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| Facade |

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Architects Facade Manual Products and systems Details Solutions

General note The details, illustrations and general technical information contained in this manual are only general in character. The technical data sheets, system specifications and descriptions are to be observed in each instance with regard to specific application of the presented products. Referring to the abovestated documentation on the individual products with due regard to the details of the individual project concerned will ensure optimum use of the products.

I know the price of success: dedication, hard work, and an unremitting devotion to the things you want to see happen Frank Lloyd Wright, 18671959

Introduction

Introduction to Sto

Sto is in the business of maintaining and enhancing the value of buildings through protection and renovation of facade and interior surfaces, improving functionality, durability and aesthetic design. To this end, Sto designs, develops, manufactures and distributes innovative and sustainable market leading facade renders and external wall insulation systems, ventilated rainscreen cladding systems, facade and interior paints, interior plasters and acoustic systems. Our facade products offer virtually boundless scope for individual design. Almost any kind of construction, countless surface structures and virtually any shade of colour can be realised. Quality from start to finish The name Sto is synonymous with quality and the strength of our offering is built on excellent service at every stage. Our facade systems are proven to be of the highest quality, but to realise their design scope fully, Sto provides advice on technical and design considerations throughout the building process, from inception to completion. Building a sustainable future Environmental protection has a key role to play in all areas of our business activity. Our aim is to manufacture products without harmful social or ecological impact. We believe our products have a positive effect on key environmental concerns such as excessive energy consumption and waste production. For example, our StoTherm external wall insulation systems improve the heating and cooling efficiencies of

buildings. This significantly lowers fuel consumption and energy bills, an issue of increasing concern with an ever-expanding global population. Our mission, Building with conscience, means far more than the long-term sustainability of our manufacturing processes and minimising our effects on the environment. It also reflects our relationships and approach to staff, customers and other key stakeholders. For us to sustain our business long-term we need to be ever mindful of the changing needs of our stakeholders and society in a wider context. Our guiding principles are at the heart of everything we do and will continue to shape and develop

our approach to business in the future. Sto is leading in the field of sustainability for modern construction needs through raw material selection, recycling considerations and embracing new technologies for improved system design and long term sustainability goals.

When reading the Architects Manual Facade, please note that we reserve the right to modify product properties. Colours may vary from those depicted in illustrations. Errors and omissions excepted. The illustrations shown are not binding.

Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Generic detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

1. Products and systems

Contents
Introduction | 3

Finishes | 5

Facade systems | 31

Facade renders | 49

Facade paints | 51

Surface design options | 53

Refurbishment and restoration | 67

1. Products and systems Introduction

Effective insulation attractive design The right system for the facade

Facade design is the art of giving buildings their own distinctive appearance and character through the use of form, colour and texture. In addition to these aspects, functionality and durability are also crucial to the long term value of a facade. Sto products and systems can unify the technical and aesthetic demands placed on the building envelope. The appeal and physical quality of a buildings exterior nish are a measure of architectural accomplishment combined with craftsmanship. Careful planning, professional workmanship and outstanding products are the crucial ingredients for high quality facades. Sto sets the standards in this eld: With a unique range of proven solutions tailored to the markets needs, backed up by comprehensive support, we cover the entire spectrum of systems and services as a one-stop partner for high quality facades. All of the components of our facade systems are perfectly coordinated to ensure reliable installation free of any unwelcome surprises. Sto facade systems = reliability Over 50 years of experience and practical use demonstrate the rstclass, lasting protection afforded by external wall insulation systems from Sto. StoTherm Classic is the original and still one of the best and most effective insulation systems on the market. Crucial added value A facade insulation system offers obvious advantages: Effective protection of the external structure, lower incidental costs, a comfortable indoor climate and, not least of all,

more living space in comparison to buildings with a monolithic wall structure. Facade insulation with systems from Sto open up huge design possibilities as a result of the ever growing variety of nishes on offer. This section aims to provide you with an initial overview as a general reference basis for your design work. You will nd a cross-section of our large range of surface nishes, information on external wall insulation systems, rainscreen cladding systems, render systems, facade coatings and renovation systems, and the appropriate system to meet virtually every type of requirement. Our regional Technical Consultants will be glad to help you at all times with any further queries: www.sto.co.uk

Steybe commercial building, WeinstadtEndersbach, D (Fuchs, Wacker Architekten BDA, Stuttgart, D: StoTherm Classic L external wall insulation system)

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Smooth surface

Opaque glass StoVerotec Glass

StoVerotec panels are an interesting proposition if you are considering adding architectural highlights to the facade with highquality re ective surfaces. The bene ts are self-evident: The panels are robust and invisibly xed. The broad variety of colours means that they will be easily incorporated into any facade arrangement.

Applicable facade system


StoVerotec Facade ventilated rainscreen cladding system

Maximum size
125 x 260 cm

Colour choice
broad variety of colours, RAL colours, etc.

Material properties/texture
glass smooth, gloss

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Smooth surface

Energy-generating facade embellishment StoVerotec Photovoltaic

The StoVerotec Photovoltaic modules come up trumps not only in terms of energy generation and environmental awareness. They also offer pioneering freedom in the design of facades. Featuring a pinstripe nish in any of six colours, the system combines variety, aesthetics and functionality to perfection.

Applicable facade system


StoVerotec Photovoltaic ventilated rainscreen cladding system

Maximum size
60 x 120 cm

Colour choice
6 colours possible: black, red, blue, yellow, green and white pinstripe look

Material properties/texture
glass smooth, gloss

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Smooth surface

Glass mosaic tiles StoVentec Glass Mosaic

Glass mosaic tiles lend facades a distinctive character while at the same time meeting the given functional requirements. The small glass tiles offer captivating light re ection whilst giving the facade covering depth. A broad range of brilliant colours and various sizes and thicknesses provide the basis for multi-faceted glass facades.

Applicable facade system


StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system

Maximum size
50 x 50 mm, 50 x 25 mm or 25 x 25 mm (grid size) Thickness: 8 or 4 mm

Colour choice
40 colours

Material properties/texture
glass mosaic smooth, gloss

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Fine texture

Effect nish Stolit Milano with StoColor Metallic Stain Wash

The ultra- ne-grained nishing render Stolit Milano can be trowelled onto level surfaces in several layers to produce a very at relief-type texture which lends the render nish a three-dimensional appearance. This technique enables a broad spectrum of nishes, from virtually smooth to coarse. The special appeal of the nish shown derives from its ne, elegant texture in conjunction with the glaze-like StoColor Metallic coating.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic, StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoRend systems

Maximum size
no limits to area of coverage

Colour choice
tintable in accordance with the StoColor Metallic collection

Material properties/texture
cement-free ne textured render

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Fine texture

Facade render Stolit MP, oat nished


Alternatives: StoSilco MP, StoLotusan MP, StoMiral MP with additional coating, StoSil MP

Stolit is a classic with a success story spanning over ve decades, during which time it has continually served as a benchmark for technical developments in its eld. The cement-free nishing render excels as a free-style texture render by virtue of its oat nished surface. Stolit MP offers a host of other texturing options for individual surface nishes.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depends on type of property and Stolit variation

Colour choice
tintable in accordance with the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free, ne-grained free-style texture render (here in oated nish), also available as stippled and rilled texture render

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Fine texture

Facade embellishment natural stone Sto-Fossil SKL, honed nish

Architectural design employing natural stone panels is always unique and individual. They offer endless variety in terms of colours, textures and surface nishes. As its name suggests, natural stone is also a natural building material which scores top marks for environmental compatibility. The honed natural stone Sto-Fossil SKL is always an eye-catcher with its elegant surface nish. The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

Applicable facade system


StoVerotec Stone Massive, StoVentec Stone ventilated rainscreen cladding systems StoTherm EWI systems StoRend systems

Maximum size
StoVerotec Stone Massive: Individual sizes on request StoVentec Stone: 90 x 60 cm as natural stone tiling on EWIS: 61 x 30.5 cm and 30.5 x 30.5 cm

Colour choice
brown grey blue (individual) see colour texture sample collection

Material properties/texture
limestone (shell limestone), honed/milled

10

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Fine texture

Facade render Stolit Milano, ne spot-smoothed nish

The ne trowelled and spot-smoothed nish provides for discreetly elegant yet interesting facade surfaces with this versatile ne textured render. The trowel application technique enables surface nishes to be produced which create surface textures ranging from smooth but uneven, through to rustic. This broad design spectrum and the variety of available colours enable the most diverse surface effects according to the employed technique and material combination.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic, StoTherm Mineral external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions (may be dependent on type of property and employed technique)

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free, ne-grained free-style texture render, also available in stippled and rilled textures

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

11

1. Products and systems Rough surface

Facade render StoLotusan K 2.0


Alternatives: StoSilco K, StoLotusan K, StoMiral K with additional coating

Unusual technical solutions are often called for in the building sector especially with regard to the facade nish. The StoLotusan nishing render enables the most diverse surface nishes, according to the grain size and texture used. It also offers an added technical bene t in the form of the Lotus-Effect, which actively supports self-cleaning of the facade when exposed to rain. Dirt rolls off with the rain and the facade retains its attractive appearance. Outstanding building physics data underscore this effect.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions (may be dependent on type of property and technique used)

Colour choice
limited tinting in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
render with Lotus-Effect stippled texture, also available as free-style texture

12

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Rough surface

Facade render Stolit Milano, concrete character

This example shows just what an all-round design gem the cement-free nishing render Stolit Milano is: With the right material combination and application technique, surfaces can be created which are reminiscent of fair-faced concrete. With its numerous texturing options, application techniques and broad choice of colours, Stolit Milano offers a range of ways to lend facades a highly individual touch.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of property and the technique used, it may be advisable to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free, very ne-grained freestyle texture render

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

13

1. Products and systems Rough surface

Effect coating StoColor Metallic on stippled texture render

Very special visual effects are often attained by simple means. The StoColor Metallic facade coating, for example, provides for a metallic surface effect and can be applied to any stippled texture render from Sto. The effect coating can be used both indoors and outdoors, is water-repellent and can be tinted in accordance with the StoColor Metallic collection, providing for even greater individuality in facade design.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic, StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions (may be dependent on type of property and employed technique)

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor Metallic collection

Material properties/texture
synthetic, metallic-iridescent

14

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Rough surface

Facade render StoMiral R 2.0


Alternatives: Stolit R, StoLotusan R, StoSilco R, StoSil R

It is the interplay of light and shade that lends some surfaces their own distinctive appeal, as illustrated here by the StoMiral mineral nishing render with a rilled texture. The contrast between light and shaded areas provides the attractive surface with an ever-changing appearance. Stippled and free-style textures open up numerous other design options.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding systems StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions on area of coverage

Colour choice
limited tinting in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
mineral rilled render, also available in stippled and free-style textures

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

15

1. Products and systems Rough surface

Facade embellishment natural stone Sto-Fossil SKL, sandblasted and brushed

The diversity of natural stones is revealed in the vast design scope they offer in terms of colours, textures and surface nishes. Architects are able to draw on a rich spectrum ranging from smooth-ground through sandblasted to coarse bush-hammered nishes. The rougher surface of the sandblasted and brushed natural stone shown here brings out its natural quality.

Applicable facade system


StoVerotec Stone Massive, StoVentec Stone ventilated rainscreen cladding systems StoTherm external wall insulation systems StoRend systems

Maximum size
StoVerotec Stone Massive: Individual sizes on request StoVentec Stone: 90 x 60 cm as natural stone tiling on EWIS: 61 x 30.5 cm and 30.5 x 30.5 cm

Colour choice
brown grey blue (individual) see colour texture sample collection

Material properties/texture
limestone (shell limestone) sandblasted and brushed

16

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Facade renders Stolit MP, special technique


Alternatives: StoSilco MP, StoLotusan MP, StoMiral MP with additional coating, StoSil MP

Creating unusual surfaces that are far removed from the everyday sometimes calls for unconventional means in facade design. As illustrated here with the cement-free special technique texture render Stolit MP. The textures special effect is further reinforced by the play of light and shade. Stolit also offers excellent colour stability and a broad range of through-colours.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding systems StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of property and the technique used, it may be recommendable to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free ne-grained free-style texture render here in broom texture, also available in stippled and rilled texture

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

17

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Facade render StoSilco R 3.0, vertically textured


Alternatives: Stolit R 3.0, StoSil R 3.0, StoMiral R 3.0 with additional coating

Render nishes open up broad design scope by virtue of their adaptability and versatility. The two examples opposite show surfaces featuring a rilled render texture. The depth of the grooves in the rendered surface varies according to grain size. Round, vertical or horizontal patterns can be produced. In this example the render has been textured vertically.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions on area of coverage

Colour choice
limited tinting in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
silicone resin rilled render texture (vertical orientation), also available with stippled and free-style textures

18

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Facade render StoSilco R 3.0, horizontally textured


Alternatives: Stolit R 3.0, StoSil R 3.0, StoMiral R 3.0 with additional coating

3D in a different perspective: This example surface shows the silicone resin render StoSilco with a horizontal texture. StoSilco is also available as stippled and free-style texture render and is highly resistant to algae and fungi.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions on area of coverage

Colour choice
limited tinting in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
silicone resin rilled render texture (vertical orientation), also available with stippled and free-style render texture

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

19

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Facade render Stolit Effect in special technique

Individual design options for facades are more sought-after than ever among architects and building owners. The cement-free coarse-grained free-style texture render Stolit Effect can be textured free-style to create uniquely vivid surface nishes.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of property and the technique used, it is advised to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free coarse-grained free-style texture render, shown here in broom nish

20

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Effect coating Stolit K 3.0 with silicon carbide F14

This creative additive in combination with the cement-free render is a very special eye-catcher that lends a sparkle to the facade. Silicon carbide chips are blown into the freshly textured render while it is still wet to produce a unique appearance featuring fascinating light re ections. The facade appears in different shades according to the time of day and the angle of the incident light.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of property and the technique used, it is advised to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System, colour class C1-C2

Material properties/texture
cement-free stippled render texture with coarse blown-in SiC F14

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

21

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Effect coating Stolit Effect with Sto-Terrazzo Effect natur

This cement-free facade render is provided with an effect sand to produce a natural-character surface nish. The ne natural stone additive provides a variety of contrasting effects to the surface and makes Stolit Effect an interesting and striking design element on any facade.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of building and the technique used, it may be advisable to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free coarse-grained free-style texture render with blown-in effect sands

22

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Facade embellishment natural stone Sto-Fossil SKL, bush-hammered

Natural stone combines timeless elegance with sustainability. Natural stone possesses an inherent vitality which it has acquired over millions of years. Its actual production does not require any energy. Extraction and machining are the only energy-consuming activities. The bush-hammered limestone Sto-Fossil SKL lends the facade a timeless, natural character.

Applicable facade system


StoVerotec Stone Massive ventilated rainscreen cladding systems

Maximum size
StoVerotec Stone Massive: individual sizes on request

Colour choice
brown grey blue (individual) see colour texture sample collection

Material properties/texture
limestone (shell limestone), bush-hammered

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

23

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Effect coating Stolit Effect with Sto Glass Beads

A uniquely attractive appearance is obtained by embedding transparent Effect Glass Beads into Stolit Effect facade render. These beads re ect and refract the light in myriad of different ways. This provides facades with a remarkable surface nish which alters continuously according to the light conditions and the incident light angle.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of building and the technique used, it is advised to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free coarse-grained free-style texture render with effect glass pearls

24

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Effect coating Stolit Effect, exposed aggregate concrete character

In this nish the cement-free facade render Stolit Effect is reminiscent of a concrete surface exposed to the weather, with coarse aggregates gradually coming to light. The overall ne texture interspersed with coarse details provides for a striking facade surface with patina character.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
a restriction of the covered surface area to below 40 m2 is advised, depending on the type of property and the applied technique

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free individually texturable, here in felted nish

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

25

1. Products and systems Coarse texture

Facade embellishment natural stone Sto-Fossil SKL, sandblasted

Shell deposits in the natural stone Sto-Fossil SKL; its extensive colour range from light grey through brown to blue, and the host of different surface nishes make every panel absolutely unique. The surface of the stone shown here has been sandblasted to create a coarse, natural look.

Applicable facade system


StoVerotec Stone Massive, StoVentec Stone ventilated rainscreen cladding systems StoTherm external wall insulation systems StoRend systems

Maximum size
StoVerotec Stone Massive: Individual sizes on request StoVentec Stone: 90 x 60 cm as natural stone tiling on EWIS: 61 x 30.5 cm and 30.5 x 30.5 cm

Colour choice
brown grey blue (individual) see colour texture sample collection

Material properties/texture
limestone (shell limestone), sand-blasted

26

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Very coarse texture

Facade render StoMiral R 6.0


Alternatives: Stolit R 6.0

The mineral nishing render StoMiral provides an attractive, quality surface in a rilled texture. The interesting, very coarse surface changes in appearance according to the prevailing light and shade. The employed grain size results in highly pronounced rills which lend the surface a bold character.

Applicable facade system


external wall insulation systems StoVerotec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions on area of coverage

Colour choice
limited tinting in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
mineral rilled render, also available as stippled and free-style textures

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

27

1. Products and systems Very coarse texture

Facade render Stolit K 6.0, rolled texture


Alternatives: StoMiral K 6.0 with additional coating

This special application technique produces a particularly attractive coarse surface with the versatile Stolit nishing render. The robust-looking, very coarsely structured surface provides a texture which is further enhanced by the play of light and shade.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of building and the technique used, it is advised to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free rolled-on render in dashed look

28

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Very coarse texture

Facade render Stolit K 6.0


Alternatives: StoMiral K 6.0 with additional coating

The special feature of this stippled render surface is the pronounced manner in which the grain shows through, providing a tactile nish. The Stolit cement-free nishing render which was used here offers broad design scope by way of stippled, rilled or free-style textures and different grain sizes.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
no restrictions on area of coverage

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System

Material properties/texture
cement-free stippled texture render, also available as rilled and free-style texture render

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

29

1. Products and systems Very coarse texture

Facade render Stolit K 6.0, rolled texture with metallic effect

While every type of surface nish has its own appeal, combining different products usually opens up quite different possibilities. The coarse-grained texture of the Stolit K 6.0 render is further enhanced here by the iridescent metallic effect pigment of the StoColor Metallic facade paint. Partial application to the tips of the textured surface provide the nishing render with additional light re ections which lend the surface depth.

Applicable facade system


StoTherm Classic and StoTherm Vario external wall insulation systems StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system StoRend systems

Maximum size
depending on the type of property and the technique used, it is advised to divide up the surface area

Colour choice
tintable in the StoColor System and StoColor Metallic collection

Material properties/texture
cement-free rolled-on render in dashed look with metallic effects

30

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Overview of facade systems

Facade systems from Sto Material selection and design options

Design of facade systems

System

Dark nishing layer 1

Architectural elements StoDeco Pro les

Acrylic brick slips

Rustic facade

Natural stone

External wall insulation system

StoTherm Classic StoTherm Vario StoTherm Mineral /


4

Ventilated rainscreen cladding system

StoVentec Facade StoVerotec StoRend

Render system

System

Ceramic coverings

Glass

Glass mosaic 2

Curved facades

Prefabricated elements

Seamless rendered surface


5

StoTherm Classic StoTherm Vario StoTherm Mineral StoVentec StoVerotec

45

StoRend
4) 5)

excellent

good

limited suitability

1) 2)

Render and paint lightness value < 20 % To be obtained from another manufacturer 3) Following approval from Sto Ltd

When using StoArmat Classic When using mechanically xed M System

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

31

1. Products and systems Overview of facade systems

Facade systems from Sto System selectors

Facade insulation systems selector


Fire Resistance StoTherm Classic StoTherm Vario StoTherm Mineral StoVentec Facade StoVerotec
Maximum

Impact resistance

Flexibility

Vapour permeability

Cost

Limited to 18 m height Over 18 m height Over 18 m height Over 18 m height Over 18 m height
Medium Minimum
1) 2)

12

When using StoArmat Classic When using mechanically xed M System

System xing method selector by substrate


Substrate condition Substrate capable of carrying bonded load Substrate not capable of carrying bonded load Substrate surface friable and unreliable Surface tolerance Curved substrate

Adhesive x Adhesive x & dowelling Mechanical x Rainscreen mechanical x


Suitable Not very suitable Unsuitable

< 1 cm < 2 cm

< 3 cm > 3 cm

32

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems External wall insulation systems

StoTherm Classic external wall insulation system Cement-free, with maximum crack and impact resistance

1 Starter track 2 Adhesive 3 Insulation board 4 Reinforcement 5 Render nish

1 Track 2 Insulation board 3 Reinforcement 4 Render nish

StoTherm Classic has been the benchmark EPS external wall insulation system for over four decades. The EWI system was designed for maximum reliability and durability from the outset. Since then, it has undergone continual re nement and enhancement. Almost 100 million square metres installed to date is testament to StoTherm Classics superior technical performance. Market leading shock and impact resistance ten times higher than

that of mineral systems superior insulating properties, excellent thermal conductivity and broad design variety are the de ning strengths of StoTherm Classic. The system can be nished in a huge range of performance render top coats or decorative cladding options. Colour choice is phenomenal. Additional functionality can be incorporated, such as integrated components to provide protection from algae and fungal growth.

System overview
Area of application Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Can be used up to 18 m. Uneven areas (K System): 10 mm (Sto-Turbofix) 20 mm (StoLevell Uni/Sto-Turbofix, dowelling) 30 mm (StoLevell Uni, dowelling) Uneven areas (M System): 40 mm (panel substrates) 50 mm (masonry substrates) Pull-off strength: 0.08 N/mm2 Temporary fixings should be used for wind resistance during adhesive set. Features Entirely cement free system. Up to 10 times more impact resistance than cementitious systems. No additional expansion joints required. Ef cient single-leaf construction allows for improved thermal performance without reducing the interior space. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in brilliant white or tinted in 800 colours (restrictions apply). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Compatible with StoDeco pro les and Sto-Resin Brick Slips. Application Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C. Approvals BBA certi cation No. 95/3132 European Technical Approval ETA-03/0027

System components
StoTherm Classic K (adhesively xed system)
Starter track Adhesive Insulation board Aluminium and PVC starter tracks. StoLevell Uni or Sto-Turbo x. Sto-EPS Board 1000 x 500 mm, square edged, standard thickness 20-200 mm. Sto-Mineral Fibre Lamella horizontal/vertical rebreaks. StoArmat Classic cement free, exible reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Classic while wet. Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, throughcoloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Reinforcement Render nish

StoTherm Classic M (mechanically xed track system)


Track Insulation board Aluminium and PVC intermediate track and T-Splines. Sto-EPS Board, M System 500 x 500 mm, grooved and rebated, standard thickness 60-150 mm. Sto-Mineral Fibre Lamella horizontal/vertical rebreaks. StoArmat Classic cement free, exible reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Classic while wet. Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, throughcoloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Reinforcement Render nish

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

33

1. Products and systems External wall insulation systems

StoTherm Classic for the PassivHaus A worthwhile investment

The PassivHaus standard continues to gain ground and not only for detached houses. Owners, planners, architects and investors have also discovered the advantages which this sustainable construction method offers for multi-storey residential buildings, of ce complexes and industrial buildings: Minimal energy costs coupled with maximised quality of life and the extra costs are minimal. The key criterion for a PassivHaus is the annual heating requirement, which must be below 15 kWh per square metre. By way of comparison, the average annual energy consumption for heating buildings dating from before 1980 stands at more than 220 kWh per m. A major advantage of any PassivHaus is the low energy and running costs. The costs of building such a house are declining, and currently stand at around 5 to 8 per cent above those for a low-energy house. The prerequisites for a PassivHaus include insulation of the buildings entire exterior nish for maximum energy ef ciency. Another crucial requirement is for an air-tight exterior nish with an active ventilation system. Such exterior nishes are relatively straightforward to produce today always assuming an appropriate quality of planning and execution. A particularly interesting and economical option is the solid construction type, such as lime sandstone masonry in combination with the StoTherm Classic external wall insulation system. While the masonry serves as a heat buffer for the interior of the building, the insulation system with its EPS boarding of between 20 and 40 centimetres in thickness
34

prevents heat loss. StoTherm Classic has been optimised to meet the special requirements pertaining to a PassivHaus and has received due certi cation from the PassivHaus Institute. The tried and tested detail solutions from this system can be applied to rule out thermal bridges at junctions between different parts of the building, reveals, corners, projections and recesses from the outset.

PassivHaus Krause, Klagenfurt (A) (active-SUNCUBE, Dieter Tscharg, Klagenfurt, A)

The small proportion of window space was ideal for the purposes of converting this former post of ce into a PassivHaus. Former post of ce in Bozen, I, Michael Tribus Architecture, Bozen, I.
The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems External wall insulation systems

StoTherm Vario external wall insulation system Cost-effective insulation alternative for areas 18 m above ground level

1 Starter track 2 Adhesive 3 Insulation board 4 Reinforcement 5 Render nish

1 Track 2 Insulation board 3 Reinforcement 4 Render nish

The ideal option for areas requiring a cost-effective, lightweight alternative to mineral-wool insulation boards whilst adhering to re regulations in areas with limited human traf c. StoTherm Vario has been designed as an affordable, lightweight insulation system with limited combustibility, ideal for areas above 18m. There is some loss in exibility in favour of improved re performance thanks to the inclusion of a cementitious reinforcing coat.

StoTherm Vario is comprised of expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation board, mineralic reinforcing coat with glass bre reinforcing mesh and a choice of both synthetic and mineralic render nishes. Additional scope for combination with tiles, glazed brick slips, natural stone and StoDeco pro les provides for virtually unlimited design variety. StoTherm Vario is suitable for use on new build and refurbishment projects.

System overview
Area of application Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Can be used up to 18 m. Uneven areas (K System): 20 mm (adhesive fix) 20 mm (adhesive fix, dowelling) Uneven areas (M System): 40 mm (panel substrates) 50 mm (masonry substrates) Pull-off strength: 0.08 N/mm2 Temporary fixings should be used for wind resistance during adhesive set. StoTherm Vario M can be used for severe re loading over 18 m (up to 45 m with NSAI certi cated system) Features No additional expansion joints required. Ef cient single-leaf construction allows for improved thermal performance without reducing the interior space. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in brilliant white or tinted in 800 colours depending on nish (restrictions apply). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Compatible with StoDeco pro les and Sto-Resin Brick Slips. Application Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C. Approvals BBA certi cation pending Tested to BS8414 Part 2 European Technical Approval ETA-05/0130

System components
StoTherm Vario K (adhesively xed system)
Starter track Adhesive Insulation board Aluminium and PVC starter tracks. StoLevell Uni or Sto-Turbo x. Sto-EPS Board 1000 x 500 mm, square edged, standard thickness 20-200 mm. Sto-Mineral Fibre Lamella horizontal/vertical rebreaks. StoArmat Novo mineralic reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Novo while wet. StoSilco, StoMiral through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Reinforcement Render nish

StoTherm Vario M (mechanically xed track system)


Track Insulation board Aluminium and PVC intermediate track and T-Splines. Sto-EPS Board, M System 500 x 500 mm, grooved and rebated, standard thickness 60-150 mm. Sto-Mineral Fibre Lamella horizontal/vertical rebreaks. StoArmat Novo mineralic reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Novo while wet. StoSilco, StoMiral through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Reinforcement Render nish

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

35

1. Products and systems External wall insulation systems

StoTherm Mineral external wall insulation system Non-combustible, ideal for high-rise and public buildings

1 Starter track 2 Adhesive 3 Insulation board 4 Reinforcement 5 Render nish

1 Track 2 Insulation board 3 Reinforcement 4 Render nish

StoTherm Mineral is the ideal system for all projects requiring the use of non-combustible materials, such as buildings rising beyond the high-rise limit of 18 metres. This reliable noncombustible system is suitable for all substrates and offers a wealth of design options. StoTherm Mineral is based on a thermal insulation system consisting of mineral bre boards or lamellas. The system meets the re protection requirements, making it a reliable

choice for use on high-rise buildings (new and existing), too. In addition to a range of nishing renders and facade paints offering high resistance to algae and fungi, other options available for StoTherm Mineral include ceramic facade coverings and StoDeco Pro les. Thanks to its perpendicular bre orientation in relation to the wall, the mineral lamella is ideal for round structures, thick sections and adhesive x solutions.

System overview
Area of application Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Can be used over 18 m (up to 45 m with NSAI certi cated system) Uneven areas (K System): 20 mm (Lamella adhesive fix) > 20 mm (Lamella adhesive fix, dowelling) Uneven areas (M System): 40 mm (panel substrates) 50 mm (masonry substrates) Pull-off strength: 0.08 N/mm2 Temporary fixings should be used for wind resistance during adhesive set. Features Fire resistant insulation materials for unrivalled re protection. No additional expansion joints required. Ef cient single-leaf construction allows for improved thermal performance without reducing the interior space. Dense construction materials provide improved sound insulation. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in brilliant white or tinted in 800 colours depending on choice of nish (restrictions apply). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Compatible with StoDeco pro les and Sto-Resin Brick Slips. Application Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C. Approvals BBA certi cation No. 95/3132 Tested to BS8414 Part 2

System components
StoTherm Classic K (adhesively xed system)
Starter track Adhesive Insulation board Aluminium and PVC starter tracks. StoLevell Uni mineralic bonding/reinforcing coat. Sto-Mineral Fibre Board non-combustible insulation board. 1000 x 500 mm, square edged, standard thickness 30-150 mm. Sto-Mineral Fibre Lamella non-combustible insulation strips. 1000 x 200 mm, square edged, standard thickness 30-150 mm StoArmat Classic (up to 18 m) or StoArmat Novo Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into reinforcing coat while wet. Stolit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Reinforcement Render nish

StoTherm Classic M (mechanically xed track system)


Track Insulation board Aluminium and PVC intermediate track and T-Splines. Sto-Mineral Fibre Board M non-combustible insulation board 500 x 500 mm, grooved, standard thickness 60-150 mm. Sto-Mineral Fibre Lamella horizontal/vertical rebreaks. StoArmat Classic (up to 18 m) or StoArmat Novo Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into reinforcing coat while wet. Stolit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Reinforcement Render nish

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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Rainscreen cladding systems

StoVentec Facade ventilated rainscreen cladding system Seamless, for unlimited colour and surface design possibilities

1 Sub-construction 2 Insulation 3 Render carrier board 4 Reinforcement 5 Render nish

Whether seamless nishes or high gloss panelised glass, rainscreen optimises the highest technical performance combined with endless design options. The variable and exible subconstruction is suited to both new build and refurbishment projects, even if the facade is in a poor state of repair. The ventilated cavity associated with rainscreen cladding provides for ef cient water management and a dry, stable structure.

Sto rainscreen systems offer the highest performing, externally insulated facade available through: Dark colours Intricate curves Moisture management + thermal performance Sound insulation Impact resistance Lightweight Design options (render, glass, mosaic, stone) Facade levelling

System overview
Area of application Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Masonry substrates (brickwork, blockwork, concrete, porous concrete), timber and steel frame construction. Problematic substrates (e.g. damp penetration, extreme unevenness, severely cracked). Features Adjustable sub-construction levels uneven substrates. Ventilated cavity keeps the wall dry and allows it to breathe. Effective external wall insulation. Provides up to 10 dB improvement in the airborne sound insulation index. High resistance to cracking and mechanical stress. Limited combustibility B1 DIN 4102. Frost resistant DIN 52104 Unusual shapes and curves are possible. Appearance Synthetic render nishes available in white or tinted to 800 colours. No limits on lightness value, allowing the darkest colours to be used. Compatible with StoDeco pro les, Sto-Resin Brick Slips, ceramic tiles and glass mosaic. Application Cement free, ready-to-use components. Lightweight system. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C. Approvals BBA certi cation pending. Z-33.2-394 DiBt approval with plastered surface. Z-33.2-776 DiBt approval with glass mosaic, ceramic tiles or ashlar.

System components
Sub-construction Timber studwork and battens; or Sto-Stainless Steel Wall Brackets with aluminium support rails and screw xings for timber/steel studwork, masonry, brickwork, blockwork Sto-Rainscreen Duo Slab insulation board 1000 x 600 mm, standard thickness 50-105 mm. StoVentec Render Carrier Board Dimensions: 1.2 x 0.8 m or 2.4 x 1.2 m, thickness 12 mm StoArmat Classic cement free reinforcing coat Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into reinforcing coat while wet. Stolit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes also available.

Insulation board Render carrier board Reinforcement Render nish

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

37

1. Products and systems Rainscreen cladding systems

StoVerotec Facade ventilated rainscreen cladding system Panel facade with highlighted joints for exclusive solutions

1 Anchorage substrate 2 Sub-construction 3 Insulation with eece 4 Agraffe pro les 5 Finishing layer StoVerotec Glass

1 Anchorage substrate 2 Sub-construction 3 Insulation with eece 4 Agraffe pro les 5 Finishing layer Natural stone panel

The StoVerotec Facade rainscreen cladding system with concealed xing and exposed joint pattern can be nished with glass, natural stone or creative render in variable element sizes. The optimised stainless steelaluminium sub-construction enables stable installation on virtually every substrate. StoVerotec Facade always provides the desired thermal insulation on new or refurbished buildings. In the

winter the facades enable savings on heating energy, while in the summer they provide for a pleasant ambient interior climate. The ventilated design of the facades leads to a marked reduction in the level of solar heat passing directly through the wall, ensuring that the interior remains comfortably cool for longer. The diverse choice of nishing layers provides for individual and distinctive facades.

System overview
Area of application Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Masonry (brickwork, blockwork, concrete, porous concrete), timer and steel frame construction (subject to load carrying capacity). Problematic substrates (e.g. damp penetration, extreme unevenness, severely cracked). Features Adjustable sub-construction levels uneven substrates. Ventilated cavity keeps the wall dry and allows it to breathe. Effective external wall insulation. Reduction in solar heat transmission. High resistance to cracking and mechanical stress. Limited combustibility B1 DIN 4102. Frost resistant DIN 52104 Appearance Glass panel sizes up to 2.6 x 1.25 m. Glass supplied in any RAL colour. Curved glass. Vast array of natural stone nishes. Also available with factory nished pannelised render. Application Simple, robust hanging system. Approvals BBA certi cation pending for glass. Z-33.2-658 DiBt approval with glass. Z-33.2-776 DiBt approval with glass mosaic, ceramic tiles or stone.

System components
Sub-construction Stainless steel/aluminium sub-construction consisting of stainless steel Sto wall holders and aluminium T-pro les or agraffe pro les Sto-Rainscreen Duo Slab insulation board 1000 x 600 mm, standard thickness 50-105 mm. StoVerotec Glass system Prestressed glass surface No visible xing Panel facade joint as a design element Rounded panels also available on request Broad colour variety RAL colours, screen printing, logos, etc. No limitation of the lightness value StoVerotec Creativ system Organic and mineral renders No visible xing Panel facade joint as a design element Tintable in the StoColor System No limitation of the lightness value Overhead glazing approved StoVerotec Stone Massive system Solid natural stone panels No visible xing Exclusive shell limestone, sandstones and many other options available on request Ground, sand-blasted, bush-hammered surfaces many other options on request

Insulation

Possible panel nishes

38

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Rainscreen cladding systems

StoVerotec Photovoltaic Environmentally friendly energy generation on a ventilated rainscreen cladding system

1 Anchorage substrate 2 Sub-construction 3 Insulation 4 Agraffe pro les 5 StoVerotec Photovoltaic Panel with Wrth Solar CIS module

No exhaust fumes, no consumption of fossil fuel resources photovoltaics are among the most environmentallyfriendly forms of energy generation. The area of application for photovoltaics used to be restricted primarily to roofs. The StoVerotec Photovoltaic system is now ringing the changes, incorporating photovoltaics into vertical panelling on walls. A joint development by StoVerotec GmbH and Wrth Solar, the facade module can be incorporated into ventilated rainscreen cladding systems to generate electricity by means of its photovoltaic properties, leading to drastic reductions in buildings' energy requirements. In addition to its energy-generating capabilities and ecological credentials, the system also offers pioneering freedom in the area of facade design. The facade panels in ultra- ne pin-stripe look

can be nished in any of 6 different colours for aesthetically appealing solutions. Coloured photovoltaic modules do come at the price of reduced ef ciency, however, owing to the higher light re ection. Energy savings of up to 40% are attainable in existing buildings by means of facade insulation. In combination with StoVerotec Photovoltaic, annual increases in regenerative energy in the order of 700 kWh of electricity per kWp are also to be expected. Depending on the selected colour, this corresponds to an annual power output of 45 to 75 kWh per square metre of PV module. In theory, this means that the average annual power consumed by a family of four in central Europe 4500 kWh/a could be generated by 60 to 100 square metres of integrated photovoltaic facade.

The stable composite glass design of the Wrth modules guarantees a durable overall surface with a long service life.

System overview
Area of application On all solid anchorage substrates of appropriate load-bearing capacity: blockwork (concrete, sand-lime block, brick, porous concrete), paneltype constructions (three-layered panelling) Levels unevenness by means of a exible subconstruction Properties Dimensions: 600 x 1200 mm, 1200 x 600 mm, thickness of module with carrier board approx. 33 mm Output (CIS): 80 W per module Choice of 6 colours: Black, white, red, green, blue and yellow Bene ts and advantages Homogeneous, classy appearance in pinstripe nish Concealed xing Combination of insulation and energy generation provides for a sustainable system Factory-prepared panels enable swift installation irrespective of weather conditions Low weight Continuous monitoring of electrical output can be carried out by our partner Wrth Solar

System components
Sub-construction Stainless steel/aluminium sub-construction consisting of stainless steel Sto wall brackets and aluminium T-pro les or agraffe pro les Sto-Rainscreen Duo Slab insulation board 1000 x 600 mm, standard thickness 50-105 mm. StoVerotec Photovoltaic Panel with Wrth Solar CIS module Combination with following surfaces possible: Render, glass, glass mosaic, natural stone and ceramics

Insulation

Finishing layer

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

39

1. Products and systems External wall insulation systems

StoTherm Solar Solar wall heating integrated in the external wall insulation system

1 Bonding agent 2 StoSolar Panel 3 Glass render

Saving heating costs, protecting the environment, preserving natural resources, using renewable forms of energy these are the 21st century needs to be addressed by building owners, architects and planners during the development and construction phase for a building. The innovation award-winning StoTherm Solar panel is a boon here, converting solar energy into heat. Sunlight falls on the translucent glass render nish on the surface. The capillary tubes underneath guide the sunlight inwards and onto a black absorber layer which converts the solar energy into thermal energy with an ef ciency level of around

95%. The masonry stores this heat and releases it into the building as pleasant radiant heat, in a similar manner to a wall heating system. In contrast to solar collectors on the roof, StoTherm Solar is most effective in the winter. Due to the low position of the sun, sunlight falls on the panel virtually head-on in the winter. This enables optimum use of the available solar energy via conversion into heating energy. In the summer, the high position of the sun results in a correspondingly at angle of incidence. The sunlight is consequently re ected by the glass render nish, preventing the interior walls from heating up.

Malerbetrieb Federlechner, Karlsruhe, D (Winkler + Bahm Architekten, Karlsruhe, D)

System overview
Function Solar wall heating system integrated in external wall insulation systems which absorbs sunlight on the facade, converts it into thermal energy and releases it into the building. Area of application Solid masonry with apparent density of at least 1,200 kg/m2 Concrete walls Properties 5 different standard format available (200 x 120 cm, 200 x 60 cm, 100 x 120 cm, 100 x 60 cm, 50 x 120 cm) Available in board thicknesses 12 cm/16 cm Bene ts and advantages Reduced energy consumption means lower heating costs Pleasant radiant heat provides for a more comfortable home environment StoTherm Solar elements are seamlessly integrated into the facade Diverse range of formats ensures broad scope for individual facade design

System components
Bonding agent Solar panel Glass render Sto ADH-B mineralic adhesive mortar StoTherm Solar Panel translucent capillary panel Translucent glass render Special formats in the range of 2 m x 1.20 m Closed, seamless glass render surface

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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Render systems

Sto Render Systems

While Sto render nishes provide a wide range of design options and weather protection for the facade, it is vital to ensure that the rendered wall is both durable and resistant to cracking to ensure a long life. For this reason, Sto has developed the StoRend render systems, providing application solutions for a variety of substrate types. Each system has been designed and tested to ensure maximum crack resistance, adhesion, weatherproo ng and fade resistance.

Render systems selector chart


Project type StoRend Cote StoRend Flex Cote StoRend Fibre StoRend Fibre Plus StoRend Flex StoReno
1

Cost

Adhesion

Levelling

Crack Resistance

New build / Refurb New build / Refurb New build / Refurb New build / Refurb New build / Refurb 1 Refurb
Maximum High Medium Low

Ideally suited for refurb

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

41

1. Products and systems Render systems

StoRend Cote Levelling render system

1 Levelling coat 2 Intermediate primer 3 Render nish

System components
Levelling coat StoLevell Cote cement-based, polymer modi ed levelling coat.

Intermediate primer

Sto-Primer lled, pigmented intermediate coat for render nishes.

Render nish

Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes are also available.

Of ce Building SP8, Neuss, Germany

Where cost is a major issue for your project but the bene ts of completely weather-proof, through-coloured and low maintenance renders are still highly desirable, StoRend Cote is the ideal render system. Designed for projects where substrate movement has been carefully considered and risks of movement minimised, StoRend Cote is a dependable and cost-effective system offering.

Correct preparation of the substrate is crucial to the functioning of the system. Existing substrates should be clean, dry and free of loose coatings or dirt etc. Levelling uneven blockwork adds additional costs to the system. The blockwork should therefore be constructed as true as possible, ideally to fairface tolerances. Make good as necessary. StoRend systems use specialist materials applied by trained, registered Sto applicators. Please consult your regional Technical Consultant for more details.

System overview
Area of application Brickwork, blockwork and masonry substrates. Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Features Levelling coat for correcting irregularities in the substrate, up to 20 mm in a single application. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in 800 colours (depending on choice of nish). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Application Levelling uneven substrates adds cost to the system. Blockwork should be constructed to fair-face tolerances. Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C.

42

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Render systems

StoRend Flex Cote Levelling render system with reinforcement

1 Levelling coat 2 Reinforcement 3 Render nish

System components
Levelling coat StoLevell Cote cement-based, polymer modi ed levelling coat.

Reinforcement

StoArmat Classic cement free, exible reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Classic while wet. Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, through-coloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes are also available.

Render nish

Dental Clinic, Obihiro, Japan

StoRend Flex Cote is a highly exible levelling render system, using only the highest quality materials to provide industry de ning levels of outstanding crack-resistance, weather protection and durable good looks. Our agship reinforced render system has set the industry benchmark for over 25-years. StoRend Flex Cote is tough enough to render over existing surface cracks and can even bridge joints between dissimilar substrates* with correct Sto detailing. The system uses StoArmat Classic; an acrylic reinforcing coat which is up to 15-times more exible than traditional cement-based reinforcing coats, when combined with Sto Glass Fibre Mesh. StoArmat Classic has helped revolutionise our approach to the design of render systems. StoArmat Classic is manufactured far more cost effectively than similar

products from competitors and is still the highest performing reinforcing coating available to date. StoRend Flex Cote offers all of the system bene ts expected of acrylic render systems, such as completely weather proof, breathable and through coloured, low maintenance surfaces. Correct preparation is of crucial importance to the functioning of the system. Existing substrates should be clean, dry and free of loose coatings or dirt etc. Make good as necessary. StoRend systems use specialist materials applied by trained, registered Sto applicators. Please consult your regional Technical Consultant for more details. *Please refer to Sto Technical Services for more information on crack bridging and movement capabilities.

System overview
Area of application Brickwork, blockwork and masonry substrates. Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Features Levelling coat for correcting irregularities in the substrate, up to 20 mm in a single application. Reinforcing coat and mesh provide more than 15 times the crack resistance of conventional mineralic renders. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in 800 colours (depending on choice of nish). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Application Levelling uneven substrates adds cost to the system. Blockwork should be constructed to fair-face tolerances. Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C.

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

43

1. Products and systems Render systems

StoRend Fibre Fibre-enhanced levelling render system for porous substrates

1 Levelling coat 2 Intermediate primer 3 Render nish

System components
Levelling coat StoLevell Reno cement-based, bre reinforced levelling coat. Intermediate primer Sto-Primer lled, pigmented intermediate coat for render nishes.

Render nish

Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, throughcoloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes are also available.

B&B Hotel, Hamburg, Germany

StoRend Fibre is a quality render system from Sto using a modi ed, bre reinforced levelling coat for improved crack resistance in addition to a choice of decorative acrylic nish renders providing outstanding weather protection and long lasting, vibrant colours. Designed for use on substrates where the risk of movement has been thoroughly investigated and considered minimal, highly porous substrates such as brick and aerated concrete, and smooth substrates with problematic adhesion issues.

The combination of a high polymer content and bres added to the levelling coat help provide greater adhesion characteristics. They have the added bene t of slowing down the rate at which a substrate will suck water out of the levelling coat, which can often lead to unwanted surface defects such as crazing. Correct preparation is of crucial importance to the functioning of the system. Existing substrates should be clean, dry and free of loose coatings or dirt etc. Make good as necessary. StoRend systems use specialist materials applied by trained, registered Sto applicators. Please consult your regional Technical Consultant for more details.

System overview
Area of application Porous substrates. Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Not suitable for joint bridging. Features Levelling coat for correcting irregularities in the substrate, up to 20 mm in a single application. Fibre reinforcement provides improved crack resistance caused by thermal movement or mechanically indused stress. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in 800 colours (depending on choice of nish). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Application Levelling uneven substrates adds cost to the system. Blockwork should be constructed to fair-face tolerances. Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C.

44

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Render systems

StoRend Fibre Plus Fibre-enhanced levelling render system with reinforcement for porous substrates

1 Levelling coat 2 Reinforcement 3 Intermediate primer 4 Render nish

System components
Levelling coat StoLevell Reno cement-based, bre reinforced levelling coat.

Reinforcement

Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoLevell Reno while wet.

Intermediate primer

Sto-Primer lled, pigmented intermediate coat for render nishes.

Render nish

Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, throughcoloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes are also available.

Atrium House, private house, Poland

StoRend Fibre Plus is a high quality render system from Sto using a bre reinforced levelling coat combined with a tough, exible reinforcing mesh to yield exceptional levels of crack resistance. Designed for use on highly porous substrates such as brick and aerated concrete or smooth substrates with problematic adhesion issues. The combination of a high polymer content and bres added to the levelling coat help provide greater adhesion characteristics. They have the added bene t of slowing down the rate at which a substrate will suck water out of the levelling coat, which can often lead to unwanted surface defects such as crazing.

StoRend Fibre Plus incorporates StoGlass Fibre Mesh into the system to provide additional crack resistance up to 5 times that of conventional cement-based renders, should there be a risk of substrate movement and further unwanted surface defects. Correct preparation is of crucial importance to the functioning of the system. Existing substrates should be clean, dry and free of loose coatings or dirt etc. Make good as necessary. StoRend systems use specialist materials applied by trained, registered Sto applicators. Please consult your regional Technical Consultant for more details.

System overview
Area of application Porous substrates. Suitable for new build and refurbishment. Features Levelling coat for correcting irregularities in the substrate, up to 20 mm in a single application. Fibre reinforcement plus mesh provide improved crack resistance caused by thermal movement or mechanically indused stress. Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in 800 colours (depending on choice of nish). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Application Levelling uneven substrates adds cost to the system. Blockwork should be constructed to fair-face tolerances. Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C.

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

45

1. Products and systems Render systems

StoRend Flex Render system with reinforcement for existing render or carrier board substrates

1 Render carrier board (not shown) 2 Reinforcement 3 Render nish

System components
Render carrier board (if required) Reinforcement StoArmat Classic cement free, exible reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Classic while wet. Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, throughcoloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes are also available. StoVentec 12 mm carrier board made from recycled glass granulate.

Render nish

Westbourne Grove Canal Building, London

StoRend Flex is a highly exible acrylic render system speci cally designed for use on existing rendered surfaces or StoVentec render carrier boards, using the highest quality materials to provide outstanding levels of crack resistance and weather protection. The system uses StoArmat Classic; an acrylic reinforcing coat which is up to 15-times more exible than traditional cement-based reinforcing coats, when combined with Sto Glass Fibre Mesh. StoArmat Classic has helped revolutionise our approach to the design of render systems. StoArmat Classic is manufactured far more cost effectively than similar products from competitors and is still the highest performing reinforcing coating available to date.

StoRend Flex offers all of the system bene ts expected of acrylic render systems, such as completely weather proof, breathable and through coloured, low maintenance surfaces. As a thin coat render system, please ensure that all surfaces are completely level before application. If surfaces require levelling, StoRend Flex Cote should be used in preference. Correct preparation is of crucial importance to the functioning of the system. Existing substrates should be clean, dry and free of loose coatings or dirt etc. Make good as necessary. StoRend systems use specialist materials applied by trained, registered Sto applicators. Please consult your regional Technical Consultant for more details.

System overview
Area of application Render carrier board or existing level render substrates. Ideal for refurbishment projects. Features Reinforcing coat and mesh provide more than 15 times the crack resistance of conventional mineralic renders. Can be used to bridge existing cracks and board joints (expansion joints through the wall must be mirrored) Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in 800 colours (depending on choice of nish). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Application If applying to levelled render, the substrate must be primed. If using StoVentec carrier board, no primer is required. Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C.

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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Render systems

StoReno Reinforced refurbishment system with carrier board for render and external wall insulation systems

1 Adhesive bedding coat 2 Carrier board 3 Reinforcement 4 Render nish

System components
Adhesive bedding coat StoLevell Uni adhesive coat for xing StoReno Plan carrier board.

Carrier board

StoReno Plan recycled glass carrier board with dowel recesses, reinforced with glass bre mesh on both sides. StoArmat Classic cement free, exible reinforcing render with Sto-Glass Fibre Mesh embedded into StoArmat Classic while wet. Stolit, StoSuperlit, StoSilco, StoLotusan synthetic, throughcoloured, low maintenance render nishes. Other nishes are also available.

Reinforcement

Render nish

Private house, Horgen, Switzerland

The StoReno system is an innovative solution for when damaged render or external wall insulation systems are in need of renovation, avoiding disruptive demolition and removal. The StoReno system ensures the sustained reliability of facades, even on problematic substrates. The relatively thin overall coating means that existing elements such as window sills and covers can usually be left in place.

The functional core of the StoReno renovation system is the StoReno Plan render carrier board, which consists of 96% recycled glass granulate. It is laminated on both sides with glass bre mesh and incorporates a dowel tting strip. A range of through-coloured, ready-to-use acrylic and silicone resin render nishes serve as top coats.

System overview
Area of application Damaged render and external wall insulation. Ideal for refurbishment projects. Features Reinforcing coat and mesh provide more than 15 times the crack resistance of conventional mineralic renders. Can be used to bridge existing cracks and board joints (expansion joints through the wall must be mirrored) Resistant to weathering. Vapour permeable. Appearance Available in 800 colours (depending on choice of nish). Through-coloured for lower maintenance. Stippled (K), rilled (R) and freestyle (MP) textures and a range of grain sizes available. Application Ready-to-use components. Standard detail drawings available on request. Selected Sto products are available using QS technology for winter working in temperatures as low as +1 C.

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

47

48

1. Products and systems Facade renders

Facade renders Creativity on the facade

Renders are crucial to facade design. They are versatile and adaptable while also offering perfect protection from climatic in uences such as rain, heat, cold and airborne pollutants. They also provide broad scope for individual design solutions. The Sto range of renders covers every need and virtually every type of substrate.

49

1. Products and systems Facade renders

Facade renders from Sto run the whole gamut, from classic stippled and rilled render, through free-style texture render in diverse grain sizes

and colours, to particularly robust natural stone renders. From natural tints to vibrant colours even the most unusual plans can be realised. Thanks to decades of continuous research and development work and outstanding technical standards, Sto is able to provide optimum product quality worldwide when it comes to organic, mineral and silicone resin-bound renders and renders. The best-known example of this innovative development work modelled on nature is the patented

Lotus Effect, which architects and planners throughout the world have been applying successfully for 10 years. The StoLotusan K/MP render, which possesses a self-cleaning effect in conjunction with rainwater, has a dirt-repellent, microtextured surface comparable to that of a lotus leaf.

Overview of facade renders


Product properties
Water-repellent effect Product name Water vapour permeability CO2-permeability Resistance to algae / fungi

Object
Substrate

Design (surface)
Colour choice Texture/grain size

Binder LotusEffect silicone resin

StoLotusan K/MP

organic, mineral organic, mineral organic, mineral organic, mineral organic, mineral organic, mineral organic, mineral mineral

limited tinting

stippled texture render, free-style texture render stippled texture render, rilled render, free-style texture render stippled texture render, rilled render, free-style texture render individually texturable individually texturable ne textured render ne textured render

StoSilco K/R/MP

limited tinting

Stolit K/R/MP

synthetic

complete SCS 2) complete SCS 2) complete SCS 2) limited tinting in acc. with collection limited tinting

Stolit Effect Stolit Milano StoNivellit 1) StoSuperlit

synthetic synthetic synthetic synthetic

StoMiral K/R/MP

mineral

stippled texture render, rilled render, free-style texture render


2)

excellent

good

limited suitability

1)

overpainted

SCS = StoColor System

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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Facade paints

Facade paints Aesthetic protection for facades

Personal taste and individuality can be expressed not only through appealing architecture, but also through the choice of colour design for the facade. The Sto range of paints combines the necessary aesthetic merits with high quality, economy and ecology.

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1. Products and systems Facade paints

BBS Dach GmbH, Genshagen, D StoSilco Color

Villa K., Graz, A (Atelier Pucher, Graz, A) StoColor Metallic

Colour and architecture are inseparably linked, as it is colour which lends buildings a direct emotional appeal. Recent years have seen building owners and architects adopt a bolder approach to the use of colour. While theres no accounting for taste, it is important to choose the colouring for facades judiciously, as it is likely to remain on display for a number of years. In addition to being a design element, the facade paint also performs important protective functions, however. Sto has developed precisely coordinated, environmentally friendly products for virtually every type of substrate which provide the facade
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with reliable protection from wet, dirt and pollutants, as well as performing their design role. The comprehensive palette of the StoColor System comprises several hundred different colours. For thermal reasons, only colours with a lightness value higher than 20 % should be used for external wall insulation systems. In this way, crack formation can be prevented from the outset. StoVentec, the seamless, ventilated render facade, is suitable for use with absolutely all types of paints. The great diversity of the product range offers solutions for various problem areas, too. In addition to organic, silicate and silicone resin-based paints, self-cleaning facade paints are also available. The Lotusan facade paints featuring Stos patented

Lotus-Effect are the key to facades that stay clean and attractive for longer.

With StoLotusan Color G dirt simply runs off with the rain! Social housing, Utrecht, NL (Jaco D. de Visser, Vreeswijk, NL)

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: Effect coatings Imaginative facade design

An unmistakeable trend towards greater individuality and individual design has emerged in architecture in recent years. The design scope offered by facade renders can be further broadened by means of different application techniques and by incorporating materials such as natural sand mixtures, glass pearls or silicon carbide chips to create special visual effects.

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1. Products and systems Surface design

Very special visual effects and light re ections can be obtained by embedding so-called ballotinis in the Stolit Effect nishing render.

Creative effect coatings are a highly popular choice at present not only for interiors but also in facade design. The diverse Sto range of effect coatings has been evolved in line with the wishes of building owners, planners and architects and offers virtually boundless scope for individual design. They meet the high technical standards pertaining to quality coatings while bringing facades to life through a vivid interplay of colour, light and texture. Combining different products generally opens up unimagined possibilities. A coat of StoColor Metallic on textured nishing renders provides for diverse glossy re ections which are further enhanced by changing outdoor light situations, for example. Stolit Milano This organic ne textured render for facades features a velvety surface quality and offers broad scope for individual design and colour schemes. Depending on the selected technique for the top coat, smooth, textured or multicoloured surfaces can be produced. Stolit Milano combines

timeless elegance with traditional craftsmanship. Stolit Effect This natural-look nishing render features a lively texture and can be applied with or without the Sto Terrazzo Effect special effect sand. The effect sand mix teases touches of brilliance out of Stolit Effect particularly under glancing light, thereby underscoring its raw, individual charm. A diverse array of other contrast effects can be obtained by embedding transparent glass pearls or blowing in silicon carbide. Totally new surfaces can be created in this way. The character and colouring of the nishing render alters continually in sunlight and in combination with the various effects, creating a facade full of vitality.

Stolit Milano with StoColor Metallic as an accentuating design feature on the facade of a residential house in Graz, A

Stolit Effect with Sto Terrazzo Effect ( negrained river sand mixture and silicon carbide crystals) lends the facade a re ned nish and produces a lively interplay of light and texture (wine growers organisation, Sommerach, D).

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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: Glass and glass mosaic Brilliant facades with depth effect

Individual shaping, distinctive design and the highest possible functionality these are the attributes sought by architects and owners wishing to set their building apart. In addition to its broad range of renders and paints for use as top coats, Sto also offers facade systems with glass or glass mosaic surfaces that enable multi-faceted glass facades and open up scope for individual design.

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1. Products and systems Decorative surface design

Munich-based architects Allmann Sattler Wappner have realised unusual mirror effects on the award-winning facade which adorns the service centre of GEWOGE, LUWOGE BASF GmbH in Ludwigshafen, D.

There is a growing desire among architects and investors to lend their buildings special aesthetic appeal through unique design, featuring the perfect integration of colour, form and function. The exceptional properties of the carrier boards make the StoVerotec and StoVentec facade systems ideal as a basis for glass panels (StoVerotec Glass) or glass mosaic surfaces (StoVentec Glass Mosaic), opening up totally new perspectives for facade design. StoVerotec Glass StoVerotec Glass is the one-stop solution for all design visions as a contrasting element or homogeneous element, on the facade or inside buildings, in colourful or discreet dark nish, with mirror effect, printed with motifs or curving around corners. The individual panels are factory-produced for simple attachment to the sub56

construction on site. Carrier board and glass are joined to produce an inseparable sandwich panel. This rules out any risk of panels dropping from the facade, even in the event of glass fracturing. As a result, StoVerotec Glass is even approved for overhead glazing. StoVentec Glass Mosaic Glass mosaics are brought to life by their incomparable brilliance and their play of light and colour. Sto draws on the diversity and perfection of the VILLIglas range. This symbiosis of StoVentec as a functional carrier system and fascinating glass mosaics from VILLIglas allows for countless compositions from a choice of 40 different colours. The small glass tiles lend facades a distinctive character while also ensuring the required durability.

Arcus sports clinic, Pforzheim, D (architects group Eggert & Partner, Stuttgart, D)

Health and social services building, Le Mans, F (AiA Atelier de la rize nantes, Saint Herblain ced, F)

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: Natural stone panel Natural style

Natural stone panels possess a broad spectrum of different shades of colour and surface textures that articial stones can never attain. In addition to their aesthetic effects, natural stone facades also shrug off weather in uences and have a particularly long service life. The economical and ecological merits of natural stone provide for sustainability a crucial factor in choosing building materials.

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1. Products and systems Surface design

The diversity of natural stone is revealed in the vast design scope it offers in terms of colours, textures and surface nishes which can be crafted by hand or machine (Sto-Fossil SKL, sand-blasted).

The facade is the face of a building. The design options for facade systems today go well beyond the mere choice of different renders and colours. Natural stones are an integral element of contemporary architecture, creating distinctive facades as nishing layers in the form of solid natural stone panels on the ventilated rainscreen cladding systems from Sto and natural stone tiles on Sto external wall insulation systems. Natural stone was already in use back in ancient times as demonstrated by the Egyptian pyramids and the classical architecture of Greece. Natural stone was employed here as facing masonry to protect the core masonry from the weather and to enhance buildings aesthetic appeal. Today, the stylish appearance of natural stone has become a symbol of lasting value. Natural stones always provide a special touch as a re ned facade on of ce buildings or on residential houses. In addition to good design and highquality workmanship, ecological and economical requirements also play a central role. Natural building materials such as stone are emerging as a particularly important option in the face of the climate change scenario resulting from increased CO2 emissions. Natural stone performs well in terms of sustainability and energy conservation. Natural stone

Living at the Botanical Gardens, Braunschweig, D (Wolfgang Koch, Braunschweig, D). Sto sandstone Neubrunn

as a building material reduces CO2 emissions substantially. The manufacturing process for arti cial building materials commonly requires a high energy input. Not so with natural stone, which is available as a virtually ready-to-use building material in its natural form, following a production process extending over millions of years. Extraction at the quarry is gentle on the environment and does not entail major levels of energy consumption.

Edeka Neukauf Maier, Rottweil, D (Mller & Huber, Oberkirch-Zusenhofen, D). Sto-Fossil SKL, ground

Info
Stos natural stone range comprises shell limestones and sandstones, with other stones also available on request. The surface nishes range from ground through sand-blasted to bush-hammered. Other nishes are possible on request. A complete overview of our natural stone panels is to be found in the Natural stone product catalogue. You can order this catalogue by sending an e-mail to infoservice.StoVerotec@stoeu.com or download it from the internet site at www.stoverotec.de.

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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: StoDeco Pro les Giving facades the right pro le

New buildings in modern or classic style, buildings that are due for renovation or properties of historical value StoDeco facade pro les serve to add aesthetic highlights and realise the individual visions of architects, planners and house owners.

Diverse scope is available for forming and shaping StoDeco Pro les: Threedimensional decorative elements, company logos or lettering are produced on modern CNC milling machines according to the customers individual wishes. From arches through rustications to plinth or plane elements, the StoDeco Pro le system allows design freedom to ensure authentic refurbishment. A permanent bond is produced between the coating smooth, rough or textured and the substrate.

GAP 15 of ce building, Dsseldorf, D (J.S.K. Architekten, Dsseldorf, D)

Preserving the style and aesthetics of times past and creating modern architecture with future viability the weather-resistant StoDeco facade elements enable architects, planners and craftsmen to lend a new lease of life to works of timeless elegance or to realise modern design visions on new buildings. From classical to modern, from Art Deco to Bauhaus reliability in application and lasting quality for the investment involved are the prime requirements in all large-scale facade renovation projects or new construction projects employing facade elements. This calls for a rstclass material to meet these needs: Vero ll. This material, consisting

Judicial Palace in Luxembourg, L (Rob Krier u. Christoph Kohl, Berlin, D)

of a combination of lightweight mineral material and binders, offers all the properties crucial to durable facade elements. It is resistant to environmental in uences, particularly impact-resistant and easy to repair in case of damage. It also relieves the strain on the load-bearing facades of existing buildings, with its low weight of only 550 kg/m. Its high dimensional stability virtually rules out surface cracking, and its low water absorption means there is no risk of frost damage. The excellent surface of the pro les, free of any watersoluble components, ensures reliable coating at all times.
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The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

60

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: StoDeco Rustications Classic style

Rustic facades are a design element integral to classical architecture. They also come into their own in contemporary architecture, however, particularly when used to lend large facades a distinctive character.

Apartment house, Paderborn, D (Rieping + Rieping GmbH)

The StoDeco design elements offer diverse scope for three-dimensional facade design particularly in the plinth and corner areas. Ecole Internationale, Geneva, CH (CCHE Architecture, CH)

Two types of rustic facades can be realised with Sto products: cladding with StoDeco Rustications and with Sto Rustication Boards. Both variants are ideal for refurbishing and reconstructing period and stucco facades and for adapting facades on new buildings to the given urban setting. In contrast to the StoDeco Rustications, the Sto Rustication Boards are directly integrated into the system as thermal insulation elements. Insulation and design are thus accomplished in a single operation. All StoDeco Rustications are produced to order for the specific project concerned, making simple work of even the most extravagant designs.

Info
In addition to the various joint design options, a variety of surface structures and the comprehensive colour range of the StoColor System are also available for both systems. All in all, this means the best possible basis for perfectly coordinated facade design.

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

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62

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: Glazed brick slips and tiles Expanding the creative palette

StoTherm systems with ceramic cladding are a logical development of the tried and tested StoTherm external wall insulation systems in combination with attractive surface designs. There is a choice of two different cladding variants glazed brick slips or tiles.

Apartment house, Hamburg-Harburg, D (Renner Hainke Wirth)

Glazed brick slips offer diverse scope for individual design. They can be combined with StoTherm external wall insulation systems to reconcile regional traditions regarding the design of brick facades with the needs of effective thermal insulation. This type of wall construction also enables a more slender construction and reduced wall thicknesses mean more space inside the building. The ring process lends the glazed brick slips hardness and frost resistance and produces a relief-type surface which highlights the natural character of this material. Ceramic tiles from Sto offer a new type of surface nish on the basis of a StoTherm external wall insulation system. The diverse colours, patterns and motifs of the ceramic tiles afford architects and building owners virtually unlimited design scope.

Cladding with glazed brick slips offers thermal insulation and a brick appearance in one.

Info
StoTherm systems with ceramic cladding offer a winning combination of nely matched system components and great product variety. This broad variety enables you to tailor your choice of products to your clients personal needs, right from the insulating materials: You can opt for either the Sto-Mineral Fibre Board, non-combustible and made from natural basalt rock, or the Sto EPS Board, of limited combustibility and made from natural raw materials. Jointing of the facade will be required dependant on the tile size and type.

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

63

64

1. Products and systems Surface design

Surface design: Sto Brick Slips Natural stone look

The brick facade is a familiar part of many UK townscapes. Thermal insulation does not necessarily have to detract from this look. The facades of old brick houses can also be adapted to the requirements of the energy conservation ordinance without losing their charm simply by using Sto Brick Slips.

Elligerserg/Krweg housing estate, Hamburg, D

Sto Brick Slips in combination with StoTherm Classic embody an accomplished blend of tradition and progress. They offer an attractive alternative to fair-faced masonry and enable the authentic reconstruction of brick facades on both existing and new buildings. The organic, cement-free brick slips are carefully hand crafted, retaining their natural stone look. Tried and tested in practice for 15 years now, they come in six light-fast typical brick colours. Sto also produces Brick Slips to order in terms of colour and texture. These enable architects to adapt their designs perfectly to the appearance of existing facades and, in particular, grant extensive freedom in implementing individual design ideas. In order to ensure a harmonious appearance, Sto Adhesive and Joint Mortar is also produced in six different colour shades.

Info
Brick facades offer diverse scope for individual design. Numerous colours and surface textures lend every building an individual character and provide for variable highlights on insulated facades.

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

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66

1. Products and systems Refurbishment projects and protection of historical buildings

Refurbishment projects and protection of historical buildings Lasting protection for the facade

Refurbishment is a task that concerns every one of us, with billions of square metres of facade space due for renovation worldwide. The symptoms of damage vary, ranging from cracks in simple rendered facades to damage to external wall insulation systems. Sto is a competent partner in the eld of refurbishment and the preservation of historical monuments. Prior diagnosis is crucial to correct refurbishment Refurbishment may become necessary for a broad variety of different reasons. Structural damage to buildings is the most common cause. In the relevant literature, the term structural damage is generally applied to all negative changes to the properties of a building element or part of a structure, irrespective of whether they result from errors in planning or execution, material defects, ageing processes, inadequate maintenance or actions by third parties. In practice, structural damage is revealed in physical effects crack formation, fracturing or degradation of building blocks and mortar, settlement and movements of parts of the structure, etc. Structural damage is further distinguished according to physical and chemical causes. When a building is also to undergo energy ef ciency measures, a precise analysis of the individual building elements and their thermal losses requires to be carried out. A systematic procedure based on a speci c concept is always crucial for the purposes of ascertaining a case of damage, its causes and the energy-ef ciency characteristics of a building element, as only then can a restoration solution be designed which is tailored to the building concerned. Facade restoration options with Sto render facades: The most common causes of damage to render are moisture and problematic substrates. Environmental in uences or simple ageing processes can also lead to conspicuous surface damage.

Refurbishment of Opern Carre, Berlin-Mitte, D, StoTherm Mineral (Refurbishment: Aukett + Heese, Berlin, D)

In some cases, such a render facade can be restored by simple means, such as applying a fresh top coat or repairing the render. Cracks are anything but harmless cosmetic aws, however. They must be repaired swiftly and reliably, in order to avoid more serious consequential damage. As cracks may originate from the substrate or even the building structure, it often proves impossible to trace them to a speci c building element. A precise analysis of the given damage is thus crucial to good restoration with lasting results.
Refurbishment of Prof. Angermair Ring apartment building Garching, D StoTherm Reno (Karl, Garching, D)

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1. Products and systems Refurbishment projects and protection of historical buildings

Protected historical buildings Today, many old buildings are subject to the strict conditions which apply to the preservation of historical monuments. Renovation with external wall insulation or rainscreencladding systems is generally ruled out here for aesthetic reasons. Sto is a dependable partner in such cases, offering a broad range of products for renovating paintwork and render. The StoDeco Pro les additionally enable intricate stucco work to be renovated such that the renovated surface is indistinguishable from the original, but substantially more durable. Refurbishment of an external wall insulation system External wall insulation systems also require refurbishing at some point in time be it on energy ef ciency grounds or on account of mechanical effects. Minor damage can be
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repaired simply by touching up the top coat. When extensive damage of the top coat is involved, a new reinforcing coat in combination with a new top coat is usually the only option. Many external wall insulation systems which were designed according to previous thermal insulation ordinances no longer meet todays standards. Doubling-up is generally the only viable option here. The StoReno renovation system offers ideal support when refurbishing render facades and external wall

Refurbishment of the Verseidag building, Krefeld, D StoReno, StoTherm Classic (Mies van der Rohe, refurbishment: KarlHeinrich Eick, Krefeld, D)

insulation systems. The relatively low overall coating thickness of 15 mm means that existing elements such as window sills or covers can usually be left in place.

Refurbishment of external wall insulation systems


Coating-based renovation New reinforcement and new top coat Renovation system with carrier board (StoReno system, approved by the building inspectorate) Doubling-up (technical approval granted)

The technical speci cations and information on the products which are to be found on the technical data sheets and approvals must be observed.

Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Generic detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

2. Sto references Of ce and industrial building, Hilden, D

Of ce and industrial building, Hilden, D pagelhenn architektinnenarchitekt

Windows set back from one storey to the next and nely graduated colour elds structure the stringently cubic of ce building designed by Pagelhenn architects on an industrial estate in Hilden. The StoTherm Vario external wall insulation system was used on this building, combining polystyrene foam insulation with a mineral nish render.

2. Sto references Of ce and industrial building, Hilden, D

Six shades of colour derived from two basic tones enliven the facade of the of ce cube.

Established housing developments on one side and industrial premises on the other provide the setting for this of ce and industrial building by pagelhenn architects in Hilden, Germany. As this is a rental property with changing users, the compact cube provides for a simple and exible ground plan solution. Up to four mutually independent units are grouped around a central, naturally illuminated access zone. The buildings supporting framework consists of a reinforced concrete structure, with prefabricated oors and facade elements. Storey-high, 1.35 metre wide wall and window elements alternate, whereby the solution for the corners entails setting back each successive storey by one wall thickness. Interior windows indicate the wall thickness, thereby emphasizing the elementary character of the insulated and rendered wall panels. Only two colour shades have been used for the facades, each in two white-tinted variations. All neighbouring wall elements feature different colours, lending the strict

geometry of the cube a lively, almost upbeat air. Continuous grey horizontal render strips and a set-back parapet form the building into a homogeneous whole.

The buildings solid structure is apparent on all sides: Insulated, load-bearing wall panels alternate with storey-high windows.

Owner: D. & R. Bleing GbR, Solingen, D Architect: pagelhenn architektinnenarchitekt, Hilden, D Location: Herderstrae 18, Hilden, D Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Vario) Applicator: Treffert Bautenschutz GmbH, Niederlassung NRW, Leverkusen, D

Photographs: Olaf Faustmann, Wuppertal, D

Layout plan

2. Sto references Sparkasse Mainfranken, Wrzburg, D

Sparkasse Mainfranken, Wrzburg, D Kuntz + Manz Architekten

Facade renovation in a historical setting is always an exacting task. Kuntz + Manz Architects have developed a facade for the Sparkasse Mainfranken savings bank in Wrzburg with a ventilated natural stone cladding that serves as both a traditional exterior nish and a translucent screen for added privacy and solar protection.

2. Sto references Sparkasse Mainfranken, Wrzburg, D

The shell limestone which is typical of the region and integrates the banks head of ce into its historical surroundings.

One of the most demanding tasks relating to the general renovation of the Sparkasse Mainfranken savings banks head of ce fell to Kuntz + Manz Architects, who were commissioned to design a new facade for the building. The buildings central location in the city centre between the cathedral and the Residenz called for a prestigious appearance to be tempered by the restraint which is always appropriate in a historical setting. The corner of the original building dating from the 1960s was virtually entirely closed off by an escape stairwell and set back from the street. The architects built over this negative space to create a tting entrance scenario. The greatest challenge in designing the new facade was nding a window format which provided an adequate response to the surrounding buildings with their perforated facades. At the corner of the building, vertical natural stone pilaster strips conceal the large glazed openings of the conference rooms and integrate these rooms into the complex as a whole. The new concrete binding joists which bear the natural stone ventilated rainscreen cladding also enable the building to project over the corner without

requiring any supporting columns and present the gallery area of the new main entrance to the outside environment. The facade design features a new interpretation of the shell limestone which is typical of the region. While retaining its function as a cladding element, the limestone is also used as a design element in the pilaster strips, which lend a degree of privacy to the buildings interior and serve as a means of solar protection. The shell limestone on the wall panels

Narrow, vertical pilaster strips provide for added privacy and solar protection and lend the facade a ne, graceful structure.

and intermediate oors features a nish in various polishes, thus emphasizing the facades storeybased structure.

Owner: Sparkasse Mainfranken, Wrzburg, D Architects: Architekturbro Appel, Wrzburg, D (interior), Kuntz + Manz Architekten, Wrzburg, D (facade) Location: Hofstrae 7, Wrzburg, D Products: Ventilated rainscreen cladding system (StoVerotec Stone)

Photographs: Gerhard Hagen, Bamberg, D

Ground plan of 1st oor

2. Sto references Crescent House, Compton Basset, GB

Crescent House, Compton Basset, GB Ken Shuttleworth

Circular forms dominate the grassland site in the English county of Wiltshire on which Ken Shuttleworth has built a new home for himself and his family. This predominant form is taken up both by the new landscaped garden and the ground plan of the building in the form of two merging crescents. The extensive glazing on the garden side contrasts with the closed facade in a white render nish on the side facing towards the nearby country road.

2. Sto references Crescent House, Compton Basset, GB

The living room opens onto the landscaped garden with a building-high, 36 metre long glass facade.

Ken Shuttleworths terms of reference for the home he envisaged for himself and his family of four were entirely pragmatic. It was to cost no more than 345,000, it was to be environmentally friendly, largely free of barriers and easy to maintain, and was to intrude as little as possible on the two hectare plot of grassland in the county of Wiltshire, in southern England. Shuttleworth thus positioned the house at the extreme north-western corner of the site, directly next to the road, and landscaped the remainder of the plot, planting over 1,000 trees in the process. A ring of maple trees of a hundred metres in diameter conjures up associations with the spectacular circular phenomena in southern England, such as Stonehenge or the Bronze Age hill fortress Old Sarum. The remnants of the residential house which formerly stood on the site have been piled up to create a hill which is now covered in grass. The new building deliberately turns its back on the road and the concrete works opposite and looks onto the landscape. The ground plan is composed of two merging crescents. The outer crescent, which is closed on the side facing the road, accommodates the bedrooms and

sanitary rooms; the inner crescent consists of a single, 36 metre long and 3.4 metre high garden room whose building-high glass windows face towards the morning sun. The bedrooms and the access zone between the two halves of the house are illuminated solely by skylights. All the closed wall surfaces consist of in-situ concrete, which has been provided with a 100 millimetre layer of thermal insulation on the outside and nished in white render. Ken

High, white rendered walls screen the Crescent House from the road and the driveway.

Shuttleworth has deliberately avoided any lavish details: I thought the budget would be better invested in the quality of the houses interior, rather than in designer taps.

Owner: Seana and Ken Shuttleworth, Compton Basset, GB Architect: Ken Shuttleworth, formerly of Foster and Partners, London, GB; now of MAKE Architects Location: Compton Basset, Wiltshire, GB Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Mineral with mineral lamella board), facade render (Stolit QS), facade paint (StoSilco Color), StoDeco Pro le Applicator: Connaught Southern, Taunton, GB

Photographer: Nigel Young, GB

Ground plan

2. Sto references The Greenhouse near Bad Berleburg, D

The Greenhouse near Bad Berleburg, D Gloria Friedmann, Paris, F

An unusual shelter awaits tired walkers between Bad Berleburg and Schallenberg in the Sauerland region of Westphalia in Germany: The Greenhouse by Parisian artist Gloria Friedmann is part of a regional sculpture trail. Initially planned in concrete, the building was eventually erected as a lightweight construction with a brilliant green rendered surface nish.

2. Sto references The Greenhouse near Bad Berleburg, D

The Greenhouse by Parisian artist Gloria Friedmann half sculpture, half practical amenity, forms part of an ambitious project which is being undertaken by the Wittgensteiner Academy: Eleven large-scale sculptures are to be installed along the 17.5 kilometre forest sculpture trail in the Sauerland region. Gloria Friedmann interprets the forest as a green cathedral in which she has placed her sculpture like a chapel. The structures form, colour and location and the fact that three 90 year-old spruces have been integrated into the sculpture aim to bring the visitor more closely in touch with the forest while at the same time alluding to the dangers it faces. The location originally planned for the shelter had to be changed, as the spruces there had already been earmarked for felling by the forest authority. Originally planned in concrete, the Greenhouse was eventually erected as a lightweight construction. Its bearing structure consists of steel girders tted with trapezoidal sheeting on which carrier boards have been mounted. These boards provide a homogeneous substrate for the brilliant green render.

Exemplary use of tree resources: Three spruces of around 90 years in age have been integrated into the building.

The rear side of the house is completely enclosed. Its supporting framework is made of steel. Roof and walls are provided with a render nish.

Owner: Wittgensteiner Akademie, Bad Berleburg, D Design: Gloria Friedmann, Paris, F Detailed planning: Hans-Georg Seifert, Erndtebrck, D Location: Forest sculpture trail near Bad Berleburg, D Sto products: Carrier board, organic reinforcing render with glass bre mesh, facade paint Applicator: Christian Hengst, Bad Laasphe, D Photographs: Guido Erbring, Cologne, D

2. Sto references Renovation of the Verseidag building, Krefeld, D

Renovation of the Verseidag building, Krefeld, D Design: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Renovation: Karl-Heinrich Eick

At the beginning of the 1930s, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designed the warehouse and service buildings of the Vereinigte Seidenwebereien weaving mill, the present-day Verseidag Technologies in Krefeld. The entire ensemble has been listed as a protected historical building since 1999. Karl-Heinrich Eick and the interior designers from raumkontor Dsseldorf have displayed great tact and sensitivity in restoring the building.

2. Sto references Renovation of the Verseidag building, Krefeld, D

Columns and visible joists emphasize the buildings structural axes.

The HE building has been provided with new facade render and internal insulation.

In 1930/31, shortly before he was appointed Bauhaus director, Mies van der Rohe was commissioned by textile manufacturers Hermann Lange and Josef Esters to design the building for gentlemens linings (known as the HE building) on the grounds of the Verseidag company in Krefeld. Mies initially designed a two-storey production and administrative building for the company, to which he added two more storeys a few years later. The rst ve sheds of the dyeing plant and the neighbouring Verseidag clock tower (1933/34) are also based on his designs. The HE building suffered severe damage in the Second World War and was not restored until the 1970s, when it was put to use as an administrative building. The open-plan interior concept which was typical of Mies was abandoned completely however. Not until the building was nally listed by Krefelds municipal authorities in 1999 was the stage set for refurbishment of the building as a historical monument, essentially restoring the original interior structure. In refurbishing the building, its owners aimed rst and foremost to improve its thermal insulation. As an external facade insulation system would have manifestly distorted the

HE buildings proportions however, they opted for a drywall internal insulation system. The exterior render was rst of all repaired and the entire surface overworked with a facade renovation system in order to obtain the most homogeneous facade surface possible. Cement-free renders were used here, as they had already demonstrated their crack resistance and suitability for the protection of historical buildings in the renovation of the Weienhofsiedlung (Weienhof Estate) in Stuttgart. The windows

The pivoted partitions enable the lounge on the third oor to be opened up or closed off.

from the 1970s, with pro les are only minimally wider than the delicate originals, were preserved. A few isolated original windows can still be found on the ground oor and in the sanitary areas.

Owner: Grundstcksgesellschaft Girmesgath, Krefeld, D Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (design); Karl-Heinrich Eick, Krefeld, D (renovation); raumkontor, Dsseldorf, D (interior design) Location: Girmesgath 5, 47803 Krefeld, D Sto products: Organic crack-bridging reinforcement bre render and nishing render; StoReno renovation system, StoTherm Classic external wall insulation system Applicator: Malerbetrieb Hans Noldus, Krefeld, D; Hans Gronsfeld, Krefeld, D Photographs: Baubild, Falk, Berlin, D
Layout plan

2. Sto references Imperial War Museum, Manchester, GB

Imperial War Museum, Manchester, GB Studio Daniel Libeskind / Leach Rhodes Walker

Daniel Libeskind displays a predilection for metaphors in his architecture. His design for the Imperial War Museum in Manchester is a case in point. The three aluminium-lined parts of this building symbolise the three classic forms of warfare on land, on the water and in the air. A uniformly black rendered building plinth establishes the connection with the ground.

2. Sto references Imperial War Museum, Manchester, GB

East view

The Imperial War Museum, situated in an inhospitable area surrounded by faceless of ce buildings, silos and wasteland alongside the disused Manchester Ship Canal, is interpreted by Libeskind as a globe broken into three fragments. The fragments are intended to symbolise the three classic forms of warfare on land, on the water and in the air. The central eyecatching element of the new building is the 55 metre high air fragment, which serves as the structural support holding the ensemble together and de nes the entrance scenario. The massive-looking earth fragment lies at its feet. The convex curvature of the roof on this fragment is evocative of a globe and is interrupted by the third part of the building, the water fragment, which cuts into the roof from the direction of the canal. The unifying architectural element for the three fragments is their aluminium roof and facade embellishment. The main elements of the building appear to rest on a dark, monolithic pedestal. They are actually supported by a steel construction. The external walls of this footing have been produced for the most part in concrete masonry units. In some areas, the steel frame has had to be lined with trapezoidal sheet metal due to weight considera-

tions, however. The different areas of the pedestal walling have been uni ed by a black render layer which provides a homogeneous nish on the different facade systems. While the masonry has been provided with an eight millimetre thick layer of levelling render followed by StoLevell Reno, the StoVentec ventilated rainscreen cladding system has been installed on the trapezoidal sheet metal, again followed by a coating of StoLevell Reno.

View from the canal

Owner: The Trustees of the Imperial War Museum, London, GB Architect: Studio Daniel Libeskind, Berlin, with Leach Rhodes Walker, Manchester, GB Location: Trafford Wharf Road, Manchester, GB Sto products: Ventilated rainscreen cladding system (StoVentec), facade renders (StoLevell Reno, Stolit K 3.0) Applicator: Sir Robert McAlpine, Ltd., Manchester, GB

Ground oor plan

2. Sto references School, Frth, D

School, Frth, D Stefan Harl

The John F. Kennedy School, originally built for the American forces which were stationed here, has passed into civilian usage in recent years. For its gymnasium, artist Elke Haarer teamed up with architect Stefan Harl to develop a design concept involving facade renders in seven colours which have been blurred into one another using machine application.

2. Sto references School, Frth, D

The old and new parts of the building have been uni ed by a facade with renders in seven colours.

The gymnasium of the John F. Kennedy School was built in the 1970s, and formed part of the barracks in Frths Sdstadt district until the US forces withdrawal. A process of change has been in evidence in the district for some years now. A new park has sprung up, and the old barracks buildings have been preserved for the most part and converted into apartments. The gymnasium has also remained largely as it was, but a new changing section with storerooms and sanitary facilities has been added, together with a colourful facade which is visible from afar. The new ancillary rooms adjoin the gymnasium to form an L-shape and are accessible from both sides: On the south side a generously glazed entrance area which is used above all by clubs leads into the building from the road; the smaller entrance on the north side of the gymnasium is used primarily by pupils. A continuous row of windows extending up to the height of the parapet provides the changing area with daylight. The north side is largely closed. In order to lend the existing building and the new extension a uni ed appearance, the architects developed a facade concept together with artist Elke Haarer. It has been realised with a total of seven integrally coloured

renders which have been blurred into one another by means of machinerubbing. The concept was initially developed on the basis of a model and then presented in a photomontage. Prior to applying the concept to the building, a test wall was set up at Sto AG to try out the application and blurring of the various types of render. Execution of the concept was supervised throughout by the architects and the artist.

A small forecourt separates the gymnasium from the road. At the front is the lowered tness room, which is illuminated by a window strip at ground level.

Owner: Frth municipal authorities, D Architect: Stefan Harl, Frth, D Location: John-F.-Kennedy-Str., Frth, D Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Classic), ventilated rainscreen cladding system (StoVentec) for shock protection, facade render (Stolit) Applicator: Erhard, Rannungen, D Photographs: Sto AG
Ground plan

2. Sto references House in Zurlindestrasse, Zurich, CH

House in Zurlindestrasse, Zurich, CH huggen berger fries Architekten AG ETH SIA

How can a building be designed so as to t harmoniously into a historical setting shaped by houses from the turn of the 19th century while at the same time retaining a contemporary character? The practice huggen berger fries sought answers to this question in their design for an apartment house in ZurichWiedikon. The new building presents a surprising new interpretation of the classical building style with a black ceramic rainscreen cladding system.

2. Sto references House in Zurlindestrasse, Zurich, CH

The ceramic cladding incorporating vertical structure causes the facade to shimmer in varying colours from brownblack to silver, according to the angle of the incident light.

The new apartment house designed by huggen berger closed the last major gap in the townscape in the Zurich district of Wiedikon, which is characterised by buildings from the period of promoterism at the end of the 19th century. The front of the building facing onto Zurlindestrasse is aligned with the eaves of the two neighbouring buildings. The house restores the previously interrupted horizontal building line without exploiting every last inch of the available space. The new building is connected to an existing four-storey house with courtyard inside the block. The apartments extend throughout the new building and the old building, with stairs connecting the different levels at the junction between the two buildings. The more spacious living areas such as living rooms and kitchens are accommodated in the new part of the building, while the existing smaller room layouts have been preserved in the old building. The more private areas of the apartments are situated here, including bedrooms and bathrooms. The fth and sixth oors, neither of which are connected to the old courtyard house, incorporate a duplex apartment. A striking aspect is the facade lining of vertically pro led

and glazed ceramic panels whose colouring alters from brown-black to silver according to the incidence of the light falling on them. This choice of material means that the building blends in well with the clinker facades of the period of promoterism in this area while at the same time the radiant and colourful nish emphasises the buildings modern character. In deference to the historical buildings in the area once again, the almost room-high windows feature surrounds in prefabricated lustrous matt facing

Light-coloured, square trims in fair-faced concrete frame the windows and form a contrast to the black facade embellishment.

concrete which set the mainly transverse windows off against the dark facade.

Owner: huggen berger fries Architekten AG ETH SIA, Zurich, CH Architects: huggen berger fries Architekten AG ETH SIA, Zurich, CH Location: Zurlindenstrae 186, Zurich, CH Sto products: Ventilated rainscreen cladding system (StoVentec / StoVerotec facade) Applicator: Robert Spleiss AG, Kssnacht, CH (facade), Peter Schnbchler, Affeltrangen, CH (ceramic coverings) Photographs: Beat Bhler, Zrich, CH
Ground oor plan

2. Sto references Branch of ce of Sdwestmetall, Reutlingen, D

Branch of ce of Sdwestmetall, Reutlingen, D Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten

The new building for a training centre and regional of ce in Reutlingen was to provide its owners, the Sdwestmetall company, with adequate prestige value while at the same time doing justice to its historical setting surrounded by buildings dating from the period of promoterism at the end of the 19th century. Architects Allmann Sattler Wappner have pulled off this balancing act with a combined facade consisting of a render course fronted by ventilated metal panels.

2. Sto references Branch of ce of Sdwestmetall, Reutlingen, D

The stainless steel ornamental panels in front of the plinth facade produce a lively play of light and shade inside the building.

Sdwestmetalls new training centre and regional of ce is situated in the east of Reutlingen, close to the town centre. The surrounding area is characterised by buildings from the period of promoterism at the end of the 19th century, featuring pitched roofs and facades nished in stucco or fair-faced masonry. The buildings in this district are typically of mixed usage by private residents, the service sector and small businesses. The three buildings belonging to the company are aligned with the eaves of the surrounding buildings and cite the latters depth and the facade widths to create in the architects words an unusual prospect in a familiar form. The entire exterior facade rising above the three metre high plinth consists of a seamless stainless steel shell in a satin- nish. The plinth storey and forecourt feature the same material, but in a different nish. Square ornamental stainless steel panels have been installed in front of the external wall insulation system as a second facade, also featuring as paving on the grounds outside the building. Using a laser, recesses have been cut out of the 3,164 panels, which t together like a puzzle to create a large, continuous pattern. This trick combines the three

buildings and the site on which they stand into a large-than-life metallic sculptural object. The outer skin can be folded back to create openings in the buildings. In the plinth area, some of the panels can be turned away like doors. To maintain the buildings monolithic effect on the upper storeys as well. The openings here are concealed by ushtting steel boards featuring varying hole patterns, which also afford solar protection. The atmosphere inside the building in the plinth area is shaped

The closed walls on the ground oor have been provided with an external wall insulation system nished in black render which is also faced with ornamental panelling.

by the light that enters through the half-open ornamental facade panels to produce a dynamic play of light and shade on the light-coloured and smooth surfaces of the oor and the walls.

Owner: Sdwestmetall, Reutlingen, D Architect: Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten, Munich, D Location: Schulstrae 23, 72764 Reutlingen, D Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Mineral), with impact resistant reinforcement in some areas, oor coatings (foyer, cafeteria, corridors) Applicator: Stuckateurbetrieb Schweizer GmbH, Metzingen, D (facade) Gebr. Hrner, Schwbisch Gmnd, D ( oor coatings) Photographs: Studio Tmmers, Leinfelden-Echterdingen, D
Ground oor plan

2. Sto references Haus Broll, Ludwigsburg, D

Haus Broll, Ludwigsburg, D Fuchs, Wacker Architekten BDA

The Brolls house attests to the harmonious cooperation between the owners and their architects. Both the ground plan and the tailor-made details re ect the occupants predilections. White rendered surfaces and extensive glazed areas combine to produce an entity whose lightness of touch belies its essential geometric stringency.

2. Sto references Haus Broll, Ludwigsburg, D

The bedroom on the west side of the upper storey offers a panoramic view over the surrounding unspoilt countryside.

Haus Broll stands on a site to the north of Stuttgart which is undeveloped on three sides and set to remain so. The neighbouring low terraced houses and renovated apartment houses maintain a respectful distance. An impression of tranquillity and plenty of greenery prevails. The building is dominated by a harmonious blend of three materials which are to be found throughout the house beige-coloured stone, white rendered ceilings and walls and the dark-stained maple of the few carefully positioned items of furniture. Glass surfaces, some running over the entire height of the building, and virtually frameless window strips extending around the corners, add an element of variety to the allwhite rendered surfaces. Each side has its own face: in the east is the entrance with driveway and singlestorey garage, while the south side is separated from the road by a grass strip and a hedge. While the north side remains largely closed, the west facade opens onto the terrace and the garden. The transition from the living room into the outside area is virtually seamless, the large-format limestone slabs of the living room oor continuing onto the terrace. Apart from the central air space, the

layout of the building is not apparent from a distance. This would appear to be deliberate the house displays the maximum possible openness while at the same time guaranteeing its two occupants the privacy they require.

North view: The differently proportioned and oriented windows showcase the building at night.

Owner: Mr. and Mrs. Broll, Ludwigsburg, D Architects: Fuchs, Wacker. Architekten BDA, Stuttgart, D Location: Ludwigsburg, D Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Classic), facade paint Applicator: Eugen Schwarz Stuckateur GmbH Ausbau + Fassade, Stuttgart, D Photographs: Johannes Vogt, Mannheim, D
Ground plan sketch

2. Sto references International School, Bonn, D

International School, Bonn, D RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky

The Bonn International School (BIS) has moved into its new premises on the banks of the Rhine in BonnPlittersdorf. The buildings colourful render facades by RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky cite the Rhine and its oodplains, as well as the national ags of the no less than 63 nations represented by the pupils attending the school.

2. Sto references International School, Bonn, D

The Bonn International School was founded in 1997 and offers an English-language curriculum for around 350 children and adolescents aged between three and 19. In keeping with the extreme age spread of its pupils, the school comprises three sections pre-school, known here as the Early Learning Section, a primary school and a secondary school. The new school building by RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky is the result of an international competition staged shortly after the schools foundation. The three-winged new building extends like an outstretched hand northward into the parkland on the left bank of the Rhine. At the wrist in the south a straight edge to the

complex forms the counterpart to the UNO administrative building opposite. The central element and the link between the individual ngers is the break hall, from which the science and art classrooms, the sports hall, the canteen, the library and the of ces are accessed. The halls communicative character is continued in the spacious corridors between the classrooms. These corridors are intended above all to provide an interesting refuge from bad weather during breaks. The architects have also been careful to avoid any hint of monotony on the facades. Fine plastic pro les divide the large rendered areas into horizontal colour elds. Two white render strips, each at lintel height, are the sole features

The building, only two storeys in height blends harmoniously into the landscape on the oodplains of the Rhine despite its large ground plan, yet without being swallowed up by its surroundings. This feat is achieved by means of the colourful render facades, which are divided up into individual elds, thereby emphasizing the buildings horizontal character.

running along the entire length of the building as a visual element separating the storeys.

Owner: Vebo Futur GmbH, Bonn, D Architects: RKW Rhode Kellermann Wawrowsky Architectur + Stdtebau, Dsseldorf, D Location: Martin-Luther-King-Str. 14, Bonn, D Sto products: Special variant of the external wall insulation system StoTherm Classic

Photographs: Michael Reisch, Dsseldorf, D

Layout plan with ground oor plan

2. Sto references Service centre of LUWOGE/GEWOGE, Ludwigshafen, D

Service centre of LUWOGE/GEWOGE, Ludwigshafen, D Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten

The facade of the new Luwoge/Gewoge service centre in Ludwigshafen is made up of thousands of smallformat glass tiles. The apparently solid facade is actually a ventilated structure based on the StoVerotec Glas facade system, demonstrating the latters versatility in both technical and design terms.

2. Sto references Service centre of LUWOGE/GEWOGE, Ludwigshafen, D

The glass mosaic facade adds a sparkle to the otherwise plain building.

At the end of the 1990s, the Ludwigshafen company LUWOGE/GEWOGE, a subsidiary of BASF, staged a competition for the design of its new service centre. The commission went to Munich-based rm Allmann Sattler Wappner. The ve-pronged building has been in use since its completion in the spring of 2003. The new building consists of ve of ce modules arranged in a row along a busy road, docking up at their northern ends with a narrow transverse section of around 160 metres in length. The latter section connects the three-storey of ce wings and houses conference and service rooms and the entrance area. For this most public part of the building, the architects chose a white, re ective facade cladding comprised of thousands of small glass tiles with enamelled rear sides. Contrary to the initial impression, these tiles were not applied directly to the solid reinforced concrete wall, but to the ventilated carrier boards of the StoVerotec Glass facade system. These boards are made of expanded glass granulate, resulting in expansion characteristics similar to those of the glass tiles. The tiles custom-made from Austria of eight millimetres thickness were delivered to the construction site as

30 x 30 centimetre panels on a mesh backing for bonding to the panels. Particular attention was devoted to ensuring a homogeneous overall appearance for the facade, which meant that tilting of individual mesh units was taboo.

Bonding 30 x 30 cm mesh-backed panels of glass tiling to the carrier boards of the facade system called for maximum precision.

Owner: LUWOGE/GEWOGE, Ludwigshafen, D Architects: Allmann Sattler Wappner Architekten, Munich, D Applicator: Gebrder Neuner KG, Mannheim, D Sto products: Ventilated rainscreen-cladding system (StoVerotec Glass)

Photographs: BauBild Falk, Berlin and Jens Passoth, Berlin, D

Cross-section

2. Sto references Renovation of the Blumlger Feld estate, Celle, D

Renovation of the Blumlger Feld estate, Celle, D Ivan Kozjak, Architekt BDA

Otto Haeslers last housing project in the pre-war period was a typical terraced housing complex in the classic modern style until it received a facelift from Ivan Kozjak. Kozjak has added a new, three-storey extension to the existing row of housing. While somewhat contentious in terms of preservation principles, this measure made it possible to adapt the building to modern-day housing standards on the inside.

2. Sto references Renovation of the Blumlger Feld estate, Celle, D

The so-called lung block at the northern edge of the estate has retained its original form.

The Blumlger Feld estate was built in Celle in 1930, at the time of the Great Depression. The style was extremely frugal and the standard of the apartments in terms of construction and the sizes of the housing units was below the minimum requirements that architect Otto Haesler (1880-1962) initially speci ed to his clients. Haesler, a staunch advocate of Neue Sachlichkeit (new objectivity), had already realised numerous estates in Celle at this time. His modern terraced housing, stringently oriented from north to south, shaped the townscape and saw Celle become a centre of the New Building style. Today, the terraced buildings are protected as historical monuments. The owner realised, however, that they would only remain lettable if they were adapted to modern-day standards. The sizes of the housing units, ranging between 34 and 49 m2, were too small by present standards. The eastern row was therefore enlarged by the addition of a new storey and a three metre wide front section with cellar facing onto the green area to the west. This resulted in a twofold increase in the total available living space. The standard of insulation on the existing facade was far from

worthy of preservation. The east facade was provided with a new facade insulation system in place of the original thermal insulation consisting of six centimetre thick pressed straw matting. This preserved the solid character of the 220 metre long row of housing. In contrast, the extension on the west side was provided with a metal-clad lightweight facade. The two houses at either end of the row have retained their original form without the additional storey.

In the east, the roof area is accessed via galleries. Only the rows two end houses have retained their original volume.

Owner: Stdtische Wohnungsbau GmbH, Celle, D Design: Ivan Kozjak, Hanover, D Location: Rauterbergweg, Celle, D Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Classic), Renovation system (StoReno)

Photographs: Thomas Gtz, Dsseldorf, D

Layout plan

2. Sto references Archive of the State Archaeological Museum, Schwerin, D

Archive of the State Archaeological Museum, Schwerin, D State building authority, Schwerin

The gleaming black, monolithic archive of the State Archaeological Museum maintains a respectful distance from the historical walls of the former riding stables of the Old Artillery Barracks in Schwerin. This unusual combination of a brickwork ruin and an insulated rainscreen cladding system in black glass was designed by the architects at the state building authority of Mecklenburg-West Pommerania.

2. Sto references Archive of the State Archaeological Museum, Schwerin, D

The brick walls of the former riding hall were dilapidated by the time the state authority for the preservation of historical monuments decided to build the archive.

The architect Friedrich Wachenhusen built the Old Artillery Barracks in Schwerin between 1859 and 1862. The fort-like complex in the neoGothic style with battlements and four corner towers accommodated artillerymen and their accoutrements behind its massive brick facades, as well as stables and a riding hall. The latter is situated in the middle of an inner courtyard which is enclosed by the main buildings on three sides. While the majority of the buildings on the site have survived their military usage virtually unscathed and currently house local government of ces, the riding hall was initially earmarked for conversion into a sports hall after the Second World War. By the time this project was abandoned, key parts of the building were already missing. Only decades later was the ruin revived by Schwerins authority for the preservation of historical monuments. Between the brick walls, which were in a ruinous state of repair but secured against collapse, the architects have inserted a Black Box which is to serve henceforth as the archive of the State Archaeological Museum. The black, sharp-edged and shiny cube is devoid of any window openings or differentiating structural features. Inside, it contains

three storeys for store, archive and depot. The building has been constructed as a reinforced concrete construction with external walls of lightweight bricks, in front of which a ventilated facade consisting of six millimetre thick opaque black glass has been installed. Only on one side does the new building establish physical contact with the stairway and entrance of the historical edi ce, otherwise maintaining a respectful distance from the brick walls.

In the middle of the building the Black Box protrudes above the at roof of the old building. The old and new parts of the building have been visibly separated.

Owner: State of Mecklenburg-West Pommerania, D Design: State building authority, Schwerin, D Applicator: KMB Schwerin, D Sto products: Ventilated rainscreen cladding system (StoVentec Creativ)

Photographs: Punktum / Hans Christian Schink, Leipzig, D

Facade detail

2. Sto references Berliner Bogen of ce building, Hamburg, D

Berliner Bogen of ce building, Hamburg, D BRT Architekten Bothe Richter Teherani

Hamburg architecture of ce Bothe Richter Teherani is renowned for its of ce buildings featuring sculptural forms, which are always closely related to the given interior concept. BRT designed the Berliner Bogen of ce building according to the house-in-a-house principle. Its air-conditioning envelope under the outer glass shell is formed by reinforced concrete arches to which a highly durable external wall insulation system has been applied.

2. Sto references Berliner Bogen of ce building, Hamburg, D

Six winter gardens divide up the buildings interior. The reinforced concrete arches of the buildings inner envelope have been provided with an external wall insulation system.

The Berliner Bogen of ce building by architectural rm BRT Bothe Richter Teherani has stood in the inhospitable, traf c-ridden setting of Anckelmannplatz Square in the south-east of Hamburg since the end of 2000. The new building of 140 metres in length accommodates 1200 of ce employees. Its imposing form evokes a glass ships hull lying keel-up. The actual solid, thermally insulated building is visible beneath this outer shell. The architects refer to this project as a building without a plot, as the building was erected over an old ood basin. A giant mixed water basin is located under the new building to compensate for the lost reservoir volume. Eight stories rise over this basin, becoming increasingly narrow towards the top on account of the buildings paraboloidal cross-section. The building reaches a height of 36 metres at the top of the parabolic arch. The glass shell, resting on 22 diagonally crossing steel arches, spans the reinforced concrete vault of the inner building, which is structured by six building-high winter gardens protected by the glass shell. These winter gardens serve as green climatic buffer zones and ensure natural illumination and ventilation of the of ce storeys.

The vertical facades facing the winter gardens are fully glazed; the cantilever oors are provided with mineral insulation to meet re protection requirements. The concrete arches have also been provided with an external wall insulation system, in order to prevent the concrete from heating up. Instead of the mineral wool insulating boards which are customary for curves, dimensionally stable mineral foam boards were used here. As the arches serve as both wall and roof, they must provide a suitable

The arching structure of the supporting framework spans the former ood basin on which the of ce building has been erected.

base for a mobile maintenance ladder employed for cleaning the inside of the glass shell. So as to adapt the insulating boards to the curvature of the arches, small formats were used and the surface was skillfully levelled when applying the adhesive and render.

Owner: Becken Investitionen & Vermgensverwaltung, Hamburg, D Architects: BRT Bothe Richter Teherani, Hamburg, D Location: Anckelmannplatz 6, Hamburg, D Applicator: Seifert + Prasse GmbH, Schneeberg, D Sto products: External wall insulation system (StoTherm Cell, StoTherm Mineral), facade render (StoMiral)

Photographs: Dieter Hergeth, Kirchtimke, D

Ground plan of lower storey

2. Sto references Primary school, Krk, HR

Primary school, Krk, HR Randi Turato

Architects Randic and Turato have designed and realised the new Fran Krsto Frankopan primary school directly alongside the reconstructed medieval town wall. The new buildings rendered exterior harmonises with its historical surroundings, while the bold colours inside the school form a rich contrast to the towns light natural stone buildings.

2. Sto references Primary school, Krk, HR

Steps made of maple overcome the height difference in the assembly hall and provide a place for pupils to sit.

The location for the new primary school was the subject of lengthy debates on the town council of Krk in Croatia. At issue was the question of whether the new building should be sited in the towns readily accessible outskirts or remain at its previous location in the middle of the towns historical centre. The competition was won by architects Saa Randic and Idis Turato, whose design envisaged a new school building in the town centre. The distinction between the public area and the school has been abandoned and the towns streets and squares de ned as recreation areas for the pupils during their breaks, while the school grounds are accessible to the public. In accordance with the boundaries of the building plot and the topography of the site, the architects designed a two-storey, Z-shaped building in the north-east of the towns old quarter, at a respectful distance from the restored town wall. The facade facing away from the town is characterised by a projecting, shading frame consisting of precast concrete elements and by extensive glazing. The classrooms on the ground oor look across the school yard towards the town wall, while the older pupils on the rst oor have an

unobstructed view beyond the wall. The front of the building, facing the towns maze of streets and houses, presents a more closed appearance, its light-coloured render nish harmonising with the historical surroundings. The grain size and colouring of the render vary, lending the building attractive proportions. Isolated areas in bold colours add highlights to the render facade, hinting at the celebration of colour to be discovered inside. The schools at roof is covered with crushed limestone from the region the same material that was used to reconstruct the town wall. As a granular aggregate, it also lends the concrete facade elements a rock-like

A glass facade opens up the school onto the sheltered yard and reveals its colourful interior.

colour, thereby establishing a dialogue with the surrounding area.

Owner: Krk municipal authorities, Krk, HR Architects: Randi Turato, Rijeka, HR Location: Stjedana Radica 11, Krk, HR Sto products: Exterior renders and interior plasters Applicator: Sipak company, Zagreb, HR

Photographs: Randi Turato, Rijeka, HR

Map of the town

2. Sto references Pottery House, Santa Fe, USA

Pottery House, Santa Fe, USA Frank Lloyd Wright

Organic architecture the unity of form and function and, ideally, of building and landscape was Frank Lloyd Wrights declared credo. This approach is manifested in the Pottery House in Santa Fe, which was completed by Taliesin Architects in 1984, 25 years after Wrights death.

2. Sto references Pottery House, Santa Fe, USA

The Pottery House combines in uences from pueblo architecture with an organic architectural style.

It was back in 1908 that Frank Lloyd Wright added the concept of organic architecture to his vocabulary. For him it was an extension of the concept of form follows function evolved by his teacher, Louis Sullivan. Wright developed this into form and function are one. For Wright, organic building also entailed blending buildings and landscape into a single entity. Falling Water, a house completed in Bear Run, Pennsylvania, in 1937, provides a masterly example of this school. His attitude to the landscape is best summed up by the following quotation: No house should ever be on a hill or on anything. It should be of the hill. Belonging to it. Hill and house should live together, each the happier for the other. Frank Lloyd Wright produced initial design sketches for the Pottery House in 1941. They remained unrealised up to his death, however. It was later built by Taliesin Architects in two different versions at two separate locations one in Phoenix and one in Santa Fe. The house appears to form an organic, intrinsic part of its surroundings. This impression derives not only from the buildings sweeping contours, but also from the uniform ochre colouring of the building and the garden walls. In keeping

with an ancient tradition which goes back to the regions original Indian inhabitants, the walling of the Pottery House was produced with adobe bricks, to which an organic render was subsequently applied to afford protection from the extreme climatic in uences in New Mexicos semidesert landscape. Wright used small watercourses and a pond in the oval courtyard to provide the house with a natural form of air conditioning and a pleasant background sound. Most of the interior xtures follow the oval

The windows are either set back deep in the facade or as here are shaded by protecting roofs.

bowl shape that gave the house its name. This form is also to be found in the large replace in the living room, which is modelled on Indian ceramics.

The walls in the uniform ochre colour blend house and garden into a single entity.

Owner: Charles Klotzsche, Santa Fe, USA Architect (design): Frank Lloyd Wright, Taliesin West, USA Architects (realisation): Charles Mantooth, Taliesin Associated Architects, Taliesin West, USA Location: Santa Fe, USA Sto products: Facade render (Stolit K 1.5)

Photographs: Sto AG

2. Sto references Former post of ce, Bolzano, I

Former post of ce in Bolzano, I Michael Tribus Architecture

A change for the better has taken place at Bolzanos main railway station: A formerly unsightly building dating from 1954 now sports a new facade which not only provides an attractive overall impression but is also extremely environment-friendly. South Tyrolean architect Michael Tribus has carried out a thorough renovation of the former post of ce building and transformed it into Italys rst public passive house.

2. Sto references Former post of ce, Bolzano, I

The small proportion of window space was ideal for the purposes of converting the building into a Passivhaus.

With heating oil consumption of around one litre per square metre, the former post office building situated directly at platform 1 of Bolzanos main railway station is the first public building in Italy designed to meet the Passivhaus standards. The introverted, somewhat unprepossessing functional building dating from 1954, to which a fourth storey was added in 1975, featured a compact volume and a very low proportion of window space at just 16 per cent, making it an ideal candidate for conversion into a Passivhaus. First, the slightly set back top storey from 1975 was removed and replaced with two new storeys, so that the former post office building now comprises a total of five storeys, each housing 700 m of floor space. In order to attain a high level of heat recovery through the use of a controlled ventilation system, high insulation values were a key consideration in renovating the facade. To this end, the windows were fitted with triple glazing and all the outside walls were provided with a 35 centimetre insulation layer. The regular geometry of the existing punctuated facade was continued on the additional storeys. Window reveals in different designs add a touch of variety to the buildings

austere face the polystyrene insulation around the windows has been cut at various angles using a hot wire. The resultant variations in the design of the reveals have become a key design feature of the facade. The direction and angles of the sloping reveals were determined not only by design criteria, however, but also by the forms of use of the rooms behind the windows and the amounts of daylight needed. The lower rooms receive more light as a result of reveals extending far up the facade, while narrower reveals offer more shade for the upper storeys. At the same time, the side reveals afford individuals views of the surrounding area, according to their positioning.

The old building renovated by Michael Tribus at Bolzanos main railway station used to house the post of ce.

Owner: Autonomous Province of Bolzano, I Architects: Michael Tribus Architecture, Lana, I Location: Rittnerstrae 4, Bolzano, I Sto products: External wall insulation system StoTherm Vario Applicator: Isoleur di Pederiva, Bolzano, I

Photographs: Ren Riller, Schlanders, I

View North-West

2. Sto references Extension for the Waldorf school, Villingen-Schwenningen, D

Extension for the Waldorf school, Villingen-Schwenningen, D Lederer Ragnarsdttir Oei Architekten

With their extension to the school in Villingen-Schwenningen, Lederer Ragnarsdttir Oei have continued the unspectacular architecture of the existing building while at the same time creating a new building with a distinctive character of its own. Their example shows that good architecture hinges not on generous budgets, but is rather down to a conscious balancing of functional and design preferences against the attendant costs.

2. Sto references Extension for the Waldorf school, Villingen-Schwenningen, D

The two-storey building dating from 1985 which houses the Waldorf school in Villingen-Schwenningen differs only little from traditional school buildings of its era, sporting an orange-brown render facade and a pitched roof covered with rust-red shingles. The new building by Lederer Ragnarsdttir Oei which adjoins the existing school to the south incorporates additional classrooms, a day nursery, a dining room with kitchen and a two-storey hall. It was the architects declared aim to build an extension that represents an organic addition to the existing building, but in a different architectural style. Towards the entrance yard, the building appears as a continuation of the existing school in a different guise. Window strips with white frames in a glazed nish and industrial metal blinds emphasize the horizontal lines. The buildings parapet describes a zig-zag pattern, outlining the gentle slope of the roof surfaces which are drained via voluminous rainspouts. A change of material lends structure to the facade area: While the entire new building sports a coarsely textured rollerapplied render nish in sun ower yellow, the areas around the windows on the upper storey have been

coated with a lighter-coloured and smoother oat- nished render. At the south of the new building a concreted ramp describes a semicircle as it leads up to the rst oor. Behind this ramp is a gravel-covered, sheltered forecourt for the day nursery which is integrated on the ground oor. Coloured glass panels have been tted in front of the randomly positioned hall windows in the west facade. A cylindrical tower contains the re escape, leading outside from the hall gallery. The interior of the

A ramp leads up to the rst oor on the south side of the building. Behind the ramp is the sheltered yard of the day nursery. The facade of the main hall, sporting numerous lively coloured glass panels, can be seen on the left.

new building is nished in throughcoloured loam render in a similar dark yellow to the facade. On the upper oor in particular, the daylight enters through numerous skylights to bathe the rendered curved contours of the stairwell and hall in a gentle luminescence.

Owner: Frderverein fr Waldorfpdagogik, Villingen-Schwenningen, D Architects: Prof. Arno Lederer + Jrunn Ragnarsdttir + Marc Oei, Stuttgart, D Location: Schluchseestrae 55, Villingen-Schwenningen, D Sto products: Facade render (StoMiral K6 as roller-applied render) in trowelled look Applicator: Scholl Stuckateur, Gemmrigheim, D

Photographs: Sto AG

Ground oor plan

2. Sto references Residential house, Pllau, A

Residential house, Pllau, A Reinhard Hausbauer

It is a rather rare occurrence for a building to be more energy-ef cient in reality than on paper. The house built for the Retter family in the Styrian town of Pllau (Austria) achieves this feat, however. Thanks to good detailed planning and workmanship this new building, which was planned as a low-energy house, actually undercuts the passive house standard of 15 kWh of heating energy per square metre of living space.

2. Sto references Residential house, Pllau, A

From the living room the family enjoys a view of Pllau Valley national park.

The Austrian designer Reinhard Hausbauer has created a home for a family of four which does without a conventional heating system. Although the building was not originally designed as a Passivhaus, it meets the Passivhaus standard by virtue of its good detailed planning and workmanship. The new building has been designed specifically to capitalise on its southern aspect, its large window openings exploiting the available solar energy to the full. When the sunshine is too weak to heat the house, a geothermal heating system provides the remaining necessary heat. This heat is released evenly into the rooms via radiant heating panels in the walls and floors. In the summer months, external solar protection prevents the rooms from overheating. In order to minimise the new buildings environmental impact, in addition to its zero-emissions heating system particular importance has also been attached to the use of environment-friendly building materials. The building consists primarily of timber, cellulose insulation, glass and natural stone. Despite its solid appearance, the white rendered plinth storey actually consists of timber, like the upper storey. The walls have been provided with good insulation, with an external wall insulation

system fitted in front of the framed construction. Thanks to the good workmanship and the absence of thermal bridges, the required heating energy per annum actually falls short of the planned 18 kWh/m, at 14 kWh/m. Thermal imaging and a blower door test to assess airtightness have confirmed the buildings energy efficiency.

The garage situated in the north of the site is connected to the house by a glazed corridor.

The organically bound, coarsely textured render contrasts with the wooden panelling on the upper storey.

Owner: Ingrid and Johann Retter, Pllau, A Architects: Reinhard Hausbauer, Ratten, A Location: Ehrenfeld 612, Pllau, A Sto products: External wall insulation system StoTherm Wood, facade render Stolit K6, facade paint StoColor Lotusan

Photographs: Reinhard Hausbauer, Ratten, A; Gnter Laznia, Bregenz, A

Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

3. Illustrative Details General

General: StoRend Detail: Isometric

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details General

General: StoTherm Detail: Adhesive Fix - Isometric

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details General

General: StoTherm Detail: Mechanical Fix - Isometric

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details General

General: StoVentec - A Detail: Mechanical Fix - Isometric

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details General

General: StoVerotec Glass/Stone Detail: Mechanical Fix - Isometric

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoRend Detail: Above DPC

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoRend Detail: Below DPC (Mastic break)

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoTherm Detail: Un-Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoTherm Detail: Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoTherm Detail: Drained - Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoVentec - A Detail: Un-Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoVentec - A Detail: Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoVerotec Glass Detail: Un-Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoVerotec Glass Detail: Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoVerotec Stone Detail: Un-Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Base

Base: StoVerotec Stone Detail: Insulated Plinth

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoRend Detail: Sill

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoRend Detail: Head/Reveal

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoTherm Detail: Sill

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoTherm Detail: Head/Reveal

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVentec - A Detail: Sill

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVentec - A Detail: Head

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVentec - A Detail: Reveal

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVerotec Glass Detail: Sill

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVerotec Glass Detail: Head

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVerotec Glass Detail: Reveal

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVerotec Stone Detail: Sill

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVerotec Stone Detail: Head

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Window/Door

Window/Door: StoVerotec Stone Detail: Reveal

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Firebreak

Firebreak: StoTherm Detail: Horizontal Firebreak

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Firebreak

Firebreak: StoTherm Detail: Horizontal Firebreak - Drained (NHBC)

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Firebreak

Firebreak: StoVentec - A Detail: Horizontal Firebreak

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoRend Detail: Movement Joint Bead

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoRend Detail: Movement Joint - Mastic Sealant

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoTherm Detail: Vertical Expansion Joint

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoTherm Detail: Vertical Expansion Joint - Corner

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoVentec - A Detail: Vertical Expansion Joint - Open

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoVentec - A Detail: Vertical Expansion Joint

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Movement

Movement: StoVentec - A Detail: Horizontal Expansion Joint - StoDeco Profile

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Parapet

Parapet: StoRend Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Parapet

Parapet: StoTherm Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Parapet

Parapet: StoVentec - Alu Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Parapet

Parapet: StoVerotec Glass Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Parapet

Parapet: StoVerotec Stone Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Flat Roof

Flat Roof: StoRend Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Flat Roof

Flat Roof: StoTherm Detail: Standard

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Mounting

Mounting: StoTherm Detail: StoFix Quader

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

3. Illustrative Details Mounting

Mounting: StoTherm Detail: StoFix Spirale ID60

Notice: This drawing is an illustrative detail giving the general concept of how the system interfaces with other construction components. This drawing should not be used for construction purposes. Full Sto details are available on request.

Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Generic detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

4. StoColor System

The StoColor System emotional and functional

The StoColor System provides a clear framework and a systematic approach to colour design. The StoColor System is a unique planning tool for the use of colour in architecture. With over 800 colours available for the majority of Sto renders, paints and interior plasters, you have a sound foundation for creative and pioneering colour concepts. Please consult the StoColor System colour le for full explanation of the system structure and colours available for special product ranges (e.g. silicate products, StoLotusan Color). The StoColor System also indicates the LRV (light re ectance value), which affects the use of colour in external wall insulation systems with regards to heat gain. The Wool Scale and lightfastness In the manufacturing industry, lightfastness is measured according to the Wool Scale, originally developed for the textiles industry. The Wool Scale awards pigment a grade from 0 to 8. A zero grade indicates poor lightfastness, and an eight signi es excellent lightfastness. Pigment fading is caused by longterm exposure to ultraviolet light, a component of the suns radiation. Our pigments go through a series of tests in UV chambers to simulate prolonged exposure to extremely high levels of sunlight. Sto is the only render manufacturer that has been awarded a grade 7 for the pigments we use, qualifying our claims of using the best ingredients within our products.

Class 4 custom colours Colours outside of the StoColor system are available on request, but we are unable to guarantee the same level of lightfastness, as the colours will not have been subject to the same level of fade resistance testing.

4. StoColor System

Simple and creative The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System

Yellow
4
1

Gl b Yeellow
2 3

GGe r re 2 n

Gree

nge age rarn OO 2 3

e a ng Or

e u Ba Bllu 3

5 4
1
4

3
4
2

Red

RRe ot d

e Blu

Level 1
The human colour perception area
The human perception of colour primarily distinguishes between yellow, orange, red, violet, blue and green. This perception model forms the basis of the StoColor System.

Level 2
The colour wheel with 24 basic tones
Six colour areas, consisting of the primary and secondary colours yellow, red, blue, orange, violet and green, form the basis of the StoColor System. Each of these colours is differentiated into four hues to produce a 24-part colour wheel the basic tones.

o t Viollett

Violet

4. StoColor System

Basic tone

1 Light, clear colour row

2 Masking row 1

3 Masking row 2

4 Shading row

5 Dark, clear colour row

Level 3
The ve colour rows of the 24 basic tones
Each basic tone has ve colour rows which are tinted according to the principle of the same-colour triangle. Make-up of the colour rows: 1 Light, clear colour row Basic colour tinted towards white 2 Masking row Basic colour tinted towards grey 3 Masking row Basic colour tinted towards grey 4 Shading row A colour shade of the light, clear colour row mixed with a colour shade of the dark, clear colour row. 5 Dark, clear colour row Basic colour tinted towards black

31102

56

C2

37102
Colour no. Colour code/order no. Lightness value

56 C2

Value denoting the quantity of light re ected by a surface. Measured in per cent: 100% = white, 0% = black Colour class De nition of the colour surcharge see price list StoLotusan K/MP, StoSilco K/R/MP Sto silicate products Colour shade is suitable StoLotusan Color, StoSilco Color Colour shade is suitable

The concrete technical speci cations and information on the products contained in the Technical Data Sheets and system description/approvals must be observed.

4. StoColor System

StoColor presentation media simple and persuasive

Professional colour design requires not only a wellbalanced colour system, but also the certainty that the evolved design concept can actually be realised precisely as envisaged. The presentation media are designed with this in mind. The main emphasis here is not on colorimetric or theoretical considerations. The primary aim is to develop design tools which are applicable to the most diverse architectures, styles and colour materials. Comprehensive service materials, from the CD-ROM to the colour sample box, provide architects with ideal support in their planning and consultation work. For more information on the availability of StoColor presentation materials, please contact your regional Sto Technical Consultant or alternatively, send an email to info.uk@stoeu.com.

Colour fans The basic tool for choosing colours and combinations of colours. Separating indices sort the colour system into six perception areas. The key items of information are provided on the relevant leaves.

Colour edition Six colour fans for planning colour schemes. Each fan presents one of the six perception areas. Each individual leaf presents a colour shade over its entire area, to enable the combination, comparison and selection of shades. Each fan additionally includes the grey rows, representing them over the entire area of the leaves, in the same manner as the colour tones.

Colour sample box The sample box assists the designer in evolving colour schemes and collages. It contains all the colour shades of the StoColor System, with each shade presented over the entire area of a relevant A5 leaf. The shades are systematically sorted into the six perception areas by separating indices. Additional leaves can be ordered for each individual colour shade.

CD-ROM colour ranges Digital colour ranges for the following computer programmes: Adobe Photoshop, Corel Draw, Micrografx Picture Publisher, Nemetschek Allplan FT, Arcplus, ArCon, AutoCAD and ArribaCAD; the CD also contains the RGB and Lab values of the StoColor System.

Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Generic detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

5. Technical Support

Technical Support

Our continued success is as dependent on the quality of our customer support and strong interrelationships as it is on our products and systems. Building with conscience extends beyond how we research and develop new, innovative and sustainable products and systems. We take the same approach with our service and support offering and take an ethical stance on all of our business endeavours. Sto is one of the few manufacturers to provide a team of Technical Advisors, all as part of our service offering, at no additional charge. We have the largest team of advisors in the UK and Ireland, offering comprehensive nationwide support regardless of project location. All of our TAs are former specialist applicators. Their combined knowledge of Sto products and systems, in addition to their industry expertise, enables us to offer our customers unrivalled technical support.

5. Technical Support

The Team Our technical support team, made up of technical services, sales support, technical consultants and technical advisors across 4 regional offices are on hand to help throughout the entire life of the project, offering a true cradle to grave support proposition.

Our Technical Consultants Our aim was never to have a fleet of salespeople more interested in hitting a commission than supporting our clients technical needs. For this reason, we do not have a sales team. Instead we have a highly motivated team of technical consultants trained to support you through the design and specification stages of your project. Whether you need guidance on details, help designing a bespoke solution, advice on regulations concerning your project, best practice approaches or any issue relating to the successful and timely completion of your project, our TCs are always willing to help.

Our Technical Advisors Our products and systems are only as good as the tradesmen who apply them. Our team of technical advisors are highly skilled individuals with a vast wealth of experience on the tools. They are available to discuss practical solutions to overcoming a challenging issue and offer their expertise during the operations onsite. Our TAs train all of our applicators on our products and systems and offer ongoing support to them throughout their working relationship with Sto. If necessary, they are willing to roll their sleeves up during a project and get to the heart of an issue.

Sales support and technical services We have a dedicated team of individuals ready to offer advice and support on the phone, or in person. If you need a U value calculation, product samples, literature, detail drawings or any number of queries that arise during the course of a project, we have a team that is more than able to help.

Example U value calculation 2

Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Generic detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

6. Design Considerations

Contents
Introduction | 3

Thermal Performance | 9

Sustainability | 13

Fire Performance | 19

Wind Loading | 25

Movement | 27

Colour, Texture & Material | 33

Best Practice | 39

6. Design Considerations Introduction

Introduction

Building components have changed and evolved over a significant period of time, but the elements have remained the same, i.e. walls, floors and roofs. This Facades Binder is all about the wall element. The physical properties of a wall have remained fairly constant throughout time, until today that is. Their principal function was to protect,

from not only the weather, but in some cases from other humans, i.e. be defensive. Buildings have evolved from simple round timber structures incorporating wattle and daub, to sophisticated stone structures where a large defensive requirement was important, and recently to more complex timber structures, and latterly brick and masonry construction.

6. Design Considerations Introduction

Cavity wall construction Whilst we may assume that cavity walls were an invention of the 20th Century, there is evidence of cavity based structures from the prehistoric times, e.g. the Scottish Broch, (a large double walled dry stone round house), to Greek and Roman structures. We assume this technology was predominantly for the purposes of reducing rain penetration. This type of structure was abandoned for many centuries, as simpler and more cost effective structures were utilised. However, as society became more complex and prosperous, the cavity was reinvented and upgraded. The theory is that by building two masonry leaves side by side, a set distance apart, but carefully tied together, the leaves can act together structurally, but separately in terms of moisture penetration. As long as the cavity is kept clear the inner leaf should remain dry even when the outer leaf is saturated and water is running down the cavity face of the outer leaf.

As well as considering the passage of water from the external environment, the air in a building will also contain moisture, and in temperate climates such as the UK the air in the internal environment usually contains more moisture than the outside air. Therefore, moisture vapour will tend to migrate outwards through the construction and a cavity can be beneficial in the removal of this type of moisture as well. Cavity wall construction enjoyed a resurgence from the 1920s onwards. This may have been because builders wanted to improve construction standards or it may have been down to cost and speed. It was much

quicker and cheaper to build a single skin of brickwork, separated by a cavity from another single skin of blockwork, than to build a solid double thickness brick wall. The gain in popularity of the cavity wall may have been due to the resistance to moisture penetration, the structural integrity or the ease of construction, but good thermal performance was not considered to be significant at that time.

6. Design Considerations Introduction

Insulated cavity walls It became clear during the Oil Crisis in the early 1970s that the best way to mitigate spiralling fuel costs was to add high performance insulants to the building fabric, reducing the heating requirement. For cavity wall technology, this higher thermal performance was met by including insulation in an increased cavity width. This became necessary to comply with Building Regulations in the 1990s. The Building Regulations permit cavity walls to be constructed with fully filled cavities, but where a cavity is partially filled with thermal insulation then the residual cavity must be a minimum of 50mm wide. In order to enhance the thermal performance of a cavity wall construction, Sto has many External Wall Insulation systems (EWI systems) suited for direct application onto the

outer masonry leaf. By insulating the outer leaf, the entire construction becomes warm and dry. Increasing the temperature of the building fabric moves the dew point of the wall surfaces, leading to less risk of condensation and subsequent mould growth in existing buildings. This helps to reduce maintenance on the through-wall construction, by making it more thermally stable. Insulating the construction externally gives the freedom to choose the thickness of insulation required to achieve a target U value or energy saving. The external leaf of a cavity wall has in some cases lost its structural component and become purely a visual protective element, ie Rainscreen cladding.

6. Design Considerations Introduction

Framed Structures Many buildings are constructed with cavity walls where the outer leaf is masonry, and this has sometimes been covered with render. For many steel or timber framed buildings, however, an insulated carrier system can be used as the backing for a proprietary render product. Sto render is flexible, therefore less likely to crack than a traditional sand:cement render. Sto render is more resistant to rain and moisture, whilst remaining vapour permeable. The Building Regulations require that in a framed external wall the cladding is separated from the insulation or sheathing by a drained and/or vented cavity with a breather membrane on the inside of the cavity. If the free cavity is over 50mm wide the breather membrane will not be required. Having reviewed information from North America, where there have been problems of water ingress causing serious decay in timber framed construction, the National House-Builders Council (NHBC) also decided that insulated cladding systems should not be fixed directly to framed construction, whether timber or steel. There must be a cavity between the frame and the cladding in all situations, as a sensible second line of defence to prevent moisture tracking back into the frame. Direct application of insulated cladding to the frame is not currently permitted by the NHBC.

Where Sto render is to be applied to a StoVentec render carrier board on a framed structure, it is possible to fix this board to timber battens on the sheathing to create a cavity. If the battens are placed vertically, it is straightforward to ventilate this cavity and drain it at the base. The thermal insulation required would be placed within the frame studs, or fixed to the sheathing board behind the cavity. Sto have details for the StoRend Flex system on Ventec board, which have been approved by the NHBC, where a 35mm wide cavity is created by using vertical battens. Where the Sto render is to be applied directly to insulation, the cavity can only be provided between the back of the insulation and the inner leaf or frame. The effectiveness of the insulation may be reduced by the

existence of a cavity on the warm side of the insulation. If the cavity is designed as a ventilated cavity this effect will be significant but for a cavity that is only drained the effect will be small. This is the case with the NHBC approved details for the StoTherm Mineral and Classic M systems which have a 20mm drained cavity created by installing packing shims on the tracks used to mechanically fix the insulation boards to the lightweight steel frame. In the case of timber frame or steel framed construction the NHBC requirements for a drained and vented cavity are set out in the NHBC Standards Chapter 6.2. The requirement is for a drained cavity of at least 15mm although it is not necessary for the cavity to be ventilated.

6. Design Considerations Introduction

Prefabricated Structures Due to the varied type and origin of manufacture, it is important to ensure that these systems comply with the requirements for cavities as noted above. Classification of externally ventilated cavities The following classifications are taken from BS 5250: 2002-Code of Practice for control of condensation in buildings. Vented air space A cavity or void that has openings to the outside air placed so as to allow some limited, but not necessarily through, movement of air. Ventilated air space A cavity or void that has openings to the outside air placed so as to promote through movement of air. BS EN 6946 classifies an unventilated air layer as one in which there is no express provision for air flow through it. Drain openings (or weep holes) in the form of open vertical joints in the outer leaf of a masonry cavity wall are not regarded as ventilation openings. Ventilation performance of cavities A fully ventilated cavity provides the most reliable means of removing moisture in a cavity. The air movement will remove moisture vapour that has migrated from the internal environment, encourage evaporation of any water and promote drying of the cavity. A vented cavity will have less capacity than a ventilated cavity, to remove excess moisture. Its performance depends on the vapour resistance of all materials to the cold side of the cavity and the size of the openings between the cavity and the external environment the lower the resistance and the larger the openings, then the higher the rate of moisture removal. The removal of moisture in a vented cavity may also be increased by using a wider cavity. This will improve the air circulation by convection, due to the lower frictional forces to resist the air movements.

6. Design Considerations Introduction

Cavity widths TRADA (the Timber Research and Development Association) also recommends that timber framed buildings in the UK have a ventilated cavity between the insulated/ sheathed timber fame and the exterior render cladding. This cavity can be a minimum of 25mm for backed systems (e.g. StoVentec carrier board, EWI) where deleterious materials cannot fill the void, and 50mm for unbacked systems (e.g. traditional render onto metal lath without a breather membrane). TRADA takes its guidance from its own experience and also uses BS5250 (Code of Practice for the control of condensation in buildings) for reference.

The guidance from the NHBC Standards Chapter 6.2 compares closely to the TRADA recommendations. The cavity size is slightly reduced with unbacked systems having 40mm and backed systems having 20mm. Depending on the size of the building, firebreaks may be required within the created cavities. This issue is addressed in the section on Fire Performance.

The Design Considerations Section attempts to address the main issues that may arise when specifying Sto facade systems and also explain some of the origin of the technical requirements. Sto have tried and tested products and systems to meet the requirements of the various organisations, be it the NHBC, Building Regulations or TRADA. If you require further advice or information, please do not hesitate to contact Sto Technical Services.

6. Design Considerations Thermal Performance

Thermal Performance U-Values, Condensation Risk and Part L

The thermal performance of a wall construction is measured in terms of the Thermal Transmittance (U-Value). This value, measured in W/mK, gives the rate of heat transfer through the wall construction per unit area, per degree Kelvin difference, between the inside and outside surfaces. In order to accurately calculate the U-Value it is important to build up its thermal profile accounting for the thermal conductivity () of each material layer through the wall.

Condensation Risk Depending on climatic conditions, there is a calculable movement of moisture within the building envelope. In addition to understanding the importance of the thermal performance, it is therefore equally important to understand and predict how the wall construction will behave in terms of moisture vapour movement and the risk of condensation within the wall, known as interstitial condensation. In order to calculate the condensation risk, the vapour resistivity of each material

layer within the wall must be known. Using this information and assuming environmental conditions for the site (relative humidity and temperature inside/outside) a prediction of condensation (conversion from vapour to liquid) can be computed. Air can hold varying amounts of moisture as a vapour, increasing with temperature as shown below, and it is this moisture which, given the right circumstances, can condense within the wall itself.

Relative humidity

The maximum possible water content in air at different temperatures in g/m

+20C =17.3 g

0C =4.8 g

The above illustration demonstrates how much water vapour (in grams) will condense from a cubic metre of air if the temperature of that air is lowered by 20C. This temperature difference is a typical temperature gradient which can be experienced within winter conditions in the UK across a building element.

6. Design Considerations Thermal Performance

Thermal Bridging Most wall constructions will not be completely homogeneous and will more likely be formed of several parts/materials e.g. masonry with mortar joints. The different materials will also have differing thermal properties, either increasing or decreasing the heat lost through the wall. Using the example of a masonry wall with mortar joints, the joints will generally contribute to an increased heat loss and thus the mortar joints must be considered in the overall thermal calculation of the wall. The same is also true for metal or timber studs that penetrate all or part of the wall section. These thermal bridges as they are known, are generally repeating throughout the wall and this consistent repetition allows them to be included in the overall U-Value calculation. Thermal bridge assessment is becoming more important for two reasons: firstly, as legislation and energy awareness lead to increased insulation levels, so losses due to thermal bridges form an increasing fraction of building heat losses; and secondly, condensation and mould growth are increasingly a focus for environmental health concern.

With increasing thickness of insulation, for example to reach Passivhaus standards, the effect of cold bridging becomes ever more important compared to traditional construction methods. Sto possesses Passivhaus certified details, to ensure that cold bridging is kept to a absolute minimum. External Insulation The use of thermal insulation on the outside of the structural fabric of the wall makes good technical sense on many levels. By wrapping the building in a thick, well-insulated coat the worst effects of thermal bridging are nullified and construction detailing to achieve high thermal performance is greatly simplified. When used in conjunction with high performance render finishes, the insulation layer keeps the structural fabric of the wall warm and dry, thereby also improving

its own thermal performance. The use of insulation on the outside of the wall also makes sense from a condensation point of view as it ensures that the wall is kept warm for the majority of its thickness from inside to out. As a result, the building fabric temperature is maintained above the dew point, the temperature at which condensation would normally start to form within the wall construction. External wall insulation makes sense not only for lightweight building construction where the input of (heating) energy has an immediate effect on internal environment, but also on heavy, dense, construction where the building envelope may be used as a storage heater ensuring a constant climate.

Internal Wall Insulation


Interior Facade

Cavity Wall Insulation


Interior Facade

External Wall Insulation


Interior Facade

Examples of how different insulation systems affect the building envelope.

10

6. Design Considerations Thermal Performance

Part L Conservation of fuel and power Under the 2002 Edition of Building Regulations Approved Document Part L: Conservation of fuel and power, there were three ways in which the efficiency and energy consumption of a building could be measured the Carbon Index Method, the Target U-Value Method or the Elemental Method. The requirement was for a building to comply under any one of the three methods. The revised Part L which came into effect in 2006 omitted the Elemental Method and the Target U-Value Method for new buildings and compliance could be ensured by one method only. This approach is to be continued with the further revision to Part L due to come into effect in October 2010. For each new building, the size and configuration will result in a target value being set according to clearly defined rules. This target value, the Target CO Emission Rate (TER) is based on a notional building and provides a static target. By performing the calculations defined in the Building Regulations Part L1A (new dwellings) or Part L2A (new buildings other than dwellings) a value for the proposed building, which is dependent upon many factors relating to the design and construction of that building, can be produced. This is either the Dwelling CO Emissions Rate (DER) or the Building CO Emissions Rate (BER) and measures the mass of CO emitted per year per square metre of floor area. The DER or BER must be less than, or equal to, the TER for compliance to be achieved. The Elemental Method can still be used for works to existing buildings.

The principal changes to be introduced in 2010:


Reductions in regulated carbon emissions, notably the 25% cut on the 2006 levels for residential building, which will require a change in calculation methodology. The fabric properties will be given as worst acceptable standards e.g. a U-Value of 0.30 W/m.K for a wall in a new dwelling (was 0.35 previously) but it is stated that the achievement of the TER is likely to require significantly better fabric performance than this. A focus on construction and building performance. The Regulations extend the accredited details scheme into the nonresidential sector, aiming to reduce heat loss by linear thermal transmittance through interfaces and around openings. An increased emphasis on air tightness of buildings. Much stricter limits on solar gain for side-lit and top-lit buildings, although the new requirements will not spell the end for highly glazed buildings. Design-stage and actual building assessment Building Control submissions based on the National Calculation Methodology are required before construction starts and upon completion

11

6. Design Considerations Thermal Performance

The two main challenges to the project team are the absolute scale of carbon reduction, which will necessitate a holistic approach to design, and the learning curve associated with the revised National Calculation Methodology, both SAP and SBEM. Thermal bridges will now be controlled in Approved Documents Part L, by reference to the document IP1/06 which introduces the concept of linear thermal transmittance (Psi), measured in W/mK. This is the additional heat loss through junctions of building elements per metre length of that detail and the result is incorporated into the relevant calculation method (either SAP2009 for new dwellings or SBEM for new buildings other than dwellings). Values of Psi for particular details can be calculated by using thermal modelling software in accordance with BS EN ISO 10211-2:2001. Further reviews to Part L of the Building Regulations are expected which will reduce carbon emissions by 40% by 2013 and Zero Carbon levels are planned by 2016. The implications of these changes will be further reductions in

U-Values, increased use of alternative energy sources and carbon offsetting for energy consumed by non-regulated appliances such as dishwashers, televisions and other domestic appliances. The use of External Wall Insulation, correctly detailed, will always improve the thermal performance by avoiding or reducing thermal bridge problems and will give the simplest and often best route to demonstrate regulation compliance. Sto can provide specific U-value and condensation risk calculations for general through-the-wall situations, given the data for the wall construction discussed above. A sample calculation is attached for demonstration only. Please contact your local Technical Consultant or Sto Technical Services to arrange for a project specific calculation. There are other standards to which buildings can be constructed, i.e. PassivHaus standards. For further information on PassivHaus, please refer to the Further Information section of this binder.

12

6. Design Considerations Sustainability

Sustainability

Is it sustainable? is a frequently asked question amongst the construction industry and the answer can often be down to loose interpretation. Is a building material sustainable purely because it originates from a natural and renewable resource, even if it takes huge amounts of energy to manufacture? Or, is a product that is manufactured from petrochemicals unsustainable, even if, when used, it will drastically reduce energy consumption for the life of the building? Rarely is the answer a simple yes or no. There are many interpretations of the word sustainable and how it relates to our industry. To seek clarity we have considered this matter carefully and in lieu of an official industry definition, have developed our own stance on the issue of sustainability.

Fig. 1 The three spheres of acceptance: Motivating factors concerning Sustainability.

Sustainability The Sto definition The short-term needs of commerce and the community have to be balanced against longer term issues such as energy consumption and other environmental concerns. At Sto we define sustainability as: The point at which the needs of Social, Environmental and Economic factors intersect for a mutually beneficial outcome (see Fig.1) Consumption is the very nature of development, it is the impact of our consumption habits which concern us, and it is our aim that all consumption leads to a long term improvement in the three spheres of acceptance.

Our EN ISO 14001: 2004 accreditation goes some way to indicate our commitment to environmental issues and sustainability, as was our voluntary removal of VOCs from all Sto paints prior to any regulatory requirement. Our core business focus is on developing systems which actively contribute to the long term environmental benefit of society, whether it be in producing products from recycled materials, improving the habitation environment or reducing energy consumption by using our external wall insulation systems.

13

6. Design Considerations Sustainability

What is the Government doing about sustainability? Having recognised that environmental concerns were a global issue, the United Nations General Assembly convened the Brundtland Commission in 1983. The commission was created to address: ...the accelerating deterioration of the human environment and natural resources and the consequences of that deterioration for economic and social development. According to the commission, sustainable development is: ... [a] reconciliation of effective environmental protection and the conservation of resources with economic development... The UK Government in meeting the demands of the Kyoto Protocol (1997) on climate change set about a series of initiatives relating to the building industry. These include the Carbon Energy Reduction Target (CERT), and the Community Energy

Savings Programme (CESP), amongst other schemes across the UK. The UK Government has backed a number of carbon reduction schemes as part of the Home Energy Saving Programme (HESP). These include schemes for existing properties, as well as the Code for Sustainable Homes and BREEAM to support agreed carbon reduction targets. With the changes to Part L coming into effect in October 2010, all new homes built within the UK will need to meet level 3 of the Code. There is another planned change to Part L in 2013 which will further stipulate reduced carbon emissions. The Government have gone on to demand that all homes built from 2016 are Zero Carbon homes.

14

6. Design Considerations Sustainability

BREEAM The BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) is one of the most widely used guidelines for assessing sustainability within building design and its potential environmental performance to date. BREEAM addresses wide-ranging environmental and sustainability issues and enables developers and designers to provide environmental credentials for their buildings. In simple terms, their criteria establishes the need for reduced energy costs, lower energy and water consumption rates and improved social benefits attributed to newly built homes. The main aims of BREEAM are to encourage demand for environmentally sustainable buildings, reduce the environmental impacts of developments and provide a credible environmental label for developments. The assessment method has been used to provide an environmental measure of thousands of typical construction types. These ratings are detailed in BREs Green Guide to Specification, which can be accessed from the BRE website. Building designers and developers can use the ratings to assist in the design decisions needed to arrive at a sustainable construction solution. The ratings are used to classify materials when assessing building construction against the Code for Sustainable Homes. All Sto EWI systems are categorised as class A systems, demonstrating the importance of the system as a whole and not the individual insulation type used.

Code for Sustainable Homes Since its introduction in 2006 the Code for Sustainable Homes has exerted an increasing influence on the way buildings are planned, designed and built in the UK. Envisaged as a national standard for the sustainable design and construction of new homes, the code has the ambitious target of evaluating the sustainability of new buildings and gradually driving design to the point where new buildings are Zero Carbon by 2016. Zero Carbon is currently associated with level 6 of the Code, but the term is likely to be redefined before the end of 2010. The Code for Sustainable Homes is not a design solution, so much as a guide on how a development should perform against selected criteria. The code evaluates a building on the

basis of a points system. Points are awarded for performance against a set of nine separate criteria such as the technical performance of the building and quality of life issues such as daylight, waste management and ecology. The total number of points achieved by the building will dictate which level of the code it meets, with code levels being defined from one to six with Level 6 being Zero Carbon. The code is not a Building Regulation; it is a code of practice, so applications of the code levels are not uniform in the UK. Public sector housing authorities are stating that all housing projects should conform to Level 4 of the code from April 2010 while private housing developments are more likely to be required to achieve Level 3.

15

6. Design Considerations Sustainability

Unlike Building Regulations, the code does not specify how the total points should be achieved, so there is flexibility for developers to make their own choices. One area of debate is whether it is possible to achieve code level 4 by focusing only on the fabric of the building or whether it is necessary to use micro-generation technology to accumulate sufficient points. There is no doubt that the dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of the building fabric are challenging for the building industry meeting that challenge is not impossible, but traditional methods of construction are having to be re-evaluated. A significant part of this reevaluation focuses on the external envelope of the building and how to achieve U Values far in advance of those required a decade ago. Traditional cavity wall brick and block construction is struggling to meet the challenge, causing housebuilders to look at alternatives unfamiliar to the UK market. Two recent experimental projects by major UK housebuilders (The Barratt Green House and the Miller Zero project) give an indication of what houses may look like in 2016 both use solid walls with External Wall Insulation finished in render. This type of wall construction is not new and is in common use in Europe. In Germany, for example, the PassivHaus method of construction, with its focus on airtightness and high levels of thermal insulation will meet Level 4 of the Code for Sustainable Homes without relying on microgeneration to achieve that result. For more information on PassivHaus, please refer to Section 1. Products and systems (p.34) and Section 7 Further information. Building Regulations are also changing, with revisions to Part L focusing on improving the thermal efficiency of the building structure. Changes to Part L coming into effect in 2010 require U Values that equate to those demanded by Level 3 of the Code for Sustainable Homes. Working in parallel, the Building Regulations and Code for Sustainable Homes are designed to reduce significantly the environmental impact of new homes within a specific and very challenging time frame.

16

6. Design Considerations Sustainability

5,000,000 4,500,000 Primary Energy Consumption (MJ) 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 Renovation Mineral Fibre System EPS System Render

Achieving Zero Carbon: 2016 As part of the Governments goal to reduce carbon emissions by 80% of 1990 levels by 2050, a staged development plan of reducing carbon emissions from UK homes and buildings has begun. Buildings in general account for 40% of annual carbon emissions within the UK. The vast majority of buildings which will exist in 2050 have already been built, so the majority of carbon reductions are likely to come from refitting homes with more energy efficient technologies. The Government is hoping that building and home owners will be able to afford such improvements due to savings on energy bills and motivated to do so by becoming more environmentally aware. New homes have a role to play too, and a route map to Zero Carbon emissions has been laid out. In 2016, all new homes built within the UK are required to be Zero Carbon homes, a term with which the entire industry must become familiar. But how do we define Zero Carbon? To date, the closest definition we have is that Zero Carbon is closely equivalent to level 6 of the Code for Sustainable Homes. Outside of a few exemplar schemes, achieving level 6 of the Code is unlikely to remain as the definition, as the technology is incredibly difficult to scale to entire housing schemes. The UK Government has set, arguably, the most challenging carbon reduction targets in the world. For the first time, unregulated energy use (cooking, TV, computing etc) as well as regulated energy use (heating, water etc) will be a factor,

Renovation +40 Years

On a scale of 40 years it is impossible to show graphically the difference between the three EWI systems compared to the primary energy use of the existing building.

to offset, or to reduce, within all new Zero Carbon homes. Therefore, in 2016 for homes to be labelled Zero Carbon, they will need to reduce carbon emissions by 150% of current reduction targets, due to the inclusion of unregulated energy use. Where this cannot be reduced, it has to be offset so that the net carbon emission is zero. Exactly how Zero Carbon is achieved is currently a major discussion point amongst the contributors to the Zero Carbon Hub. The Zero Carbon Hub is a public/private partnership established to take day-to-day operational responsibility for coordinating delivery of low and zero carbon new homes. The first challenge to be overcome is exactly what Zero Carbon means and to create a definition the industry can reference. There are still many milestones ahead, as it is still not clear how Zero Carbon homes can be constructed cost effectively or affordably. The technologies used, how and where emissions can be offset and even the aesthetics of the homes are still under intense debate across the industry.

Sustainability and the choice of the insulation material used in an External Wall Insulation systems An in-depth study conducted in 2002 on Stos behalf by the independent authority PE Europe made a cradle to grave ecology balance analysis of the most widely used insulation materials for EWI systems, and looked at their relevance in terms of: Global warming potential Acidification potential Eutrophication Ozone formation The report showed that the systems showed minor variations throughout the essential categories noted above over the entire life cycle of the system (assumed for the study to be 40 years). However when considering the pay-back period with respect to the environment (ie. the emissions caused during the manufacture/ installation and later disposal of the systems, compared to the emissions caused when not insulating) this pay-back period was restricted to just a few years. With respect to global warming, 216 tonnes of carbon dioxide are typically saved by insulating a standard sized house.

17

6. Design Considerations Sustainability

EPDs: Environmental Product Declaration certificates As one of the first manufacturers within our sector and as a sign of our commitment to sustainability, Sto has attained EPDs for all its essential mineral based render products. As soon as appropriate testing regimes for synthetically bound products have been agreed, these will also be tested. Sustainability is a complex subject as we have seen. Central to this is the need to reduce energy consumption and associated emissions of greenhouse gases. The simplicity and high technical performance of external wall insulation solutions makes this technology a major contributor in the quest for sustainable building practices.

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18

6. Design Considerations Fire Performance

Fire Performance StoTherm External Wall Insulation Systems

There is increasing focus on the issue of fire management, especially in high-rise construction. Building Control Officers are demanding robust details with proven capability. Including fire protection into the faade design can be a costly exercise, so experience in the regulations and requirements for external insulated facades is very important. This section is designed to give guidance on these areas. Building Regulations Part B Fire safety: Approved Document 2006 Edition The Building Regulations highlight issues that need to be resolved when considering fire safety within construction projects. The regulations are split into many parts when evaluating fire performance across the United Kingdom. The sections are listed below: For England and Wales certified systems must meet the requirements of Approved Documents (AD) B Volume 1, section B4 (domestic dwellings) or ADB Volume 2, section B4 (non domestic buildings) For Scotland Approved Document B4 applies (section 12) as does Part 2 (Fire) of the Technical Handbooks for domestic or non domestic regulations For Northern Ireland Technical Booklet E (Fire safety), section 4 applies In general terms the fire performance of buildings in the UK can be summarised simply as follows:

England, Wales and Northern Ireland Regulation B4 requires the external walls of a building to adequately resist the spread of fire, and the functional requirements are given in the Approved Documents. For example, in any buildings other than a dwellinghouse exceeding 18m in height and/or less than 1m from a boundary, the external cladding system must conform to the regulation for limited combustibility (or better) for the materials in the system (Regulation B4 - Section 12 Approved Document). Limited combustibility is defined in appendix A Table A7. Alternatively, the wall construction must meet the provisions of BR135. For buildings below 18m in height the external facing surfaces of walls must demonstrate compliance with the requirements of class 0 (BS476 parts 6/7) or Euro Class B-s3, d2 for surface spread of flame.

Generally when using thermoplastic insulation such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), (Sto Therm Classic and StoTherm Vario) full depth firebreaks are required to resist the progress of fire across the face of the building. Systems with thermoplastic insulation can be tested on full-scale fire tests (BS8414) to monitor the reaction to fire of the composite system. If the system meets the provisions of BR135 during the test the resulting classification enables the use of the External Wall Insulation system on high-rise structures Scotland In Scotland the external cladding systems used above 18m must be completely non-combustible or as for England/Wales meet the provisions of BR135. These requirements also apply to any buildings which are less than 1m from a boundary, regardless of building height.

19

6. Design Considerations Fire Performance

Building Research Establishment (BRE) and Loss Prevention Standards (LPS) BRE Global is an independent thirdparty approvals organisation, offering certification of products and services. Their Loss Prevention Certification Board (LPCB) assesses and certifies fire systems against standards such as BS, EN and LPS, developed in cooperation with manufacturers and insurers. Approved systems are listed in the Red Book. LPS 1581 is an LPCB standard (formerly LPS 1181 part 4) for non load-bearing external wall insulation and render, fixed to a solid substrate. Fire testing follows the BS 8414 part 1 methodology. LPS 1582 is awaiting publication but will provide an accredited third-party approval leading to a Red Book entry for non load-bearing external wall insulation with render, applied to lightweight steel framing. Fire testing follows the BS 8414 part 2 methodology.

20

6. Design Considerations Fire Performance

Firebreaks in the insulation Firebreaks are used to prevent rapid progress of fire spread up the outside of a multi-storey building where combustible insulation or other routes for fire (e.g. cavities) may exist. Where systems incorporate Mineral Fibre Insulation, although noncombustible, cavity barriers may be required if the insulation is spaced/shimmed from the wall and hence creates a cavity. Firebreaks are non-combustible, constructed for full thickness, usually of mineral fibre and a minimum of 100mm high. As part of the Sto system, standard 200mm Lamella boards are often used. Normally, firebreaks must be fully adhered to ensure good bond and to act as a smoke / flame barrier. Exceptions to this will be on to sheathing board with breather membranes where the mineral fibre is mounted on secure adjustable stainless rails and utilise an intumescent strip to block drainage holes in the event of fire. Firebreaks should be installed at every floor level after the second storey and to correspond with all vertical fire compartments. However, some Fire Officers may require breaks to be installed at every floor level. The Building Regulations require the installation of cavity barriers at positions of compartment walls and floors. This stops the passage of fire via cavities created behind the insulation either by design or otherwise. This is also a requirement at window openings where cavities may allow fire up behind the back of the system. We must consider all the requirements for fire control on a building including: 1. Continuous horizontal firebreaks are normally required after the 2nd storey / beginning of 3rd storey, and every storey thereafter. 2. Vertical firebreaks may be required to provide fire compartmentation between adjoining rooms. The requirement and location of these firebreaks should meet Fire Officer / Building Control specifications. 3. Cavity firebreaks are needed to close the cavity at all openings such as windows and doors. This is a requirement for mechanically fixed systems, where the use of shims creates a cavity.

21

6. Design Considerations Fire Performance

Dealing with Cavities Possible solutions when detailing the closure of cavities could include: Window frames (dependent upon the window type and its position) Mineral fibre (Minimum 100mm thick) Timber (Minimum 38mm thick) Other proprietary cavity fire closures. The use of firebreaks in vented cavities is even more important as this creates a ready chimney for fire to progress rapidly and unseen. In vented cavity situations, there is often not one standard solution that fits all conditions. Usually the solutions will comprise of a combination of perforated stainless steel angles and intumescent strips. Indicative drawings are included in this binder in the Illustrative Details section, but system specific details are also available on request.

Fixings The BRE guide BR135* recommends that mechanical fixings be used to support the firebreak. The recommendation is for stainless steel fixings through the mesh to support the render. It is important to note that metal fixings will act as a cold bridge on the surface and may have a visual impact in certain weather conditions and as the faade ages. The provision and specification of fixings required for Fire Safety will ultimately be decided by the Building Control Officer. Early consultation in the design process is therefore vital. *Note: These are BRE guidance recommendations. This is one route to showing compliance. Other possible options to meet the requirements include physical testing.

22

6. Design Considerations Fire Performance

Full Scale testing Sto has invested heavily in full scale fire tests to ensure it can supply high quality systems that perform well in a fire situation. The end result of this comprehensive test programme is that a wealth of test information is available for use in specifying a proven system in relation to fire.

The individual BS8414 test reports are also available from Sto along with calorific tests on each system component. Should this information be required, please do not hesitate to contact our technical services department: technical@sto.co.uk

Glossary of standards and test methods


BS EN ISO 1182 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Non-combustibility test. BS EN 13501-1 Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using data from reaction to fire tests. BS EN 13823 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Building products excluding floorings exposed to the thermal attack by a single burning item (SBI). BS EN ISO 1716 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Determination of the heat of combustion. BS EN ISO 11925-2 Reaction to fire tests. Ignition of building products subjected to direct impingement of flame. Single-flame source test. BS 476 Part 6 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test for fire propagation for products. BS 476 Part 7 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test to determine the classification of the surface spread of flame of products. BS 8414 Part 1 Fire performance of external cladding systems. Test methods for non-load bearing external cladding systems applied to the face of masonry building substrates. BS 8414 Part 2 Fire performance of external cladding systems. Test methods for non-load bearing external cladding systems applied to the face of structural steel framed building substrates. BR 135: (Annex A) Fire performance of external thermal insulation for walls of multi-storey buildings with masonry construction (including performance and classification method of BS8414-1. BR 135: (Annex B) Performance criteria and classification method for BS 8414-2 given in BRE Digest 501 for buildings supported by a structural steel frame. LPS 1581 issue 2 Formerly LPS 1181 part 4, a Loss Prevention Certification Board (LPCB) third party accreditation standard for non load-bearing external thermal insulation composite systems applied to a masonry based substrate. LPS 1582 Issue 1 A Loss Prevention Certification Board (LPCB) third party accreditation standard covering non-load bearing external thermal insulated cladding systems with render finishes fixed to and supported by a structural steel frame.

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24

6. Design Considerations Wind Loading

Wind Loading

Wind load is often the largest force applied to the faade of the building, either with a positive pressure or a negative suction load. It can vary dramatically due to location, building shape, size, proximity to other buildings or topographical features. In extreme circumstances this can lead to either a building being blown over, or fragments torn off, such as windows, facades, roofs and sometimes even masonry. To accommodate such variations in imposed loads, building components or systems must be designed to accommodate such extremes. Accurate and detailed wind loading data is therefore critical to the successful design of all Sto EWI and rainscreen specifications, particularly those relying on mechanical fixings to support the system. Due to the complexity of these calculations, a qualified Structural Engineer is usually employed to undertake them. Depending on the system chosen, a specific fixing pattern is designated for each project. Each will require a specific number of fixings based upon the wind loading calculations which are directly related to the substrate pull out capacity. To avoid system failures and ensure system integrity, it is imperative that the correct numbers, types and spacing of fixings are installed according to the specification for the actual substrate.

Normal zones and Rim zones The wind load on a building can be further divided into Normal Zones and Rim Zones. A Normal Zone tends to be an area within the middle of a faade where the wind load is at its lowest value. A Rim Zone is where the load is at its highest and is typically at corners and edges of buildings. The Rim Zones can be graduated. In the absence of accurate wind load data, worst-case loading must be assumed for all zones. Generally wind suction loads are around 1-2KN/m. Once a specific load is known, the number and spacing of each fixing for a Sto specification should be calculated in accordance with BS 6399 Part 2: 1997.

In order to calculate the wind loads and the location of rim zones, the following is required: Plan of building with dimensions. Elevations of building with dimensions. Regional location Built environment (whether in town or rural setting) Height above sea level System to be used (cavity will make a difference) Surface finish (whether rough or smooth) Location and size of any significant openings in the building Location plan of all adjacent buildings Height of all adjacent buildings

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6. Design Considerations Wind Loading

The following table gives fixing configurations and requirements for given wind loads. If in doubt, consult with your local Sto Technical Consultant for further advice. System
StoTherm Classic M

Fixing requirement
Horizontal pvc intermediate rail fixed at max. 300mm centres with vertical T splines Intermediate rail fixed both horizontally and vertically at max. 300mm centres Intermediate rail fixed both horizontally and vertically at max. 300mm centres plus centre dowel through each board or foam adhesive injected through centre

Safe wind load 1


1.1 1.96 2.65 10.68 1 >3.6 0.83 1.6 4.51 1.84 11.11 1.17 1.76 >1.76 1.47 2.24 >2.24 1.51 >1.51 1.1

StoTherm Classic K

Sto Levell Uni adhesive with no dowels (after full strength development ) Sto Levell Uni with 2 supplementary dowels/board before adhesive gains strength Sto Turbofix adhesive with no dowels after 2 hours

StoTherm Mineral M

Horizontal pvc intermediate rail fixed at max. 300mm centres with vertical T splines Intermediate rail fixed horizontally at max. 300mm centres plus centre dowel through each board

StoTherm Mineral K

Sto Levell Uni with additional dowels at a rate of at least 8 per m Sto Levell Uni with additional dowels at a rate of 8 per m before adhesive gains strength

StoTherm Mineral Lamella StoTherm Classic M (Sto-Rotofix Plus) using EPS K70 (15Kg/m) StoTherm Classic M (Sto-Rotofix Plus) using EPS K90 (20Kg/m) StoTherm Mineral M (Sto-Rotofix Plus) StoVentec rainscreen

Sto Levell Uni with no dowels after full strength development of adhesive 4 Rotofix Plus fixings per m 6 Rotofix Plus fixings per m Specified number of Rotofix Plus fixings per m 4 Rotofix Plus fixings per m 6 Rotofix Plus fixings per m Specified number of Rotofix Plus fixings per m 8 Rotofix Plus fixings per m Specified number of Rotofix Plus fixings per m T profiles spaced @ 600mm spacing max. Wall brackets spaced @ 1200mm spacing max. Vertical spacing of Ventec board fixing screws @ 234mm max. T profiles spaced @ 600mm spacing max. Wall brackets spaced @ 1200mm spacing max. Vertical spacing of Ventec board fixing screws @ 117mm max. T profiles spaced @ 400mm spacing max. Wall brackets spaced @ 1200mm spacing max. Vertical spacing of Ventec board fixing screws @ 117mm max. T profiles spaced @ 400mm spacing max. Wall brackets spaced @ 800mm spacing max. Vertical spacing of Ventec board fixing screws @ 117mm max.

1.6

2.2

2.6

(Factor of Safety 3) All figures are ve suction loads in KN/m

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6. Design Considerations Movement

Accommodating building movement in facades

Movement in construction materials/ elements is a common and unavoidable consequence resulting from one, or a combination, of several causes; Deflection under load Elements of a construction will deflect (i.e. move) under selfweight loads (dead load), imposed loads e.g. people, furniture, etc. and wind loads (live loads). Moisture movement Materials will shrink upon drying and expand upon taking up of moisture (shrinkage or expansion forces). Thermal movement Materials will generally expand upon heating and contract upon cooling (shrinkage or expansion forces). As a consequence of these forces materials can either crack, compress or stretch, depending on their inherent properties. Where this could result in a visible or physical defect in the building, this is unlikely to be desirable. Therefore, the building needs to be designed to accommodate this potential movement. Differing materials and methods of construction will lead to differing types of movement and will dictate the magnitude of that movement.

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6. Design Considerations Movement

Methods of Construction Although Sto thin coat renders can provide a seamless finish, in practice, the provision of movement joints in a faade will be determined by the substrate. The materials and type of construction will impose limitations on the requirement for the number and position of movement joints in the faade.

Self-supporting masonry This is where no structural frame exists. Blockwork and brickwork are supported by foundations; all floorslabs and the roof are supported by the masonry. Movement within the masonry will occur as a result of the masonry expanding or contracting due to changes in moisture or temperature. Uncontrolled shrinkage of masonry can lead to cracking of the wall, including any finishes applied onto it. Shrinkage of masonry during the drying-out process is therefore dealt with by including contraction or shrinkage joints at regular intervals along the wall. Typically, this would result in joints at intervals no greater than 6 metres. For more specific advice on shrinkage joints in concrete masonry, please contact either the manufacturer or the Concrete Block Association (CBA).

Structural frame with infill panels This could be concrete or steel framed structures with infill panels of masonry or of steel studs and sheathing boards. The same movement principles apply to masonry infill panels as to selfsupporting masonry. However, the masonry will be supported at each floor level by a beam, not by the masonry below. As the beam is likely to deflect (or sag) when loads are imposed upon it a movement joint, known as a deflection joint will be required between the underside of the beam and the top of the infill panel. This is commonly called a soft joint. An infill panel of studs and sheathing boards will impose a dead load significantly less than a masonry panel but a horizontal joint below the beam is still required a connection which allows vertical movement but restrains the frame laterally, commonly referred to as a deflection head detail. As the masonry panels are situated between columns, contraction joints may not be required. (Refer to CBA technical bulletin)

Timber framed construction This shares some similarities with self-supporting masonry, in that the timber frame is erected onto a foundation slab and provides the structural support for all floors and the roof. However, timber has very different properties to masonry in relation to thermal movement and shrinkage; timber is a good insulant and is relatively unaffected by thermal movement but it can be prone to significant degrees of movement, particularly shrinkage, during the drying out period. Very little shrinkage occurs in vertical studs as the shrinkage from drying is between the grain rather than along the length of a timber stud. Poor construction may also lead to movement through settlement of the timber frame under compression. Therefore, any movement in a timber frame is concentrated at each floor level where the timbers are in a horizontal orientation and are subjected to compression by the greatest weight; little movement will occur in the main wall areas between floors. Any claddings system used in conjunction with a timber-framed building must allow for potentially significant shrinkage movement at floor levels. Normally, this means a separation joint that can be open or sealed, depending upon the wall design.

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6. Design Considerations Movement

Managing Movement If Sto render systems are to be attached to substrates that may have differential movement then great care must be taken to ensure that the render system is not put under undue stress that could cause deformation and possible failure. Sto external wall insulation (known as StoTherm) systems are available as either mechanically-fixed M systems or adhesively-fixed K systems. StoTherm M Systems Due to the nature of their manufacture and assembly, M Systems are able to cope with a larger degree of movement than the K Systems. The insulation boards are smaller (500 x 500mm rather than 1000 x 500mm) and they are connected to the substrate by means of PVC tracks and splines. With nonrigid connections between each of the elements in an M system, each connection permits a small degree of movement. The accumulation of all these small degrees of movement results in a system whose render coatings are only indirectly connected to the substrate. StoTherm M Systems can be taken over contraction joints unbroken, irrespective of the anticipated movement. Extensive testing by Sto at the University of Dortmund, Germany, has shown that under specific conditions it is possible for StoTherm M systems to be continued across some building movement joints, but the degree of anticipated movement must be confirmed by the designer, as the amount of movement permissible within an M system is limited to 1519mm in compression. In cases where the movement cannot be

accommodated then the movement joint must be continued through the StoTherm M System. Local solutions may be possible, so where movement exceeds guidelines, refer to your Sto Technical Consultant. Compression often results from deflection of the slab and M Systems are able to accommodate a limited degree of movement. The insulation will be subjected to compression at each beam level. The anticipated deflection will depend on the imposed loads, data that the designer should confirm.

StoTherm K Systems These are connected directly to the substrate by adhesive, therefore as the substrate moves so will the insulation. Consequently, with all StoTherm K Systems any movement joints in the substrate must be continued through the K System. This includes all movement in relation to deflection. It may be possible to realise a seamless faade across movement joints using a K System if the insulation is locally debonded from the background either side of the joint, (seek advice from Sto Technical Consultant.)

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6. Design Considerations Movement

StoVentec Render Carrier Board The StoVentec Render Carrier Board is widely used on timber framed construction and, as referred to above, the main issue with timber framed construction is shrinkage of timber across the grain and compression (closing of gaps) at floor levels due to loading. StoVentec Render Carrier Board will not accept any movement stresses transferred from the substrate. Therefore, any movement joints (or areas where movement is anticipated) must be continued through the StoVentec Render Carrier Board and the StoRend Flex coating. This also applies when the StoVentec Render Carrier Board is used as part of a StoVentec rainscreen faade, although it is sometimes possible to slightly off-set the position of a horizontal joint within the rainscreen system from the position of a horizontal joint within the substrate. Details are available to minimise the impact of such movement joints.

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6. Design Considerations Movement

StoRend Systems The StoRend family of renders have been formulated to provide a combination of levelling and unparalleled flexibility onto solid masonry or concrete backgrounds. These render systems can accommodate movement in a variety of ways. Through differing combinations of cement-free, highly flexible reinforcing coats, glass fibre mesh and in the mix fibres, a range of flexible properties can be achieved. Factory produced, carefully graded mineralic levelling coats to regulate backgrounds can be further improved by the addition of fibres in the mix to eliminate shrinkage cracking and crazing normally associated with these types of traditional renders. The additional use of a synthetic cement free reinforcing/intermediate coat, StoArmat Classic, combined with acrylic topcoats such as StoLit provide a highly flexible, durable and weatherproof faade. Normal render systems cannot be used to bridge across movement joints, however with careful detailing and proper installation the StoRend Flex Coat system can be used in certain situations. Where there is a desire to bridge masonry shrinkage joints, the StoRend Flex Cote System

can be continued unbroken over the contraction joint. This special detail is subject to a maximum amount of shrinkage of 6mm per joint (i.e. 3mm on each side of the joint) therefore it is imperative that the designer confirms the degree of shrinkage expected. Movement within the building envelope can be highly varied and it is recommended that the implications of such movement are discussed at the earliest possible stage. Please contact your local Technical Consultant or Sto Technical services to arrange for a project-specific discussion.

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6. Design Considerations Movement

32

6. Design Considerations Colour, Texture & Material

Colour, Texture & Material Selection

Colour selection is often down to the designers preference and inspiration, as well as local planning restrictions. However, there is far more to consider when selecting a colour. Light effects There can be a vast difference in how colours appear depending on the time of day or how light is dispersed within the surrounding environment. Whereas one individual colour may appear attractive in bright light conditions, in dull conditions it might appear drab. Two elevations of the same colour can appear different due to shading and texture.

Understanding how light plays across a building throughout the day will give the designer a much better understanding of which colours will work best for that particular site. The same colour of a particular material may appear different when viewed under varying lighting conditions. For example, where a surface penetrates a facade, and might be viewed in both natural and artificial light, there may be a discernible difference.

Sample Panels The best way to appraise colours and texture for a project is for a sample panel to be constructed on site, in the actual material and by the applicator. This should then be viewed under typical light situations. This will not only ensure the correct selection of colour but also ensure a quality standard for workmanship against which the project can be benchmarked. Sto supplies colour cards and over-painted samples initially as a means of assisting colour choice. Site samples will be provided by the chosen applicator and should be a requirement of the contract.

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6. Design Considerations Colour, Texture & Material

Pigment choice and colour fade All pigmented materials run the risk of fading under exposure to heat and ultraviolet light. The extent of colour fade depends upon the type and quality of pigment, the binder composition, the levels of UV exposure and sometimes the type of substrate. Naturally occurring mineralic or inorganic pigments provide the strongest lightfastness, their colour depending upon the particular metal compounds present in the ground where they are mined. Natural (nonsynthetic) pigments, derived from vegetable or animal matter, have historically not been used in facade applications.

Advances in technology have allowed the production of synthetic organic pigments, allowing for bright colours with lightfast qualities. In line with our commitment to quality, Sto only uses the highest grade, state-of-the-art, pigments available. Test standards for colour stability are largely unreliable and place focus on the textile industries (the Wool Scale). In order to provide reliable data for facade coatings, Sto performs long-term weathering tests not only using the latest climatic weathering machines but also at measuring stations in a variety of extreme climates around the world, for example Shanghai, Florida and Germany. When you select a colour from the StoColor System, you can be sure that it will be an enduring element of the buildings design. Sto Technical Consultants are available to offer advice on colour and product choice to ensure optimum durability.

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6. Design Considerations Colour, Texture & Material

Colour variations Matching a colour from one product to another e.g. StoLit/StoSilco, can prove difficult, even though the colour tint may be exactly the same. The fillers and aggregates used to give the material defined properties and texture will have an enormous effect on the look and perceived colour of the two products. Two different products in the same colour may look different. Whilst every effort is made to ensure consistent colour and look within the same product, minor variances in tone can occur from one batch to the next due to small changes in the natural raw materials. Finishing techniques used by individual applicators can also have an effect on how closely the colour matches. To ensure a good colour match, material should always be used from the same batch, and ideally across the entire project. If a number of batches need to be used for whatever reason, product application should be limited to the same batch per elevation or other natural breaks. Product batches should never be mixed across a single elevation as even subtle differences can be easily seen.

Where colours are required to match, Sto store all past colour production runs via a batch colour stick. This allows us an accurate colour reference for future needs. Reference to old colour sticks will only be made where expressly requested. Colour matching can only be made within the production constraints above. If a facade has any significant colour variance across a rendered surface, often the only way to remedy the situation will be to over-paint the entire elevation with masonry facade paint (if appropriate). If the colour variation is a result of texture and light, then over-painting may not solve the problem, in which case a re-application of the topcoat may be necessary.

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6. Design Considerations Colour, Texture & Material

Material choice The choice of material will likely depend on the aesthetic effect the designer is seeking, but it is important to consider anticipated levels of exposure to the elements so that an appropriate material can be selected. Such conditions vary depending on the location of the building and the surrounding environment.

Designers should account for the site exposure conditions in accordance with BS EN 13914-1:2005 and BS 8104:1992 and ensure the wall construction and detailing is suitable for the given exposure. Sto can advise on suitable solutions to match construction types.

White The visible texture in Sto finishing renders is the marble grain encapsulated within the material binder and fillers. This binder, as well as having different physical characteristics, has a slightly different white tone. For this reason we describe our white as natural white. In certain materials it is possible to tint the finish (as required) to closely match a standard RAL white. It should be noted that this tone will never be exactly the same as a standard RAL white. For this reason, site sample panels in the actual material are always recommended.

Use of Bright Intense Colours The use of intense colours requires additional care in the render application process, as the dispersal of the pigment and aggregate can be affected by the application method. For this reason we recommend that renders of a light reflectancy of less than 15%, or in the C3/C4 tinting category, are over-painted to achieve a uniform and consistent appearance. Where over-painting, we recommend products with a high pigment carrying capacity such as StoColor Maxicryl. Our specifications will always state this recommendation and any deviation from this will invalidate your warranty.

Use of Dark Colours In external wall insulation systems, the use of dark colours can result in heat absorption within the render, increasing the risk of cracking and damage to the insulation. For this reason all colours of a light reflectancy less than 20% should be checked with our Technical Services Department. In the event of very dark colours, this can be accommodated in our Ventec Faade System as the heat build up can be easily dissipated.

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6. Design Considerations Colour, Texture & Material

Colour Availability The StoColor System has over 800 colours which have all been tested for fade resistance. Sto produces many different types of renders with different types of binders, e.g., Acrylic, Silicate and Silicone, all with different benefits. As these binders have different pigment carrying capacities it is important to check that the desired colour is available in the material chosen. Texture and finish Texture choice and finish selection is more than just an aesthetic consideration. Heavier textures are more forgiving and are easier to achieve a consistent Flat surface. Fine textures on the other hand, without skill and care, are more likely to show imperfections such as bumps, depressions and trowel marks. For our renders, we will always advise the system designer to select an aggregate size of 2mm or greater. Smaller aggregate sizes can be used, but there is a much higher level of substrate preparation required to minimise any visible undulations in the render. By altering the aggregate size and grading a variety of textures can be created.

Stippled (K) A classic finish for synthetic renders. The even texture helps to give the finished substrate a flatter aspect when compared to a smooth, floated surface which can highlight even minor trowel marks. The stippled texture can also help to promote effective water shedding in rainy weather. Rilled (R) An attractive drag finish for synthetic renders with the appearance of a scratch plaster. The rilled texture helps to give the finished substrate a flatter and more even appearance.

Freestyle (MP) If a unique, bespoke finish is required for the facade, the very fine grading of MP finish renders give the scope for design flexibility. The material can be rubbed up to give a near smooth texture (subject to the practical limitations discussed above) or provide a variety of free-style textures for the facade. StoSuperlit An attractive, multicoloured finish with a heavy texture and natural stone aggregate, ideal for high impact areas and splash zones below the damp-proof course.

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6. Design Considerations Colour, Texture & Material

Appraisal of Render Textures The subject of render appearance under harsh lighting conditions is a difficult one to rationalise as inevitably with any wet formed, hand applied material there will always be some surface irregularities. For this reason, aesthetic acceptability is very subjective. This is recognised in the British Standard for rendering and plastering, which defines the limits of acceptability and the viewing conditions under which those assessments should be made. We would suggest that any judgement made on the finish is undertaken in accordance with the British Standard BS EN 13914-1:2005 (Design, Preparation and Application of External Rendering and Internal Plastering) for information.

Extract from BS EN 13914-1:2005


Rendering on external walls should be reasonably consistent in texture, finish, colour and line. However, rendering cannot be expected to provide a perfect finish and the following should be observed. Some minor surface cracking and crazing is likely to occur but should not be unduly obtrusive. Some patches and daywork joints may be visible but should not be unduly obtrusive. Some tooling marks may be visible, but should not be unduly obtrusive. Lighting General recommendations The intensity and angle of illumination can have a critical effect on the appearance of a finished externally rendered surface. For this reason, normal working and acceptance conditions are limited to when lighting and viewing are from positions perpendicular to the surface. Glancing light conditions If the surface is to be assessed under glancing light conditions this should be stated in the contract specification. Viewing conditions When inspecting a finished externally rendered surface, it should be viewed in daylight, standing at ground level, from a generally accessible viewing position. Where possible it should be viewed at a distance of ten metres, with sunlight, if any, not falling on the surface in a glancing direction. Line The line of the rendered surface will largely be determined by the line of the substrate.

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6. Design Considerations Best Practice

Best Practice

With all construction projects, there are some simple precautionary steps that can be taken to ensure the successful installation of Sto systems. Specification Stage Projects are always unique in some manner or other and it is vital that a unique specification is issued by Sto for each project. Project requirements should be discussed with the Sto Technical Consultant to ensure all detailing issues are discussed and addressed. Technology and practices change and it is important the latest details and processes are used. The specification is also used to generate a project specific method statement for the installation of our system. Cappings to cills and parapet walls are very important in the long term weathering protection of facades. Renders should not be used to cap a wall and any cill or capping should have a minimum projection of 35mm. Pre-start meetings Before the contract starts, a meeting should be convened between Sto, the applicator, the architect and the main contractor. This provides an opportunity to review and ensure a thorough understanding of the project by all parties. The issue of access to the wall is important and should be agreed prior to the commencement of the installation. This could include scaffolding, location of scaffold boards, scaffold ties and other means of access such as cherry pickers or mast climbers. As part of the contract, sample panels should be constructed and approved as a reference for workmanship, texture and colour. For detailed site appraisal, please refer to our section on Colour, Texture and Material selection.

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6. Design Considerations Best Practice

Preparation of the substrate Sto renders typically follow or are adhered to the substrate. Therefore it is important that the following items are addressed: Solid The substrate needs to be consolidated, strong and able to support a render. Sto have many primers and systems to accommodate different substrates. Where there is concern over the substrate a site visit with our Technical Consultant should be arranged. Clean Remove all friable, loose or dusty materials that could affect the adhesion of renders or paints. Dry Some materials may require a dry substrate, others may benefit from pre-dampening. Application onto damp and wet substrates can lead to adhesion problems of some renders and paints. Always refer to product Technical Data Sheet (TDS) and if in doubt contact your Sto Technical Consultant. Load Bearing The substrate will have to support the weight of the system. Systems relying on mechanical fixings for the support of the system will have to ensure that there is adequate strength between the fixing and the substrate. Level Whilst some systems can accommodate small variations in the substrate, generally render systems will follow the underlying substrate and building line.

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6. Design Considerations Best Practice

Below: A Sto advanced weathering chamber

Protection from the weather The substrate needs to be kept dry, or allowed to dry, before the application of the renders. This will ensure proper adhesion and allow for the renders to cure correctly. Acrylic renders cure by evaporation, the rate being controlled by temperature, wind and relative humidity. Renders will need to be protected from inclement weather to allow this curing. Cementitious and Acrylic renders should not be applied in direct sunlight, as the heat build up in the wall can lead to rapid drying of the product, and make finishing difficult. In worst cases cracking may result. Extremes of cold will also have a negative effect on render products. Both powder products and readymixed materials have water as a constituent part. Products that become frozen will be irreparably damaged and will need to be replaced. It is important that all paste materials are stored above 5C. Powder products should be kept dry, off the ground and should not be allowed to freeze. Should the render be exposed to frost in its uncured state, the binder can be disturbed and the render affected. Sto has render technology enabling renders to be applied down to as low as 1C. We typically supply all acrylic base coats, and where possible top coats, with this technology as standard during the winter months. We call this technology QS.

Protection from incidental damage on site Renders, like most other faade materials, are liable to the vagaries of site. To minimise damage, in the form of physical impact, dirt, and other trades, we recommend that the final render coat is left as late as possible in the programme. Renders can be repaired or repainted but this is not always desirable. Whilst most dirt can be washed off renders, some very fine clays can become ingrained and lead to stains which are harder to remove.

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6. Design Considerations Best Practice

Colour Sto renders are through-coloured and are tinted for the project. A colour stick is supplied with every batch to check against required colour. Weathering issues If render becomes saturated, has little direct sunlight, or within an area of high vegetation, it can support algal growth. There are preventative and maintenance issues which can be addressed: Preventative Have adequate cappings and cills which throw off as much water as possible. The use of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic renders help shed water, such as StoSilco and StoLotusan. Minimising the moisture on the surface of renders produces a hostile environment for algae. Maintenance Algicides can be applied to the walls on a seasonal/periodic basis, which will kill off the growth and should significantly improve the appearance of the wall. If this does not prove satisfactory, then the walls can be overpainted with StoColor Silco or StoColor Lotusan following the algicide treatment.

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6. Design Considerations Best Practice

Waste packaging disposal

The iconic yellow Sto pail has become a recognisable artefact across thousands of work sites globally. Its innovative, ergonomic design and bold colouring is as much a part of our brand identity as our corporate logo. Often we are asked how we deal with the thousands of plastic pails and other packaging materials that are distributed to our many customers throughout the country. As a company committed to protection of the environment, we have ensured for many years that our packaging materials are recyclable and that the amount used is the minimum possible for safe handling and transportation. Under the Producer Responsibility Obligations (Packaging Waste) Regulations (GB & NI) and the Waste Management (Packaging) Regulations (Eire), the Environmental Protection Agencies have a duty to monitor the compliance of businesses with the regulations. Most businesses that have an annual turnover of more than 2m and handle more than 50 tonnes of packaging in a year have to comply with the Environmental Agencies directly, while others join a compliance scheme that takes on the legal and many associated administation tasks. As a member of such a compliance scheme, Sto has to provide evidence that our packaging is recycled when it becomes waste. The weight and constituents of every pail, carton or bag is recorded by us and audited by the compliance scheme managers. Companies that actually recycle waste packaging are licensed by the Environment Agencies to produce and sell Packaging Recycling Notes

(PRNs) and these represent evidence that a quantity of waste packaging material has been recycled or recovered. For every tonne of waste that is recycled, a PRN may be issued. To complete the circle, the user of our products has a responsibility under the Site Waste Management Plans Regulations to ensure that the packaging is disposed of properly and that it will be sent to or picked up by a local waste processor. PRNs are purchased on our behalf by our compliance scheme managers

to meet our obligations under the regulations and by purchasing PRNs we are fully compliant with the regulations and underwriting the cost of our packaging being recycled. As demand for PRNs rises and falls, so does the price we have to pay. They have a value as a commodity and the PRN is the only evidence that is accepted by the Environment Agencies of a businesss compliance with the regulations.

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6. Design Considerations Best Practice

Product Warranty

Renders have long been considered high-risk materials. Cracking, spalling, colour fading, poor weather protection and high maintenance requirements were commonplace problems which specifiers had to anticipate. Sto has proven that this no longer needs to be the case. Sto has been in the render business for over 150 years. Since 1955, well over 450 million m2 of our cementfree, through-coloured render external wall insulation systems have been applied worldwide in all climatic zones. We offer unparalleled levels of experience and expertise in providing quality, durable systems systems that have stood the test of time for decades in even the harshest environments and have been certified to last up to 60 years. To provide peace of mind to our customers, our standard product warranty is designed to give the end user the security that the products and systems installed are of the highest quality and are free from defects. This does not affect your statutory rights.

Duration The duration of this Warranty (the Warranty Period) shall be: 5 years from the date of purchase for Sto facade products. Warranty Sto warrants that during the warranty period the goods shall be: Of satisfactory quality to meet the needs of the specification. Of a standard which is appropriate for the purposes for which they have been and are to be used.

Sto service As part of the warranty offering, the following commitments are made: The warranty carries no cost to the customer. Lists of registered applicators are available from Sto to apply products under the warranty conditions. Free technical support is available for the investigation of warranty claims. Advice is available regarding the provision of a latent defects and insolvency insurance for longer terms of warranty. Please contact Sto for for information.

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Products and systems


Introduction Textures and nishes from smooth to very rough Facade systems Facade renders Facade paints Surface design options Refurbishment and restoration

Sto project references


Examples of architecture employing Sto products and systems

Illustrative details
Generic detail solutions with external wall insulation systems from Sto

StoColor System
Colour variety, according to the StoColor System and other colour systems The 3-level principle behind the StoColor System: The human colour perception area; the colour wheel with 24 basic tones; the ve colour rows

Technical support
Support in project planning

Design considerations
Energy-ef cient thermal insulation Advantages and bene ts of the Sto facade insulation systems Thermal insulation Moisture protection Sound protection Fire protection Wind loads Indoor climate/healthy home environment Building physical data (U values) Glossary

Further information
Speci c information and brochures from Sto

7. Glossary

Glossary
Blower door method
A method to detect air permeability in a buildings exterior finish, employing a fan to generate a pressure difference between the interior and ambient atmosphere. Usually carried out in an unrendered state. This is a test method for demonstrating compliance with the air permeability requirement in Passivhaus standards.

Building Research Establishments Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM)


Established in 1990 as a voluntary Green rating scheme managed by the BRE to measure the sustainable attributes of non-domestic buildings in the UK. Uses the scoring system from the Code for Sustainable Homes, also managed by the BRE.

Code for Sustainable Homes (the Code)


Launched in December 2006, the Code is an environmental impact rating system for domestic housing in the UK, based on awarding points to a project across nine sustainability criteria, such as building materials and waste management. The Government-owned scheme succeeds BREs EcoHomes scheme first seen in 2000. The UK Government has stipulated that all new homes built in the UK have to comply with level 3 of the Code at a minimum from May 2008.

British Board of Agrment (BBA)


A accreditation body authorised by the UK to issue European Technical Approvals on behalf of the European Commission.

Cavity fill / Cavity wall insulation


Insulation between two walls (load carrying wall and facing masonry). Mineral wool or polystyrene are generally used as the insulating material. Although these methods can improve thermal performance, their effect is limited by the size of the cavity.

Coefficient of permeability ()
The coefficient of resistance to water vapour diffusion in accordance with DIN ISO 12572:2001 CDI indicates how many times greater the resistance of a material is in comparison to a layer of stationary air of the same thickness at the same temperature.

Building Regulations
Statutory instruments which aim to ensure safe and appropriate building practices within the construction industry. Building regulations approval is required for the majority of construction work within the UK. The Building Act 1984 specifies the regulations that apply to England and Wales, whereas the Building (Scotland) Act 2003 relates to legislation in Scotland.

Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT)


CERT is a Government scheme which requires all domestic energy suppliers with a customer base in excess of 50,000 customers to make savings in the amount of CO2 emitted by their customers. These energy suppliers are required to deliver measures that will provide overall lifetime CO2 reductions equivalent to the emissions from 1 million homes each year. This has resulted in a series of initiatives from the suppliers either offering grants for low cost carbon saving measures, for example cavity and loft insulation grants and free energy-saving light bulbs.

Community Energy Savings Programme (CESP)


A follow on from the CERT scheme designed to increase the number of Carbon Saving measures available to targeted sections of the community.

Building Research Establishment (BRE)


A former UK Government organisation now privately owned by the BRE Trust charity and funded by the building and construction industry. Work includes research, consultancy and testing for the construction industry and preparation of the Building Regulations. Owns and operates the BREEAM and EcoHomes environmental rating schemes and promotes the German Passivhaus building Standard in the UK.

Convection
Heat transport due to the flow behaviour of liquids and gases (fluids). Fluids heat up on warm bodies and release heat again on cold bodies. When temperature differences prevail in a room, the air is circulated automatically (free convection). When a uniform temperature is established within a room, the flow stops.

7. Glossary

Construction Products Directive (CPD)


The directive aims to ensure the safety of constructions in all countries within the European Economic Area and lays down critical performance criteria for buildings under six main categories: Mechanical resistance and stability Safety in case of fire Hygiene, health and the environment Safety in use Protection against noise Energy economy and heat retention

Environmental Product Declaration (EPD)


The voluntary Environmental Product Declaration covers a building products entire life cycle including potential health risks and all pollutive impacts resulting from its manufacture and use.

Expanded polystyrene (EPS)


Expanded polystyrenes or foams are synthetically manufactured materials with a cellular structure and low density. Components and units made from foam are virtually free of internal stress and possess very low density (volume weight) combined with extremely low thermal conductivity. Expanded polystyrene products used as building components normally contain a fire retardent.

European Technical Approval (ETA)


A favourable technical assessment of the fitness for use of a construction product for an intended use, issued for the purposes of the Construction Products Directive by a body authorised by a Member State of the European Commission.

External Thermally Insulated Composite Systems (ETICS)


See external wall insulation systems.

Dew point / Condensation water formation


Dew point is the air temperature at which the relative air humidity attains a value of 100% (saturated). Upon the humidity level exceeding this limit, precipitation occurs (condensation water).

EU directive 2004/42/EC
As part of its effort to tackle global warming and health issues, the European Union directive 2004/42/EC was created to minimise, monitor and control the harmful effects of VOCs. By January 2010, any water based product with VOC content manufactured in Europe (including primers, adhesives, fillers, paints and plasters), cannot exceed more than 30g of VOC content per litre of the total volume. All EU member states have signed up to the regulations, and are committed to reduce VOC content in all products.

External Wall Insulation (EWI) Systems


External wall insulation systems are employed for the external insulation of the outside walls on buildings. The insulating material (insulant) in the form of boarding or lamellae is fixed to the subconstruction by means of adhesive and/or dowels and subsequently provided with a reinforcing or exterior render coat. EWI systems may be used for both refurbishment and new build construction.

Dynamic stiffness (MN/m3)


Characterises elasticity, e.g. of an insulating board. In external wall insulation systems, the use of insulating board with low dynamic stiffness leads to improved airborne sound insulation on the outside wall.

Energy Saving Trust (EST)


A UK Government established agency providing advice and insight into energy saving measures.

Greenhouse Gas (GHG)


Examples include Methane, Carbon Dioxide, FluoroChloroCarbons.

7. Glossary

Heat conduction
Transfer of Kinetic energy (i.e. Heat) from one molecule to another. The capacity to conduct heat is dependant on the matter concerned and its structure.

Heating degree days


Measure to calculate the heat consumption of a heating period. Result of the number of heating days multiplied by the difference between mean outside temperature and mean ambient room temperature.

Hydrophobicising
Hydrophobicising (water repellent finishing) entails treating the surface of a building with a coating or impregnating agent to reduce the building materials capillary absorbency.

Heat convection Home Energy Saving (HES)


See convection, heat transport. The HES scheme provides grants to Irish homeowners keen to improve their energy efficiency, lower bills and reduce green house emissions. The scheme is open to all owners of existing houses built before 2006. The scheme provides grants for roof insulation, wall insulation, high efficiency boilers and heating control upgrades.

Hygrothermal deformation
Stresses and strains upon a building material due to both humidity and temperature.

Heat transference
The movement of heat from one body to another. Heat transfer is always from the hotter object to the colder object. There are three categories of heat transfer: convection, conduction and radiation.

Interstitial condensation
Water vapour can pass through porous construction materials, and where this air temperature falls to the dew point, it condenses as interstitial condensation.

Heat transmission coefficient Home Energy Saving Programme (HESP) (U Value)


The U Value or thermal transmittance, which applies as a standard rating throughout Europe (unit: W/m2K), indicates the rate of heat transfer through a construction from air to air. It equates to the heat units in unit time, measures in watts, which flows through a unit area at a unit temperature. Established on the 11th September 2008 by the UK Government, HESP is a 1bn scheme intended to help UK residents pay for their fuel bills as well as help towards their long term strategy of reducing carbon emissions. In 2002, the Irish Government set up a similar agency called Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI), which is funded by the National Development Plan (2007-2013), with further programmes part-funded by the EU. Under the Home Energy Savings Programme, a number of schemes have been established in the UK. Ireland has also initiated a similar initiative labelled the Home Energy Saving (HES) scheme.

Lamella
Mineral wool insulation boards with the fibres oriented perpendicular to the wall surface. This arrangement enables the insulation boards to be adhesively fixed to the wall.

Lightness value / Light reflectance value (LRV)


The lightness value is important when choosing the colour for a facade. As a measure of a colours degree of reflection, it indicates how far the colour concerned is removed from black. Black has a minimal reflectance value equal to 0, whereas white has a maximum reflectance value equal to 100.

Heat transmission loss


Heat loss through solid bodies or structural elements such as roofs, ceilings, cellars, windows and external walls.

Heat transport
The flow of thermal energy through a building unit due to the temperature difference from the warm to the cold side. Generally from the inside of the building to the outside.

7. Glossary

Lotus-Effect
Through biomimicry, Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Barthlott, in partnership with Sto, was able to recreate the water and dirt shedding properties of the lotus leaf, within paints and renders. We developed the superhydrophobic technology that has unsurpassed water shedding capabilities which has become known as the Lotus-Effect across the globe.

Plinth insulation
Thermal insulation which is installed in the ground, protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Only possible with special insulating materials which are technically approved for this purpose.

Radiation
See Heat radiation

Render Acrylic/Organic e.g. Stolit Invented in 1955 by Swiss painter Silvio Pietroboni, the addition of acrylic resin to traditional renders created breathable, water resistant and highly flexible coatings of consistent quality with excellent crack bridging properties. Acrylics enabled the development of over 800 lightstable colours within the StoColor System. Render Mineralic/Inorganic This refers to renders typically derived from a mixture of sand, cement , lime and water. They can be further enhanced with the addition of polymers and fibres, improving their adhesion, workability and crack resistant properties. Render Silicone, eg StoSilco True silicone finish renders use either silicone resin or silicone emulsion as an enhancement to the binder. Silicone renders possess excellent vapour permeability characteristics and water and dirt repellence, making it ideal for white, uniform facades. As there is no standard for determining what constitutes a true silicone render, Sto has set its own informal standard. Sto believes that the silicone content should be approx. 30% of the total binder content. Due to the material characteristics, it is not possible to tint true silicone render in dark or vivid colours. Sto silicone render finishes are available in 465 select colours from the StoColor System. Render Silicate, eg StoSil A render using a dispersion of potassium silicate or water glass as the binder, typically used on historic properties where high permeability of the coating is required. Due to its mineralic nature, the material has a slight patina appearance and is available in a restricted colour range.

Low-energy house Relative air humidity


A standard definition of the term low-energy house does not exist. The term refers to buildings which fall below the statutory maximum energy consumption limits for heating the interior of a building and its water supply. BREEAM, Code for Sustainable Homes, Passive House, Passivhaus and Zero-Carbon developments are all terms which can be attributed to this type of construction. Air normally only contains a fraction of the maximum possible moisture. The relative air humidity is the mass of water vapour in a unit volume of air as a percentage (%) of the mass of water vapour in a unit volume of saturated air at the same temperature.

Render
An external coating used on walls to provide weather protection and/or decoration. Early traditional render consisted of lime, sand and water. Later, Portland cement was used as a binder instead of, or in addition to, lime. Render Basecoats Normally a preparatory coat to provide any of the following: levelling, adhesion, strength, suction control. Render Intermediate coats Can be used to provide better surface for finish coats, further refinement to level tolerance, weather resistance and include reinforcement for better crack control. Render Finish coats For decoration, texture, weatherproofing and durability.

Osmosis
Osmosis provides for the transport of water in building materials when areas of different salt concentrations meet. Water migrates from zones of lower salt concentrations to zones of higher salt concentrations, in order to equalise the salt concentration.

Passivhaus
A German building standard with sustainable credentials, approximately equivalent to level 4 of the Code for Sustainable Homes. A building built to Passivhaus standards uses a tenth of the energy required by a typical home in Europe. For further details, see the Sto Passivhaus Standards brochure.

7. Glossary

Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP)


Standard Assessment Procedure as required in Parts L of the Building Regulations.

approval. This confirmation is valid for buildings subject to wind loads in accordance with BS 6399 Pt.2 (see Standards)

Method of test to determine the classification of surface spread of flame of products. BS 476 Part 11: 1982 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method for assessing the heat emission from building materials. BS 476 Part 20: 1987 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for determination of fire resistance of elements of construction (General Principles). BS 476 Part 22: 1987 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Methods for determination of fire resistance of non load-bearing elements for construction. BS 5250: 2002 Code of practice for control of condensation in buildings. BS 5628 Part 3: 2005 Code of practice for the use of masonry materials and components, design and workmanship. BS 6399 Part 2: 1997 Wind Loading for buildings. Code of practice for wind loads. AMD 13392 2002, AMD 14009 2002. BS 8000 Part 3: 2001 Workmanship on building sites. Code of practice for masonry. BS 8233: 1999 Sound insulation and noise reduction for buildings. Code of practice. BS 8414 Part 1: 2002 Fire performance of external cladding systems. Test methods for non loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of a building. BS 8414 Part 2: 2005 Fire performance of external cladding systems. Test method for non loadbearing external cladding systems fixed to and supported by a structural steel frame.

Standards Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM)


Simplified Building Energy Model as required in Parts L of the Building Regulations BS EN ISO 1182: 2002 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Noncombustibility test. BS EN 13501-1: 2002 Fire classification of construction products and building elements. Classification using data from reaction to fire tests. BS EN 13823: 2002 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Building products excluding floorings exposed to the thermal attack by a single burning item (SBI) BS EN SIO 1716: 2002 Reaction to fire tests for building products. Determination of the heat of combustion. BS EN ISO 11925: 2002 Reaction to fire tests. Ignitability of building products subjected to direct impingement of flame. Single-flame source test. BS EN ISO 12667: 2001 Thermal performance of building materials and products. BS EN ISO 6946: 1997 Building components and building elements Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance. BS 476 Part 4: 1970 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Non-combustibility test for materials. BS 476 Part 6: 1989 Fire tests on building materials and structures. Method of test for fire propagation for products BS 476 Part 7: 1997 Fire tests on building materials and structures.

Solar energy gains (windows)


Energy gains from solar radiation. Such gains may be taken into account when calculating annual heating requirements.

Sound attenuation
The sound attenuation of a building unit is determined by means of comparative measurements on finished parts. High sound attenuation = low degree of transmission and good sound insulation. In the case of solid outside walls the surface related mass is the crucial factor. The heavier and thicker the wall, the better its sound attenuation will be (the higher the better).

Stability verification
Stability verification is to be carried out for all components of external wall insulation systems. The suitability for use of the individual components is to be assessed. Load cases to be tested are dead load, hygrothermal deformation and wind suction. The stability of technically approved external wall insulation systems is confirmed in the national technical

7. Glossary

Superhydrophobic
A superhydrophobic surface is where the contact angle between a water droplet and the surface is greater than 140. Water droplets are unable to maintain surface contact and bead upon the surface. Water will pearl off the surface rather than flow off. Superhydrophobic surfaces are often referred to as self-cleaning surfaces as the water beading off the surface will gather loose dirt particles as it rolls down the wall. Superhydrophobic technology originally stems from research on the Lotus-Effect.

Thermal Bridges
Localised points in the building fabric which have a lower level of thermal insulation and a subsequently higher level of heat loss, e.g. window lintels, columns, shutter boxes, corners of buildings etc. In the Passivhaus certificates issued to Sto, the system is deemed to be cold bridge free.

Thermal resistance R
Thermal resistance R (measured in m2K/W) is obtained by dividing a materials layer thickness (d) by its thermal conductivity, : R=d/

Thermal resistance RT
Thermal resistance RT (unit: m2K/W) is the sum total of the individual thermal resistances of all the various layers and the internal and external surface resistances.

Thermal conductivity
The more effectively a building material conducts heat, the more heat will escape into the outside environment. Thermal conductivity indicates the heat convection in watts (W) through a building unit of 1 metre (m) in thickness at a temperature difference of 1 Kelvin (K). The unit of measurement is W/ mK.

Sustainable Energy Ireland (SEI)


Established in 2002 in Ireland as a similar scheme to the UKs HESP, intended to help Irish residents pay for their fuel bills as well as help towards their long term strategy of reducing carbon emissions. SEI is funded by the National Development Plan (2007-2013), with further programmes part-funded by the EU.

Thermography
A non-contact method to identify thermal bridges on the completed exterior finish of a building using an infrared camera.

Thermal expansion
Temperature dependent change in the length of a fixed building unit.

U Value
See Heat transmission coefficient

Technical approval
The BBA issues national technical approvals, e.g. for external wall insulation systems, facade systems, dowels etc. These approvals define what requirements the building material, building unit, construction system etc must fulfil and where and how they can be used. Matters of stability, fire protection and sound protection are regulated in the National Technical Approval for EWI Systems.

Thermal insulating render


Render with lightweight aggregates (e.g. polystyrene pellets, perlite) to increase the thermal insulation effect.

Ventilated rainscreen cladding systems


Ventilated rainscreen cladding systems are multi-layer external wall constructions. They consist of facade embellishment, ventilation airspace and the subconstruction insulation. The outermost layer, which affords protection from driving rain, is separated from the layers behind by means of an air layer.

Thermal radiation
Transport of energy from a warmer to a colder body via the emission and absorption of electromagnetic waves in the non-visible infrared range.

7. Glossary

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)


VOC stands for Volatile Organic Compound. The European Union classifies a VOC as any organic compound with an initial boiling point less than or equal to 250C. VOCs typically emit vapour, which can contribute to air pollution. Common VOCs include solvents and plasticisers, which have various benefits in product manufacturing. As well as the painting and decorating industry, VOCs can also be found in the following products: Carpets Laminate flooring Flooring adhesives. Vinyl wallpapers. Furniture polish, parquet wax.

Zero-Carbon
Zero-Carbon is a term which relates to the UK Governments pledge to reduce UK carbon levels generated by housing by 80% of 1990 levels by 2050. All new homes built from 2016 onwards need to be Zero-Carbon homes. As yet, a definition for ZeroCarbon has not been agreed.

The combined VOC content from interior sources is a significant contributor to interior room pollution, which can lead to a number of health problems for building users after prolonged exposure.

Water absorption coefficient (W)


Indicates how many kg of water are absorbed by 1m2 of a building material in 24 hours.

Water vapour diffusion


The gaseous water molecules (water vapour) contained in the air migrate (diffuse) in the direction of lower vapour pressure, e.g. from the humid room air through structural elememts to the dry outside air.

Sto Ltd. Head of ce 2 Gordon Avenue Hillington Park Glasgow G52 4TG Tel +44 (0)141 892 8000 Fax +44 (0)141 404 9001 Southern of ce Antura, Kingsland Business Park Wade Road Basingstoke RG24 8EN Tel +44 (0)1256 332770 Fax +44 (0)1256 810887 Ireland of ce Unit 3, Robinhood Business Park Robinhood Road Dublin 12 Tel +353 (0)1460 2305 Fax +353 (0)1460 2455 info.uk@stoeu.com sto.co.uk sto.ie stoshop.co.uk
Art.-no. 2010-0306 Rev.-no. 01/05.10 Printed in Germany 05.05.2010 11:48:14 Uhr

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