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Thermodynamics is that branch of science which deals with energy transfer A system may be closed, open or isolated system A homogeneous system is one which consists of a single phase A heterogeneous system is one which consists of two or more phases. A property of a system is a characteristic of the system which depends upon its state, but not upon how the state is reached Intensive properties do not depend on the mass of the system Extensive properties depend on the mass of the system. When a path is completely specified then the change of state is called a process. A system is in thermodynamic equilibrium if there is no change in any thermodynamic properties of a system where it is isolated from its surroundings A quasi static process can be viewed as a sufficiently slow process which allows the system to adjust itself internally so that properties in one part of the system do not change any faster than those at other parts. . The energy which crosses the system boundaries is called transient energy Temperature is an intensive property of a thermodynamic system. At absolute zero temperature the volume of a gas becomes zero The absolute scale related to Celsius scale is known as Kelvin -scale.

[SHORT QUESTION]

Q. 1. When neither-mass nor energy is allowed to -cross, the boundary of system it is known as (a) closed system (b) open system (c) isolated system (d) None of these Ans. (c) Isolated system.

Q. 2. Zeroth law of thermodynamics defines : (a) Internal energy (b) Enthalpy (c) Temperature (d) Pressure. Ans. (c) Temperature.

Q 3. Define state, property and process. Explain the concept of cyclic process. OR Define thermodynamic state, path, process and cycles

Ans. State of a system indicates the specific condition of a system. Property/Properties are those observable characteristics of system which can be used for defining it. Process: The mode in which the change of state of a system takes place is termed as process. Cyclic process: It refers to a typical sequence of processes in such a fashion that the initial and final states are identical.

Q 4. Define heat and work. Ans. Heat may be termed as the energy interaction across the system boundary which occurs due to temperature difference only. Work is done when the point of application of a force moves in the direction of force. OR Work is defined as the energy transferred (without the transfer of mass) across the boundary of a system because of an intensive property difference other than temperature that exists between the system and surroundings.

Q. 5. Define the terms : system, boundary, surroundings and universe. Ans. System: A thermodynamic system represents a specified quantity of matter under consideration to analyse a problem, so as to study the change in properties of the specified quantity of matter due to exchange of energy-in the form of heat and work. Boundary: The thermodynamic system and surroundings are separated by an envelope is called boundary of system. Surroundings: is defined as everything outside the system. Universe: System and surroundings when put together result in universe. Universe = System + Surroundings.

Ans. It states if the bodies A and B are in thermal equilibrium with a third body C separately, then the two bodies A and B shall also be in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Q. 7. What do you understand by Macroscope and Microscopic view point? Ans. In microscopic view point, the system comprises of number of molecules in different state of energies, velocities and occupying different positions. Due to collisions, the state of molecules keeps on changing. Systems behaviour is determined by statistically averaging the behaviour of individual molecule. In macroscopic view point, the system study is based on the properties of particular mass of substance and not on the behaviour of individual molecules. In this approach, only few quantities are needed to describe a system.

Q. 8. Define thermodynamic equilibrium Discuss its various aspects also Ans. If in a system, the temperature and pressure at all parts is same, also there is no velocity gradient and chemical equilibrium is also attained then the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium For acute of thermodynamic equilibrium system should always be in mechanica1 thermal and chemical equilibrium.

Q. 9. What is displacement work? Ans. Work is said to be done when a force moves through a distance In a piston cylinder arrangement (Fig 1) if the part of boundary of system undergoes a displacement under the action of pressure, then work done W is force (i.e. product of pressure and area) x distance moved by the piston in the direction of force.

The piston moves out wards because of the expansion of system i.e. gas. It can be represented on p-V diagram as shown in Fig 2 W.D; W = force x distance moved = (p x A) x distance moved = pA. dx = p (Adx) Adx small volume dV swept by piston

Q.10. Write the causes of irreversibility. Ans. If a system passes through an order of non equilibrium states it is said to be known as an irreversible process. The causes of irreversibility are 1. Due to mechanical and fluid friction. 2. Due to unrestricted friction. 3. Due to heat transfer with finite temperature difference. 4. Due to mixing of two fluids, plastic deformation and heat convection.

Q.11. Define a quasi-static process. Ans. Quasi static means almost static It refers to a process in which a thermodynamic equilibrium state passes through a process in such a way that every state in the process is in thermodynamic equilibrium.

Let us consider an open system shown in Fig. The fixed region in space through which the mass flow takes place in known as control volume and, its surface is called control surface.

Q.14. In what respect heat and work interactions dissimilar? Ans. 1. Heat is a low grade energy, where as work is a high grade energy. 2. In a stable system, there is no work transfer, but for heat interaction, system needs not to be stable. 3. Heat is the energy interaction due to temperature difference only but work is because of reasons other than temperature difference.

Q.15. In what respect heat and work interactions similar? Ans. 1. Heat and work are path functions i.e. they are not properties of system, hence their differentials are not exact.

2. Heat and work are both transient phenomena and system does not process heat or work. 3. Heat and work represent energy crossing the system boundary and hence they are a boundary phenomenon.

It is clear from the Fig. that a peddle wheel is fitted with pulley shaft which in turn can be made to rotate by lowering the weight Due to this lowering of weight paddle wheel gets related and work is being done on the system (fluid) which gets stirred up Now the volume of system remains same (constant i.e. dV = 0) At the same time, weight W be displaced by a small distance dx then small work done is dW = W.dx = mg dx, which is not equal to zero.

Q.17. Discuss whether (PdV + VdP) represents the system properties or not? Ans. The condition for the property of a system is that the quantity which represents it should be an exact differential. The quantity (PdV + VdP) d (PV) Now its integration i.e. is a exact differential.

Q. 18. How enthalpy is related to the internal energy? Ans. Sum of internal energy and pressure volume product i.e. (U + pV) is known as enthalpy. Mathematically, H = U + pV

Where H = Enthalpy U = Internal energy p = Pressure V=Volume The right side of equation (1) has each of quantities as properties, so enthalpy is also a property. For unit mass, h = u + pv h = specific enthalpy u = specific internal energy v= specific volume.

Q 19. Define Internal energy. Is it a function of state or process? Ans. Energy possessed by a substance because of molecular arrangement and motion molecules is known as Internal energy. It is solely dependent on the initial and final states the system that means it is a point function and hence a property.

Q 20. If you compress air in a compressor, its temperature rises? Why? Ans. If air is compressed in a compressor, the volume of air is decreased. Due to decrease in volume, the air molecules collide with each other and in the process get energised and hence, K.E. of these molecules increases and finally the temperature rises.

Ans. Classification of property of a system is a follows: 1. Extensive properties: The properties which are dependent on the mass a system are known as extensive or extsinsic properties. Volume, mass, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy are the examples of extensive properties. 2. Intensive properties: The properties which are independent of the mass of system are known as intrinsic properties. Intensive properties are independent of the size of system.

Ans. Open system: A system in which the transfer of ma as well as energy takes place, is known as an open system Air compressor and a balloon containing air are known s an open system. Closed system: A system in which the mass remains constant (i.e. no transfer of mass) but transfer of energy takes place is known as a closed system. A steel flask with hot water in it is an example of a closed system. Isolated system: A system in which neither the mass nor energy transfer takes place is known as an isolated system A steel flask with an other casing insulated from the surroundings is an example of an isolated system.

Q. 23. Discuss whether the following properties represent the system properties or not? (a) PdV (b) VdP Ans. (a) PdV: In this quantity, p is a function of V and moreover, these are connected by a line on a pV diagram. Thus, the integration $ PdV can only be found out if relationship between P and V is clearly defined. Thus PdV is not an exact differential and hence, not a property of system. (b) VdP: This quantity is not an exact differential because of the same reason explained above, so it is also not a property of system

Q. 24. Define heat. Is it the property of system? Ans. Heat is a type of energy which is transferred beyond the boundary of a system because of the difference in temperature between system and surroundings. No heat is not a property of system because it is not dependent on the end states but depends upon the path followed to achieve a particular state.

Q.25. Differentiate between high grade and low grade energy. Giving examples. Ans. Energy which can be completely transformed in the shaft work without any loss is known as high grade energy. Mechanical and electrical energy are the examples of high grade energy. Energy which cannot be completely converted into shaft work/mechanical work is-known. as low grade energy. Heat energy and nuclear energy are the examples of low grade energy.

Ans. If for a given state, there is a definite volume for each property then the property is known as a point function. The differentials of point function are exact differentials. For e.g. pressure temperature volume entrophy and enthalpy etc. These type of thermodynamic properties only depend on end states. Properties which are not thermodynamic are called path functions. For e.g. work and heat. These are dependent on the path taken from one state to the other but are independent of other states. Path functions are inexact differentials.

Q. 27. What is an irreversible process? Give an example of irreversible process. Ans. A process, which involves heat transfer due to finite difference of temperature between the system and surroundings, is known as an irreversible process Fluid friction between the molecules because of turbulence due, to high speeds is an example of an irreversible process

between

universal

gas

constant

and

Ans. Characteristic gas constant From the characteristic gas equation, pV= mRT

P = pressure V = volume m = mass T = temperature units of R are J/kg K and R for air is 287 J/kg K Value of gas constant R is d1fferent for different gases Universal gas constant: The product of characteristic gas constant and molecular weight of an ideal gas is known as universal gas constant. Also (for air) = 8314- J/kg.mol K. Where M = Molecular weight of an ideal gas R = Characteristic gas constant.

Q.29. thermometry?

Ans. Zeroth law states that if two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system separately then two systems are also in thermal equilibrium with each other It provide the basis for the measurement of temperature of a system.

Q. 31 Explain thermodynamic system Ans. A thermodynamic system can be defined as a specified region in which change of energy or mass or both takes place.

Q. 32. Define internal energy. Ans. The energy possessed by a body or system due to its molecular arrangements and motion of molecules is known as internal energy.

Ans. It is a system in which the mass remains constant and there is no transfer of mass across their boundary although there may be transfer of energy between the system and surroundings.

[LONG QUESTIONS]

Q. 1. Define the terms heat and work. What is the difference between them? A fluid at a pressure of 3 bar and with a specific volume of 0.18 m3/kg contained in a cylinder behind a piston expands reversibly, to a pressure 0.6 bar according to the law p = where C is constant. Calculate the work done by fluid on piston. Ans. Heat is basically energy which is transferred beyond the boundary of system because of the difference of temperature between system and surroundings. Work is transferred from the system during a given operation if the sole effect external to the system can be reduced to the rise of a weight. OR Work is defined as the energy transferred (without the transfer of mass) across the boundary of a system because of an intensive property difference other than temperature that exists between the system and surroundings.

Q.2 Define Zeroth law of thermodynamics To a closed system 150 KJ of work is supplied If the initial volume is 0.6 m3 and pressure of the system changes as p = (8 4V), where P is in bar and V is in m3 Determine the final volume and pressure of system Ans. According to Zeroth law of thermodynamics If a body A is in thermal equilibrium with a body B and another body C is in thermal equilibrium then bodies A and C are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Where P is in bar

also it is given that work is supplied which means work is done on system

Since work is done the system, 3.646 value is invalid, therefore taking V2 = 0.353 m3. Final pressure P2 = 8 4V2 = 8 4 x 0.353 = 6.58 bar.

Q. 3. What are the reasons for irreversibility of actual process? How can we reach near reversibility conditions? What is its importance in engineering thermodynamics? Ans. The reasons for irreversibility of actual process are: 1. If there is mechanical and fluid friction in the system. 2. If the fluid has higher viscosity. 3. If heat transfer with finite temperature difference. The reversibility conditions can be reached if both system and surrounding are in thermodynamic equilibrium and they pass through a sequence of equilibrium states i.e. by reversing the direction of process, system and surrounding should be restored to their initial states respectively. For a process to be reversible, following conditions must be satisfied 1. The process should be frictionless, inelastic and electrical resistant. 2. Heat transfer if any takes place during the process, it should be through infinitely small differences in temperature. 3. The process speed should be very slow, so that system is in thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium. Importance of reversibility: No process is truly reversible only ideal gases are said to be reversible. Work done in a reversible process is maximum with minimum energy (heat) supplied. Similarly, work done by a reversible engine will be maximum and also the efficiency will be maximum.

Q. 4. Explain the difference between temperature, heat and internal energy. Ans. Temperature is defined as the degree of hotness and coldness of a body. It is also known as the measure of average kinetic energy of molecules of

system. If in a body, molecules have higher kinetic energy, the body is said to be at higher temperature. SI units of temperature is C. Heat is a form of. energy that is transferred across the boundary of a system because the temperature difference between the system and its surroundings and it takes place from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. If system and its surroundings are in thermal equilibrium, then no heat interaction is possible. Heat is transient quantity, which means it occurs only during transfer of energy because of temperature difference. It is denoted by Q. If the heat is transferred to the system, it is considered +ve (Q + ye) while heat transferred from the system to surroundings is considered -ve (Q ye). The modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation. In solids, heat transfer is by conduction whereas in fluids it is by convection. Radiation is the mode of heat transfer by the electro magnetic waves propagation. Units of heat are joule or kilojoule. Internal energy: Energy of a body or system by virtue of the molecular arrangement and motion of its molecules is known as Internal energy. . For a process, we know, dE = Q W and = pdV + dE. This energy E contains all forms of energy in it like. E = K.E. + RE. + Chemical energy + Electrical energy + Magnetic energy + U + . U represents the energy due to molecular motes and it is stored in the molecules.

Q 5. The work applied to a closed system is 160 KJ. The initial volume is V1 = 800 litres and pressure of system changes by the relation P = (7 3V), where P is in bar and V is m . Find the final pressure.

Also work supplied = -1600 kJ on system) = -160x10J Given equation is P = (7 - 3V) bar = (7 - 3V) x

Work is done

N/m

Q. 6. Classify the thermodynamic system and explain them with the help of the simple diagrams. Ans. A thermodynamic system represents a fixed quantity of matter under consideration to determine the changes in its properties because of energy transfer between system and surroundings. The thermodynamic system can be classified as 1. Open system 2. Closed system 3. Isolated system Open system: When mass flow of substance takes place simultaneously with the transfer of energy, the system is known as an open system. A steam boiler and water heater are examples of an open system.

Fig. shows an open vessel in which water is heated. The steam starts flowing upwards when water starts boiling. This shows steam along with heat flows outside the system. Closed system: If in a system only heat and work energy are transferred across the boundaries of system, then it is said to be a closed system.

Fig. shows a closed vessel in which heat is given to water. Steam starts building inside the vessel, but heat flows outside the boundary of system.

Isolated system: A system in which neither mass flow of substance nor transfer of energy takes place is known as an isolated system. An insulated flask containing hot water is an example of an isolated system.

Q 7. A non-flow reversible process are correlated by the expansion P=( + 6V), where P is in bar and V is in m . What amount of work is done when volume changes from 2 to 4 m ?

Q 8. A spherical balloon of 0.5 m diameter contains a gas at 250 kPa and 400 K. The gas inside the balloon is heated until the pressure reaches 500 kPa. During the process of heating, the pressure of gas inside the balloon is proportional to diameter of balloon. Calculate the work done by gas inside the balloon. Ans Initial diameter of balloon D1 = 0 5 m P1 = 250 kPa, P2 = 500 kPa T1 = 400K also P D P = CD . (1) Where C is a constant of proportionality P1 = 250 KPa Putting in equation (1) P1= CD1

Q 9. A mass of 10 kg at room temperature is dropped from a height of 10m into a bucket at room temperature containing 200 kg of water. Calculate the change in internal, potential and kinematic energies, heat and work transfer for following two cases: (a) Stone is just about to strike the water. (b) Stone just stopped at bottom of bucket

For Case (1): Stone is just about to strike the water. From equation (1)

For Case II: Stone just stopped at bottom of bucket: From equation (2)

Since heat transfer to surroundings is such that stone and water remain at same temperature.

Ans. Reversible process: A process is said to be reversible if the reversal of the process does not leave any trace on system and surrounding in a reversible process, any energy transferred would also have to be transferred reversibly. Conditions for reversibility: 1. The process should take place very slowly so that the system is always in thermal, chemical and mechanical equilibrium. 2 There should be no friction, viscosity, inelasticity electrical resistance etc 3 The heat transfer to or from the system if any should be only through infinitely small temperature difference Examples: 1. Frictionless relative motion. 2. Frictionless adiabatic expansion and compression process. 3. Electrolysis. 4. Evaporation. Irreversible process: A process is said to be irreversible, if the system passes through sequence of non-equilibrium states. Causes of irreversibility: 1. Mechanical and fluid friction. 2. Unrestricted friction. 3. Heat transfer with finite temperature difference. 4. Mixing. Examples: 1. Relative motion with friction. 2. Diffusion of gases. 3. Dissolving of sugar or salt in H20. 4. Plastic deformation. 5. Heat transfer by convection.

Q.11. Define enthalpy, why does the enthalpy of an ideal gas depends only on temperature? Discuss

Ans. Enthalpy of a substance is given by the sum of internal energy and displacement energy (product of pressure and volume). Mathematically, Enthalpy is given by, H = U + pV, where U = Internal energy and pV = flow work

where Cp = specific heat or constant pressure Which is a constant quantity for an ideal gas. Also, when a gas is heated at a constant pressure, the heat supplied to gas is utilised for following two purposes: 1. To raise the temperature of gas. This heat remains within gas and represents increase in internal energy. 2. To do some external work during expansion.

Remember These:

Clausius Statement It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a system at low temperature to another system at high temperature

Kelvin-Planck Statement It is impossible to construct an engine that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than work output and exchange of heat with a single heat reservoir Although statements of Kelvin Planck and Clausius appear to be different but they are equivalent in the sense Perpetual motion machine of second kind (PMM2) is that imaginary machine which would continuously absorb a heat from a single thermal reservoir and convert this heat completely into work. The efficiency of such a machine would be 100% Clausius inequality is given by

[SHORT QUESTIONS]

Q.1. State Carnot Theorem for heat engines Ans. It states that no heat engine working in a cycle between two constant thermal reservoirs can be more efficient. Than a reversible engine working between the same two reservoirs.

Q.2. Give various statements of second law of thermodynamics. Ans. Kelvin-Plancks statement: It is impossible to construct an engine working on cyclic process, whose sole purpose is to convert all the heat supplied to it into equivalent amount of work. Claussius statement: It is impossible for the heat to flow from a body at a lower temperature to a body at higher temperature to a body at high temperature without the aid of external energy.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 2 3 4

2 3 4 1

is is is is

isothermal heat addition. isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expansion reversible isothermal heat rejection. isentropic compression.

Ans. Heat pump is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a hot body at a temperature higher than the temperature of surroundings, whereas a refrigerator is a device which operates in a cyclic process. but maintains the temperature of a cold body at a temperature lower, than the temperature of surroundings.

Q.5. State the limitations of 1st Law of Thermodynamics. Ans. The limitations of 1st law of thermodynamics are as follows: 1. It does not indicate the direction of heat transfer. 2. It does not tell anything about the conditions under while heat can be transformed into work. 3. It does not indicate as to why the whole of heat energy cannot be converted into mechanical work completely.

Q.6. State the principle of entropy and draw T-S diagram for it.

Ans. The property which suggests that quantity and hence a properly of system is known as entropy.

is a point function

If we consider the heating of a working substance by a reversible process from 1 to 2 the entropy change will be as shown in Fig.

Q.7. A closed system contains air at 1bar, 190K and occupy 0.02m of volume. This system is heated by constant volume till pressure become 4 bar. For the problem. Draw P-V and T-S diagram only.

Ans.

Q.8 Write the equation for change of entropy during constant volume process Explain each notation as you write in your answer. Ans. Consider a certain quantity of a perfect gas being heated at a constant volume.

T1, T2 = temperature for state (1) and (2) P1, P2 = pressure for state (1) and (2) S2, S1 = entropy for state (1) and (2) M = mass of gas at constant volume q = specific heat at constant volume.

Q.9. How second law of thermodynamics overcomes the limitation of first law? Ans. According to second law of thermodynamics it is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process, whose sole purpose is to convert all the heat energy supplied to it by a source into an equivalent amount of work. Also according to second law of thermodynamics, heat cannot flow from itself from a body at lower temperature to a body at higher temperature without the aid of an external machine.

Q.10. What features characterise a heat engine? Ans. A heat engine characterise the following features: 1. It receives heat Q1 from temperature source at temperature, T1. 2. It converts heat received Q1 into mechanical work W partially. 3. It rejects the balance heat Q2 to temperature sink at temperature T2. 4. It works in continuous operation.

Ans. A heat pump is a device which while operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a hot body (heated space) at a temperature higher than the temperature of surroundings.

[LONG QUESTIONS]

Q.1. (a) Prove that efficiency of a reversible engine is maximum. Ans. The statement that the efficiency of a reversible engine is maximum can be proved by using the proof of Carnots theorem. Let there be an engine EA (irreversible engine) working between two thermal reservoirs at T1 and T2 (T1 >T2). Let there be another engine EB (reversible engine) working between two thermal reservoirs as shown Fig.

Let both the engines receive some quantity of heat (Q) and produce work WA and WB. Then, heat rejection would be (0 WA) and (Q WB). Let the efficiency of an irreversible engine be higher than the reversible engine or WA > WB. (QWA) < (QWB) Let us couple both the engines as shown in Fig. (b) and engine EB is reversed and it acts as a heat pump. It receives heat (Q WB) from heat sink and WA from EA and pumps Q to the heat source at T1. The heat source supplies heat Q to EA The net effect is shown in Fig (c). Heat (WA WB) is taken from sink and equal amount of work

(WA WB) is produced. This violates the second law of thermodynamics Hence, the assumption of irreversible engine having higher efficiency than a reversible engine is not true. The only possibility is that the efficiency of engine EA can be less than or equal to then of EB.

(b) A reversible heat pump is used to maintain a temperature of 0C in a refrigerator when it rejects the heat to the surroundings at 25C. If the heat removal rate from the refrigerator is 1440 kJ/min, determine the COP of machine and work input required. It the required input to sun the pump is developed by a reversible engine which receives the heat at 380C and rejects the heat to atmosphere, then determine the overall COP of system. T1 = 25C = 25 + 273 = 298 K T2 = 0C = 0 + 273 = 273 K Rate of heat removed from refrigerator, Q1 = 1440 kJ/min Solution.

Q2 = Q1 + W = 24 + 2.2 = 26.2kJ/s

Q.2. (a) Prove that Clausius and Kelvin Planck statement appears to the different but these are same. Ans. Clausius statement: Heat cannot flow itself from a body at low temperature to a body at higher temperature without the aid of external work . Thus, a body can absorb heat from a source which is at higher temperature than the body, itself. If it is required to lower the temperature of body below that of its surroundings, mechanical work must be done, such as in refrigeration systems. If heat source is at a temperature T1 and a heat sink at T2, with T1 > T2, then according to Clausius statement, heat cannot flow from heat sink to heat source without the aid of an external machine like a heat pump. Refer Fig. (a)

. Kelvin Planck Statement: According to Kelvin Planck, It is impossible to construct an engine working on a cyclic process where sole purpose is to convert all the heat energy supplied to it an equivalent amount of mechanical work. Although both the statements appear to be different and unconnected but infact, they are equivalent in all respects. The violation of any one of the two leads to the violation of other one.

(b) Find the COP and heat transfer rate in a condenser of a refrigerator in kJ/hr which has a regeneration capacity of 12,000kJ/hr when power input is 0.15 kW.

Ans.

Q.3. Show by inequality of Clausius that no heat pump cycle working between two reservoirs can receive less net work per unit of heat received than a reversible cycle. OR Prove that an engine operating between two heat reservoirs cannot have higher efficiency than that of a reversible engine operating between the same heat reservoirs. Ans. Clausius inequality is the outcome of second law of thermodynamics. It states that when a system undergoes a cyclic process, the integral of the cycle is always equal to less than zero i.e. mathematically around

Clausius inequality can be explained by considering a reversible cycle 1-2-34 on PV diagram as shown in Fig. The cycle is subdivided by a family of closely spaced adiabatic lines similar to ad, bc, ef etc. The elementary cycle abcd then consists of two adiabatics da and bc and two elementary paths ab and cd Since the adiabatics lie close to each other, the distance ab tends to zero. Accordingly the temperature at points a and b can be thought to be equal. Similarly the points c and d would also be at another equal temperature. Thus elementary paths ab and cd are isothermal conditions. Since no two adiabatics cross each other, therefore the reversible cycle can be subdivided into a large number of carnot cycles (abcd, befc etc.) Since the carnot cycle is reversible cycle, so for the first elementary carnot cycle the is

But considering the +ve sign for heat absorption and ve sign for heat rejection the above equation becomes

If-similar equations are written for all the elementary cycles then for the reversible cycle 1-2-3-4

The subscript (R) refers to reversible cycle. As the of irreversible engine is less than between the same temperature limits

But considering the +ve sign for heat absorption and ve sign for heat rejection the above = n becomes

Where (I) refers to irreversible cycle. Combining equations (1) and (2) the equation for clausius inequality is written as

Q.4.(a)Define Kelvin Planck and Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics. Show the equivalence between the two statements. Ans. Kelvin-Planks statement: It is impossible to construct an engine working on cyclic process whose sole purpose is to convert all the heat energy supplied to it into an equivalent amount of mechanical work. In other words no heat engine converts or can convert more than a small friction of the heat supplied to it, into mechanical work, a large part is rejected as heat as shown in Fig

. QS = Heat supplied QR= Heat rejected W = Work developed by the engine. Clausius statement: Heat flows from a hot body to a cold body unaided, but it is impossible for heat to flow from cold body to a hot body without the aid of external work. It means that a body can only absorb heat from a source which is at a higher temperature than the body itself. If it is required to lower the temperature of a body below than its surrounding, mechanical work must be expanded such as in refrigerating system. Where

Thus if heat source is at a temperature of T1 and a heat sink is at a temperature T2 with T1 being more than T2 then according to Clausius statement heat cannot flow from heat sink to heat source without the aid of an external agency like heat pump Equivalence of both statements: It is impossible to have a system which satisfies one of the statement and violates the other. It can be proved that if a device violates one statement then it will also violate the second statement.

(b) What are temperature-entropy charts? Explain its significance. Ans. On a graph if entropy (S) is plotted as base and absolute temperature (T) as vertical ordinate then the diagram so obtained is called temperature entropy diagram (T-S) diagram. Consider the heating of working substance by a reversible process from initial state 1 to final state 2. Considering point A on the curve 12. At this point let a small quantity of heat be supplied to the working substance, which will increase the entropy-by dS Let the absolute temperature at this instant be I. Then according to entropy definition. .(1) From the below given Fig we see that the term TdS represents the area under the curve during this change of entropy.

Where Total amount of heat interaction during the reversible process 12. Thus, the area under T-S diagram gives total heat supplied or absorbed. In the case of irreversible process, it is shown by dotted lines and the area

under an irreversible process path is greater than the amount of heat interaction.

Q.5. A Carnot engine working between a source temperature of T1 and sink temperature of T2 has efficiency of 25%. If sink temperature is required by 20C. The efficiency is increased to 30%. Find the source and sink temperature. Ans. Let T1 and T2 are initial temperature of source and sink respectively in a carnot cycle.

T1 T2 = 0.25 T1 T2 = 0.75 T1 If sink temperature is reduced by 20C or (20 + 273) K i.e. 293 K Then, efficiency of carnot cycle is given as

T1 T2 + 293 = 0.3 T1 Putting the value of T2 from equation (1) 0.25 T1 + 293 = 0.3 T1 0.05 T1 = 293 T1=5860K or T1 =5860 273 = 5587C Putting the value of T1 in equation (1) T2 =0.75 T1 = 0.75 x 5860 = 4395 K Or T2 = 4122C Hence source and sink temperature are 5587C and 4122C respectively.

Q.6. (a) Explain reversed heat engine Carnot cycle with the help of P-V diagram. Ans. Both refrigerators and heat pumps are reversed heat engines. Reversed means that all the processes are being carried out individually in the reverse direction.

The Fig. shown gives P-V diagram of Carnot heat pump (reversed Carnot heat engine). In the reversed process (Q2) is (received) from the heat sink during Isothermal expansion (43) at temperature (T2).(Q1) heat is rejected to the heat source during isothermal compression (21) at temperature (T1).

(b) Three real heat engine have the same thermal efficiency and are connected in series. The first engine absorbs 2400 kJ of heat from a thermal reservoir at 1250K and the third engine rejects its waste of 300 kJ to a sink at 150 K, determine the work output from each engine.

Ans. It is defined as a machine which continuously absorbs heat from a single thermal reservoir and converts this heat completely into work. The thermal efficiency of such a machine would be 100%. A machine of this kind violates second law of thermodynamics. Such a machine is impossible to obtain in actual practice.

(b) An inventor claims to have developed an engine that operates between a source at 450 K and a sink at 280 K and is capable of delivering 0.15 kWh of work for every 1200 kJ of heat received. As a patent engineer would you issue a patent for such an engine.

Ans.

T1 = 450K T2 = 280K

= 37.7%

= 45% As the claimed by the inventor is more than the actual of carnot cycle therefore it violates the theorem. Therefore its patent cannot be issued to the inventor.

Q 8. What do you mean by the entropy? Write an expression for the change in entropy of system. Ans. Entropy is a function of a quantity of heat which shows the possibility of conversion of that heat into work.

Entropy can also be defined as the ratio of heat transfer to the absolute temperature of system. Mathematically,

Also, its change from initial equilibrium state to final equilibrium state 2 during a reversible process is

Q. 9. Write the mathematical expressions for the following processes: (1) Isothermal (2) Isochoric (3) Constant pressure (4) Adiabatic (5) Polytropic processes. Ans. The mathematical expressions for the above processes are: 1. Constant temperature: (Isothermal)

Q.10. Sketch the Carnot cycle on T-S diagram and derive on expression for its efficiency. Ans. Carnot cycle consists of two reversible isothermal processes and two reversible adiabatic processes.

Expression for efficiency of Carnot cycle Process (1 2) isothermal expansion During an isothermal expansion at constant temperature T1 heat is supplied to working fluid.

.. (1) The area under the process line 1 2 represents heat supplied to system Process (2 - 3) Adiabatic expansion When the temperature of working fluid reaches T2, then the adiabatic expansion ends at state 3. During this process: S2 = S3 Process (3 4) isothermal compression Heat is transferred from the working fluid to the low temperature heat sink T2. For this process

The area under the process line 3 .4 represents heat rejected by the system Process (4 1) (adiabatic compression) In this process S4 = S1 (S2 S1) = (S4 S3) i.e. the increase in entropy during the process 1 2 is equal to decrease in entropy during 3 4 process

Q.11. An engine manufacturer claims to have developed a heat engine with following specifications: Power developed = 75 kW, fuel burnt = 5 kJ/hr Heating value of fuel = 75000 kJ/kg Temperature limits = 1000 K and 400 K Is the claim of the manufacturer true or false?

Ans

Power developed = 75 kW Fuel burnt = 5 kJ/hr Heating value of fuel = 75000 kJ/kg T1 = 1000K, T2 = 400K

Work done = 75kW = 75kJ/S Heat supplied = Fuel burnt per hour x Heat value of fuel

Since, actual thermal efficiency claimed is more than thermal efficiency of Carnot cycle, Hence claim of invertor is not true/valid.

Q. 12. Three Carnot engines A, B, C working between temperature of 1000K and 300 K are in a series of combination. The work produced by these engines are in the ratio of 5:4: 3. Make calculations for the intermediate reservoirs.

Ans. Refer Fig. on the next page for the arrangement of three Carnot engines in series:

also,

Q1 = W1 + Q2

(1) Similarly for engine E2: (2) .. (3) substituting the value of equation (1) in equation (2), we get

.. (4)

Also W2 = Q2 Q3 Q2 = W2 + Q3

T2 = 708K

Q.13. An electric motor of 5 kW is subjected to a braking test for one hour. The heat generated by frictional forces in the process get dissipated to surroundings at 300K. D e t ermine the resulting increase in entropy. Ans. P = 5kW = 5000 W = 5000J/s Work done by the brake for one hour = 5000 x 3600 J Temperature, T = 300 K Increase in entropy, ds = Now, whole of work done in converted into heat frictional force W.D. = = 5000 x 3600 J Increase in entropy

Q.14. 0.5 m of air at 200C and 6 bar expands to 1 bar according to law (i) pV = constant (ii) p = constant (iii) Adiabatically. Make calculations for the change in entropy for each of the process. Take = 1.4 and Cv = 0.715 kJ/kg K. Solution. Given

V1 = 0.5 m T1 = 200C = 200 + 273 = 473 K P1 = 6 bar =6 x N/m P2 = 1 bar = 1 x N/m = 1.4, Cv = 0.715 kJ/kg K, Cp = 1.001 kJ/kg K R = 0.286kJ/kg K For the first case: pV = constant i.e. in isothermal process

= 2.217kg

T2 = 350K

= 2.21 x 1000 [ 0.301 + 0.512] = 467.28 J = 0.467 kJ For the third case: During an adiabatic process;

Q.15 Calculate the entropy change of universe as a result of following processes (i)A copper block of 800 gm ad heat capacity of 150 J/K at 373 K is placed in lake at 281 K. (ii)The same block at 281,K is dropped from a height of l00m into lake. Solution. Case I. Final temperature of Cu, TF = 281 K We know that Initial temp of Cu T1 = 373 K as such there is no appreciable temperature change of lake: Heat capacity C = mCp = 150 J/K

= 420.483 J/K

T1 = 273 + 8 = 281 K Change in potential energy of copper block will result in temperature rise mgh = mCp

Q.16. (a) Describe the working of Carnot cycle. OR What is Carnot cycle? What are the four processes which constitutes the cycle? Explain.

Ans. This cycle consists of two adiabatic and two isothermal processes, as shown in the P-V and T-S diagrams of the Fig. (a) & (b).

Air is assumed to be the working fluid, which is contained in a cylinder. The walls of this cylinder are made up of some non-conducting (Insulating) materials The cylinder cover which is also made of non-conducting material can be removed or placed on the cylinder head as and when required. 1 At point a: The pressure volume and temperature of air at a be P1V1 and T1 respectively. A hot body at temperature T1 is brought in contact with cylinder end (cylinder head) The air expands isothermally to point b absorbing heat from the hot body Due to expansion of the air, the piston is forced out, thus doing some useful work 2. At point b: The hot body is removed and the end of the cylinder is covered with the non-conducting cover The air at point b expands adiabatically to point c. During adiabatic expansion the temperature of the air decreases and at the same time work is done At point c let the temperature of air be T2 3 At point c: The cold body at temperature T2 is brought in contact with the cylinder end in place of non-conducting cover The air s compressed isothermally to point d rejecting heat to the cold body 4 At pointd: The cold body is removed and again the cylinder end is covered with the non-conducting cover. The air is compressed adiabatically to point a. The temperature of the air rises from T2 to T1 This way the cycle is completed Now let P1, V1 and T1 be the pressure volume and temperature of air at point a and P2, V2 and T2 their corresponding values at point c. Also let there be only one kg of air in the cylinder.

The value of expansion ratio and compression ratio must be equal, otherwise the cycle will not close. According to law of conservation of energy; Work done = Heat supplied Heat rejected

(1) From equation (1), it is clear that the efficiency of the cycle depends upon the temperature range only. No other property of the working fluid (air) affects it.

(b) Calculate the entropy change of the universe as a result of the following process (i) A copper block of 600 gm and heat capacity of 150 J/K ( at 100C is placed in a lake at 8C. (ii) The same block at 8C is dropped from a height of 100 m into the lake. Ans. 1. Change in entropy of block of copper

Q.17. Calculate the change in entropy of the universe owing to each of the following processes. (a) 0.5 kg of copper block at 100C is placed in water reservoir at 0C. (b) Same block at 100C is dropped from height of 100 m into the reservoir and comes to rest without any of temperature of the block. (c) Two blocks at 100C and 0C joined together. Cu = 0.393 kJ/kg K at 100C and 0.381 kJ/K at 0C.

m = 0.5 kg = 0.393 kJ/kg K at 100C = 0.381 kJ/kg K at 0C Temp. of cu block T1 = 100C = 100 + 273 = 373 K Reservoir temp. T2 = 0C = 0 + 273 = 273 K When block is immersed in reservoir, the copper block will attain its final temperature T2 corresponding to temperature of reservoir i.e. T2 = 0C = 273 K.

Solution.

Heat given by Cu block, Q = C (T1 T2) = 0.393 (373 273) = 393 kJ. It also represents the heat absorbed by water.

When block at 100C is dropped from height of 100 m into the reservoir and comes to rest without any of temperature of block. (P.E.) = mgZ = 0.5 x 9.81 x 100 = 490.5 J = 0.490 kJ This P.E. is converted into heat Therefore, rise in temperature of block,

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