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Hasan barghy masoud,dmd3e 7/16/2012

Smoking can increase incidence of gum diseases. cigarette smoke contains irritants, can reduce blood flow to the jaws,and dry out the mouth.all of these factors have a negative impact on the dental health. Reduced saliva can increase the risk of both cavities and gum disease.saliva is important in fighting cavities and gum disease because it can rinse away plaque and food debries and help neutralize acid.reduced circulation to the jaws limits the amount of nutrients and protective white blood cells, and contributes to the potential tooth loss from the gum disease. The risk of oral cancer increases with the number of cigarette smoked each day and the number of years that the person has been smoking. Any epidemiologiacal survey of periodontal status requires that the state of the gingiva can be accurately defined ,in order to be able to compare different population groups at the given time ,to determine and control risk factors and to assess treatment efficacy .in our laboratory the index of gingival status most frequently employed is the gingival index. Bleeding from the gum margin is an important early symptom of gingivitis, and gingival bleeding on probing is now widely used in clinical

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examination as a means of identifying active lesions in periodontal disease.Although smoking is known to produce peripheral

vasoconstriction, in some subjects this is preceded by vasodilatation. In any particular instance, the effect produced is probably related to the degree of inhalation of the tobacco smoke and the rate of nicotine absorption. The GI was proposed by loe& silness in 1963 and modified slightly in 1967. The GI is based on two of the characteristic signs of inflammation, swelling and redness. An important sign is bleeding. Gingival Index n. Abbr. GI An index of periodontal disease that relates to the severity and location of the lesion.Gingivitis index is the number assigned to designate the degree of gingival inflammation.

GI 0 Normal, healthy gingival with sharp, non-inflamed margins. GI 1 Marginal gingivitis with minimal inflammation and edema at the free gingival. No bleeding on probing.

GI 2 Moderate gingivitis with a wider band of inflammation and bleeding upon probing.

GI 3 Advanced gingivitis with inflammation clinically reaching the mucogingival junction usually with ulceration. Periodontitis will usually be present.

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