ƒ “PoJh w[ZSK” fejk iKdk j?. Gkt
w[;bwkBK dh ofjs ofjDh d/ Yzr dhnK w[ZSK. fJj fBnw yk; eoe/
Xkowe w[yhnK *s/ bkr{ j[zdk j?. fJ;/ soQK ;kv/ i?B Xow ƒ wzBD tkb/ Gok,
id'A fe;/ ƒ nkgD/ Xow ftZu dk\b eod/ jB, sK fwZE/ j'J/ fdB *s/ yk;
;wkrw ouke/, dk\b j'D tkb/ ftnesh (fizB/ j'D) d/ dkjVh e/; ;[nkj
gk e/ y[odo/ eo b?Ad/ jB. T[gqzs fJZe fJZe eoe/ ;ko/ tkb iV'A T[ykV fdzd/

(173)
jB. i?Bh ;kX{nK s/ fJj n;{b ;koh T[wo bkr{ ofjzdk j? i' Gh tkb T[Zr
g?D fJ;/ soQK iV'A T[ykV fdZs/ iKd/ jB. fJ;kJhnK ftZu Gkt/A e/;K pko/ gZeh
otkfJs sK e'Jh BjhA j?, go fJj gosZy j? fe fJjBK d/ Xow r[o{ f:;{
ih, dkjVh e/;K dh ;zGkb eod/ ;B. g[oskB ;fwnK d/ ;ko/ fJ;kJh Xow
w[yh Gh e/;K dh ;zGkb eod/ oj/ jB. i'rh b'e dkjVh e/; BjhA eNtkT[Ad/
;r'A e/;K ftZu ;[nkj gk e/ iNK pDke/, f;o T[Zgo i{Vk eoe/ oZyd/ jB.
fJj b'e feT[Afe gqtkfoe fIzdrh dk fsnkr eo fdzd/ ;B. fJ; bJh
n"osK tk;s/ fJjBK dk e'Jh fbysh n;{b BjhA j?. j'o t/y'` pj[ frDsh
tkb/ b/ye, fcbk;|o, ftfrnkBh, GiB pzdrh eoB tkb/, goT[gekoh b'e
dkjVh e/; BjhA eNtkT[Ad/. T[jBK nzdo' uzub fposh PKs j' u[Zeh j[zdh j?,
s/ oZph oIk ftZu ofjzd/ j'J/ e/;K dh ;zGkb eod/ jB.
j[D d[pkok f;Zy ws ftZu e/;K d/ ndp ;fseko tZb gos nkT[Ad/
jK. id'A f;Zy yzv/ dh gkj[b SZedk j? sK gfjbk gqw[Zy “eeko e/;” dZf;nk
iKdk j?, Gkt T[; fdB s'A pknd dkjVh e/;K dh ;zGkb eoBh j?. id'A gkj[b
b?D tkfbnK ƒ wfonkdk dZ;h iKdh j? sK skVBk ehsh iKdh j? fe fJjBK
uko tZvhnK G[ZbK ftZu'A e'Jh fJZe G[Zb Gh i/ j' ikt/ sK f;Zyh wzvb ftZu'A ykoi
wzfBnk ikt/rk. T[j jB^“e/; eNkT[D/, go^sB rkwh, e[Zmk wk; s/ szpke{
dh tos'A.” fJE/ Gh gfjbh Ekt/A tZvh rbsh (pZio e[ofjs) e/;K dh
p/^ndph fejk frnk j?. nZr'A nodk; ftZu e/;K dk d' tkoh fIeo eoBk
fJ; rZb dk gZek ;p{s j? fe e/; pj[s wjZstg{oB jB. “HHHHHXow Bjh
jkfonk, f;Zyh e/;K ;[nk;K ;zr fBpkjhHHHHHH.” nZr/ gVQ' ^ “f;ZyK ƒ f;Zyh
dkB e/; dkBHHHHH.” eh ni/ Gh e'Jh PZe ;[Gk pkeh j? <
id'A n;hA ;kvk PkBk wZsk fJfsjk; gVQd/ jK sK gsk bZrdk j? fe
frq|sko ehs/ rJ/ f;ZyK nZr/ Pos j'fJnk eodh ;h, “e/; eNtk fdU, ikB
p\; fdZsh ikt/rh.” Gkt/A GkJh sko{ f;zx B/ y'goh T[sotk bJh, GkJh wBh
f;zx ih B/ pzd pzd eNtk bJ/, wktK pZfunK d/ N[eV/ eotk e/ M'bhnK ftZu
gtk bJ/. j'o nf;j s/ nfej s;hj/ d/ e/ ikbw je{wsK tZb'A f;ZyK ƒ
wkfonk frnk. go f;ZyK B/ e/; eNtke/ ikB puk b?Dh gqtkB Bk ehsh.

(174)
nkgDh ikB s'A tZX e/; fgnko/ ;B. Gkt/A e/; eNkT[D s'A pknd fco T[Zr
g?Ad/ jB, ikB ubh ikt/ tkg; BjhA nkT[Adh. go f;ZyK fJ; soQK p/fJish
tkbk ;wM"sk edh Bk ehsk. T[jBK ikB s'A tZX e/;K ƒ ;fseko fdZsk.
j'o wzrK wBkT[D d/ Bkb f;ZyK B/ d[BhnK dhnK ;oekoK s'A nkgDhnK
Xkowe wzrK Gh wBtk bJhnK jB. nwqhek, e?B/vk, fJzrb?Av nkfd d/PK
ftZu, ;oekoK tZb'A f;ZyK s/ e'Jh gkpzdh BjhA j?. dkVQh e/; fit/A ukj[D oZy
;ed/ jB, feogkB, eVk, d;sko ;ik ;ed/ jB. g[fb; ns/ c"i ftZu Gh
;kps ;{os f;ZyK ƒ Gosh j'D dh ekƒBh gqtkBrh fwbh j'Jh j?. p;
ewI'oh j? sK ;kvh nkgDh j?. c?eNohnK ftZu, ;e{bK ekbiK nzdo s/
nkw iB^ihtB ftZu f;Zyh fuzBQK eekoK s/ e'Jh gkpzdh BjhA j?. i/ o'e j?
sK ;kv/ nkgD/ ewI'o wB dh, fJjBK ;oekoK tZb'A e'Jh o'e BjhA j?.
phphnK B/ fiE/ nkgD/ e/;K dh ;zGkb eoBh j?, T[E/ Bkb jh e[M Z ;wK pZfunK
d/ e/;K dh ;zGkb tk;s/ Gh eZYDk j?. “nkg/ tZv/ j' e/ e/; oZy b?Dr/”
nkye/ ezw BjhA ;oBk. i/ g?;k nk frnk, xo ftZu f;Zyh Bk ojh, y[Ph Bk
ojh fco g?;k eh ezw , pZfunK ƒ B/e fJB;kB pDkT[D tk;s/ nsh Io{oh
j? fe T[jBK ƒ r[opkDh, fJfsjk; s/ f;Zy wfonkdk dh g{oh ikDekoh fdZsh
ikt/. T[jBK tk;s/ ;wK eZfYnk ikt/, e/;kXkoh pDB bJh nrtkJh fdZsh
ikt/. nkgD/ xoK$r[odtkfonK ftZu pZfunK dh ;wM ns/ wkBf;e gZXo
w[skpe fbNo/uo oZfynk ikt/. pZfunK ƒ r[opkDh ns/ gzikph gVQkT[D
tk;s/ T[FZu ftfdne :'rsk tkb/ nfXnkge fB:[es ehs/ ikD. xoK d/
wkj"b ƒ r[owfs tkbk pDkfJnk ikt/. r[odtkfonK dhnK nkbhPkB
fJwkosK pDkT[D s/ g?;k Bk yofunk ikt/ ;r'A pZfunK sZe f;Zyh dk ;zuko
eoB d/ tZv/ T[gokb/ ehs/ ikD. toBk nkT[D tkb/ thj shj ;kbK sZe
r[odtko/ ykbh j'fJnk eoBr/. r[odtkfonK d/ Bkb pZfunK, B"itkBK,
bVehnK dh fdbu;gh ns/ T[wo w[skpe nkX[fBe IwkB/ tkb/ ekoi
T[bhe/ ikD. PoXk ;fseko ;fjs r[o{ xo fdZsk frnk XB, e"wh T[;koh
bJh f;nkDg ns/ d{onzd/Ph Bkb tofsnk ikt/. fJ;/ ftZu gzE dh uVQdh
ebk j't/rh, ns/ r[o{ ehnK y[PhnK d/ gkso pD ;eKr/. fJ; ;odkoh fuzBQ

(175)
e/;K pko/ g[oksB ftdtkBK d/ ftuko gV' ^
fJBjh ;/ gzfvs T[gikT{A] eEk eoB eh ohs f;ykT{A]
fJBjh ;/ oki/ T[gikT{A] oki eoB eh ebk f;ykT{A]
fJBjh e' “f;odko” pBkT[A] sp? r'fpzd f;zx Bkw ejkT{A]
(frL frnkB f;zx)
f:j t'j ik j? ijK ukbh; sB Pjhd j{J/.
fyskp/ ;otoh f;zx'A B/ ;o eNk e/ bhJ/.
fdbkJh gzE e' ;opkihUA ;/ “f;odkoh”,
pokfJ e"w f:j o[sp/ bj{ pjke/ bhJ/. (eth nZbk :koyK :'rh)
ofjs pko/ r[opkDh T[gd/; ^
frnkB[ fXnkB[ ;G[ r[o s/ j'Jh] ;kuh ojs ;kuk wfB ;'Jh]
wBw[y eEBh j? go[ ojs B j'Jh] Bktj[ G{b/ EkT[ B e'Jh] (831)

[[[[

(176)
N[efVnK ftZu tzfvnk “gz E”
;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih bzw/ Xow gquko d"fonK s/ rJ/, iZr ikjo
j?. fJbke/ dh b'V ƒ w[Zy oZye/, ;zrs ftZu'A e'Jh, u'DtK ;{MtkB ftnesh
b? e/, “Xow;kb” n;EkgB eoB bJh nkyd/ s/ w[yh f;Zy ƒ Xkowe
fIzw/tkohnK, ns/ ;wki ;[Xko d/ ezw ;zGkb e/, nZr/ ub/ iKd/. T[jBK Ekg/
rJ/ ftneshnK dh e'Jh gZeh ;{uh gqkgs BjhA j?. go r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
ih dh u'D ftXh s'A fJj rZb Gbh GKs ;wM nkT[Adh j?, fe Ekg/ rJ/ w'joh
f;Zy, tesh w[yh j[zd/ ;B, ykBdkBh BjhA. feT[Afe r[o{ ;kfjpkB ih B/ y[d
Gh, r[orZdh dh ;/tk d/D bZfrnk, r[DK ƒ gqw[Zysk fdZsh j?, Bk fe ;z;kfoe
foPs/ ƒ. ;w/A ;w/A b'V nB[;ko, ;fsr[o{ ih fJ; gqpzX ftZu ;[Xko Gh eod/
ofjzd/ ;B. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih tZb'A Ekg/ Xow;kbhJ/, gqpzX ƒ j'o uzr/ok
pDkT[D tk;s/, sh;o/ BkBe ih B/ pkJh wzihnK (gquko e/Ado) s/ ptzik
ghjV/ (T[g gquko e/Ado) d/P s/ pd/P ftZu ;Ekgs ehs/. u"E/ BkBe ;kfjp
ih B/ j'o ;[Xko eofdnK fJjBK ƒ w;zd Bkw fdZsk, s/ Xow ekoiK bJh
nk ojh wkfJnk, nzB dkD/ dk g{ok fbysh fj;kp oZyD bJh nkfrnk
ehsh. fJj gqpzX pj[s bzw/ ;w/A sZe ubdk fojk. go ;wK phsD Bkb,
fJ; ftZu ftrkV g?dk j[zd/ rJ/. d;t/A BkBe sZe g[ZifdnK fJjBK dhnK wzd
eos{sK dh ;ko/ gk;/ uouk j'D bZrh. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJjBK w;zdK pko/
nkgD/ ftPtkP :'r f;ZyK okjhA, jo soQK dh gVskb eotkJh. fi; ftZu
;Zuw[Zu jh fJj spek tZvk d'Ph gkfJnk frnk. id'A ;fsr[o{ ih B/ fJjBK
ƒ ;[XoB bJh fusktBh fdZsh sK, fJj b'e fywk wzr e/ B/e okj s/ uZbD
dh Ekt/A, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp dh rZdh ƒ jh tzrkoB bZr gJ/. fJjBK dk jzeko
s/ wBw[Zysk, f;o uVQ p'b gJh. nkyD bZr/^ “;fsr[o{ ih` f;Zyh dk gquko
n;hA eod/ jK, s[jkvh skes tXkT[D bJh BthA ;zrs i'Vd/ jK. nB/e
w[;ebK MZbe/, d;tzX dh wkfJnk s[jkv/ sZe g[Zidh eod/ jK. nkj o"DeK,
bzro dh ;'Gk, jfEnko,x'V/,jkEh, ;G n;hA jh sK fGitk oj/ jK. d{i/

(177)
;gZPN PpdK ftZu ;[D bU` s[;hA r[o{ T[sBh d/o j', id'A sZe n;hA s[jkv/
Bkb jK. n;hA fe;/ j'o ƒ Gh r[o{ pDk ;ed/ jKHHHHHH.” ;fsr[o{ ih B/ v{zxh
;'u ftuko s'A pknd, ;kok w;zd gqpzXeh YKuk, oZd eo fdZsk. fJjBK d/
;ko/ nfXeko tkg; b? bJ/. f;ZyK ƒ f;ZXk r[o{ Bkb ;pzX oZyD dk wkD d/
fdZsk. “r[o{ e/ ykb;/” pDk fdZsk frnk, ;ko/ ftu'b/ \sw eo fdZs/ rJ/.
d;w gkfsPkj ih s'A pknd f;zxK s/ nfsnzs ;\sh dk ;wK
nk frnk. T[ikV/ PjhdhnK, xZb{xko/ tkgod/ oj/. pu/ j'J/ f;Zy,
izrbh tk; eoB bJh wIp{o j' rJ/. fJ; fpyV/ d"o ftZu fco “;zs
wjzs bkDk” r[odtkfonK s/ ekpi j' frnk. jo soQK dhnK pqkjwDh
ohsK, r[odtkfonK ftZu gqubs eo fdZshnK rJhnK. oDihs f;zx
d/ oki ftZu, ;ko/ f;Zy ;odko, pqkjwD ƒ (gosZy iK gq'y) ngDk
r[o{ ;theko eo u[Ze/ ;B. y[d oDihs f;zx (wjkokik) ngDh neb
s/ f;Zy oki dh n;hw skes pqkjwDK d/ g/N/ gk u[Zfenk ;h. pj[s jh
ysoBke, f;Zyh dhnK iVQK tZYD tkbhnK ohsK o;wK, fJ;/ ;w/A ;[o{
j'JhnK jB. Gkt/A fe bzwh ;'u w[skpe pqkjwD B/ feskpK gfjbK jh
fbyDhnK P[o{ eo fdZshnK ;B, go nwbhikwk oDihs f;zx d/ oki tes
s/ wro'A jh g[nkfJnk iKdk fojk j?. fJjBK ykBdkBh w;zdK ƒ, r[odtkfonK
ftZu'A p/dyb toB tk;s/, f;zxK ƒ pj[s bzwh bVkJh bVBh gJh. fGnkBe
NeokT[ s'A pknd Gkt/A “;kjwD/ wZE/” f;Zy fiZs rJ/, go fJj nX{ok ;Zu
j?. ;zB 1925 dk r[odtkok n?eN gqpzX f;ZyK d/ jtkb/ eodk j?. go ;ko/
f;Zy gzE d/ wB w;se nzdo i' pqkjwDh ohsK o;wK v{zxhnK X; u[ZehnK
;B, T[j sK n?eN pDB Bkb BjhA fBebD bZrhnK ;koh f;Zy e"w r[opkDh
ƒ G[bk u[Zeh ;h. ;fsr[o{ ih d/ T[gd/P ƒ ft;ko u[Zeh ;h. Ppd s'A
nrtkJh gqkgs eoB dh Ekt/A, ;kXK, pqkjwDK, i'rhnK, ;zfBnk;hnK,
ghoK cehoK d/ g?oK s/ fvZr u[Zeh ;h. wkB' ;w[Zuh f;Zy t;'A pqkjwDh yko/
;kro ftZu m/b fdZsh rJh ;h. d/jXkoh r[o{nK dhnK XkVK g?dk j' u[ZehnK
;B. r[odtko/ sK Gkt/A ;q'wDh ew/Nh d/ gqpzX ftZu nk u[Ze/ ;B, go ;kXK
;zsK gqsh nzBQh PoXk sK b'e wBK ftZu'A ysw BjhA ;h j'Jh. fJ; ewI'oh

(178)
ƒ GKgfdnK, ;kXK ;zsK B/ nkgDh fBZih wkbeh tkb/ v/o/, Ne;kbK, mkm,
Xkw, fNekD/ nfde pDkT[D/ P[o{ eo fdZs/, fijV/ nZi sZe fBozso tXd/ ub/
nk oj/ jB.
;fsr[o{ ;fjpkB iK gqw[Zy f;ZyK Bkb ;pzXs fJfsjk;e r[odtko/
sK Pq'wDh r[odtkok gqpzXe ew/Nh e'b ub/ rJ/. nDfrDs v/o/dkoK ƒ
GftZy dh fuzsk tZY tZY ykD bZrh. nfij/ ukbpkI b'eK B/, nZr'A tk;s/
IwhB wekB ;KM/ ;zrs d/, Bk ofjD d/D dk fJokdk Xko fbnk. fbysh
foekov ftZu'A fJjBK dk Bkw pdb fdZsk frnk. v/ok, mkm, Ne;kb, Xkw
iK nfijk jh e[M j'o Bkw oZy fbnk. e[ZM fJZe B/ ;kjwD/ wjZst g{oB
;EkB s'A, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk ;o{g u[Ze fdZsk, fgSb/ ewo/ iK G'o/ nkfd
ftZu b[ek fdZsk frnk. eJh v/o/dkoK B/ f;Zyh ;o{g gfjbK jh fsnkfrnk
j'fJnk ;h. eJhnk B/ pknd ftZu fsnkr fdZsk. wfonkdk ftZu fJZe;kosk
sK gfjbK jh BjhA ;h. gzE tZb'A fsnko ehsh, wfonkdk wzBD s'A Gh fJj
b'e Bkpo j' rJ/. nkgDh d[ekBdkoh (v/o/) ƒ gZe/ g?ohA eoB tk;s/,
nfijh ;'u tkb/ b'eK B/, e[M fJfsjk;e s"o s/ BkwD/ tkb/ r[of;ZyK dk Bkw
Gh ngDh iE/pzdh bJh tosDk Io{oh ;wfMnk. fJjBK ftZu'A e[M e[ Bkw
fJj jB^ GkJh fpXh uzd dk Bkw^fJZe fBjzr iE/pzdh, fgzv ;[o f;zx, fIbQk
nzfwqs;o. GkJh xBZJhnk ih dk Bkw^;/tk gzEh iE/pzdh, fiBQK dh gqw[Zy
pqKu r'fBnkDk wzvh, fIbQk pfmzvk fty/ j?. dwdwh Ne;kb tkb/^gfjbK
(1970 sZe) fJj b'e nkgDh iE/pzdh GkJh wBh f;zx ih s'A uZbh fbyd/
gqukod/ oj/. ;zB ;Zso s'A pknd pkpk dhg f;zx ƒ ngDk w[yh rodkBD
bZr gJ/. fJZe j'o iE/pzdh (v/ok) “BkBe;ohJ/” j'D dk dw GoB bZr/.
fco sK fJZe fpwkoh fJZe tpk pD e/ T[Goh, i' tXdh jh ubh rJh. ;'Yh
s/ p/dh T[Zm yb's/^ny/ n;hA ;fsr[o{ ih d/ ykBdkB ftZu'A jK, ;kvk fJ;/
ekoD ftP/P ;BwkB j'Dk ukjhdk j?. eh fJj BjhA ikDd/ gJh fgoEh uzd,
Xhowb, okw okJ/, f;oh uzd nkfde ;ko/ jh ;'Yh p/dh ;B. go ;fsr[o{
ih B/ y{B d/ foPs/ ƒ e'Jh wjZst BjhA fdZsk, r[DK ƒ gqw[Zysk fdZsh j?. fJ;
s'A wro'A sK wkB' fJj w[ekpbk jh ub fgnk. ;ko/ GrsK d/ Bkw s/ nkg'

(179)
nkgD/, nbZr r[odtko/ T[Z;o rJ/. GkJh wodkBk ih d/ ykBdkB dk j'ek d/
fojk bkDk, dkjVh e/; eNtk e/, szpke{ dh tos'A eoe/, fJ;bkw Xow d/
n;{bK ƒ fdb'A wB' ;thekofdnK, ni/ Gh r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ yk;
fBeNtosh f;Zy j'D dk n?bkB eodk nk fojk j?. ;kJhA whnK who d/
ykBdkB Bkb ;pzXs, b'e Gh f;ZyK s'A ftP/P ;BwkB gqkgs eoB tk;s/
sob' wZSh j'J/ fcod/ jB. uzB gho ekdoh fJZe wkbk ftyke/, gqukfonk
ik fojk j? fe fJj “;[rks” ;kJhA whnK who ih ƒ, y[d gzit/A BkBe ih
B/ pyfPP ehsh ;h. bZrd/ jZE fJZe ehwsh jko, wksk rzrk ih B/ Gh gho
ih ƒ BIo” ehsk ;h. r[opkDh ftZu wkbk dk ;\s fBy/X j?, wksktK ;kdk
ihtB pshs eodhnK ;B. go fJj ;kok e[M “fJfsjk;e” pDk fdZsk
frnk j?.
fco okJ/ eZb/ dk ykBdkB feT[A fe;/ s'A fgZS/ oj/ < xVh rJh ejkDh
pVh Bk:kp uhI j?l ny/ d;t/A BkBe B/ okJ/e'N d/ izrb ftZu, wZMK ukoB
tkb/ gkbh s' A , ghD bJh d[ Z X wz f rnk. T[ ; B/ wike eofdnK,
nkfynk^“wjkoki` s[;hA sK t?;/ ikDh ikD j', go fJjBK wZMK ftZu fJZe'
fJZe M'Nh (nT[;o^czvo) j?. pVh yZNo j? B/V/ BjhA fe;/ ƒ cNeD fdzdh.
u' ;ed/ j' sK d[X
Z u' bU.” fJj M'Nh nZi sZe roGtsh BjhA j'Jh ;h. fe;/
pZu/ ƒ iBw d/D dk sK ;tkb jh g?dk BjhA j[zdk ;h. ;fsr[o{ ih B/ “;?AeV/
;[ok\K tkbk b'Nk fbnk, czvo wZM ƒ gb'; e/, j/mK p?m rJ/. czvo wZM B/
d[ZX dhnK bfjoK bk fdZshnK. S/eK tkbk b'Nk, BZekBZe Go frnk. ;fsr[o{
ih B/ y[d d[ZX ghsk s/ ;kfonK ƒ gqPkd o{g fgbkfJnk. S/eK ftZu'A d[ZX
v[fbQnk jh BjhA.” fJ; “eokwksh b'N/” dh pd"bs, okJ/ eZb/ d/ gVg'so/
B/, eo'VK o[g? ewk bJ/ jB, s/ ni/ Gh fJj “b'Nk^b[ZN” fBofpxB ikoh j?.
fJ; PowBke M{m ƒ tXkT[D c?bkT[D ftZu “efjzd/ ejkT[Ad/ Bkwh okrh,
Ykvh s/ gqukoe sK Pkfwb j?B jh, ;r'A Pq'wDh r[odtkok gqpzXe ew/Nh Gh,
400 ;kbK r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp (n;b ftZu g'Eh) d/ gfjb/ gqekP ƒ “X{w Xkw
Bkb wBkT[AfdnK” r[odtkfonK ftZu ;zrsK ƒ ftP/P PkB Bkb, “b'Nk
;kfjp” d/ “doPB dhdko/” eotk ojh ;h.

(180)
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ N[efVnK ftZu tzvh wB[Zysk, B|os dh nZr
ftZu ;V ojh b'ekJh ƒ, “>” d/ bV bk e/, fJZe' nekb g[oy d/ g?dk ehs/
j'D dk nfj;k; eokfJnk. yZsoh pqkjwD ;{d t?P dk fGzB G/d fwNk e/,
fJB;kB j'D dk j'ek fdZsk. fBZehnK tZvhnK iE/pzdhnK ftZu tzv/, i'rh
pqkjwD Jhoyk dh sgP ftZu Gh ;V oj/ ;B, ns/ ;dhnK s'A r[bkwh dk d[Zy
Gh ;fj oj/ ;B. fJjBK GftZy w[yh bk;kBh ekoiK ƒ, r[o{ ih B/ y[d
;wfMnk, s/ ;G ƒ ;wMkfJnk. jo gZy'A N[ZN u[Ze/ ewI'o b'e ;fsr[o{ ih
dh PoD ftZu fJeZm/ j'D bZr/. fiT[A fiT[A f;nkDg tkbh nrtkJh ftZu b'e
i[Vd/ rJ/, fst/A fst/A pj[gZyh cfsj:kph tZb tXd/ rJ/. frDsh ftZu ;G
s'A xZN j'D d/ pkti{d f;Zy Xow ;G b'eK ƒ wks gk frnk. f;Zyh ihtB
fJZe wkvb o{g ftZu ;sekfonk ikD bZfrnk. j'o nZr/ tXfdnK jo,
fcoe/ spe/ d/ b'e, nfs dh ;\sh d/ pkti{d, nkgD/ g[ZsoK ƒ p/y"c j' e/,
f;zx ;ik oj/ ;B. fJ; pjkdoh ns/ B/eh dh pd"bs (;fsr[o{ ih dh fdZsh
;'Mh) f;Zy, Ikbw je{ws dhnK iVK g[ZND ftZu ekw:kp j'J/. pd/Ph
b[N/fonK ƒ GZiD tk;s/ wIp{o eo fdZsk. PkBkwZs/ f;Zy oki d/ Mzv/ M[bk
fdZs/, vze/ tZi rJ/. f;Zy ;wki, u'oK vke{nK b[N/fonK d/ pdBkw ro'j s'A
pdbe/, goT[gekoh, pjkdoK, iKpkI okfynK d/ o{g ftZu ;thekfonk
frnk. ;z;ko Go ftZu, r[o{ feogk ;dek, f;ZyK dh ehosh c?b rJh.
f;ZyK Bkb d';sh gkT[Dh, wkD dk gqshe pD rJh.
;w/A B/ eotN pdbh, okiBhse nkr{ n?Pgq;s j' rJ/. Xkowe
nkr{ GNe rJ/, Xow s'A d{o j' rJ/. v/o/dkoh dk cBhno Bkr, ;ko/
f;Zy gzE ƒ nkgDh i'odko ieV ftZu BghVdk ubk frnk. fi;
p[Ifdb fposh tkb/ ;kXK ;zsK ƒ, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ d[oekfonk fcNekfonk
;h, T[jh yk;hnsK ns/ y[droIh b? e/, GKs ;[GKs/ v/o/dko, w[V s'A
po;ks d/ vZv{nK tKr “No?A No?A” eod/ ;[DkJh d/D bZr/. id'A fJjBK
t/fynk fe “fjzr bZr/ Bk cNeVh, g{ik g?;k tkX{.” sK fJjBK b'eK
B/ ozr pozr/ Bkw oye/, ihtB tkb/, f;o eZYt/A r[o f;ZyK d/ Bkw dh
tos'A eoe/, nkgD/ v/o/ ;Ekgs eo bJ/. r[o{ ;kfjp ih B/ “tD tD
dh beVh” ƒ fJZe' gq/w ;{so ftZu go'fJnk ;h. fJjBK v/o/dkoK w[V
(181)
;w[Zu/ gzE ƒ y/o{z y/o[z eo fdZsk j?. fpBK fe;/ fJfsjk;e ;p{s s'A GkJh
wodkBk ih d/ ykBdkB tkb/, wodkBk ih tkbk o[spk gqkgs eoB bJh
ekjb/ jB. ;kJhA whnK who dk ykBdkB fJjBK s'A nZr/ fBebDk ukj[zdk j?,
ny/ “;kv/ e'b gzit/A BkBe dh wkbk i{ j?.” r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh
“;skjothA e[b” ftZu'A T{B/ tkb/ v/o/dko, ;opi's f;zx (p/dh) nkgD/ nkg
ƒ ;fsr[o{ ih dk n;bh fpzdh g[Zso d; fojk j?. id'A fe r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
ih B/ fpzdh g[ZsoK ƒ e'Jh nfjwhns BjhA fdZsh. fgzv ;[o f;zx, fIbQk
nzfwqs;o fty/, pkpk dfJnk f;zx dk gqtko eo'VK BjhA nopK gsh pD
u[Zfenk j?. feT[Afe T[j S/t/A BkBe d/ pjkdo f;Zy GkJh fpXh uzd d/ Bkw
ƒ nkgD/ v/o/ Bkb BZEh eo u[Ze/ jB. fJ;/ pkpk dfJnk f;zx B/ ;zB 2000
ftZu nkgD/ pd/PK ftZu v/o/ d/ g?;/ Bkb r[bSoo/ T[vk oj/ bkvb/ ;g[Zso dk
“;kdk fijk ftnkj” ehsk ;h. “;fsr[o{ dh G? GktBh ftZu ofjzfdnK r[o{
eh r'be ftZu'A, fsb c[b b? e/, g[Zso d/ ftnkj s/ f;oc u"dK eo'V o[fgnk
you ehsk ;h.” XzB f;ZyhHHHHHH. XzB ;zsrhoh.
GkJh xBZJhnk ih B/ nkgD/ ihtB ekb ftZu e'Jh ;z;Ek iK v/o/dkoh
BjhA ubkJh. Bk jh r[o{ xo ftZu m/ed / koh ƒ e'Jh wkBsk j?. go nZi T[jBK
d/ Bkw s/ y{p v/o/ uZb oj/ jB. gzE Bkb'A tyo/tK (gkVk) gkT[D dk N[efVnK
ftZu tzvD dh “;/tk” ewk oj/ jB. fGzvoK Ne;kb (wfjs/ u"Ae) tkb/
ngDh v/o/dkoh ƒ, d;w/A BkBe r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih Bkb fXCkD/ d/ I'o BZEh
eo oj/ jB. ny/ ;kvh “dwdwh Ne;kb” dwdwk fty/ P[o{ j'Jh. ;zB
1970 sZe r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh ji{oh ftZu, ;zx gkV gkV e/ p'bd/ oj/, fe
r[o{ d;w gkfsPkj s'A pknd rZdh fwbh GkJh wBh f;zx ih ƒ. fXnkB oj/
fJjh e{V gquko ;Zs'tkbh rbh (nzfwqs;o) tkb/, nwho Gzvko tkb/ pkp/,
wZyD f;zx Gh p'b oj/ jB. fJjh X'yk fGzvoK fgzv ftZu ofj oj/ frL w'jD
f;zx Gh (Ne;kbhJ/) eo oj/ jB. ;zB ;Zso s'A pknd iEk wfjsk u"e
tkfbnK (Ne;kbhJ/) nuBu/sh X'ph gNek wkofdnK, M{m p'bD d/ ;ko/
foekov s'V fdZs/. fjZe d/ skD, r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dh jI{oh ftZu, p/y"c
j' e/ e[co s'bDk P[o{ ehsk.” ;kvh wjkB iE/pzdh ;h; sbh s/ oZy, bVB
tkb/ bk;kBh :'X/, Pjhd pkpk dhg f;zx s'A uZbh j?.” GkJh wBh f;zx ih
(182)
dh Pjhdh g;zd Bk nkJh < pkjtK T[bko T[bko e/, jIkoK d/ fJeZmK ftZu,
g?Ash ;kb s'A ny"sh pqjw frnkBh M{m p'bd/ nk oj/ jB. i' ni/ Gh fBo
fpxB ikoh j?. stkohyh feskpK, fit/A gqkuhB gzE gqekP, ;{oi gqekP, ;qh
r[o;'Gk, frl frnkB f;zx, wjkB e'P GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk, nkfd fe;/
Gh feskp ftZu fJjBK dh Ne;kb dk Bkw' fBPkB BjhA j?. fco Gh nkgD/
nkg ƒ d;w/ ;fsr[o{ d/ tkfo; rodkB oj/ jB. nfij/ b'eK, v/fonK
ekoB, gzE yZyVhnK eo/b/ j'fJnk j?. d/jXkoh r[o{nK, ;kXK dh wkBsk
gqc[bZs j'Jh j?. nfij/ M{m/ v/o/dkoK s'A ;ktXkB` pu'`` r[otke jB ^
;sh gjoh ;s Gbk pjhn? gfVnk gkf;]
T[E? gkg g[zB phukohn? e{V/ xN/ okf;] (146)
fJjBK N[efVnK ftZu'A bZGD dh y/ub eo' ih fe “ykb;k gzE” feZE/
j? < iK fJj ;ko/ jh “gzE” jB <
fJjBK s'A fJbktk gzikp d/ jo fIbQ/^Pfjo ftu" n";sB 2000
“;/te” iE/pzdhnK s/ nekbh db jB. r[odtkok ew/NhnK j'o nDfrDs.
fi; ‘ykb;k gzE iK r[o{ gzE’ dk T{uk Y'b tikfJnk ik fojk j?, feE/ j? T[j
n;bh gzE < fJj sK ;ko/ fJZe d{i/ d/ d[PwD pD/ BIo nkT[Ad/ jB. fco
ftZu/ Pokph, ftGukoh, r'be u'o, foPtsy'o, gzE ƒ nzdo'A pkjo'A, t/u tZN
e/ veko ikD tkb/ Gh “n;bh gzE jh jB”< jo fJe dh “YkJh gk fyuVh”
tZy' tZyo/ u[bQ/ s/ foZM ojh j?. r[o{ fgnko tkb/ r[of;Zy'` j'P eo'`` gzE dh
uVQdh ebk dk e'Jh gq'rokw T[be'``` toBk ;kvk p/Vk sK rofenk jh
j'fJnk j?. r[otke jB ^
o/ w{V/` nBekj/ es ikJh <
;zfr wB'jo nzfwqs j? o/ G{fb G{fb fpy[ ykJh] (1212)

[[[[

(183)
;/tk tZvh fe r[o{ frnkB <
Gkosh ;fGnsk ftZu “Xkowe w[yhnK” B/ i' T[gd/P ;dhnK sZe
nkgD/ b'eK ƒ fdZsk, T[;/ w[skpe b'eK dh wkBf;e xkVs xVhAdh ubh
rJh. feT[Afe ftZfdnk gqkgs eoB dk j'o e'Jh Iohnk jh BjhA ;h. p;
Xow nkPowK ftZu, nkgD/ pZfunK ƒ G/i fdT[, T[E/ fit/A “wjkswk ih”
dk wB eo/, T[; soQK dh f;Zfynk nkgD/ u/fbnK ƒ d/t/. ftob/ ƒ SZve/
ftZfdnk sK ftuko/ foPh w[Bh ih (nZi eZbQ ;zs ih) B/ y[d BjhA gVQh, Gbk
u/fbnK ƒ eh gVQkJ/rk < jK v/o/ dh ;ckJh, ;kXK d/ u'b/ bzr'N/ (iK eSfjo/)
X'D/, ;zsK dhnK wkbPK eoBhnK, iK fco B/V/ dh nkpkdh ftZu'A nzB dkDk
wzr fbnkT[Dk. y[d ykDk s/ fJjBK t/jbV g[ikohnK ƒ ytkT[Dk. fizB/ e[
“sh; wkoyK” y[d ;kX j[zd/ ;B T[sB/ e[ “yZphykB” nkgD/ ;/teK ƒ pDk
fdnk eod/ ;B. Xkowe PoXk nXhB iK nkgD/ “bkvfbnK dh ftZfdnk
dh ch; d/ s"o s/”, nzB p;so fSwkjh wro'A b'ehA g[ukT[Ad/ ofjzd/ ;B.
fJT[A efj bJhJ/ fe Gkosh ;ZfGnsk ns/ Gkosh XowK dk ubD ;dhnK
sZe fJ; ;zu/ ftZu Ybdk, s/ gogZe j[zdk ubk frnk. bzwK ;wK phsD d/
Bkb jo ghjVh ƒ nZr/ s'A nZr/ fJjh “frnkB” fwbdk frnk fe, “frq;sh
Bht/A jB, s/ fsnkrh T[Zu/ jB”. fJjBK fizw/tkohnK s'A GZi/ b'eK dhnK XkVK
tXdhnK rJhnK. Xowh j'D dk Y"Ar eoe/ fJj gkyzvh b'e frq;shnK ƒ
i'eK pDe/ fuzpVd/ rJ/. ;ZfGnsk j'o ewI'o j[zdh ubh rJh, d/P s/
w[;hpsK d/ gjkV fvZrd/ rJ/.
gquZbs Xkowe tosko/ ftZu ;fsr[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ eqKshekoh
BthBsk fbnKdh. fiE/ gfjbK feosh d[oekfonk iKdk ;h, j[D ;ftekfonk
ikD bZrk. i/ gfjbK “fsnkrh ;kX” Xowh j'D dk y[d Yzv'ok fgZN oj/ ;B,
s/ frq;shnK ƒ nXowh iK gkgh j'Dk rodkB oj/ ;B. sK ;fsr[o{ ih B/
ftjbVK ƒ fcNeko gkJh s/ jZEhA feos eoB tkfbnK dk wkD tXkfJnk.
r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih B/ y[d y/sh tkjh, B"eoh, d[ekBdkoh nkfd ;ko/ ezw

(184)
fpBK ;ze'u ehs/. jo wB[Zy wkso ƒ nkgD/ fizw/ bZrh, fJwkBdkoh Bkb
“;/tk” ;wMe/ eoB dh jdkfJs ehsh. Bt/A t;kJ/ f;Zfynk e/Ado eoskog[o
fty/ fJ; sohe/ dh nwbh ihtB iku dk wkvb ;fsr[o{ y[d ;B. pj[s/
b'ehA g[oksB pqkjwDh ;'u ftZu Yb/ j'D ekoB r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih ƒ Gh
fJZe v/o/dko ;kX jh ;wMd/ ;B. id'A fBZs dh fefonk (NkJhw N/pb)
t/yd/ sK T[jBK ƒ e[M tyo/tK BIo g?Adk. ;t/o s'A b? e/ Pkw sZe, jo ezw
;fsr[o{ ih dh fBrokBh ns/ fJZSk w[skpe j[zdk. ;kfonK ƒ ;ohoe
;woZEk ns/ w[jkos w[skpe ezw (;/tk) fdZs/ iKd/. fpBK ftseo/ s'A obe/
bzro pDkT[Ad/ s/ tzv e/ Sed/. ;fsr[o{ ih dh BIo ftZu MkV{ dh ;/tk s'A
b? e/ Xow T[gd/P eoB sZe, jo ezw pqkpo dh “;/tk” ;h. r[o{ xo ftZu
jo gqeko dh feos ƒ ;fseko fdZsk frnk, s/ feosh wB[Zy BhtK Bk
ofje/, pqkpo dk fJB;kB ;wfMnk ikD bZrk.
;wK nkgDh ukb/ ubdk frnk. nkw b'eK ftZu f;o/ dh nDgVQsk
ns/ nfrnkBsk ;h. v{zx/ frnkB ;kro (r[opkDh) ftZu T[soBk jkoh;koh
d/ t; ftZu BjhA ;h. r[o{ dh BIo ftZu gqtkD j'D dk ;kdk fijk sohek ;h,
jZEhA feos tZX s'A tZX ;/tk eoBh. ;wK phsD Bkb “frnkB” tkbk gZy
ewI'o g?Adk frnk, “;/tk” Gko{ j[zdh ubh rJh. Gkt/A fJj Gh ;" gqshPs
mhe j? fe frnkBtkB wB[y Z neb dh tos'A okjhA ;r'A j'o uzro
/ h “;/tk” eo
;edk j?. ;/tk dk n;b wzst jh frnkB okjhA ;wM nkT[Adk j?. GkJh
bfjDk ih eoskog[o fty/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh PoB ftZu nkD Y[Ze/.
fit/A dh ;/tk ;"Agh rJh T[j g{oh f;de fdbh Bkb eod/ rJ/. fiZE/ fes/
wB ftZu e'Jh ;tkb T[sgB j[zdk ;h, GkJh bfjDk ih ;fsr[o{ s'A g[ZS b?Ad/.
fJj Gh g{oh soQK ;zGt j? fe r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp fe;/ g[ZS d/ T[Zso ftZu nky
fdzd/ j'Dl GkJh ih i' ;tkb s[;hA ehsk j?, w?A nkgDh fbyh pkDh ftZu
fJ;dk ft;Eko ;fjs i[nkp d/ u[Zfenk jK. pkDh ƒ fXnkB Bkb gV',
ftuko', nkgD/ nkg i[nkp fwb ikt/rk. fit/A fit/A ;wK phsdk frnk GkJh
fbjDk ih jZEhA ;/tk Gh eod/ ofjzd/, ns/ Bkb jh r[o{ frnkB (r[opkDh) dk
fJekro fuZs j' e/ nfXn?B Gh eod/. fJ; soQK T[jBK dk wkBf;e wzvb

(185)
ftPkb j[zdk ubk frnk. fJ; ;otgZyh xkb s'A y[P j' e/ r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp
ih B/ T[jBK ƒ fBowb gzE dh tkr v'o ;"Ag fdZsh. nZi sZe dhnK gqkgs
fbysK ftZu, GkJh bfjDk ih dh ehsh “;/tk” dk T[xVtK ;EkB j?. T[jBK
dk “frnkB” fezBk e[ ;h < ;G fbysK u[Zg jB. GkJh bfjDk ih B/ “fuZeV
Go/ xkj dh gzv u[Zeh. ;zrs ftZu'A woh u{jh u[Ze e/ pkjo ;[ZNh. oks ;w/A
fvZrh ezX T[;koBh. oks ƒ jh egV/ X' fbnkT[D/. rzd/ Bkb/ ftZu'A b'Nk eZY
fbnkT[Dk. izv s/ uVQe/ “ib/phnK” bkj b?DhnK. iK w[odk ykD bJh
fsnko j' g?DkHHHHH.” ;Zs ;kb s'A tZX ;wK r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh ji{oh
ftZu ofj e/, GkJh bfjDk ih B/ e/tb “;/tk” ehsh < r[o{ BkBe ftukoXkok,
Grs pkDh, r[o{ BkBe ih dhnK bzwhnK :ksoktK dk siopk, r[ows
;zrhs ebk, ftuko uoukHHHHHHfet/A s/ ed'A f;Zyh < fJ;dk e'Jh fbysh
fIeo BjhA fwbdk. eh fJj wzB bJhJ/ fe r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih B/ r[opkDh
dk w[skfbnk ehsk jh BjhA < nro r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp r[o{ BkBe ih d/
T[gd/P ƒ, Bk ;wMd/, sd T[jBK d/ ftuko r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih Bkb'A tyo/tA/
tkb/ j'D/ ;[Gkte ;B. ;r'A d{i/ BkBe dh pkDh fJzB fpzB gfjb/ BkBe dh
pkDh dh ftnkfynk jh eo ojh j?. i/eo r[o{ nzrd jh BkBe o{g ;B sK
;oho eoe/ BjhA, ;r'A frnkB eoe/. feT[Afe wjbk (;oho) sK d{ik ;h
go frnkB (i's) T[jh ;h.
gquZbs fJfsjk; w[skpe pkpk nwodk; ih ;Zm pkjm ;kb dh
T[wo ftZu r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih dh jI{oh ftZu nkJ/. bzwk ;wK fBofpxB
nEZe ;/tk ehsh. “gkDh Y'Dk, r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih dk jo o'I fJPBkB
eokT[Dk, MkV{ d/Dk, bzro fsnko eoBk, i{m/ posD wKiD/, gZyk MZbDkHHHHH.”
fJjBK pkoK s/oK ;kbK d"okB pkpk nwodk; B/ f;yobh jZd sZe “;/tk”
ehsh. m'jeoK ykXhnK, skjB/ ;j/, f;o ftZu w'NhnK i{znK g? rJhnK. e/;
T[ZyV rJ/ skb{J/ s/ i\w j' rJ/. r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih (;fsr[o{ w[nkc
eoBk, GkJh ;zsy' f;zx tb'A fbfynk ;{oi gqekP rqE
z fi;dh ;ko/ r[odtkfonK
ftu joo'i eEk ehsh ik ojh j?. fgqzL ;fspho f;zx tb'A fbyh g;se
e[dosh B{o ftu Gh ;fsr[o{ ih dh s"jhB ehsh rJh j?. gqubs ejkDhnK

(186)
dk fIeo eo fojk jK) ƒ e'jV bZfrnk j'fJnk ;h. ghV Bkb sVcd/ t/y
e/, pkpk nwodk;, d{i/ BkBe d/ ghe Go/ iywK ƒ w{zj Bkb u{;d/, w?bk y{B
pkjo eZYd/. wjb/ d{i/ d/ p;so rzd/ y{B Bkb fbZpV iKd/ ;B. pkpk nwo{
(nwodk;) fco w{zj Bkb uZN u{; e/, w?bk ;kc eod/. fJjBK “;/tktK” s'A
so[Zm e/, pkpk nwo dk; ih ƒ r[orZdh gqkgs j'Jh ;h. gkme iB'` iok
rfjokJh Bkb ;'u'`` fJjBK ;kohnK gquZbs ehshnK eEk ejkDhnK ftZu,
;fseko:'r T[u P\;hns pkpk nwodk; (Bkb jh r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp) dh,
Bhusk dhnK ;G jZdK gko eoe/ s"jhB ehsh rJh j?. pkpk ih ƒ T[iZv,
w{VQ, rzdk rbhu, i{znK Bkb Gfonk, e'jV tkbh rzdh ghe u{;fdnK
ftykfJnk frnk j?. eh r[o{ xo ftZu fJ; soQK dh “;/tk” f;ykJh iKdh
;h < d{;o/ BkBe B/ edh Bk nkfynk, “g[oyk` s/o/ ftZu'A sK pdp' nkT[Adh
j?. feow (i{znK) g? rJ/ jB, iywK Bkb s/ok ;oho Go frnk j?. ikj
gfjbK fJbki eotk, ;kc ;[Eok j' e/ nkthA, fco ;/tk eohAHHHHH.” r[o{
nzrd feT[A nkyD, gfjbK T[jBK s'A Gh sK ;kyhekoK B/ fJ;/ soQK dh “;/tk”
eotkJh ;h. r[orZdh sK Gkt/A fwb rJh go r[o{ BkBe d/ “j'Djko ;g[Zso
;qh uzd d/ ;okg ekoB e'jV Gh s'jc/ ftZu fwfbnk.” fJ; e'jV dk ;okg
r[o{ okwdk; ;kfjp ih B/, ;qh uzd d/ g?ohA fvZr e/, dkjVh Bkb uoB g{zM
e/, jIko sob/ eoe/, fes/ w;hA w[nkc eotkfJnk ;h.” (fJjh e{V e[co
;kv/ ny"sh fJfsjk; ftu Gfonk fgnk j?)
sh;o/ BkBe dh gktB pkDh ;skoK okrK ftZu T[ukoD ehsh j'Jh
r[o{ rzqE ;kfjp ftZu ;[GkfJwkB j?. T[jBK B/ fJj okr ftZfdnk feE'A f;Zy
bJh < nkgDh bzx u[Zeh T[wo d"okB, pkpk nwodk; ih B/ edh eftsk dh
fJZe gzesh sZe BjhA fbyh ;h. nkj fJsBh ;koh pkDh fbyD dh ;'Mh
T[jBK ƒ feZE'A gqkgs j'Jh < nBzd ;kfjp torh “Pkjeko” pkDh fet/A
nuBu/sh fby fdZsh < nDfrDs p[okJhnK d/ fto[ZX fet/A I'odko nktki
p[bzd eod/ oj/ < r[o{ BkBe ftukoXkok s'A okJh wkso coe BjhA bZG/rk,
fJe;kosk fet/A pD nkJh < feT[Afe ;ko/ gquZbs fJfsjk; ftZu'A, bZy
e'fPP eoB d/ pkti{d pkpk nwodk; ƒ, gktB r[opkDh gVQdk fes/

(187)
fbfynk BjhA fwb/rk. r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih s'A “f;Zyh dh f;Zfynk” b?Ad/
BIo BjhA nkt/rk. eh r[opkDh gVQBh ftukoBh, T[; w[skpe ihtB ubB
pDkT[Dk, “;/tk” ftZu Pkwb BjhA j? < r[opkDh ftZu'A “;/tk” dh iku f;Zye/
jo gqkDh wkso dh, ;woZEk ns/ b'V w[skpe ;jkfJsk eoBh “;/tk” BjhA
j? < e/tb N'eoh Y'n e/, f;oc gkDh fgbk e/, iK MkV{ d/e/, i'V/ ;kc eoe/
“r[ows” dh ;wM nk ;edh j? < ih BjhA.
u"E/ BkBe pko/ Gh brgr fJ;/ soQK dk “fJfsjk;” gVQB ƒ fwbdk
j?. pkbe i/mk ih S'Nh T[wo/ :shw j' rJ/ wzB ;ed/ jK. rohph ekoB
BkBh ih Bkb obe/ fwjBs wId{oh eod/ j'D, tkip j?. wB sd'A e[obk
T[mdk j? id'A ;fsr[o{ nwodk; ih dh T[Zsw fBrokBh ftZu ofje/ Gh, e/tb
“N'eoh Y'Ad/” jh fd;d/ jB. bzro MkV{, bZeVK EVQ/,HHHHnkfd dh “;/tk”
ftZu shj ;kb s'A tZX fpsk fdZs/. r[opkDh ed'A f;Zyh, r[o{ BkBe Xkok ƒ
ed'A ;wfMnk, shj okrK dh emB f;ybkJh feZE'A gqkgs ehsh < e'Jh BjhA
dZ;dk, feT[A < r[o{ nwodk; ih d/ bkfJe r[of;Zy, j'Djko p/Nh GkBh ih
d/ gsh, ;fsr[o{ ih d/ dkwkd, o{g ftZu (;zB 1554 s'A 1574 sZe) thj ;kb
ftuo/. fszB g[ZsoK d/ fgsk pD rJ/. bkj"o fty/ nepo Bkb ftuko uouk
Gh eo nkJ/. fdZshnK ;/XK w[skpe nzfwqs;o (sd'A uZe okwdk;) Bro
p;kT[Ad/ oj/. pkpk ;qh uzd d/ uoB MkVd/ oj/. p; brksko “;/tk” eod/
oj/. frnkB jk;b ed'A ehsk, e'Jh fIeo BjhA fwb/rk. jK ikd{Jh Yzr
Bkb id'A sh;o/ BkBe B/, “r[o{ BkBe i's” i/mk ih ftZu fNek fdZsh sK T[;/
tes T[j, nZy d/ c'o ftZu “BkBe o{g j' rJ/.” ;'X e/ fJfsjk; fbfynk
ikDk ukjhdk j?.
T[go tofDs xNBktK tKr jh gzit/A BkBe ih dk ihtB fJfsjk;
gVB ƒ fwbdk j?. fgsk r[o{ ih dh nkfrnk wzB e/ bj"o ub/ rJ/.
ftnke[bsk dhnK fuZmhnK (<) w/ok wB[ b'u?HHHH) fbyd/ oj/. fgoEh uzd
dhnK finkdshnK PKs fuZs podkPs eod/ oj/. p; r[orZdh d/ jZedko
pD rJ/. BkBk r[o{ nwodk; ih s'A r[ows feT[A Bk gVQh < fgsk r[o{
okwdk; s'A r[ows frnkB feT[A gqkgs Bk ehsk < ;kohnK g[;seK ykw'P

(188)
jB, feT[A < gZe/ ;p{s j'D ekoB Gkt/A “fJfsjk;ekoK” ƒ fJj fbyD bJh
sK wIp{o j'Dk fgnk j? fe r[o{ noiB ;kfjp B/ r[opkDh dh ;zgkdBk eoe/,
g'Eh ;kfjp fsnko ehsh. pkDh fbyD pko/ ;?AeV/ Pze/ yVQ/ eo fdZs/. edh
“ewb/ w'jD” d/ fbnk g?ohA gkfJnk. ny/ T[jd/ e'b r[opkDh dhnK g'EhnK
b?D rJ/ ;B. gzikj feb' whNo Bzr/ g?oha, gzit/ BkBe ƒ N'o e/ r'fJzdtkb
fty/ T[; u[pko/ bkr/ IwhB s/ p?m e/ Ppd rkfJnk^“w'jB s/o/ T{u/ wzdo
wjb ngkok]” fJ;dk wsbp fJj j'fJnk fe gzit/A BkBe e'b r[opkDh
dk yIkBk BjhA ;h. T[jBK s'A gfjb/ r[oftneshnK B/ nfijh e'Jh rbsh
ehsh fe r[opkDh w'jD tor/ rbs pzfdnK d/ epI/ ftZu ubh rJh. fi;
ekoB gzit/A BkBe ƒ “ewb/ ;kX” (w'jD) d/ sob/ eoB/ gJ/. fco gzit/A
;fsr[oK “pkDh fJeZso ehsh” pko pko fbfynk ik fojk j?. gfjb'A pkDh
feZE/ fyboh gJh ;h < ;ko/ r[o ftneshnK ƒ “f;ZXV” fij/ ;/tkdko pDke/
sk y{p g/P ehsk ik fojk j?. frnkBtkB, d{onzd/P, ;w/A dh ukb ƒ
gSkBD tkb/, fJZe Bt/A Xow, BthA e"w, BthA ;fGnsk dh T[;koh eoB
tkb/, jofrI g/P BjhA ehsk frnk.
S/t/A BkBe dh f;Zfynk pko/ e'Jh ft;Eko BjhA fwbdk. ;Zst/A
nZmt/A BkBe pko/ fJfsjk; ykw'P j?. B"t/A BkBe Bkb y{p Xq'j ewkfJnk
frnk j?. ny/ ih “pkpk s/rk” SZph ;kb s'A G'o/ ftZu tV e/ sgZf;nk eo
fojk j?.” Gbk j't/ B/e r[of;Zy GkJh wZyD Pkj ih dk, fi;B/ “:[esh”
tos e/ r[o{ dh gSkD eo bJh. i/ fes/ T[j r[o{ bZGe/ BK fbnkT[Adk f;Zyh
dk sK ;wM' G'r jh g? frnk ;h. r[o{ jfofeqPB ih Gh rbsh eo rJ/, id'A
T[jBK, f;ZyK ƒ ;gZPN Bk dZf;nk fe nZr'A r[o{ e"D j?. id'A fe n;bhns
fJj j? fe pkpk s/r pjkdo 21^3^1664 ƒ y[d fdZbh ftZu nZmt/A BkBe ƒ
fwb/ ;B. T[E/ jh ;kohnK ;zrsK d/ ;kjwD/ r[orZdh dk c?;bk ;[Dk fdZsk
frnk ;h.
pkbe r'fpzd okJ/ dh f;Zfynk dh e'Jh N'j BjhA fwbdh. r[opkDh,
noph, cko;h, ;z;feqs, x'V ;tkoh, sho nzdkIh, B/Ik pzd{e s/r sbtko
ed'A f;Zy/, e'Jh fIeo BjhA. ;G e[M f;ZyD tes, i' e[M T[j eod/ do;kJ/

(189)
rJ/ jB, T[j j? B"itkB bVehnK d/ xV/ GzBD dk P[rb. wksk r[ioh ih e'b
fJ; “Pokos” dh PekfJs j'D s/ wksk ih B/ nkgD/ “eke/” ƒ ;wMkT[D
dh EKt/, p/p; e[VhnK ƒ b'j/ dhnK rkroK yqhd fdZshnK. ny/ fJjBK s/
r[b/bK wko BjhA eo ;eDrhnK. “e[okj/” gJ/ pkbe r'fpzd okJ/ B/ sho
ewkB b? e/ rkroK ftzBDhnK P[o{ eo fdZshnK. fco T[jBK phphnK B/ eh
ehsk < “fJfsjk;” w'BXkoh j?. Pow dhnK wkohnK PkfJd pkjo jh
fBebD'A jN rJhnK j'D. jK wksk r[ioh ih B/ y{j dk gkDh ykok j'D dk
“;okg” d/ fdZsk ;h. bVehnK gkDh b?D nkT[D' jh jN rJhnK. go
r'fpzd okJ/ Bk jN/HHHHH. nuBu/sh r'fpzd okJ/ ih ƒ rZdh ;zGkb e/ B"t/A
BkBe “Pjhdh d/D bJh” (<) fdZbh ƒ ub/ rJ/. fJ; ;ko/ ny"sh gqubs
“fJfsjk;” ftZu e/tb “;/tk” iK “PokosK” dk pVk fIeo j?. r[orZdh s/
fpokiwkB r[oftnesh ngD/ T[Zso nfXekoh dh fsnkoh tk;s/ e'Jh T[u/u/
isB BjhA eod/ ;B < e/tb posD ;kc eoB Bkb, MkV{ g'uk d/D Bkb,
bzro gekT[D BkbHHHHH fJsBh nkswe T[Zusk j' ;edh j? fe ;/tk s'A so[Zm
e/ r[o{ BkBe gkfsPkj dh oZph pyfPP (r[orZdh) f;Zy gzE dh tkr v'o ;"Agh
ik ;e/ < fJZe ;kXkoD ftnesh jb tkj bt/, wZMK ;KG bt/, bzro pDk e/
Sek bt/, izr :[ZX ftZu s/r tkj ;e/HHHHHH. go fJjBK ezwK eoe/ T[j fJzBk
wjkB j' ;edk j?, ;op gZyh fgqspk dk wkbe j' ;edk j? < tZv/ tZv/ Xkowe
n;EkBK d/ w[yhnK Bkb ftuko uouk eoBh, nkgD/ Xow d/ n;{bK ƒ
gqGktPkbh sohe/ Bkb d{finK ƒ ;wMkT[Dk eh S'Nh fijh rZb j? < ;wki
d/ soQK soQK d/ ;[Gkn tkb/ b'eK ƒ ;zs[PN eoe/, nkgD/ Bkb ;fjws eo
b?Dk eh wkw{bh fijh rZb j? < oki/ oitkfVnK ;Bw[Zy BtkpK u"XohnK
;kjwD/, p/pkeh Bkb ftuko uouk eoBh, nkgD/ Xow pko/ dZ;Dk, ;wki
s/ j' oj/ I[bw ƒ jkew ;Bw[Zy oZyDkHHHHHHeh fJj wkw{bh rZbK jB < nfij/
T[Zu/ fdwkr, ;[Zu/ ihtB tkb/ ftnesh e/tb “;/tk” dh pd"bs fsnko ehs/
ik ;ed/ jB < Bt/A Bt/eb/ nrKj tX{, ;{ow/ goT[gekoh (;zs f;gkjh iK
r[ow[y) PKsh d/ g[zi, uoyVhnK s/ uVQB tkb/, ekpb ezXko d/ s\sK skiK
ƒ eKpk S/V d/D tkb/, fJB;kBhns d/ “wkvb” f;oc e[M e[ ;/tk eoe/

(190)
gqtkB uVQ ;ed/ jB < ih BjhA` fJ; tZvh gbkfBzr (o{g o/yk) bJh jIkoK
wB[ZyK ƒ pj[gZyh f;ybkJh fdZsh rJh. ;w/A ;w/A s/ nDfrDs fJwfsnkB
bJ/ iKd/ oj/. ;ko/ ftfPnK ftZu'A Pq'wDh doik jk;b eoB tkbk (Nkg iK
r'bv w?vfb;N) r[ow[y iB r[o{ BkBe dh rZdh dk tkfo; Ekfgnk frnk.
e[ZM “xZN Bzpo b?D tkfbnK ƒ d/P ftd/P ftZu, Xow gqukoeK dh fIzw/tkoh
p\Ph iKdh ;h. r[o{ BkBe goT[gekoh ih B/ i' wB[Zysk bJh bk;kBh ekoi
ehs/ eh T[j “;/tk” BjhA ;h < jZEhA ;/tk eoBh fIzdrh dk fJZe gfjb{ j?,
;G e[ZM jh BjhA j?. ;dhnK s'A ftZfdnk tZb'A ;ZyD/, frnkBtkB pDkT[Dk eh
“;/tk” BjhA j? < gP{nK tork r[bkwh tkbk, r?osjhD ihtB pshs eoB
tkb/, nsh gSV/ ;wki ƒ, Xowh g[oP goT[gekoh, ;{ow/, nDy ;t?wkD
pdb/ jZ; jZ; ikBK e[opkB eoB tkb/, ;zu/ ftZu spdhb eo d/Dk eh “wjkB
;/tk” BjhA j? <
bzwk ;wK nDgVQ s/ vog'e fe;w dh fposh tkb/ ;kXK ;zsK dk
Xow n;EkBK s/ rbpk fojk. T[jBK fiZE/ fjzd{ g"okDe eEktK dk e{VQ epkV
tZv/ gZXo s/ r[ows ftZu dkyb ehsk, T[E/ “;/tk” dk ;zebg jh xZN/ o'b
fdZsk. e[ZM wkfJnk iK nzB p;so r[odtko/ nogD eoB/, iK bzro nkfd
dh fsnkoh ftZu :'rdkB gT[Dk jh “;/tk” n?bkBh rJh. i/ fe;/ d' edw
nrKj g[ZN/ sK ;zs pkp/ dhnK bZsK pkjtK x[ZNDhnK, fJPBkB eokT[Dk iK
wkbPK eoBhnK, sZe g[Zi rJ/. pkpk ih d/ p;so X' d/D/, wzik fp;sok ;?ZN
eo d/Dk, tXhnk getkB Sek d/D/, tkbh “;/tk” gqw[Zysk XkoB eodh
rJh. r[opkDh gVQBh ftukoBh, r[DK Gog{o ihtB pDkT[Dk ;/tk tkb/ ykB/
ftZu'A nb'g j[zdk ubk frnk. fJ;dk Bshik fJj fBefbnk fe nZi dk f;Zy
wkJh GkJh bzro ftZu g;hB' g;hBh j'fJnk fwb ikt/rk. ;kJheb ;e{No
;KGD/ i'V/ gkfbP eoB/, gkDh fgbkDk, MkV{ c/oBk nkfd dh “gftZso ;/tk”
eodk sK E'e ftZu fwb ikt/rk. r[opkDh ƒ ;wMD ;wMkT[D tkbk, f;Zy
f;ZXKsK dh ;jh soiwkBh eoB tkbk e'Jh ftobk iB bZG/rk. fJ;/ bJh
frnkBtkB pjkdoK dh f;Zy e"w, nZi w{VQsk ftZu roe j'Jh, ekfJosk
ftZu v[Zph, ;z;ko ;kjwD/ so; dh gkso pDh t/yh ik ;edh j?. i' f;Zy gzE

(191)
frnkB s/ pjkdoh d/ Bt/A ehoshwkB ;Ekgs eodk fojk ;h, nZi T[jh
“d{bk gzE” wVQhnK epoK dk g[ikoh, iK nZyK whNh G/vK tKr f;o ;[ZNh
;kXK d/ v/fonk tZb tjhoK pzBQh ik fojk j?. Xkr/ sths ikd{ wzso, G{s gq/s
Boe ;[or, shoE tos, PqkX, wZf;nk g[zfBnk, gP{nK gzShnK o[ZyK s'A b?
e/, pzfdnK sZe ;G dh g{ik eod/ “w{V f;Zy” nkw t/y/ ik ;ed/ jB.
nfijh ;[osh fposh tkb/ “;/te” ƒ fe;/ y{j ftZu XZek d/ fdT[, T[j e'Jh
T[Zio BjhA eo/rk. feT[Afe T[;d/ nzdo'A ftt/ePhbsk \sw j' rJh j?. nDy
r?os wo u[Zeh j?, fJB;kBhns (r[of;Zyh) B/V/ s/V/ Gh BjhA j?, fJ; bJh
T[; ƒ fi; y[obh s/ pzB e/ gZm/ gk fdT[, T[E/ jh ;[Phb pfDnk yb'sk
oj/rk.
;wK phsD Bkb frnkB s'A ykbh “;/tkdko” P{do (Bhu) pD
frnk. ftjbV pzdk ;/tk eotkT[D tkbk, ukbke g[ikoh (;kX ;zs) T[u Z k pD
p?mk. Bk ;wM ;/teK dh feos ewkJh, ukbke g[ikohnK d/ fYZvh g?Adh
ubh rJh. Bk ;wM ;/teK d/ pZu/ G[Zy/ ftbeD bZr/ s/ Pkso ;kX bkD/ dhnK
;Zs/ y?oK. feoshnk dh ;koh ewkJh b[ZN e/, pkfpnK B/ T[;ƒ nrb/ iBw
d/ ;[ZyK dk gotkBk d/ fdZsk. y[d ;zs ih, fJ;/ iBw ftZu fpBK vZek d'jok
ehs/, ;torK tork ;[Zy fJ;/ Xosh s/ wkBD bZr/. i/ ;/tk pj[s uzrh j? s/
;kX ;zs sK ;oho ƒ sZsh jtk BjhA brD d/ oj/. fJj ;ohoe ;/tk T[jBK
ftjbVk tk;s/ Io{oh BjhA ;h < ;/tk pko/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ pj[s e[ZM fbfynk
j?. e[M gowkD jkIo jB ^
;/t ehsh ;zs'yJh fiBh ;u' ;u[ fXnkfJnk]
UBh d[BhnK s'V/ pzXBk nzB gkDh E'Vk ykfJnk]
UBh wzd? g?o[ B ofyU efo ;[feqs[ Xow[ ewkfJnk]HHH(467)
;fsr[o{ ih ;wMk oj/ jBl ;/te ;zs'yh ihtB XkoB eo/ s/ ;Zu d/
wkor s/ uZb/. ;/te d[BhnK d/ rbs pzXBK o[ektNK ƒ s'V d/t/, ;'uDh
nkikd eo bt/, ;ohoe ;[nkdK fgZS/ jh Bk fgnk oj/. fIzdrh ƒ wzd/ okj
uZb e/ popkd Bk eo bt/, fJZe edw Gh rbs gk;/ Bk N[o/. ;/te T[j j?
i' ;[feqs, B/e ewkJh eofdnK nkgD/ gqtko dh ;zGkb eodk j?. fJ; B/eh

(192)
tkb/ okj s/ ubD tkbk g{oh soQK Xowh fJB;kB wzfBnk ikt/rk.
j'o c[owkB j? L^
;'Jh ;/te i' ;fsr[o[ ;/t/ ub? ;fsr[o{ GkJ/]
;uk ;pd f;cs j? ;uh ;uk wzfB t;kJ/] (753)
n;bh ;/te T[j j? i' ;fsr[o{ d/ T[gd/P ƒ ;dk u/s/ oZydk j?. fJ;/
bJh T[j ;fsr[o{ ih dh dZ;h fpXh w[skpe fIzdrh fiT[Adk j?. r[o{ dk
T[gd/P ;Zuk j? T[j f;Zy ƒ e[okj/ BjhA gkT[Adk, fJjh ;fsr[o{ dh ;Zuh
tfvnkJh j?. fco ;Zuk nekb g[oy ;dk tk;s/ ;/te f;Zy d/ fjod/ ftZu
p; iKdk j?. ;/te fEVedk BjhA j?, fIzdrh ;cbh eo b?Adk j?.
j'o^
;/ iB ;u/ fBowb/ fiB ;fsr[o Bkfb fgnko[]
;fsr[o[ ek GkDk ewktd/ fpy[ jT[w? sfi fpeko[] (65)
j/ GkJh T[j wB[Zy ;Zu/ jB ftekoK dh w?b s'A ofjs jB, fiBQK ƒ
;fsr[o{ Bkb fdbh fgnko j?. feT[Afe T[j ;fsr[o{ dk j[ew wzBe/ fIzdrh
pshs eod/ jB. ftekoK tkbk Ifjo Gfonk ihtB fsnkr fdzd/ jB. j'o
t/y' ^
;fsr[o eh ;/tk rkyVh f;o[ dhi? nkg[ rtkfJ]
;pfd wofj fcfo Bk wofj sk ;/tk gt? ;G EkfJ] (649)
;fsr[o{ tZb'A pyPh ihtB ;/X pj[s n"yh j?, nkgDh wZs, nkgDk
nkgk g{oh soQK SZvDk g?Adk j?. r[o{ d/ j[ew ƒ wzB e/ ftekoK tZb'A wB ƒ
wko b?D, fco T[jBK dh nkswe w"s BjhA j't/rh. nfij/ r[of;ZyK dh ;/tk
fco gotkB j'Jh wzBh ikt/rh. GkJh r[odk; ih dk tke ^
ir G'r BJht/d by, r[ow[fy w[fy fJe[ dkDk gkfJnk]
r[o GkJh ;zs; [ N efo, r[ow[fy ;[y cb[ fgow oykfJnk](7^13)
GkJh ;kfjp ih dZ; oj/ jBl fe b'eh iZr eod/ jB, d/tfsnK
Bfws, w{oshnK ƒ, g[ikohnK ƒ, G'r btkT[Ad/ jB. nfij/ bZyK Gow o{g
ezw eod/ jB. wB[Zysk bJh nkgk tkoB tkb/, goT[gekoh r[of;Zy ƒ, fJZe
dkDk (Gkt E'Vk fizBk) SekfJnk, j'o ;G eowK s'A T[Zsw j?. nkgD/ nkb/

(193)
d[nkb/ ofj oj/ r[of;ZyK dh jo soQK ;jkfJsk ehsh ikt/. b'VtzdK dh ehsh
rJh fBPekw ;/tk, gqG{ gqwkswk dh jh ;/tk j?. fJjh ;/tk j? i' gow ;[y
fdzdh j?.
nB/eK v/fonk s/ frnkB ofjs PoXkb{ wjhfBnK pZXh, ;kbK pZXh,
eJh tkoh T[wo Go “eko ;/tk” s/ ihtB ftnoE rtkT[Ad/ t/y/ ik ;ed/
jB. IwhBk, e'mhnK, pkr, ;kXK dh fBZih wkbeh j[zd/ jB. “beho d/
ceho PoXkb{, fdB oks fwZNh Bkb fwZNh j'e/ “;/tk eofdnK iBw ;cbk”
eo oj/ j[zd/ jB. f;o Pow Bkb M[e iKdk j? id'A PoXktkB phphnK “g[Zso
dh dks” gqkgs eoB tk;s/ nkgDhnK G'bhnK ƒjK, XhnK ƒ v/o/dkoK dh
“;/tk” ftZu ik jkIo eodhnK jB. fdB oks bzwk ;wK v/o/dko ;kX
(n;b ftZu ;kBQ) dh “gftZso ;/tk eofdnK, g[Zso dh gqkgsh eo, y[Ph
Bkb M'bh Go b?dhnK jB.” nfijh “;/tk” ftZu roe j'J/, tZv/ tZv/ Xowh
w[y"fNnK tkb/, ;oeko/ dopko/ n;o o;{y oZyD tkb/, tZv/ XB e[p/o
wZmkXkoh v/o/dko” nzBQ/ PoXkb{nK dh jo gqeko, p/dodh Bkb b[ZN eod/
jB. ;fsr[o{ ih sK r[o T[gd/P w[skpe fIzdrh pshs eoB ƒ jh ;op'sw
n?bkBd/ jB. Ppd gVQ' ^
e'fN wiB ike? ;[fD Bkw] e'fN g{ik ike? j? fXnkB]
e'fN g[zB[ ;[fD jfo eh pkDh] e'fN cbk r[o s/ fpfX ikDh]
wB[ ng[B/ wfj fcfo fcfo u/s] fpBf; ikfj wkfJnk e/ j/s](238)
gkfsPkj ;wMk oj/ jB ^ eo'VK shoEK dk g[zB ;fsr[o{ d/ frnkB
ftZu j?. eo'VK gqeko dh g{ik nouDk r[o T[gd/P ƒ fXnkB Bkb ;[DB ftZu
j?. eo'VK jh g[zB dkB Bkb'A fInkdk wjksw joh i; (r[oT[gd/P) ;[D b?D
ftZu jh j?. eo'VK jh cbK dh gqkgsh ;fsr[o{ ih s'A, ihtB fiT[D dh iku
f;Zy b?D ftZu j?. j/ wB[Zy w[V w[V nkgD/ nzdo Mksh wko, fe s{z eh eo
fojk j?A. id'A s?ƒ nkgD/ ehs/ rbs ezwK dh ;wM nk ikt/rh, fco s{z ;Zuk
okj nyfsnko eo bt/Ark. nfrnkBsk ftZu “Xow eow” ikDe/ i' e[ZM
s{z eodk nk fojk j?A fJj ;jh BjhA j?. w[V w[V rbsh Bk eo, r[o{ dh
pkDh, gVQ ftuko e/ frnkBtkB pD. fi; ƒ s{z ;/tk wzBh p?mk j?, fJj

(194)
n;bh ;/tk BjhA j?. tZv/ tZv/ ;Jhnkd (fPekoh) EK EK ikb bkJh, u'r
fybko e/ G'b/ iht tKr s/oh T[vhe eo oj/ jB. s?ƒ gsk Gh BjhA brdk
fe s{z ;ko/ gkf;nK s'A iefVnk ik u[Zek j?.
nkyoh fBu'V ^
r[of;ZyK nzdo ;fsr[o[ tos? i' f;yK B' b'u? ;' r[o y[;h nkt?]
ftD[ ;fsr[o e/ j[ew? fi r[of;yK gk;j[ ezw[ eokfJnk b'V/,
fs;[ r[of;y[ fcfo B/fV B nkt?]
fi mrh nkt?, mrh T[fm ikfJ, fs;[ B/V/ r[of;y[ w{fb B nkt?] (317)
;fsr[o{ ih f;o/ dh ftuko pyPfdnK ;'Mh d/ oj/ jB, fe GkJh
;fsr[o{ dh fJZSk s'A fpBK, i/ e'Jh ukbke nkdwh PoXktkB f;ZyK s'A trko
eokt/, nkgD/ fBZih ckfJd/ tkb/ ezw eokt/, T[; nkdwh s'A ;[u/s oj', pu'.
nfij/ mZr b'e soQK soQK d/ Xkowe G/y pDke/ G'b/ f;ZyK ƒ p/ofjwh Bkb b[ZN
oj/ jB, fJjBK d/ B/V/ Bk ikfJU. i' goT[geko dh GktBk Bkb wB[Zysk dh
;/tk y[d eodk j?, s/ fgnko Bkb d{finK ƒ ;/tk bJh gq/odk j?, T[j B/e
fJB;kB j?. T[;s/ ;fsr[o{ y[Ph gqrN eodk j?. i' f;ZyK ƒ fgnko eo/rk,
;fsr[o{ T[;/ ƒ fgnko eo/rk, fJj nkyoh |?;bk j?.
;/tk pko/ fJe j'o Ppd fby e/ ;wkgs eod/ jK. gVQ' ^
;k ;/tk ehsh ;cb j?, fis[ ;fsr[o ek wB[ wzB/]
ik ;fsr[o ek wB wzfBnk, sk gkg e;zwb GzB/]
T[gd/;[ fi fdsk ;fsr[o{, ;' ;[fDnk f;yh ezB/]
fiB ;fsr[o ek GkDk wzfBnk, fsB uVh utrfD tzB/]
fJj ukb fBokbh r[ow[yh, r[o dhfynk ;[fD wB[ wzB/](314)

[[[[

(195)
pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo - pzdJh, fe sZs ykb;k<
ykb;k oki d/ gfjb/ pkdPkj ;{opho, f;Zy c"iK d/ wjkB ioB?b,
pkpk pzdk f;zx ih pjkdo B/, ;hws fij/ ;w/A ftZu, wkw{bh ;kXBk Bkb,
fpyV/ jkbks ftZu, Gkos dh PeshPkbh ikbw w[rb je{ws dhnK iVK
fjbk e/ oZy fdZshnK ;B. fJj ;z;ko dh r"ot tkbh, iKpki b'eK dh,
tfuZso rkEk j?. fJZe wkw{bh fij/ r[wBkw ;kX{ B/, d;w fgsk ji{o dk
EkgVk b? e/, nzfwqs See/, i' pjkdoh d/ wkDwZs/ ekoBkw/ eo ftykJ/, T[j
;z;ko ftZu ftob/ wB[ZyK d/ fjZ;/ jh nkT[Ad/ jB. vkeNo r'eb uzd Bkozr
fbydk j? ^ “fi; ;zg{oD wB[Zy dh o{g o/yk, r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp B/
fsnko ehsh. fi;dh xkVs r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B/ xVh. T[j ;zg{oD
wB[Zy pzdk f;zx jh ;h. fJj fIzdrh dk BkNe, Gkt/A r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx
ih B/ jh fbfynk, go fJ;ƒ ;z;ko wzu s/, ;|bsk ;fjs, pzdk f;zx
B/ y/fvnk.” pkpk ih nzsw ;w/A sZe, r[o{ j[ewK s/, g{oh f;de fdbh
Bkb, gfjok fdzd/ oj/. i' ;/tk T[jBK ƒ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;"Agh ;h, T[;ƒ bZy
w[;hpsK MZbe/, ;h; sbh s/ oZye/ bVfdnK, nyho pzd pzd eNtk e/,
;{ophosk dhnK nB/e wzfibK T[sKj uVQ rJ/.
pkpk ih pko/ pj[s b/yeK B/ ebw ubkJh j?. r?o f;ZyK d/ sK,
gZygks dh n?Be bZrh j'Jh ;h jh, go f;Zy fJfsjk;ekoK B/ Gh, d/;h
pd/Ph r?of;ZyK d/ rbs goGkt ƒ jh ep{fbnk. fJ;/ bJh nDfrDs
fJbIkw pkpk ih s/ E'g fdZs/ rJ/. fi; ;fseko d/, pkpk ih jZedko ;B,
;kv/ fJfsjk;eko T[jBK ƒ, pDdk :'r ;fseko BK d/ ;e/. pkpk pzdk f;zx
ih pko/, fizBhnK feskpK fwb ;edhnK ;B, b/ye B/ T[jBK ;kohnK ƒ r[o{
f;XKsK d/ gfog/y ftZu oZye/, ftukoB dk isB ehsk j?. i' e[M pkpk ih
pko/, ;wM ftZu nk ;fenk j?, T[j fBt/eb/ BIohJ/ s'A, gkmeK Bkb ;KMk
eoB dk fJj fJZe isB j?.
pkpk ih d/ w[Yb/ ihtB pko/, ns/ r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih Bkb fwbkg
(196)
pko/, T[Bh fJZeh d/ coe Bkb, bZrGZr ;ko/ b/ye fJZe' fijk fbyd/ jB. T[;
dhnK PkBdko fiZsK, :[ZX d/ nB'y/ dkn g/u, xZN frDsh f;ZyK Bkb, E'V/
;kXBk Bkb, tZvh s'A tZvh oki;h Pesh ƒ, Ioioh eoB d/ ;woZE j'Dk.
nZm ;kb sZe gzikp ftZu brksko, fiZs d/ Mzv/ M[bkT[Ad/ ikDk, wB[Zysk d/
d'yhnK ƒ u[De/ eokohnK ;iktK d/DhnK, nkfd pko/ Gh fJfsjk;ekoK ftZu
e'Jh rzGho wZsG/d BjhA jB.
pkpk ih dh ;[Zuh P\;hns ƒ dkrdko eoB tk;s/, i' ewhB/
fJbikw bkJ/ rJ/ jB, T[jBK ftZu fInkdk T[jh jB, fiBQK dk gquko ;w/A
dh w[rb je{ws tZb'A I'o P'o Bkb eo fdZsk frnk. id'A fe pzdk f;zx dh
fJZe Gh fbys nfijh BjhA fwbdh fi; s'A fe;/ d'P dh g[PNh j[zdh j't/.
do n;b pkpk ih dhnK fiZsK s'A, ;oeko p[oh soQk p"ybk rJh ;h.
pkdPkj pjkdo Pkj, y[d pzdk f;zx fto[ZX c"iK dh fBrokBh eodk fojk.
fJE'A d/ ftrV/ jkbks t/ye/, f;ZyK dh uVQs wfj;{; eoe/, T[;ƒ v'p{ g? oj/
;B. fJ;/ ;w/A bj'o ftZu, ;hnk s/ ;[zBh w[;bwkBk d/ c;kd GVe gJ/.
pjkdo Pkj fJzBk p/u?B j'fJnk, fe T[;B/ jk;'jhD/ j[ew d/D/ P[o{ eo fdZs/.
fit/A ^ “;ko/ Pfjo bj"o d/ e[Zs/ wko fdU. ;ko/ fes'A wzrfsnK s/ cehoK
ƒ cVe/ i/bQK ftZu pzd eo fdU, iK esb eo fdU.” fJ; gkrbgD dh
jkbs ftZu jh T[j 27 Btzpo 1712 ƒ bj"o fty/ wo frnk.
s\s gqkgsh tk;s/, pjkdo Pkj d/ uko/ g[soK ftZu, y{p sbtko
uZbh. nzs fszB GoktK ƒ esb eoe/ ijKdkoykB s\s s/ p?mk. go pj[s
S/sh fJ;ƒ wkoe/, co[Zy;hno pkdPkj pD p?mk, i' 1719 sZe ihts fojk.
co[y;hno B/, f;ZyK ƒ \sw eoB tk;s/, ;koh ;oekoh Pesh M'e fdZsh.
fdZbh s'A b? e/ w[bskB sZe dhnK ;kohnK c"iK ƒ, pkpk pzdk f;zx ƒ, fiT[Adk
iK w[odk cV fbnkT[D d/ j[ew ukVQ fdZs/. fJjBK ;kohnK ;z:[es ;?BktK
dh, e[b frDsh fJZe bZy s'A e[M fInkdk jh ;h. nZm wjhB/ d/ bzw/ ;w/A
sZe, fJj c"i r[odk; Bzrb dh rVh d[nkb/, fiE'A pkpk ih ;\s w[ekpbk
eo oj/ ;B, x/ok gkJh p?mhnK ojhnK. fJjBK G{so/ f;gkjhnK B/ nkb/
d[nkb/ fgzvK ƒ gzikj gzikj whb sZe T[ikV fdZsk. p/P[wko b[ZN wko ehsh

(197)
rJh, c;bK x'fVnK yZuoK ƒ ytk fdZshnK. pj{ p/NhnK dhnK fJZisK
o[bdhnK ojhnK. fco Gh fJB/ tZv/ bkT[ bPeo tk;s/, ;kohnK ;j{bsK
gqdkB eotkDhnK, ;"yk ezw BjhA ;h. fJ; ;w/A ftueko, nkb/ d[nkb/
rzdrh c?b rJh. fpwkoh Bkb bZr/ c"ih XVk XV woB. c"ih ioB?b jkbks
dh rzGhosk ƒ t/ye/, fdb SZv p?m/. fJZXo pkpk pzdk f;zx ;h fe e[M Gh
BK j[zfdnK, ;h; sbh s/ oZy e/, p/y"c bV fojk ;h. npd[;wZd yK B/,
;kohnK fog'NK co[ZyPhno ƒ fdZbh G/ihnK. pkdPkj \s gVQe/ pj[s
fuzsks[o j'fJnk. T[;B/ wfj;{; eo fbnk fe fJ; soQK f;ZXh NZeo ftZu,
n;hA f;ZyK s/ g{oh fiZs jk;b BjhA eo ;eKr/.
wksk ;[zdoh ih fdZbh ftZu ofj oj/ ;B. w?ekb| ns/ yikB f;zx
fbyd/ jB, fe co[Zy;hno B/ wksk ih sZe gj[zu ehsh, s/ fejk, “pzdk f;zx
B/ r[o{ xo dk B[e;kB eoB tkb/, ;ko/ b'eK ƒ ;ik d/ fdZsh j?. T[j j[D j'o
jwb/ eoB/ pzd eo d/t/.” T[; tes wksk ih ƒ, je{ws tZb'A r[ikok GZsk
fwb fojk ;h. iK fJT[A ej' wksk ih ;ys ;oekoh fBrokBh ftZu ;B.
pkjo dh ;koh mhe ypo T[jBK sZe BjhA gj[zudh ;h. feT[Afe ofjzdh ;koh
T[wo wksk ih ƒ fdZbh s'A feXo/ pkjo BjhA ikD fdZsk frnk. e[M e[ f;ZyK
ƒ Gh pkdPkj B/ Bkb ;fjws eo fbnk. fJjBK ;kfonK d/ i'o gkT[D s/
wksk ih B/ pkpk pzdk f;zx tZb, izr pzdh dh fuZmh fby fdZsh. go jkbks
dh Bikes ƒ ;wMfdnK, pkpk ih B/ izrpzdh s'A BKj eo fdZsh. feT[Afe
T[j fJ; ƒ fJZe ;oekoh ;kfiP ;wMd/ ;B. wksk ;[zdoh ih B/, gsk bZrD
s/ w[V fJZe gZso (je{ws d/ dpkU ekoB) fby e/ f;ZyK ƒ pzdk f;zx Bkb'A
;pzX s'V b?D bJh fejk. fJj Gh ;zGt j? fe fJj ys ;ko/ ikjbh jh j'D,
wksk ih dk Bkw tose/ ;oeko B/ fby/ j'D. e[M th j't/, co[Zy;hno wksk
ih okjhA f;ZyK ftZu gkV gkT[D ftZu ekw:kp j' frnk. ;oeko gZyh f;ZyK
B/, pzdk f;zx s/ j/m fby/ fJbIkw bkJ/, s/ wksk ih B/ j[ewBkwk ikoh eo
fdZsk. fJbikw fJj ;B ^
TL1H pzdk f;zx B/, r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih d/ c[owkBk fto[ZX, ngDk ws
ubkfJnk j?.
(198)
2H T[;B/ ftnkj eotke/ r[o{ ih d/ ish ;sh ofjD d/ j[ew dh T[bxz Dk
ehsh j?.
3H T[;B/ yzv/ dh gkj[b dh Ekt/A uoB gkj[b P[o{ eo fdZsh j?.
4H T[;B/ tkfjr[o{ ih eh cfsj dh EK, cfsj doPB nkyDk P[o{ eotk
fdZsk j?.
5H T[;B/ r[o{ e/ f;ZyK ƒ, pzdJh f;Zy efjDk P[o{ eo fdZsk j?.
6H T[;B/ Pkjh fbpk;, ns/ mkm Bkb ofjDk P[o{ eo fdZsk j?.
7H T[j jzekoh j' frnk j?, s/ f;ZyK ƒ xNhnk ;wMdk j?.
fJjBK T[go tofDs d'PK ƒ vkL rzvk f;zx B/ gqtkB BjhA ehsk.
fJj e/tb ;oekoh gqkg/rzvk ;h. fJ; j[ewBkw/ dh nkV j/m n"y/ t/b/ pzdk
f;zx Bkb'A s'V ftS'Vk eoB tkb/ f;ZyK, s/ co[Z\;hno pj[s gq;zB j'fJnk.
T[jBK ƒ s'jc/ s/ ikrhoK fdZshnK, dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o dk epIk d/
fdZsk, gzi ;" f;Zy ;oekoh c"i ftZu B"eo oZy fbnk. ;kb dk 5000 o[fgnk
“bzro” bJh, ;oeko B/ j'o d/Dk gqtkB ehsk. d"bs okJ/, yIkB f;zx s/
vkeNo rzvk f;zx w[skpe fwbtosDhJ/ f;ZyK Bkb ;oeko B/ fJj PosK
s?j ehshnK ^
n L 1H ykb;k, ;oeko d/ fJbkfenK ns/ ezwK ftZu d\b BjhA d/t/rk.
2H sZs ykb;k, pzdk f;zx dh e'Jh ;jkfJsk BjhA eo/rk.
3H b'V g?D s/ sZs ykb;k, ;oeko dh c"ih ;jkfJsk eo/rk.
4H gzikp d/ fjzd{nK s/ ;oeko tZb'A e'Jh I[bw s/ nfBnk BjhA ehsk
ikt/rk.
j[D gkme iB T[Zgo fdZshnK PosK ƒ r"o Bkb gVQB. ;gZPN j'
ikt/rk fe pzdk f;zx s/ brkJ/ d'P, p/p[fBnkd ns/ rbs ;B. ;r'A fi;ƒ
sZs ykb;k gqukfonk frnk j?, rdkoh T[;B/ ehsh j?. ;oekoh ;ogq;sh
ftZu T[jh frnk j?. irhoK s/ fJBkw T[;B/ bJ/ jB. pzdk f;zx sK pZpo P/oK
tKr w?dkB ftZu GpeK wko fojk ;h. j[D fJZe fJZe fJbikw dk Bzpotko
i[nkp^
TL 1H d;w gksPkj iK fe;/ r[oftnesh B/, fe;/ f;Zy ƒ ftnkj eotkD

(199)
s'A ed/ BjhA o'fenk. f;Zyh frq;s gqXkB Xow j?. y[d r[o{ ftnesh
Pkdh P[dk ;B.
2H pzdk f;zx B/ r[o{ j[ewK s'A fto[ZX e'Jh BtK Xow BjhA ubkfJnk.
fJ; dh g[PNh bJh T[; tZb'A fsnko w'joK s/ f;Ze/ t/y/ ik ;ed/
jB.
3H T[;B/ uoB gkj[b edh Gh BjhA ukb{ ehsh. cfsj doPB efjD dk
e'Jh ;p{s BjhA j?.
4H T[;B/ edh Gh fe;/ f;Zy ƒ pzdJh f;Zy BjhA fejk. fJ;dk e'Jh
;p{s BjhA j?.
5H Pkjh fbpk; iK mkm s'A ;fsr[o{ ih B/ edh fe;/ f;Zy ƒ BjhA
o'fenk.
6H T[;B/ jzeko ftZu edh fe;/ f;Zy ƒ, wzdk puB BjhA p'fbnk. fJj
s[jwsK fpBK ;p{sK s'A jh bkJhnK rJhnK jB. j[D nrbk fjZ;k
sZs ykb;/ tkbk ftukohJ/ ^
n L 1H ykb;k pkdPkj d/ fJbkfenK, s/ ezw ftZu feT[A dyb BjhA d/tr / k<
id'A fe jkew pd/Ph ;B. Ikbw ;B, eh fw;bK tes je{ws s'A
d/P y'j e/, f;Zy oki ekfJw BjhA ehsk <
2H sZs ykb;/ dh B/e Bkwh tb fXnkB wko'. x'o w[;hpsK ftZu fxo/,
nZm wjhfBnK s'A bV oj/ f;Zy GoktK dh, sZs ykb;k wdd BjhA
eo/rk. n?vk jB/o <
3H ;r'A b'V g?D s/ ny"sh sZs ykb;k ;oeko dh wdd eo/rk. GoktK
ƒ wotkD bJh <
4H pdb/ ftZu 5000 ;kbkBk, dopko ;kfjp dk epik, 500 nkdwh
c"i ftZu Gosh eoB dk fJBkw fwfbnk, fJ; sZs ykb;/ ƒ.
fJ; nkg;h c[ZN Bkb, ykb;k gzE dk, ns/ ;w[Zu/ d/P dk pj[s
B[e;kB j'fJnk. pkpk ih e'b f;ZyK dh frDsh pj[s xN rJh. n;bk
pko{d w[ZeD B/V/ g[Zi frnk, go fjzws BjhA jkoh, e'Jh r?osjhD ;wM"sk
BK ehsk.

(200)
pkjo ofj rJ/ f;ZyK (r[odk; Bzrb dh rVQh s'A) B/, co[Zy;hns ƒ,
ftPtk; d[nkftnk fe n;hA, pzdk f;zx dh ;jkfJsk sK eh eoBh ;h, ;r'A
t; bZr/, rVQh ftZu fxo/ f;yK ƒ, j";bkjhD eoB dk g{ok isB eoKr/.
fJ;/ soQK ehsk frnk, fwZE/ gq'rokw w[skpe, pkpk fpB'd f;zx, pkpk ekjB
f;zx B/, pkpk pzdk f;zx fto[ZX ngwkB iBe Ppd tosD/ P[o{ eo fdZs/.
pzdk f;zx ih B/ pj[s ;wMkfJnk, go T[j pki Bk nkJ/. B"ps fJzBh tX
rJh fe T[jBK pzdk f;zx ƒ wkoB tk;s/, sbtkoK X{j bJhnK. nyho
;oekoh Pfj T[s/, gzi ;" ;kEhnK dk bPeo b? e/, pkpk p'B'd f;zx, pkjo
fBeb rJ/. ;oekoh c"i tZb'A frDh fwZEh ;kfiP sfjs, T[jBK ƒ ;jh
;bkws bzx ikD fdZsk frnk.
f;ZyK ftZu gkV g? ikD s'A, co[Zy;hns nsh gq;zB j'fJnk. T[;B/
bkj"o d/ ;{p/dko npd[b ;w[Zd\kB ƒ, Bt/A f;foT[A i'odko jwbk eoB dk
j[ew ehsk. Bkb jh T[; dh ;jkfJsk tk;s/, ePwho dk ;{p/dko ipod;s
ykB, tZvh c"i ;w/s g[Zi frnk. vkL rzvk f;zx w[skpe gzikp d/ ikrhodkoK
ns/ c"idkoK ƒ Gh, nkgDhnK okythnK c"iK, pzdk f;zx fto[ZX ukVQB tk;s/
fby G/fink. fJ; soQK r[ioks dk ;{pd / ko fwoIk nfjwdykB, nwhBkpknd
dk c"idko fJokds ykB, n"ozrpknd s/ g;o{o d/ B{o wj[zwdykB, gZNh s/
ebkB"o nkfd d/. eN'u d/ okik Ghw f;zx, i;o"sk d/ okik jz;d/t B/ Gh,
nkgDhnK ;;sopZX ;?BktK ƒ, bkj'oh ;?Bk d/ Bkb fwbk fbnk. ;KMh fjzd{
w[;bwkBK dh fwbthA c"i B/, d[pkok pzdk f;zx s/ I'odko jwb/ ehs/.
pzdk f;zx pjkdo Bkb, e'N fwoikikB fty/ j'Jh ipod;s bVkJh
dk jkb, w"e/ dk rtkj, ;hnoT[b w[yskohB dk eosk fbydk j? ^ “pzdk
w?dkB ftZu ;G ƒ j?okB eofdnK vfNnk yb'sk ;h. T[j gfjbh w[Zm G/V
ftZu fJzBh pjkdoh Bkb bfVnk fe Pkjh c"iK jko yke/ d"VB jh tkbhnK
;B fe pzd/ ƒ fgZS/ jNDk g? frnk.” pkpk ih w'ouk do w'ouk fgZS/ jNd/
j'J/, r[odk; Bzrb dh rVQh ftZu g[Zi rJ/. ;wekbh b/ye yk|h ykB fbydk
j? fe ^“ekco (f;Zy) fJzB/ fGnkBe Yzr Bkb bV/, fe fJ;bkwh ;?Bk ƒ
fpbe[b jko d/ B/V/ g[uk fdZsk. pko pko T[jBK fJ; f;o/ dh db/oh dk

(201)
ftyktk ehsk.” ;kjwD/ wZE/ bVB dh Ekt/A, (p[oh soQK wko ykD s'A pknd)
Pkjh c"iK B/ Bke/pzdh dk ;jkok fbnk. o;d gkDh, xkj gZmk, nkT[D dhnK
;kohnK bkJhBk eZN fdZshnK. nzdo'A ;G e[M \sw j[zdk frnk. fJE'A sZe
dodBke ;fEsh j' rJh fe T[jBK nkgD/ x'V/ Gh wko e/ yk bJ/. nZr'A wk;
gekT[D bJh bZeVh Gh BjhA ;h. eZuk wk; yke/ pj[s/ f;Zy fpwko j' rJ/.
fJ; nfsnzs w[;hps ftZu Gh nZm wjhB/ sZe g{o/ j";b/ Bkb w[ekpbk eod/
oj/. nzs ;koh ;fEsh s/ rzGhosk Bkb ;'u ftuko s'A pknd, G[Zy Bkb woB
iK jfEnko ;[ZN e/ JhB wzB b?D dh EK, izr ftZu i{M e/ Pjhd j'Dk gqtkB
eo fbnk. f;Zy f;gkjh G[Zy ns/ fpwkoh ekoB, jZd doi/ d/ ewI'o j' u[Ze/
;B. fJ; jkb ftZu Gh pkpk ih dk j[ew gk e/ d[PwD c"i s/ pkiK tKr
MgN gJ/. eJh eJh ƒ wko e/ wod/ rJ/. fpwkoh s/ ;ohoe ewi'oh
ekoB S/sh jzG rJ/, ;oho fBYkb j' rJ/, s/ IwhB s/ fvrd/ rJ/. j[D pkpk
pzdk f;zx bVB tkbk fJeZbk ofj frnk. d' whb dk noX r'bkeko uZeo
pDke/, Gkoh frDsh ftZu Pkjh c"i T[; Bkb bV ojh ;h. T[j XkJh eoe/
i?eko/ r[ikT[Adk fiZXo g?Adk d[PwDk ftZu GkiVK gk fdzdk. pzdk f;zx fpibh
dh s/ih Bkb, w?dkB ftZu P;so ubk fojk ;h. T[;ƒ fiT[Ad/ geVB
tk;s/, Bkwh ;{opho nZr/ tXd/, s/ T[j ;kfonK ƒ gbK ftZu jh, IwhB s/
Y/oh eo fdzdk. nkgDh fdB Go dh n;kthA, s/ bkfw;kb ;{owrsh Bkb
bVfdnK, pkpk ih B/ Pkjh c"i d/ 59 bVke/ :'fXnK ƒ nrb/ ijkB g[uk
fdZsk. id'A T[j EZe e/ u{o j' frnk, jfEnko fJZe fJZe eoe/ itkp fdzd/
rJ/, x/ok j'o GhVk eo fbnk frnk. fJ; jkbs ftZu pj[s ;ko/ b;eo
B/ MgNk wko e/ pkpk ih s/ jZbk p'b fdZsk, s/ cVe/, p/VhnK ftZu ieVe/,
fgzio/ ftZu pzd eo fbnk. pkpk ih B/ jfEnko BjhA ;[ZN/, ikB pyPh bJh
e'Jh cfonkd BjhA ehsh. w"e/ dk rtkj, ewo ykB fbydk j? ^ “fJj
;G y[dk dh ofjws jh ;h, f;nkDg iK pjkdoh BjhA. ;G ikDd/ jB
fe woj{w pkdPkj pjkdo ;kj, nkgD/ uko/ ;g[ZsoK s/ nDfrDs
c"ih ioB?bK ƒ Bkb b? e/, fJ; prkts ƒ dpkT[D dk isB eodk
fojk. go ;cb Bk j' ;fenk. j[D fJjBK ek|oK (f;ZyK) ƒ G[Zy ns/

(202)
fpwkoh d/ ekoB frqcsko ehsk ik ;fenk j?.”
r[odk; Bzrb dh izr ftZu'A fiT[Ad/, pj[s E'V/ f;Zy cV/ ik ;e/.
Pkjh c"i B/ ngDh fiZs ƒ tZvh f;ZX eoB bJh, d{o'A B/fVUA j'o p/d'P/ f;Zy
cV fbnKd/. fJjBK dh e[b frDsh 740 eo bJh rJh. fszB jIko f;ZyK
d/ f;o eZN e/ B/finK s/ Nzr bJ/ rJ/. fJjBK dh j'Dh s'A brGZr jo gkme
ikD{z j?. ;" ;" eoe/ jo o'i fdZbh ftZu Pjhd ehs/ rJ/. fe;/ fJZe B/ Gh,
ikB pyP/ ikD dk tk;sk BjhA gkfJnk. ;kfonK jh pjkdoK tkbh w"s
ep{b ehsh. pkpk pzdk f;zx ih ƒ ;G s'A wro'A 19 i{B 1716 ƒ n;fj s/
nefj s;hj/ d/ e/, pzd pzd eZN e/, Pjhd ehsk frnk. T[; r[o{ d/ to';kJ/
r[o f;Zy, ykb;k e"w d/ gfjb/ ioB?b, p/ski pkdPkj, ndZ[sh ;{opho B/,
bkbu t; iK s;hfjnK s'A vo e/ JhB BjhA wzBh. ikB pyPh bJh sob/
BjhA eZY/. r[o{ ek f;deh f;Zy ofjzfdnK pjkdoh d/ Bt/A ehoshwkB ;Ekgs
eofdnK, ikB dh pkIh bk frnk. ;dk tk;s/ ;qq'wDh PjhdK ftZu ngDk
Bkw doi eotk fbnk.
r[odk; Bzrb dh rVQh s/ epik j' ikD s/, c"i d/ i' f;ZyK dk ;kwkB
s/ ;Pso jZE nkJ/, T[;ƒ gVQ ;[De/ sK dzr ofj ikJhdk j?. wkw{bh
jfEnkoK Bkb, Bkwkso ;kXBk d[nkok, nZm wjhB/ sZe J/Phnk dh ;G s'A
PeshPkbh je{wsh skes Bkb b'jk b?Ad/ oj/. rVQh ftZu i' ;kwkB fwfbnk
T[;dk t/otk fJT[A j? ^
sbtkoK 1000, ewkBk d/ GZE/ 173
YkbK 278, s'V/dko pzd{eK 180
iwXo yzio 114, eodK (S'NhnK feogkBK) 217
;'B/ dhnK w'joK 23, Brd o[g? 600 s'A e[ZM tX,
e[M ;'B/ d/ rfjD/.
t/otk^fJotB ftbhnw, b?No w[rBi, gzBk^351
gkme iB fJj rZb ftP/P s"o s/ B'N eoB fe ny"sh sZs
ykb;k ftZu'A, e'Jh fJZe ftnesh Gh, fJ; fGnkBe ;w/A feXo/ Bio
BjhA nkT[Adk. fJfsjk; dh f;sw iohch t/y', fiBK jZ; jZ; e/ ikBK
tko fdZshnK, T[j pzdJh ykb;/ pDk Xo/. izr ftZu drk d/ e/ xoK
(203)
ftZu b[eD tkb/, ;oeko s'A fJBkw s/ irhoK gqkgs eoB tkb/, fJZis
nDy t/uD tkb/, sZs ykb;k j'D dk Yzv'ok fgZND bZr gJ/. Pq'wDh
fJfsjk;eko vkL rzvk f;zx sK, pkpk ih pko/ fJT[A fbydk j? ^ “pzdk
f;zx pjkdo, nmkjothA ;dh ftZu g?dk j'J/ Gkosh :'fXnK ftZu'A,
;G s'A bkfw;kb j?. Gkt/A T[;dh Pjkds ƒ ;dhnK phs rJhnK jB,
go ni/ Gh nkgD/ Xow GoktK bJh ukBD w[Bkok j?, nrtkJh s/
;{ophosk dk ;'wk j?.”
j[D e[M ftukoK rzrk okw pqkjwD (gqf;X rzr){ d/ bVe/ oki e"b tZbA'
pzdk f;zx s'A jfEnko ;[NtkT[D pko/. gzfvs itkjo bkb Bfjo{ dk tfvZek
oki e"b, j'o e'Jh BjhA, r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih d/ xo, thj ;kb sZe o'NhnK
gekT[D tkb/ o;'JhJ/ d/ rzr{ dk g[Zso ;h. fi;B/ pknd ftZu ft;kj xks
eoe/, wksk r{ioh ih, ns/ S'N/ ;kfjpikfdnK ƒ tIho ykB e'b frqcsko
eotkfJnk ;h. go tiho ykB B/ rzr{ s'A wksk ih tkbk XB Gh y'j fbnk
s/ fJeoko w[skpe fJBkw Gh Bk fdZsk. fJ;/ rzr{ dk bVek ;h oki e"b,
i' f;ZyK d/ efjo s'A, G?wkB j'e/, ePwho ik tf;nk ;h. gfVQnk j'D eoe/
;oekoh B"eoh s/ bZrk j'fJnk ;h. id'A co[Z\;hns ƒ fJ; gqtko tZb'A
ehsh rJh ;oeko dh ;/tk dk gsk bZfrnk, sK T[;B/ ePwho d/ rtoBo
ƒ nky e/ rzr{ gqtko (okie"b) bZG fbnk, s/ T[jBK ƒ fdZbh nkgD/ e'b ;Zd
fbnk. fdZbh ftZu Bfjo d/ feBko/, u'yh IwhB s/ fJZe fojkfJP bJh e'mh
p\P fdZsh. fdZbh dopko ftZu Gh okie"b ƒ ;oekoh B"eoh d/ fdZsh
rJh. Bfjo feBko/ t;/ j'D ekoB, fJj Bfjo{ e"b nytkD br gJ/ oki
e"b dk p/Nk ;h bePwh BkokfJD, T[;dk S'Nk rzrkXo, T[;dk w'sh bkb s/
nr'A itkjo bkb, fJzdok rKXh s/ okiht rKXh. ;w/A d/ c/o Bkb, e"b Gh
Bkw Bkb'A jNk fdZsk frnk, e/tb Bfjo{ ofjD fdZsk frnk. :kd oZyDk
ukjhdk j? fe ;ko/ Gkos ftZu, Bfjo{ T[giksh tkbk, e'Jh fJZe Gh pqkjwD
BjhA j?. fJ; gqtko B/ nkgDh T[g iksh, f;ZyK d/ G?, ns/ ;z;ko dh Bw'Ph
s'A puD bJh pdb bJh j?. fJE/ fJj fXnkB oj/, pkpk pzdk f;zx B/ fJjBK
d/ (okie"b) nky/ bZr e/ frqcskoh BjhA fdZsh. T[go tofDs e[M sZEK ƒ

(204)
sK y[d Bfjo{ itkjo bkb B/ ;theko ehsk j? (nkT[N'pkfJUrqkch^1949,
gzBk^1) Bfjo{ ykBdkB pko/ Gkos d/ ofj u[e/ okPNogsh, okXkfePqB d/
fJfsjk;eko p/N/, n?;H r'gkb B/ uzrh ikDekoh fdZsh j?. T[j fbydk j? ^
“Bfjo{ gqtko d/ B;hp, g[Ps do g[Ps, w[;bwkBK jkewK Bkb pD/ oj/
jB. fJj ykBdkB, T[jBK pj[s ;ko/ ykBdkBK ftZu'A fJZe ;h, fiBK oki ;Zsk
okjhA j'Ad ftZu nkJ/, jkbks ns/ w"fenK s'A bkG gqkgs ehsk j?.” b/ye
thoK ƒ fBwosk ;fjs p/Bsh j? fe fbyD s'A gfjbK, ;ko/ gZyK ƒ ftuko
fbnk eoB. fiE/ r[od'yhnK B/ gzE dk fbysK okjhA p/nzs B[e;kB ehsk j?,
T[E/ ngD/ nky/ ikD tkb/ b/yeK B/ e'Jh xZN B[e;kB BjhA ehsk. fJj g[okD/
s/ Bt/A ny"sh fJfsjk;ekoK dh fb;N pj[s bzwh j?. ngD/ o"PB fJfsjk;
ƒ dkrdko BK eohJ/. e"wh jhfonK ƒ xZN/ BK o'bhJ/HHHHHH.

[[[[

(205)
G'r okr wkbk fe w[zdktDh *s/ <

id'A s'A fBowb fBnkok f;Zy gzE, ;fsr[o{ ih B/ ;kfink j?, T[d'A
s'A jh fJ; d/ efbnkDekoh r[oT[gd/PK ƒ b'N{ g[ikoh Pq/DhnK tZb'A e?oh nZy
Bkb t/fynk ik fojk j?. feT[Afe r[ows tfjwK, GowK ftZu gke/ d{finK
d/ jZeK s/ vkek wkoB tkfbnK ƒ fe;/ ehws s/ gqtkB BjhA eodh. Gkt/A
PeshPkbh oki/ Gh feT[A Bk j'D. i/ T[j b'e fjs{ BjhA jB, sK ;fsr[o{ ih
B/ T[jBK ƒ Gh ;\s fcNekoK gkJhnK jB. shi/ EK nkT[Adh j? nkw
gpfbe, f;ZX/ ;kd/ b'e. fJjBK dh gVQkJh BKj j'D d/ pokpo j[zdh j?,
nkgD/ gqtko dh gkbDk eoBh, feos eofdnK pj[sk tes r[ikoBk, Xow
eow ƒ fJZe o;w d/ s"o s/ fBGkT[Ad/ ub/ ikDk. je{ws ns/ g[ikoh nkw
jkbsK ftZu fJjBK ƒ frnkBtkB pDB s'A, jo sohek tos e/ o'ed/ jB.
okik s/ g[ikoh fit/A fdb ukj/, fJjBK dh T[ZB (iK yZb) bkj[zd/ ofjD.
fJjBK B/ fJ; tosko/ ƒ fe;ws dk fbfynk wzB e/ f;o M[ek d/Dk j?.
g[ikoh N'b/ Xow f;XKsK d/ wBwoih d/ noE eod/ ofjD. fe;/ ƒ Boe
ftZu s/ fe;/ ƒ ;tor G/id/ ofjD. wfonK izfwnK s'A GowK ftZu gk e/
b[ZNe/ yKd/ ofjD. okfinK nwhoK ns/ j'o PeshtkB b'eK ƒ “n;bh
Xowh” j'D d/ ;oNhche/N ikoh eod/ ofjD. gZEo dhnK w{oshnK ƒ oZp
pDk e/ g{ik eotk b?D iK fco y[d jh y[dk j'D dk n?bkB eo d/D, ;G gqtkB
eoBk gt/rk. i/ e'Jh fJB;kB soe dbhb iK f;nkDg dh rZb eo/, fJjBK
b'eK tZb'A ehsh rJh Xow dh ftnkfynk ƒ gqtkB Bk eo/, sK T[; ftnesh
ƒ Xow d'yh nky e/ e'Jh Gh ;Ik fdZsh ik ;edh j?. ;w/s w"s d/.
ftuko nXhB w;bk okr wkbk dk j?` eh fJ;dh e'Jh ;koEesk j?
< eh r[opkDh Bkb fJ;dk e'Jh T[gd/P fwbdk j? < eh ;fsr[o{ noiB
;kfjp ih B/ fJ; ƒ y[d fbfynk j? < f;ZyK dk ;[Gk jh pD frnk j? fe w;b/
fBp/VB, ;koEe c?;bk eoB dh EK, bNekT[D ftZu jh fpjsoh ;wMD bZr

(206)
gJ/. “nZi dk fdB bzxkU eZbQ ƒ t/yh ikJ/rh.” d;w rqzE fi; fdB s'A j'Ad
ftZu nkfJnk j?, T[;/ fdB s'A fttkdK ftZu j?. r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d/ fBowb
T[gd/PK dk xkD eo fojk j?. d;w gkfsPkj ih dh gftZso P\;hns ƒ
wbhB eo fojk j?. fco Gh ;kv/ “gqG{nK” B/ edh rzGhosk Bkb fJ; gk;/
fXnkB BjhA fdZsk. r[o{ BkBe fBozekoh ih B/ nkgD/ bzw/ gquko d"fonK
tes, ;fseko :'r GrsK dh pkDh d/ T[sko/ eoe/, nkgD/ e'b ;zGkb bJ/.
nkgDh pkDh ;w/s r[orZdh d/D tes fJj ;kok yIkBk r[o{ nzrd ;kfjp ih
ƒ gqkgs j'fJnk. T[jBK s'A r[o{ nwodk; ih ƒ nZr'A u"E/ gkfsPkj okjhA,
gzit/A BkBe ih ƒ ;kok “fgT[ dkd/ dk yIkBk” fwb frnk. T[jBK B/ GkJh
r[odk; ih ƒ j[ew d/ e/ gktB pkDh ƒ soshp f;o fbytkfJnk. ngDh
pkDh Gh Pkfwb eoB bJh GkJh ih d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsh. ;kok tZv/oh
fizw/tkoh tkbk ezw ;fsr[o{ ih B/ nkgDh fBZih d/y o/y ftZu eotkfJnk.
fiZE/ fes/ :'r ikfDnk, nkgDhnK ;zgkdeh fNZgDhnK Gh doi ehshnK.
bzwhnK pkDhnK iK tkoK d/ f;ob/y s/ X[BhnK y[d ebwpzd ehshnK. fe;/
fJZe gzesh sZe dk G[b/yk BjhA ofjD fdZsk.
r[o{ fJfsjk; ftZu s/ f;Zy fJfsjk; ftZu gzE d'yhnK B/ fwbktN
eoB dk e'Jh w"ek BjhA y[zMD fdZsk. EK EK ;fsr[o{ ;kfjpkB ih d/ gke
ihtB ƒ ebzes eoB dhnK ;kfiPh wzd ukbK uZbhnk rJhnK. f;Zy
;{ofwnK s/ goT[gekoh r[ow[yK ƒ Gh ;G jhb/ tos e/ p/gs eoB dk e'Mk
:sB ehsk frnk. r[opkDh ftZu fwbktN eoB bJh nZvh u'Nh dk I'o
bkfJnk frnk. go ;fsr[o{ ih dh d{o nzd/P ;'u B/, ysfonK ƒ nrkT[A
GKgfdnK, nfijk pkBD{z pzBQ fdZsk fe bZy isB eoB s/ Gh, e'Jh gktB
r[opkDh ftZu obk Bk gk ;e/. ftnkeoDe fB:w ns/ frDsh gqpzX fJsBk
gkJ/dko j? fe fJ; ƒ s'V e/ e'Jh Ppd gzesh gkT[Dh n;zGt pDk fdZsh
rJh. jK nkyoh gZso/ g'Eh ;kfjp d/ ykbh ;B, T[E/ jh e'Jh fwbktN ehsh
ik ;edh ;h. fJE/ jh fwbktN ehsh rJh. nkU okrwkbk pko/ fJZe fJZe
B[esk b? e/ ftuko eohJ/ ^
1H i' okr r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftZu w"i{d jB go okr wkbk ftZu

(207)
BjhA jB ^
1^wkM, 2^fpjkrVk, 3^tvjz;, 4^i?s;oh, 5^okwebh, 6^wkbh
rT[Vk, 7^s[ykoh, 8^gqGksh, s/ 9^i?iktzsh
i/ okrwkbk ;fsr[o{ ih dh feos j[zdh sK eh fJjBK okrK ƒ Pkwb
Bk eoB dh “G[Zb” eo ;ed/ ;B <
2H Ppd pDso ^ Ppd i'V dhnK rsbhnK
r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp okrwkbk ftu
fpbktb[ fpbktbh
bfbs bbs
G?oT[ G?ot
fsbzr s?bzrh
wkbh rT{Vk rT[ok
efbnkD[ ebQkBk
p?okVh p?okoh
;{jh ;{jT[
wbko wbkoh
3H r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih ƒ f;ZyK p/Bsh ehsh^ih e'Jh ftT{As
pDkT[. b'e BkBe Bkw tkbhnK eftsktK fby oj/ jB.
“fwjotkB g[s fgoEhJ/ dk eth;oh eo/,
G'r r[o{ BkBe ih dk gkJh.” (36)
eoskog[oh phV ftZu, w[zdktDh s'A pknd Gh eJh euhnK ouBktK
doi jB, i' bzwh ftuko s'A wro'A eZN fdZshnK rJhnK. fit/A gqkD ;zrbh,
fjekfJsK ns/ j'o eJh e[ZM. go nc;'; fe n?B nkyoh w"e/ GkJh tho
f;zx B/ g?AsVk pdb fbnk, ngD/ nypko “ykb;k ;wkuko” ftZu fJ;d/
jZe ftZu fbyDk P[o{ eo fdZsk. T[; tes tho f;zx dk f;Zy jbfenK ftZu
tZvk goGkt ;h. fi; ekoB okrwkbk d/ fto[ZX c?;bk j[zdk j'fJnk Gh
ftueko nNe frnk. f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk ftZu 1945 ƒ fJj fbyD bJh
wIp{o j'Dk fgnk fe “okrwkbk gVQ' ukj/ Bk gVQ'.” G'r ubdh ;EkBe ohs

(208)
w[skpe gk fdU.
4H uhc ykb;k dhtkB (nzfwqs;o) tkfbnK “fJZe r[gs gZso”
GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk d/ Bkw j/m ykb;k ;wkuko ftZu Skfgnk. fi; dk
;kozP fJj ;h fe “ekjB f;zx B/ okr wkbk pko/ ngDh okJ/ pdb bJh j?.”
fJ; d/ gqsheow ti'A, GkJh ekjB f;zx s'A gzE ;/te nypko okjhA g[ZfSnk
frnk fe eh s[;hA tkfenk jh okr wkbk pko/ ngDh okJ/ pdb bJh j? <
fit/A Gh s[jkv/ ftuko jB s[;hA \[d ;fEsh ;gZPN eo'. feT[Afe s[jkv/ Bkw
s/ nypko ftZu fJZe fuZmh Sgh j?, fi; ekoB nkw f;Zy d[pXk rq;s j?.
GkJh ekjB f;zx B/ ;gZPN fbfynk ^ f;Zy thoK G?DK ƒ w?A dZ;Dk ukj[zdk jK
fe nkw f;Zy iB ;w{zj ƒ, ftZfdnk gVQB dh ns/ y'i eoB dh, e'Jh
fdbu;gh BjhA j?. w?A fJZe y'ih dh j?;hns ftZu, T[jBK GkJhnK ƒ ;bkj
fdzdk jK fe s[;hA eosko g[oh phV y[d t/y' gV', T[;/ ftZu “okrwkbk d/
fto[XZ ” neZN ;p{s w"id { jB. gV' sseo/ d/ nzs g[o fJj fbfynk j'fJnk j? ^
;zws 1661 fwsh Gkd'A tdh ñ, (J/ew) g'Eh fby gj[u z ./ r[o{ pkpk ih d/ ;ko/ gso/
974”. fXnkB Bkb t/yDk 973 BzL gZso/ s/ w[d
z ktDh j?. gZsok 974 ;kok ykbh fgnk j?. pkeh
;kok e[M ;w/s okrwkbk d/ fJjBK 974 gsfonK s'A pkjo j?, ;' T[j r[o{ feqs BjhA j?. fJ;/
bJh r[o{ pkp/ dh pkDh dk nzr BjhA j?. (110)
5H r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftZu Pkfwb ;ko/ okr gqtkB/ rJ/ jB okrDh e'Jh
BjhA j?. e[M fJZe fJ;soh fbzr gqshs j'D tkb/ okr Gh okrDhnK BjhA jB,
g{o/ okr wzB/ rJ/ jB. fw;kb bJh ^ nk;ktoh, r{ioh, d/trzXkoh, p?okVh,
;{jh, i?iktzsh, nkfd. r[ows ;zrhs ftfdnkbk, oekp rzi fdZbh d/
fgqz;hgb, ;qL fdnkb f;zx B/ fJZe pVk Gktg{os b/y wkf;e gZso “nzfwqs
ehosB, gq'L skok f;zx nze BzL 5, 9 iBtoh 1990 ƒ fbfynk ;h. fi;dk
;kozP fJ; soQK j? L^
okrwkbk Bkwh pj[s eftsktK fbyhnK rJhnK jB, fiBQK ftZu'A e[M
d/ Bkw fJj jB ^ (1) g[zvohe ftm[b dh okrwkbk (1515 s'A 1584 JhL) r[o{
rqzE dh ;zgkdBk s'A shj ;kb gfjbK fbyh rJh.
(2) :;'d Bzd ;[eb dh okrwkbk ^ fbyD dk ;wk ^ 1758 JhL

(209)
(3) bSwD dk; dh okrwkbk (4) nBzd dh okrwkbk
(5) r'fpzd dh okrwkbk, (6) uzdodk; dh okrwkbk ns/ j'o.
ndG[s okwkfJD ftZu fJZe eEk j? fe Bkod ƒ nkgD/ pko/ okrK dk
wkfjo j'D dk (okr nkukohnk) jzeko j' frnk. T[; dk jzeko s'VB bJh
fpPƒ Bkod ƒ d/t b'e b? frnk. Bkod B/ t/fynk fe nB/e fJ;soh g[oy
nzr Gzr j'D eoe/ ftbe oj/ jB. g[ZSD s/ dZf;nk fe Bkod B/ ;zrhs s'A
nDikD j'D eoe/ ;[oK dk fXnkB BjhA oZfynk. fJ;/ ekoB ;kv/ nzr Gzr
j' rJ/ jB. fJjh ejkDh fJzB fpzB r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih Bkb BZEh eo
fdZsh. id'A fe G'r w[zdktDh s/ gkT[D dh s;dhe r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih s'A ns/
fJfsjk; ftZu'A fwb ojh j?.
6H g[okD/ ebkeko okr okrDhnK d/ ebgs fuZso pDkT[D dk P"e
Gh oZyd/ ;B. oki/ BtkpK dk wB'oizB eoB bJh ebkekoK B/ okrK ƒ pj[s
jh fdbeP Ppd fuZsoK Bkb fPzrkoB dk isB ehsk j?. T[jBK Ppd
fuZsoK s'A gqGkts j' e/, nrtkJh b? e/ o/yk fuZso (s;tho) pDkT[D dk
isB ehsk frnk j?. nkT[ e/tb fJZe okrDh G?oth dk Ppd fuZso gVQhJ/.
fJ; ƒ gVQe/ jh eJh ebkekoK B/ nZr/ fuZso pDkJ/. fi; ƒ Bk ;wM b'eK
B/, ;Zu o{g eoe/ wzB fbnk. fJj fJZe G{sBh (G?oth) dk okrfuZso j?.
fi; tes gkopsh B/ wB eoe/ fPt ƒ gsh o{g ftZu gqtkB eo fbnk sK
T[j gsh ƒ ohMkT[D tk;s/, fjwkbk gops wkB;q'to d/ ezY/ p?m e/ fPtfbzr
dh g{ik eodh j?. gkopsh d/ gfjokt/, jktGkt, ;ohoe joesK ns/
gqfeqsh fuZso fpnkB ehs/ rJ/ jB. nZyoK d[nkok fpnkB ehsk frnk
BePk ^
oki e[nko G?oth okBh. d/y o{g G?ot (fPt) bbukBh.
GJh wrB ;o ;[os fp;koh.
oy/ wB'oE fPt wu nkJh. pj[s GKs eh g{ik bkJh.
bhJ/ skb go ;[i; ;[Bkt?. wB J/j' p; G?ot gh: gkt?.
wkB ;q'to ftwb ih, gzyh eos eb'b. fsj sN ;'fGs
fPt GtB okfis of;s nw'b. (148)

(210)
7H okrwkbk ftZu S/ okr wzB/ rJ/ jB, jo/e okr dhnK gzi
gsBhnK (okrDhnK) wzBhnK rJhnK jB. Bkb jo/e okr s'A nZm nZm g[Zso
Gh fby wko/. go nc;'; fe fJj BjhA dZf;nk frnk fe fJjBK nZmK
pZfunK dhnK wktK fejVhnK jB < fJ; rZb dk e'Jh fB:w nZi sZe ;zrhs
nkukohnK ftZu gqtkB BjhA uVQ ;fenk, fe fe;/ okr ƒ okrDh fet/A s/
feT[A wzfBnk ikt/ < fJ;dk g?wkBk eh j? < nfijk ;op gqtkfDs fejVk
Yzr j?, fe fe; okr gZXsh ƒ okr nkfynk ikt/ fe; ƒ okrDh, T[;dk
g[Zso, Xh iK ƒj (g[Zso pZX{) nkfynk ikt/ < fco ;zrhs wkfjo ftdtkB,
rkfJB P?bh ftZu Bt/A s'A Bt/A Yzr sohe/ gquZbs eod/ ofjzd/ jB. T[jBK ƒ
fe; yks/ iK Pq/Dh ftZu oZfynk ikt/rk <
fJ; gqkuhB gZXsh ƒ wzBD tkb/ fejVk ws gqtkB eod/ jB < fco
nZi eZbQ fe; fe; d/P ftZu T[jBK dh fJj gZXsh gouZbs j? <
8H GkJh ;zs'y d/ ftuko w[zdktDh pko/.
GkJh wBh f;zx d/ ;/te GkJh ;zs f;zx j'J/ jB. ;zs f;zx s'A GkJh
;zs'y f;zx B/ ftZfdnk gqkgs ehsh. ;zs'y f;zx dh gqf;ZX ouBk ;{oi gqekP
ftZu fJT[A fbys j? ^
fby/ ;w;s ;tJhJ/ ;'T{, ;qh frqzEe/ wkfj.
nzs ;op e/ fby w[zdktDh w[dqfs w'jo brh iB tkfj.
G'r ;eb pkDh ek g:T[ wfjwk fi;eh ejh B ikfJ.
Gtib G?ot e' ijki pv, gqG{ feogk s/ gko gokfJ.
okr wkbk ;qh r[o{ feqs Bfj j?, w[zdktDh br r[op?B.
fJ; wfj Bfj ;z;? e[S eohnj[, i/ ;z;? ntb'ej[ B?B.
wkXtBb nkbw eft eh Bf;, fs; wfj fBqsekoh efj s?B.
okr okrBh Bkw frB/ sfj, :Ks/ ;qh noiB feqs j? B. (ok;H3H nz;{ 48^2127)
9H frnkBh Bo?D f;zx w[izr tkfbnK tZb'A, i' r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp d/
NhfenK pko/ G{fwek fbyfdnK gzBk “i” Bzpo 7 d/ f;ob/y j/m fbfynk j?
^ “;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih dk SkgDkl gfjbK r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh fJZSk oZyD
tkb/ ƒ eJh eJh wjhB/ fbykoh BjhA fwbd/ ;h. fwzBsK sob/ nbZr eoB/

(211)
g?Ad/ ;h. fco Gh fJZSktkB ƒ dwdw/ tkbh phV dk T[skok ukjhdk j't/, s/
fbykoh e'b T[j j? BjhA sK T[; fbykoh B/ nkgDh woIh Bkb fe;/ j'o phV
dk T[skok eoe/ d/ d/Dk. fby d/Dk fJj gJh fJj dwdwh phV dk T[skok
j?. G/Nk ti'A o[g? 101$^ s'A 1001$^ sZe Gh b? bJ/ iKd/ ;B. fco Gh fJj
phVK nkw f;Zy dh gj[u z s'A pkjo ;B. ;zB 1860 ftZu bkj"o fty/ SkgkykBk
ukb{ j'D s/, fJ; d/ wkbe bkbk jo;[y okJ/ ih dopko ;kfjp nkJ/. ;w/A
d/ f;Zy g[ikohnK nZr/ p/Bsh ehsh, fe dk; ƒ phVK SkgD dh nkfrnk
fdZsh ikt/. fJj Gh ;gZPN dZf;nk ikt/ fe fejVh phV Skgh ikt/ < Gkt
eosko g[o tkbh, dwdw/ tkbh iK GkJh pzB' tkbh < eJh fdBK sZe g[ikoh
fe;/ f;ZN/ s/ Bk g[Zi ;e/. nzs nodk; eoe/ (bkNoh <) fszBK phVK d/ Bkw
fbye/, fszB gouhnK ;q'to ftZu gkJhnK. ny/ i' gouh gfjbK T[Zgo so
nkt/rh, T[;/ ƒ SkgD dh nkfrnk d/ fdnKr/. fJZe tkoh fszB/ gouhnK v[Zp
rJhnK, eohp d' xzN/ wro'A fJZe gouh T[Zgo sodh BiohA gJh, MZN eZY
fbnKdh. t/fynk sK T[go fbfynk ;h “dwdw/ tkbh phV”. fJjh nkfrnk
bkbk jo;[y okJ/ ƒ eo fdZsh, fe dwdw/ tkbh phV Skgh ikt/. fJ; soQK
fpBK ;'X ;[XkJh s'A, dwdw/ tkbh phV SgD bZrh. bkbk jo;[y okJ/ y[d
jh “Skge ;'Xe” pDe/ ;/tk eoB bZr/.
10H ;wK phsD Bkb Skg/ tkbhnK s/ jZE fbys phVK eJh gqeko
dhnK f;Zy ;zrsK ftZu gquZbs j' rJhnK. G'r jo fJZe dk nkg' nkgDh
woIh dk j'fJnk eodk ;h. eJh EKtK s/ ngqtkfBs ouBktK gVQe/ “tZvk
G'r” gkfJnk iKdk ;h. fis do bZy w[jzwdk, whoK pkJh dk Ppd,
;{odk; dk ;kok Ppd, o[DM[zMBVk nkfd Gh gVd/ ;B.
;zB 1920 s'A gfjbK feT[Afe Pq'L r[L gqL ew/Nh BjhA ;h, fJ; bJh
;ko/ Xkowe c?;b/ uhc ykb;k dhtkB dh ;fjwsh Bkb jh gqtkB uVQd/
;B. okrwkbk pko/ ‘gVQBh j? iK Bjh gVQBh j?’ d/ ekoB pj[s MrV/ j'J/.
ndkbsK ftZu w[eZdw/ uZb/. ndkbsK tZb'A uhc ykb;k dhtkB s'A okJ/ wzrh
iKdh ;h. uhc ykb;k dhtkB d/ w[yh jw/Pk fJjh fbye/ G/id/ oj/ ^
“okrwkbk r[opkDh BjhA j?.”

(212)
11H pkrpkB g[o/ bkj"o dh f;zx ;Gk ftZu tZvk MrVk j'fJnk. rZb
feBko/ Bk brdh t/y e/, d' gouhnK s/ fJj nZyo fby e/ ghjV/ j/m oZy
fdZshnK ^ okrwkbk r[opkDh j?, okrwkbk r[opkDh BjhA eZuh pkDh j?.”
fJZe nDikD ;/te s'A fJZe gouh wzrtkJh rJh, fi; s/ fbfynk ;h,
okrwkbk r[opkDh BjhA j? eZuh pkDh j?. nZr/ s'A okrwkbk gVBh pzd eo
fdZsh rJh. ;szpo 5^1917 d/ gzE ;/te nypko ftZu ;koh xNBk Sgh.
“fe ;Zu/ ;fsr[o{ ih B/ feogk ehsh, okrwkbk dk c?;bk nkg feogk eoe/
Bp/V fdZsk, ;kfonK dh d[fpXk d{o eo fdZsh.”
12H GkJh bkb f;zx Xow gqukoe, gfjbK bzw/ ;w/A sZe gq'L r[ow[y
f;zx s/ frL fdZs f;zx Bkb Xowgquko dh ;/tk eod/ oj/. T[jBK dk i'
fpnkB nypko ftZu Sfgnk ;h T[j fJ; soQK j? ^ “okrwkbk dk o"bk fJ;
tes gzE ftZu g{o/ i'o Bkb fSfVnk j'fJnk j?. fi;ƒ jtk d/D dk fizw/tko
GkJh tho f;zx j?. w?A T[j gzE ;/te gqukoe jK fi;B/ fgSb/ shj ;kb s'A
g{o/ d/P ftZu x[zw e/ f;Zyh dk gquko ehsk j?. GkJh r[ow[Zy f;zx s/ GkJh
fdZs f;zx s'A w?A r[ows f;Zyh. w?A 19 ;kb GkJh tho f;zx Bkb Gh ezw ehsk
j?. w?A ;dk okrwkbk d/ fto[ZX p'bdk fojk jK, fJj n?t/A BjhA ;r'A GkJh tho
f;zx tor/ ftdtkBK s'A nrtkJh b?e/. i' ftnesh r[opkDh d/ pqkpo okr
wkbk ƒ Pkfwb eodk j?, iK gVQdk j?, T[j r[opkDh dk ngwkB eodk j?.
w[zdktDh s'A fgS'A i' e[ZM Gh fbfynk frnk j?, T[j GkJh pzB' nkfde
fbykohnK B/ obk gkfJnk j?.
(gzE ;/te, bkj"o, 7 Btzpo 1917) (204)
13H okrwkbk pko/ wjkokik gfNnkbk s/ wjkokik BkGk d/ ftuko
f;Zy gzE ftZu okrwkbk pko/ GythA pfj; j' ojh t/ye/ fJjBK d'tK
oki gqw[Zy f;ZyK B/ nkgD/ sohe/ fBoD/ bJ/. gfNnkb/ d/ oki/ B/ pI[or
fJfsjk;eko frL frnkB f;zx ƒ p[bk e/ okJ/ wzrh. frL ih B/ ;gZPN nky
fdZsk fe okrwkbk r[opkDh BjhA j?. w[bkeks dk t/otk frL frnkB f;zx B/
fJT[A fbfynk j? ^
w[M/ fpqX b/ye fJfsjk;. dk; gzE ek bye? yk;.

(213)
f;zx f;y ;oXkb{ Bhe/. nBe gq/wh y/wh ih e/.
fwb/ w'fj gfNnkb/ nkfJ. dhU fJj' gq;zr ubkfJ.
i' w? r[o{ ykb;k wkfj. j? fby ofy:' ny:' ;[ tkfj.
wkB rJ/ ;G ;jh :jh j?. “okr wkbk r[otke Bjh j?.”
(gzE ;/te ^ 10$4$1918)
14H fJ; s'A wro'A BkGk gsh okik fog[dwB f;zx B/ ;oekoh s"o
s/ nkyzv gkm dk G'r g[nkfJnk. ;ko/ c"ih ns/ f;tb n|;o jkIo ;B.
S'N/ w[bkiw Gh pj[s ;ko/ w"i{d ;B. nkw b'eK dk Gh pj[s Gkoh fJeZm
;h. y[d wjkokik ;kfjp dhtkB ftZu fpokiwkB ;B. ;t/o/ ;kY/ S/ ti/
“w[zdktDh go G'r gkfJnk frnk.” (gzE ;/te ^ 3$7$1918)
15H Gkos dh ssekbhB okiXkBh ebeZs/ fty/ ;h. eKro; gkoNh
dk fJZe tZvk ;wkrw j'fJnk. gfjbK nyzv gkm d/ G'r gkJ/ rJ/, nekbh
e"o f;zx B/ w[zdktDh T[go G'r gkfJnk. fJ; dhtkB ftZu GkJh JhPo
f;zx B/ nkgD/ T[gd/P ftZu ;G ƒ dZf;nk fe okrwkbk r[opkDh BjhA
j?. fJj fe;/ nkbwBkwh eth dh eftsk j?. fe;/ B/ rbsh Bkb r[o{
rqzE ftZu doi eo fdZsh j?, fJ; ƒ eZY fdZsk ikDk ukjhdk j?.
fJjBK rZbK dh fog'oN (iwhwk) GkJh tho f;zx d/ gq?; ftZu fsnko
j'fJnk ns/ Sfgnk.
(joBkw f;zx ;eZso, ykb;k dhtkB ebeZsk, gzE ;/te ^
13$2$1918)
16H cotoh 10^1918 ƒ g[Zso d/ iBw dh y[Ph ftZu GkJh i'X f;zx
ih B/ nkgD/ xo nyzv gkm d/ G'r g[nkJ/. okrwkbk BjhA gVQh rJh, G'r
w[zdktDh s/ gkJ/ rJ/. fJ;/ gqzgok ƒ ikoh oZyfdnK i?s' d/ w'ou/ dh
;wkgsh s/ 6$8$1925 ƒ d; nyzvgkmK d/ G'r gkJ/ rJ/. gzE d/ wzB/
gqwzB/ ftdtkB s/ bhvo w"i{d ;B. fJjBK ftZu pkpk nso f;zx
w;s{nkD/ tkb/ Gh ;wkb ;B. sd'A G'r w[zdktDh s/ jh gkfJnk frnk.
fJjh fog'oN w[V r[od[nkok riN 1965 d/ gzBk 119 s/ Sgh.
17H GkJh i'X f;zx d/ fbysh p/Bsh eoB s/, 7$1$1945 ƒ, Xkowe

(214)
;bkjeko ew/Nh dh ftP/P fJesZosk p[bkJh rJh. GkJh i'X f;zx B/
nkgDk fgSbk okrwkbk fto'Xh g?AsVk pdbe/, okrwkbk ƒ r[opkDh wzB
b?D s/ I'o fdZsk. go fJ; fJeZsosk ftZu j'o Gh Bkwh f;Zy ftdtkB g[Zi/
j'J/ ;B. fJ; bJh GkJh i'X f;zx dh e'Jh g/P Bk rJh. fJ; fJeZm ftZu
16 ws/ gk; ehs/ rJ/. fJ; ftZu wsk BzL gzi okrwkbk f;ob/y j/m fbfynk
frnk. wsk gzi, gotkB j'fJnk fe Xkowe ;bkjeko ew/Nh dh okJ/ ftZu
;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih d/ gkm dk G'r w[zdktDh s/ gkfJnk ikDk ukjhdk j?,
okrwkbk BjhA gVQBh.”
18H fJ; s'A wro'A e[ZM b/y okrwkbk pko/ ykb;k ;wkuko ftZu Sg/.
fiBQK dk ;ko fJj ;h fe okrwkbk nkbw eth dh nkgDh fbyh j'Jh BjhA
j?, ;r'A T[; B/ r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftZu'A u'oh ehsh j?. d[pkok fco Xkofwe
;bkjeko ew/Nh dk fJeZm 13$5$1945 ƒ p[bkfJnk frnk. GkJh i'X f;zx
okrwkbk d/ jZe ftZu p'b. / ;kfonK d/ fto'X dk ;kjwDk Bk ;jkod/ j'J/ fSZE/
g? e/ tke nkT{N eo rJ/.
19H fJ; wro'A 27$5$45 ƒ fco j'Jh fJesZosk ftZu Xkowe
;bkjeko ew/Nh B/ f;o s/ nkD Y[ZehnK ;q'L eL u'DK s/ n;?Apbh u'DK d/ wZd/
BIo, “jkbks fiT[A d/ fsT[A” (;N/N; e') ofjD pko/ fBoDk eo fbnk.
fJ; bJh nekb sys s/ G'r w[zdktDh s/ g?Ad/ oj/. nes{po 26^1945 ƒ
;q'L ew/Nh dk ;kbkBk fJeZm j'fJnk.
(ft;Eko bJh t/y^' ;qL' r[L gqL eL dk gzikj ;kbk fJfsjk;^nP'e, gzBk 228)
20H f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk fsnko eoB tes, pj[s ftdtkB r[of;Zy
okrwkbk ƒ r[opkDh BjhA wzBd/ ;B. fJ;/ ekoB ofjs wfonkdk ftZu
okrwkbk pko/ tZyoh ;fEsh w"i{d j?. fe “G'r ubdh ;EkBe ohsh w[skpe
gkfJnk ikt/”. okrwkbk pko/ jkbh gzE ftZu wsG/d j?.”
21H GkJh ekjB f;zx BkGk s/ frL P/o f;zx T[Zu e'Nh d/ ftdtkB,
id'A ubkDk eo rJ/ sK okrwkbk d/ jZe ftZu, uZbD tkfbnK ƒ tZvk j";bk
fwb frnk. GkJh i'X f;zx dh p/Bsh s/ GkJh w'jB f;zx Bkr'e/ (gqXkB
SGPC s/ iE/dko nekb sys^d't/A nj[d/ fJZe' ftnesh e'b ;B) B/

(215)
13$12$1946 ƒ okrwkbk pko/ ftuko eoB bJh ftP/P whfNzr ;Zd bJh.
T[d'A sZe okrwkbk wzvB ns/ yzvB d' ;GktK pD uZ[ehnK ;B. yzvB ;Gk d/
gqXkB GkJh eosko f;zx dkyk ;B. s/ wzvB ;Gk d/ gqXkB ;B ;zs fB;ub
f;zx. wzvB ;Gk d/ p[bko/ GkJh i'X f;zx ;B, s/ yzvB tkfbnK d/ eosko
f;zx dkyk p[bko/ ;B. fJ; rZb dh j?okBh gqXkB SGPC w'jD f;zx Bkr'e/
B/ Gh gqrN ehsh fe ;Zdk gZso G/i/ ikD d/ pkti{d, Xkowe ;bkjeko
ew/Nh d/ w?Apo whfNzr ftZu BjhA nkJ/.
dkyk (eosko f;zx) ^ i'X f;zx ih s[jkvk gZy fejVk j? yzvB fe wzvB <
i'X f;zx ^ w?A fJ; tes okrwkbk d/ jZe ftZu jK.
dkyk ^ go s[;hA sK ;koh T[wo okrwkbk d/ fto'Xh oj/ j', nkgD/
xo s[;hA wz[dktDh s/ G'r gkJ/ ;h, w?A y[d T[; tes jkIo ;K.
i'X f;zx ^ j[D w?A nkgDh okJ/ pdb bJh j?.
dkyk ^ okJ/ pdbD dk ekoB eh j?, nr'A fco ed'A okJ/ pdb'r/ <
i'X f;zx ^ eoskog[o tkbh phV ftZu T[;/ ebw s'A okrwkbk fbyh
j'Jh j? fi; s'A phV fbyh j'Jh j?. GkJh eosko f;zx dkyk ih brksko
ekNt/A ;[nkb eod/ rJ/ s/ GkJh i'X f;zx fEVet/A bfji/ ftZu okrwkbk dk
gZy g{od/ oj/. dkyk ih tZb'A ;tkbK dh p[SkV ikoh ojh s/ d{i/ pzfBU ;zs
wjzs, edh edh GkJh i'X f;zx dh wdd eod/ oj/. fJ; d/ Bkb jh v/o/dko
X{c, i's, Bkohnb nkfd dk w;bk Gh ftZu x;hN fbnkJ/. i'X f;zx ih
ƒ g[ZfSnk frnk fe s[;hA fJjBK ;kXK dhnK ;kohnK ftukoK Bkb ;fjws
j' < nkyD br/ fe w?A f;oc okrwkbk d/ jZe ftZu jK, fJjBK dhnK j'o
ftukoK Bkb ;fjws BjhA. nZr/ uZbe/ frL r[ofdZs f;zx B/ p'bfdnK fejk
^ i' e[M eoskog[oh phV ftZu fwbktN eo fdZsh rJh j?, T[; pko/ i'X f;zx
ih, ikDd/ j'J/, nDikD pD oj/ jB. i/ T[; phV ƒ nZyo nZyo ;theko
eo bJhJ/ sK “eots Gbk B eotN s/oh” nk;k okr ftZu epho ih d/
36t/A Ppd s'A gfjbK 35tK gdk gkfJnk frnk j? T[; tZb r"o c[owkT[ ^
d/y' b'rk jfo eh ;rkJh. wK Xoh g{s Xhnk ;zr ikJh.
jw j?A pkg okw g{s jwkok. w?A pfjB'Jh okw w/ok ;kbk.

(216)
np w/o/ okw ej/rh pbJhnk. okw w/o' ;;[o w? okw itJhnk.
ej? epho ;[B' o/ g{sk. okw igfj s/Jh Bo e{sk]35]
eh fJ; gd/ ƒ epho dk ;theko eo'r/, feT[Afe fJj eoskog[oh
phV ftZu j? <
fJ; s'A pknd j'o ;p{s Gh fdZs/ rJ/, T[j c'N'nK Gh g/P ehshnK
rJhnK i' okrwkbk s'A pr?o phVK s'A bJhnK ;B. fJ; s/ ekch jzrkwk
j'fJnk s/ GkJh i'X f;zx ;kEhnK ;w/s whfNzr ftZu'A o'; gqrN eod/, pkjo
ub/ rJ/. (frL r[ofds f;zx ih B/ pVh fwjBs eoe/ brgr gzikj c'N'nK
nkgDh feskp ftZu T[jBK phVK dhnK fdZshnK jB. fiBQK ftZu okrwkbk
BjhA j?. ;r'A ;kc fbfynk Gh fwbdk j? fe G'r w[zdktDh s/ gkT[Dk.)
22H g[okD/ ;fwnK ftZu pj[s ;ko/ gq/w gq;zr fby/ rJ/. go:'iB
fJZe' j'fJnk eodk ;h fe tk;Bk Gog{o pDk e/, okfinK BtkpK dk fdb
pfjbkfJnk ikt/, ns/ tZN/ ftZu wkB ;BwkB gqkgs ehs/ ikD. nfij/
ethnK dh bzwh cfo;s gq'L fgnkok f;zx gdw B/, d;w/P ih d/ “dopkoh
eth ftZu fdZsh j'Jh j?. e[ZM fJZe Bkw fJj jB ^ BkfJek G/d^;zG{ BkE,
f;zrko wzikoh^fuzskwDh, o; eb'b^s[b;h dk;, f;zrko o; wkX[oh^feq;D
GZN, f;zrko o; dogD^nkiw, f;zrko fpbk;^;'w BkE nkfd. fJj eth
nkbw tZb'A fbyh wkXtk Bb ns/ ekw ezdbk gkso g/P eoe/ ekw[esk
gqGkth eftsk j?.
“okrwkbk” ^ fJ; g[;se d/ 353 Szd jB. i' fjZ;k r[o{ rqzE
;kfjp ftZu nkfJnk j?, T[j 63t/A Szd s'A b? e/ 72 Szd sZe j?. (w?ekbc)
ekw ezdbk wkXtkB ejkDh dk ;zy/g ;ko ^
23H eth nkbw B/ fJZe pqkjwD gkso^wkXtk Bb^dk nfijk
fdbeP fuZso T[bhfenk j? fe T[j id'A wX[o ;[oK ftZu pz;oh pikT[Adk ;h
sK Pfjo dhnK fJ;sohnK GKv/ ;[ZN e/ pkjo rbhnK ftZu nk e/, T[;
d[nkb/ M[owN gk b?AdhnK ;B. PekfJs j'D s/ wkXt ƒ oki/ B/ oki ftZu'A
fBeb ikD dk j[ew ;[Dk fdZsk. nZr/ iKdk j'fJnk T[j ekw;?B Bro d/
dotkI/ nZr'A dh bzfxnk. nzdo d/ fBos BkN SDekN/ B/ T[; ƒ fyZu gkJh.

(217)
wkXt B/ nzdo ikDk ukfjnk, s/ ;zsoh B/ fejk ^ nzdo tZv/ r[Dh b'e p?m/
jB, s/o/ tor/ wkw{bh wB[Zy dk T[E/ eh ezw < sK wkXt B/ fejk, BjhA nzdo
w{oyK dh ;Gk j?, fJjBK ƒ okr skb dh e'Jh ;'Mh BjhA. feT[Afe spbk
tkde dk nzr{mk w'w dk j?. dopkB B/ oki/ ƒ dZf;nk, rZb ;Zu fBebh.
oki/ B/ wkXt ƒ nzdo ;Zd e/, nkgD/ e'b fpmk fbnk. wkXt ƒ wjkB
;zrhseko ikD e/ Boseh ekwezdbk B/ nkgDh ;koh ebk dkn s/ bk
fdZsh. T[;B/ nkgDh Sksh s/ ;[rzXh bkJh, fJZe xVk f;o T[Zs/ oZfynk, s/
PkB Bkb BZuD bZrh. fJZe G"ok ;[rzXs Sksh s/ nkD p?mk, i/ T[vkT[Adh j?
sK skb ftZu ftxB g?Adk j?, f;o s'A xVk fvrdk j?. (nkbw eth B/ ebgDk
d/ x'V/ d"VkJ/) ekwezdbk B/ nkgD/ ;[nk; o'e/, fJZe yk; ftXh tose/,
cokN/ Bkb nkgDh Sksh ftZu'A jtk eZYh, s/ G"ok T[vk fdZsk. wkXt ƒ nzdo
nkT[D tes oki/ B/ i' ehwsh jko fdZsk ;h. T[j Boseh dh ebk s/ w'fjs
j'e/ T[; d/ rb ftZu gk fdZsk. feT[Afe ;Gk ftZu j'o fe;/ ƒ ekwezdbk dh
fJ; Bt/ebh ndk dh ;wM BjhA gJh. fJ; bJh okik wkXt Bkb r[Z;/ j'
frnk. wkXt Bkb ekw ezdbk dk fgnko j'D s/ j'o BkokIrh tX rJh.
fJ; bJh fJE'A Gh wkXt ƒ d/P fBekbk fwb frnk. pqkjwD j'D eoe/ e'Jh
wko BjhA ;edk ;h. T[j fteowkihs oki/ d/ oki ftZu iK gj[zfunk. gsk
ehsk, fi; wzdo ftZu okik g{ik eoB nkT[Adk ;h T[E/ ezX s/ d'jk fby
fdZsk. “ejk eo{z es ikT{A okw oki Bk nkfj. fsqnk ;zskg fti'r d[y okx'
ikBs Bkfj.” oki/ B/ wkXt ƒ ;Zfdnk ftfEnk ;[Dh. nkgD/ pzd/ ekw
ezdbk e'b G/i/. go gsk bZrk fe T[j sK T[d'A s'A jh p/j'P gJh j?, id'A s'A
wkXt ftSfVnk j?. oki/ B/ w{ofSs ekw ezdbk dh Sksh s/ g?o oZye/
goyDk ukfjnk ihts j? fe wo rJh. Boseh B/ p/j'Ph ftZu'A jh fejk,
“okik Sksh s/ g?o Bk oZy, fJE/ fJZe pqkjwD dk fBtk; j?, T[;dh p/gsh
j't/rh s?ƒ gkg bZr/rk.” fJsB/ ftZu d'tK c"iK dk x'o i[ZX j'fJnk, p/nzs
f;gkjh wo/. id'A wkXt ƒ dZf;nk fe s/oh gq/fwek sK p/j'P gJh j?, sK T[j
Gh rP yk e/ fvZr fgnk, p/j'P j' frnk. fco goh ejkDhnK tKr ;[or
ftZu'A fJZe d/tsk nzfwqs b? e/ nkfJnk. ;Zu/ gq/wh ikDe/ d'tK ƒ ihts

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ehsk. fpeowkihs okik fJjBK ƒ nkgD/ Bkb b? frnk, fJZe ;[zdo wfjb
pDtke/ fdZsk, fJjBK pkeh fIzdrh y[PhnK Goh r[ikoh. eth nkbw
fJ;dk nyho ftZu wjksw Gh d;dk j? ^
ekwh of;e g[oy i' ;[Bjh. s'A :fj eEk o?B fdB ;[Bjh.
fJj ejkDh d;w rqzE d/ fuqso' gkfynkB ftZu 91 fuZso ftZu Gh
fwbdh j?. T[E/ T[j nbZr ozr py/odh j?.
24H pj[s ;kohnK phVK d/ fuZso fJ; g[;se ftZu frL r[ofdZs
f;zx ih B/ fwjBs Bkb Pkwb ehs/ jB. e[ZM g[oksB phVK ftZu fJj ;{uBk
Gh Bkb jh fdZsh j'Jh fwbdh j? ^
“J/j G'r ;qh nkd rqzE ih j?”, okr wkbk fJ; ;{uBk s'A pknd fe;/
fby fdZsh.
uhc ykb;k dhtkB s/ j'o ftdtkB r[of;Zy okrwkbk ƒ r[opkDh
BjhA wzBd/ ;h. f;oc v/o/dko ;kX bkDk s/ T[jBK d/ u/b/ jh fjZe d/ skD
fJ; ƒ r[opkDh rodkBd/ oj/. frnkBh frnkB f;zx d/ eEB nB[;ko ^
J/; ftZu fe;/ wjb/ dk Bkw BjhA j?.
BkBe Bkw w'jo Skg BjhA j?.
r[o{ rqzE dh ekfte P?bh Bkb fJj w/b BjhA yKdh.
r[o{ rqzE ih d/ ;ko/ okr fJ; ftZu BjhA, fJ; ftub/
okr r[o{ rqzE ftZu BjhA jB.
JhPto d/ Bkw dh, r[oK dh wfjwK dh iK ;s;zr dh
fJ; ftZu wfjwK BjhA j?.
fJ; ftZu e'Jh Gh T[gd/P BjhA j?. e/tb okr okrDhnK
d/ Bkw jB.
wkXtBb B/ g'Eh ;kfjp dh ;zgkdBk s'A fJZeh toQ/ gfjbK okrwkbk
fbyh ;h, fJ;ƒ nekb sys tZb'A nZi sZe Gh gqtkB BjhA ehsk frnk.
f;Zy ofjs wfonkdk ftZu ni/ Gh wZsG/d uZfbnk nk fojk j?. ;' fJ; ƒ
s[ozs jh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp Bkb'A tZy eo d/Dk ukjhdk j?. (283)
(fJj g/go 25$7$04 ƒ ykb;k gzukfJs d/ eBthBo ;qL okfizdo

(219)
f;zx tZb'A, uzvhrVQ ftZu p[bkJh rJh ftuko r'PNh bJh fsnko ehsk frnk
;h. nD;[ykt/A ekoBK eoe/ fJj ftuko r'PNh w[bsth eoBh gJh.
frnkBh r[ofdZs f;zx tZb'A “w[zdktDh” Bkw dh fbyh g[;se pko/ fJj r'PNh
j'Dh ;h.
e[p[fX fwN? r[o ;pd[ phukfo] ;fsr[o G/N/ w'y d[nko]
ss[ B uhB? wBw[y[ ifb ikfJ] d[owfs ftS[fV u'NK ykfJ]
wkB? j[ew[ ;G/ r[D frnkB[] BkBe dorj gkt? wkB[](944)

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nkgDh wK p'bh

gP{ irs ftZu ns/ wB[Zyh ihtB ftZu pj[s e[M ;KMk j?, ykD, ghD,
;"D, g/N g{osh, pZu/ g?dk eoB/ nkfd. pZ;, fi; r[D B/ wB[Zy dk doik T[Zuk
ehsk T[j j? p'bh. p'bh okjhA wB[Zy ;fji Yzr Bkb ftukoK dk tNKdok
eodk j?. fJ; soQK fJZe d{i/ d/ frnkB Gzvko s'A ckfJdk T[mkfJnk iKdk
j?. id'A wB[Zy B/ nZyoK okjhA nkgD/ ftukoK ƒ fbyDK f;Zy fbnk, sK
uzrhnK fbysK s'A j'o b'eh th gVQ ;[D e/ bkjk b?D bZr/. ;kfjs, fJfsjk;,
;kfJz;, Xow ;kok ehwsh yIkBk fbys dk nzr pDe/ nkT[D tkbhnK
B;bK dh wbehns pDdk frnk.
jkbks, g"D gkDh ns/ feZfsnK d/ tyo/t/A ekoB wB[Zyh ;ZfGnsk
ftZu th fGzBsk nkT[D bZrh. fJ; d/ Bkb jh ns/ nkgDhnK b'VK w[skpe
p'bh th nbZr nbZr j[zdh ubh rJh. ;kohnK p'bhnK nkg' nkgD/ Ekt/A
wjZstg{oB jB. fizBhnK e'Jh gVQBhnK f;Zy bt/ Gbh rZb j?. go
pkb^wB'ftfrnkB d/ wkfjoK dk ftuko j? fe gzi ;kb sZe d/ pZu/ ƒ f;o|
p'bDk jh f;ykfJnk ikt/. fbyDk gVQBk pknd ftZu P[o{ ehsk ikt/.
nkgDh ;ZfGnsk, nkgD/ ohsh fotki ns/ nkgD/ Xow ƒ ;wMD tk;s/,
nkgDh p'bh f;ZyDh pj[s Io{oh j?. ;kv/ pZu/ gZSwh d/PK ftZu ofj e/
wPhBoh ns/ ;kfJz; d/ ezwK ftZu sK fBg[zB j' ikDr/, go Gkosh$gzikph
ebuo, f;Zy Xow s'A d{o ub/ ikDr/. nB/eK Ppd nfij/ jB i' fe gZSwh
d/PK ftZu p'bh dk, fIzdrh dk fjZ;k BjhA jB. fJBQK d/PK ftZu izw/ gb/ pZu/
nfij/ PpdK ƒ ;wMD s'A n;woZE j'Dr/. fw;kb d/ s"o s/ e[M tzBrhnK
g/P jB L^ nzfwqs t/bk ^ ;t/o dk ;[jktDk PKs tksktoD i' gzikp ftZu
gqkgs j? T[; ƒ gzikph s/ r[opkDh ftZu nzfwqs t/bk efjzd/ jB. gZSwh
w[beK d/ b'e ;odh GzB/ w";w d/ ;skJ/, nzdo tV e/ ;[Zs/ j[zd/ jB. T[j eh
ikBD nzfwqs t/b/ ƒ , ;ktD ^ eVedh X[Zg ns/ rowh s'A pknd whAj P[o{
j' iKd/ jB s/ w";w pj[s ;[jktDk j' iKdk j?. pZu/ febekohnK wkod/ BZ;d/
(221)
y/vd/ jB. i[nkB bVehnK fJeZmhnK j' ghxK M{NdhnK jB, frZXk gkT[AdhnK
jB. gzSh ufjed/ jB vZv{ rVQ?A rVQ?A eod/ jB. w'o g?bK gkT[Ad/ jB. ;koh
pB;gsh w"bQ T[Zmdh j?. fe;kB y/sK ftZu tZX s'A tZX ezw eod/ jB.
r[opkDh ftZu fJ; ƒ ‘w'ohA o[D M[D bkfJnk G?D/ ;ktD nkfJnk’ fejk j?.
gZSwh w[beK d/ b'e fJ; soQK d/ e[dosh BIkfonk d/ fenk; BjhA eo
;ed/. T[j s/ whAj g?D *s/ d"V e/ nzdo tV iKd/ jB. ezwhA fe;kB, frZX/
fes/ d{ophB bkfJnK th BjhA bZGd/. gZSwh w[beK tkb/ b'e BK jh xbkVh,
rzv uV;, skok uVBk, e[ZeV dh pKr, Skj t/bk, e'jb{ ns/ j'o pj[s e[M
ikfDnk BjhA ikD ;ed/. fJ; s'A fJbktk r[opkDh, gzikph, r[ow[yh nZyoK
ftZu fbyh j'Jh j?. i/ ;kv/ pZfunK B/ gzikph p'bh Bk f;Zyh sK T[j r[opkDh
BjhA gVQ ;eDr/. f;Zy fJfsjk; BjhA gVQ ;eDr/. fi; dk f;ZXk wsbp
j? fe T[j f;Zy iK ykb;/ th BjhA pD ;eDr/.
g[okDh pkJhpb jhpo{ GkPk ftZu fbyh rJh ;h. :j{dh b'e do
pdo dhnK m'eoK yKd/ oj/. d{;oh ;z;ko izr ftZu ;Zm bZy :j{dh w"s d/
xkN T[sko/ rJ/. nzs T[BQK nkgDh fdqVsk s/ f;nkDg Bkb ngDk d/P
fJIokJhb pDk fbnk. wo u[Zeh jhpo{ p'bh ƒ w[V s'A ;ko/ d/P ftZu gVQB
fbyD dk I'odko jzGbk wkfonk frnk. nZi ;kok fJIokJhb jhpo[ p'bh
p'bdk j? s/ jhpo{ ftZu fbyh pkJhpb th pV/ ukn Bkb gVQdk j?. Jh;kJh
fwPBoh fe;/ d/P ftZu th ikD nzro/Ih Io{o gVQkT[Ad/ jB. fjzd{nK d/
g[okD/ t/d, wjKGkos, rhsk, owkfJD ;ko/ jh ;z;feqs ftZu fby/ j'J/ jB.
;z;feqs dk jh ;"yk o{g fjzdh p'bh j?. fjzdh dk fizBk th tZX gquko j't/rk
T[BQK jh b'e t/dK rqzEK ƒ ;"fynK jh gVQ ;eDr/. T[sBk jh fjzd{ Xow d/ B/V/
j[zd/ ikDr/. w[;bwkB fe;/ th d/P ftZu ikt/ nkgD/ pZfunK ƒ BwkI Iao{o
gVQkT[Adk j?. s/ T[; dh ;koh fJpknds noph ftZu j?. noph f;ZyD dk
wsbp j? e[okB gVQBh, T[BQK dk g[okDk ;kfjs gVQBk. id'A wB[Zy fJj ;kok
e[M gVQ/rk sK ;wM' T[j w[;bwkB sK pD jh ikt/rk. fjzd{, fJ;kJh,
w[;bwkB fiZE/ rJ/ T[BQk nkgDh p'bh ns/ ;ZfGnsk ƒ gqcZ[bs eoB tk;s/
dkfBnK tKr ezw ehsk j?. f;Zy fJ; gZy'A pj[s fgZS/ ofj rJ/ jB. iK sK

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fJj ;wM bJhJ/ fe gzikp ftZu f;Zy Xow s/ f;Zy f;nk;s xZN gVQ/ fby/
b'eK d/ jZE ftZu j?. fJ;/ soQK gZSwhA w[beK ftZu xZN gVQ/ iK T[Zek jh
nBgVQ b'e f;nk;s ns/ Xow n;EkBk s/ ekpI jB. T[j ikDd/ jh BjhA
fe Xow ƒ, f;Zy ;fGnkuko ƒ, gzikph p'bh ƒ fet/A gqc[Zbs ehsk ik ;edk
j?. gVQ/ fby/ b'eK dh frDsh ysoBke jZd she xZN j?. fJ; bJh T[j fJBQK
u"XohnK s'A d{o jh ofjzd/ jB. :{oghB w[beK ftZu r[odtko/ sK nDfrDs
pDk bJ/ jB, go f;Zyh d/ ;e{b, r[owfs d/ ekbi, f;Zyh dh y'i tk;s/
:{Bhtof;Nh BjhA pDk ;e/. f;Zyh ns/ gzikph p'bh d/ tkX/ tk;s/ whvhJ/
dh tos'A BjhA eo ;e/. ;EkBe MrfVnK s'A T[Zgo T[Zm e/ e'Jh ;KMh s/ ;op
gqtkBs bhvofPg BjhA g?dk eo ;e/. r[opkDh s/ u'DtK f;Zy fJfsjk;
j'oBk p'bhnK ftZu nB[tkd eotk e/ n;hA jkbh sZe BjhA Sgtk ;e/. pj[s
e[M eoB tkbk j? fJ; gk;/.
f;Zy Xow ;z;ko d/ e[M e[ u'Dt/A XowK ftZu'A fJZe tXhnk Xow j?.
;z;ko d/ nB/eK go/PkBhnK ftZu ftbe oj/ b'eK ƒ ;[Zy PKsh d/D tk;s/
f;ZyK e'b r[opkDh dk wjkB yIkBk j?. jkb/ sZe 95# f;ZyK B/ y[d jh
r[opkDh BjhA gVQh, sK j'oBK ƒ fet/A gVQB tk;s/ nkyDr/ < gzikph p'bD
tkfbnK dh frDsh d[BhnK ftZu J/Bh j? fe i/ ;koh d[BhnK ƒ fJZe esko
ftZu yVk ehsk ikt/ sK jo pkjotK ftnesh gzikph p'b/rk. fiZE/ gzikp dh
Xosh nsh Ioy/i j?, T[E'A dk g"D gkDh ;[jktDk j?, o[ZsK y[Pp'JhnK jB,
rZGo{ oKrb/ jB, w[fNnkoK j[;B tkbhnK jB sK T[E/ gzikph p'bh th wkfyUA
fwZmh j?. f;Zyh dh o{j, wB[Zysk dh nkswk, r[opkDh dk s/ e'Jh itkp jh
BjhA. gzikph ;ZfGnkuko Bkb i[VB tk;s/, r[owfs d/ ;'jD/ fJfsjk; ƒ
gVQB tk;s/, nzfwqs d/ ;'w/ r[opkDh Bkb ;KM gkT[D tk;s/, gzikph p'bh
f;ZyDh jh gt/rh. gzikph p'bh ƒ ft;ko d/D dk wsbp j? gzikph ;fGnkuko
ƒ ft;ko d/Dk, gzikph oj[ ohsK ƒ fsnkr d/Dk, gzikph GzrV/ s/ frZX/ s'A
ftot/ j' ikDk, nkgD/ ;{ophoK s/ PjhdK ƒ G[Zb ikDk, r[o{ ;kfjpkB tZb'A
wB[Zysk d/ Gb/ fjZs ehs/ ekoBkfwnK ƒ ft;ko d/Dk ns/ o{j dh y[oke
r[opkDh s'A nDfGZi ofj ikDk j't/rk. eh fJ; soQK eoe/ n;hA ihts ofj

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;eKr/ < eh T[j ihtB ;kvk ;jh ihtB j't/rk <
o{; d/ wjkB b/ye jwIks't B/ fbfynk j? “;kv/ fgzvK ftZu'A fJZe
B"itkB gVQe/ B"eoh bJh tZv/ Pfjo ubk frnk. pj[s tZvk n|;o pD
frnk. gfjbK e[M ;wK fuZmh nkT[Adh ojh s/ c/o pzd j' rJh. w?A fe;/
Io{oh ezw tk;s/ tZv/ Pfjo ikDk ;h. T[; dh p[ZYh wK B/ nkgD/ g[Zso dh
ypo ;ko fbnkT[D tk;s/ sobk ehsk. ;ko/ ezw eoe/ w?A id'A Pfjo'A tkg;
gofsnk sK p[ZYh wK, g[Zso dh ;[Zy ;Kd g[ZSD nkJh. w?A T[; d/ g[Zso pko/
;ZG e[M dZf;nk. fe T[; dh pj[s tZvh e'mh j?, eko j?, tZvk nc;o j?
T[jHHHHH. wK B/ gZfSnk g[Zso T[; B/ s/o/ Bkb ;kvh dkfr;skBh p'bh ftZu
rZbK ehshnK ;B < BjhA wK, n;hA fe;/ j'o p'bh ftZu rZbK ehshnK ;B.
T[j nkgDh p'bh SZv u[Zfenk j?, fJZe d[GkPhJ/ okjhA ;kvh rZbpks j'Jh ;h.
wksk B/ nkgD/ d[gZN/ ƒ fyZu e/ nkgDk fujok YZe fbnk s/ nZyK ftZu'A nZEo{
tZr gJ/. nZyK g{zMdh j'Jh p[ZYh wK efjD bZrh, g[Zso o;{b s?ƒ G[b/yk bZrk
j? fi; ƒ s{z fwb e/ nkfJnk j?A T[j w/ok g[Zso BjhA j?. w/ok g[Zso w/o/ d[ZX
ns/ w/ohnK b'ohnK ƒ BjhA G[Zb ;edk. w/ok g[Zso wo frnk j?, wo
frnkHHHH wo frnk j?HHHH. wK o'Adh j'Jh T[Zm e/ s[o gJh”. ekP fe ;kv/
wBK ftZu nkgDh wK p'bh gqsh nfijk iIpk j't/HHHHH.

! fJj b/y ngq?b 2002 ƒ, “gzikph wkfgnK dh ;Gk g{oph bzvB” d/


;qH fBoziB f;zx dh fJZSk s/ fbfynk frnk ;h. i' T[jBK Sgtke/ tZvh
frDsh ftu tzfvnk ;h.

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