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A129

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Tests


10.

x
f !x"

1.099

11

1.609

Cumulative Test for Chapters 13

13

1.946

1. (a) Midpoint: !1,


y
2.

2.197

Vertical asymptote: x ! 4

3
2

"

3.
2

16
12

4
x
2

12 8

10

4.
x

"5

"3

"1

f !x"

2.099

2.609

2.792

2.946

6
4

2
1
5 4 3 2 1

2
2

5. y ! 2x # 2

Vertical asymptote: x ! "6

2
4

12. 1.945
13. 0.115
14. 1.328
1
15. log2 3 # 4 log2 a
16. ln 5 # 2 ln x " ln 6
17. !log 7 # 2 log x" " !log y # 3 log z"
x4
x 2!x " 5"
18. log3 13y
19. ln 4
20. ln
y
y3
ln 44
21. x ! "2
22. x !
% "0.757
"5
ln 197
23.
24. e1&2 % 1.649
% 1.321
4
25. e"11&4 % 0.0639
26. 800
501 % 1.597
27. y ! 2745e0.1570x
28. 55%
29. (a)

# #

1
4

58.720

75.332

86.828

103.43

110.59

117.38

(b) 103 centimeters; 103.43


centimeters

H
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

6. For some values of x there correspond two values of y.


3
s#2
7. (a)
(b) Division by 0 is undefined. (c)
2
s
8. (a) Vertical shrink by 12
(b) Vertical shift of two units upward
(c) Horizontal shift of two units to the left
9. (a) 5x " 2
(b) "3x " 4
(c) 4x 2 " 11x " 3
x"3
1
(d)
; Domain: all real numbers x except x ! "
4x # 1
4
10. (a) $x " 1 # x 2 # 1 (b) $x " 1 " x 2 " 1
(c) x 2$x " 1 # $x " 1
$x " 1
(d) 2
; Domain: all real numbers x such that x 1
x #1
11. (a) 2x # 12 (b) $2x 2 # 6
Domain of f $ g: all real numbers x such that x "6
Domain of g $ f: all real numbers
12. (a) x " 2
(b) x " 2
Domain of f $ g and g $ f: all real numbers
13. Yes; h"1 (x) ! 15!x # 2"
14. 2438.65 kilowatts
15. y ! " 34 !x # 8"2 # 5
y
y
16.
17.

##

3
2

8 6

x
2

4
1

Age (in years)

CHAPTER 3

Height (in centimeters)

8
2

11.

(page 276)

; Distance: $41

A130

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Tests


27. y-intercept: !0, 6"
x-intercepts: !"2, 0", !"3, 0"
Slant asymptote: y ! x # 4
Vertical asymptote: x ! "1

18.
12
10

4
2

(0, 6)

10 8 6 4 2
2

( 3, 0)

19. "2, 2i; !x # 2"!x # 2i"!x " 2i"


20. "7, 0, 3; x!x"!x " 3"!x # 7"
21. 4, " 12, 1 3i; !x " 4"!2x # 1"!x " 1 # 3i"!x " 1 " 3i"
3x " 2
22. 3x " 2 " 2
2x # 1
25
23. 2x3 " x2 # 2x " 10 #
x#2
4
24.

8 6

(2, 0)

28. x "2 or 0 x 2
x

3 2

29. All real numbers x such that x < "5 or x > "1
x

6 5 4 3 2 1

Interval: '1, 2(; 1.20


25. Intercept: !0, 0"
Vertical asymptotes: x ! 3
Horizontal asymptote: y ! 0

f
10

11

2 1
2
3
4
5
6

30. Reflect f in the x-axis and y-axis, and shift three units to the
right.

6
5
4
3
2
1

31. Reflect f in the x-axis, and shift four units upward.


6

(0, 0)
1

4 5 6

10

g
6

26. y-intercept: !0, "1"


x-intercept: !1, 0"
Horizontal asymptote: y ! 1
Vertical asymptote: x ! "1
y

32. 1.991
33. "0.067
34. 1.717
35. 0.281
36. ln!x # 4" # ln!x " 4" " 4 ln x, x > 4
x2
ln 12
37. ln
38. x !
,x > 0
% 1.242
2
$x # 5
39. ln 3 % 1.099 or 3 ln 2 % 2.079
40. e6 " 2 % 401.429
41. (a) 50

5
4
3
2

5 4 3 2

(1, 0)
1

(0, 1)

13
20

(b) S ! 0.274t2 " 4.08t # 50.6

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Tests


(c)

(c)

50

A131

2,900,000

y2
y1
7

13

0
200,000

20

(d) The exponential model is a better fit. No, because the


model is rapidly approaching infinity.
17. 1, e2
19. y4 " !x ! 1" ! 12 !x ! 1"2 $ 13 !x ! 1"3 ! 14 !x ! 1"4

The model is a good fit for the data.


(d) 65.9 Yes, this is a reasonable answer.

Problem Solving

(page 279)

1.

y " 0.5 x and y " 1.2 x


0 a 1.44

7
6

a = 0.5

85

y = ln x

a=2

y4

4
3

a = 1.2

4 3 2 1
1

3. As x %, the graph of e x increases at a greater rate than


the graph of x n.
5. Answers will vary.
6
6
7. (a)
(b)
y = ex

21.

1500
0

17.7 cubic feet per minute


23. (a)
25. (a)
9

(c)

CHAPTER 4

y2

30

100

y = ex

y1

The pattern implies that


1
1
ln x " !x ! 1" ! 2 !x ! 1"2 $ 3 !x ! 1"3 ! . . . .

y = ex
0
6

y3

9
0

(b)(e)
Answers will vary.

9.

9
0

(b)(e)
Answers will vary.

Chapter 4

4
3

Section 4.1

(page 290)

1
4 3 2 1

Vocabulary Check

1.
4.
6.
8.

#x $

f !1 !x" " ln

%x 2 $ 4

2
ln c1 ! ln c2
11. c
13. t "
1
1
1
!
ln
k2 k1
2
15. (a) y1 " 252,606 !1.0310"t
(b) y2 " 400.88t 2 ! 1464.6t $ 291,782

1.
7.
9.
11.

(page 290)

Trigonometry
2. angle
3. coterminal
radian
5. acute; obtuse
complementary; supplementary
7. degree
linear
9. angular
10. A " 12 r 2#

2 radians
3. !3 radians
5. 1 radian
(a) Quadrant I (b) Quadrant III
(a) Quadrant IV (b) Quadrant III
(a) Quadrant III (b) Quadrant II