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e- Book V1

HAMEDAN EMBONG 2007-2009

Ia bermula dengan cabang utama

A
iaitu "OF HUMANS"

Ini diikuti oleh katakunci yang bercambah dari cabang ini iaitu ranting yang berlabel 1 iaitu "Food"

4 3
Sebagai contoh, sila lihat peta minda yang pertama di muka sebelah iaitu "Basic Needs" Nota yang terdapat dalam peta minda ini hendaklah dibaca menurut turutannya. Ia bermula dengan cabang utama yang berlabel dengan huruf bersaiz besar seperti:

Ranting "Food" pula akan bercambah menjadi ranting kecil yang mengandungi fakta yang berturutan yang berlabel dan a b c seterusnya. Habiskan membaca turutan yang fakta-fakta 1 2 3 4 yang bercambah di e sebelum, anda pergi ke ranting yang berlabel 2 iaitu "Water".

HAMDAN 09

CARA PENGGUNAAN
6

Ulangi langkah yang sama bagi ranting 2 , 3 dan 4 sebelum anda pergi ke cabang utama berlabel B iaitu "OF ANIMALS" untuk meneruskan bacaan.

dan seterusnya.

Sebelum menduduki peperisaan anda akan hanya lakukan ulangkaji pantas yang merumuskan kesemua bahagian ingatan. Ulangkaji semula selepas seminggu. Masa yang diambil akan menjadi semakin singkat kerana ingatan anda semakin mantap. Ulangkaji peta minda anda seberapa kerap yang mungkin. Abaikan bahagian yang anda telah ingat. Baca bahagian yang anda terlupa. Baca semula peta minda anda keesokan harinya untuk mengisi semula ingatan yang telah hilang
c

KEJAYAAN AKAN MENANTI ANDA !

B
1

e d

MENGULANGKAJI PETA MINDA ANDA


2

E-book Peta MInda untuk SAINS UPSR adalah dalam format PDF. Untuk membukanya komputer anda harus mempunyai program Adobe Acrobat Reader. Jika tidak muaturunkan dari: http://get.adobe.com/reader/ Gunakan pencetak warna untuk supaya gambar yang dipaparkan adalah berwarna dan menarik untuk dibaca sebelum dijilidkan. Ini adalah kerana warna berupaya meningkatkan ingatan. Apabila dicetak, mukasuratnya adalah dalam saiz A4. Walaupun boleh dibaca oleh mata kasar, jika anda mahukan saiz huruf yang lebih besar, anda boleh membuat salinan fotokopi ke kertas A3 dengan pembesaran 141% untuk paparan yang lebih besar dan jelas. Selepas itu bolehlah dijilidkan menjadi buku.

SALINAN KERAS, PENJILIDAN DAN PEMBESARAN

CARA

1
Kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa ingatan akan berkurang mengikut masa yang tertentu.Sebagai persediaan bagi peperiksaan, anda haruslah mengulangkaji peta minda anda dari masa ke semasa. Ini membolehkan anda untuk memperbaiki bahagian yang kurang diingati, atau mengingatkan semula bahagian yang terlupa .

b a

Selepas 1 jam proses pembelajaran, anda seharusnya mengulangkaji semula selama 10-30 minit.

dan nji li Pe

Saiz A4

141 %

to kopi

Fo

Penjilidan

Saiz A3

www.petaminda.com YEAR 4
UNIT 1 : BASIC NEEDS UNIT 8: STATES OF MATTER
COMPETITION AMONG PLANTS..............................32 IMPORTANCE OF COMPETITION ............................32 ANIMALS EXTINCTION............................................. 33 ENDANGERED SPECIES............................................ 33 PREVENTING ANIMALS EXTINCTION.....................33 IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON ENVIRONMENT............................................................33

OF HUMANS..................................................................1 OF ANIMALS ................................................................1 OF PLANTS..................................................................1

YEAR 5
UNIT 1: MICROORGANISMS

UNIT 2:

LIFE PROCESSES

IN HUMANS.................................................................. 2 IN ANIMALS................................................................. 2 IN PLANTS...................................................................3

UNIT 3:

PROTECTION

UNSEEN LIVING THINGS............................................14 TYPES..........................................................................14 CHARACTERISTICS....................................................14 USES............................................................................ 14 HARMFUL EFFECTS..................................................15 PREVENTION OF DISEASES.................................... 15

MATTER....................................................................... 25 PROPERTIES OF MATTER........................................25 CHANGES IN STATES OF MATTER...........................25 FACTORS AFFECTING EVAPORATION RATE.........25 THE WATER CYCLE................................................... 26 IMPORTANCE OF WATER CYCLE............................ 26 WATER RESOURCES................................................. 25 HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECTS WATER RESOURCES............................................................... 26 KEEPING WATER SOURCES CLEAN........................26

UNIT 2:

FORCE

UNIT 9:

ACID AND ALKALI

IN ANIMALS................................................................. 4 IN PLANTS...................................................................5

UNIT 2:

SURVIVAL OF THE SPECIES

PUSH OR PULL.........................................................34 EFFECTS OF FORCES..............................................34 FRICTION.....................................................................34 ADVANTAGES OF FRICTION..................................... 35 DISADVANTAGES OF FRICTION............................... 35

UNIT 4:

MEASUREMENTS

SPECIES...................................................................... 16 ANIMALS' SURVIVAL..................................................16 PLANTS' SURVIVAL................................................... 17

LENGTH....................................................................... 6 MEASURING TECHNIQUES........................................6 AREA............................................................................ 6 VOLUMES....................................................................7 MASS............................................................................7 TIME............................................................................. 7 IMPORTANCE OF STANDARD UNITS....................... 7

PROPERTIES OF ACIDIC AND ALKALI SUBSTANCES..............................................................27 ACIDIC SUBSTANCES.................................................27 ALKALINE SUBSTANCES.......................................... 27 NEUTRAL SUBSTANCES........................................... 27

UNIT 3:

MOVEMENT

UNIT 3:

FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEB

SPEED..........................................................................36 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISTANCE, TIME AND SPEED..........................................................................36

UNIT 10:

CONSTELLATIONS

ANIMALS' FOOD........................................................18 FOOD CHAIN............................................................... 18 FOOD WEB..................................................................18 FOOD WEB IMPORTANCE.........................................18

UNIT 4:

FOOD PRESERVATION

SCORPION...................................................................28 DIG DIPPER..................................................................28 SOUTHERN CROSS....................................................28 IMPORTANCE OF CONSTELLATIONS.....................28

UNIT 5:

MATERIALS

UNIT 4:

ENERGY

FOOD SPOILAGE....................................................... 37 FOOD PRESERVATION PURPOSE........................... 37 FOOD PRESERVATION METHOD............................. 37 IMPORTANCE OF FOOD PRESERVATION ..............37

UNIT 11:

MATERIALS AROUNDS US........................................ 8 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS..................................8 CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS........................... 8 TRANSPARENT, TRANSLUCENT AND OPAQUE MATERIALS................................................................. 8 CHOOSING SUITABLE MATERIALS..........................9 COMBINED USES OF MATERIALS........................... 9 NATURAL AND MAN-MADE MATERIALS.................. 9 RUSTING...................................................................... 10 REUSE, REDUCE, RECYCLE..................................... 10

ENERGY USES............................................................ 19 ENERGY SOURCES.................................................... 19 ENERGY FORMS.........................................................19 ENERGY TRANSFROMATION....................................20 RENEWABLE ENERGY............................................... 20 NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY...................................... 20 USING ENERGY WISELY.............................................20 SAVING ENERGY..........................................................20

THE EARTH, THE MOON AND THE SUN

UNIT 5:

WASTE MANAGEMENT

UNIT 5:

ELECTRICITY

UNIT 6:

THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

ROTATION AND MOVEMENT OF EARTH.................29 ROTATION AND MOVEMENT OF MOON..................29 MOVEMENT OF EARTH AND MOON AROUND THE SUN......................................................29 SHADOW LENGTHS AND POSITIONS THROUGHOUT THE DAY....................................................................... 29 DAY AND NIGHT OCCURRENCE................................ 29 PHASES OF THE MOON............................................30 LUNAR CALENDAR.....................................................30

SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY.....................................21 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS.............................................21 HANDLING ELECTRICITY...........................................21

WASTE TYPES AND SOURCES................................38 IMPROPER WASTE DISPOSAL................................ 38 PROPER WASTE DISPOSAL.................................... 38 HARMFUL EFFECTS OF IMPROPER WASTE DISPOSAL ....................................................38 WASTE DISPOSAL IN LOCAL AREA....................... 39 DECAYING WASTE......................................................39 ADVANTAGES OF DECOMPOSING WASTE.............39 DISADVANTAGES OF DECOMPOSING WASTE.......39 IF WASTE DO NOT DECOMPOSE............................39

UNIT 12:

STRENGTH AND STABILITY

UNIT 6:

ECLIPSES

CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM............11 SIZE AND DISTANCE.................................................. 11 PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM......................... 11

UNIT 6:

LIGHT

SHAPES OF OBJECTS IN STRUCTURES................31 STABILITY....................................................................31 STRENGTH.................................................................. 31

ECLIPSE OF THE MOON...........................................40 ECLIPSE OF THE SUN...............................................40

UNIT 7:

TECHNOLOGY AROUND US

HUMAN LIMITATIONS................................................. 12 DEVICES...................................................................... 12 DEVICES TO OVERCOME LIMITATIONS.......,......... 12 DEVELOPEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY(1)..................12 DEVELOPEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY(2)..................13 SOLVING PROBLEMS................................................ 13 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TECHNOLOGY...................................................... 13

LIGHT TRAVELS IN A STRAIGHT LINE.................... 22 SHADOWS................................................................... 22 REFLECTION OF LIGHT............................................ 22 EVERY DAY LIFE APPLICATIONS............................ 23 DEVICES...................................................................... 23

UNIT 7:

MACHINES

YEAR 6
UNIT 1: INTERACTION AMONG LIVING THINGS

UNIT 7:

HEAT

TEMPERATURE...........................................................24 EFFECTS OF HEAT ON MATTER............................. 24 APPLICATIONS OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION........................................................... 24 ENERGY TRANSFROMATION....................................24

GROUP ANIMALS........................................................32 SOLITARY ANIMALS.................................................. 32 INTERACTION TYPES................................................32 COMPETITION AMONG ANIMALS............................ 32

MAIN TYPES................................................................41 WHEEL AND AXLE..................................................... 41 LEVER..........................................................................41 WEDGE.........................................................................41 PULLEY........................................................................42 GEAR............................................................................ 42 INCLINED PLANE........................................................42 SCREW.........................................................................42 COMPLEX MACHINES................................................43 APPRECIATING MACHINES........................................43

ii

HAMDAN 09
Water is absorbed through the roots When there's no water plants wilts and die Without sunlight, plants wilt and turn yellowish.

Grass under box becomes yellowish because there is no sunlight under the box.

A diet that has correct amounts of all kinds of food Helps to repair damaged body tissues To stay healthy
1 2 3 4

d c
To make their own food and grow

SUNLIGHT
a d

Contains 7 classes of food Examples: rice, chicken, meat, vegetables & fruits

c
Helps growth

Body consist of 70% water

To control their temperature To make their own food and grow


Prevents air from entering the leaves

d c e

Balanced diet

WATER
a
Although is water, plant will because is no air. there the wilt there

3 2

a b

black paper

Gives energy to do work

b a

Controls body temperature

Transparent pl as ti c bag

FOOD WATER

c d

l e av e s a s te m s b c

d
Absorbed from

OF PLANTS AIR
a

Part of leave covered by the black paper becomes yellow because it does not receive any sunlight.

To stay alive

Helps to remove waste products from body

c b

1 2
f

roots (some plants)

Helps to carry digested food to other parts of body

To make their own food and grow

To stay alive
Sp ide rs Ra bbi ts

C
YEAR 4 UNIT 1
Chic ken Duc ks

Need to take at least 1.5 litres everyday.


2 1

Replace water loss through sweating and urination.

Hutch/ Burrows
Bees

Cobweb

Birds Snakes Ra ts Earthworms

Hives

Pen

Go os e Bir ds

BASIC NEEDS (1/1)


B
OF ANIMALS
To stay alive To grow

OF HUMANS

Drink water, soup, milk, fruit juice and beverages.

A
3

Eat juicy fruits (water melons,oranges) and vegetables (celery, carrot) To breathe and get energy

Holes
4 5 6 7 8 9 2

Cage (pets)
3

Ha ms te rs Dog

AIR
b
Chest movements help us to breathe in (inhale) and breathe out (exhale) through the nose.

Bears B at s

Kennel

Caves Shelter types


11

Swallows

10

Cow

Barn
A nt s Birds Wasps 1

Goat

Nest Stable

Horse

b c

To stay healthy

4
To protect from extreme weather

1
FOOD
d e
Ho le

SHELTER
To get energy A place to live

In ha la ti on

Ex ha la ti on

a b c
Protect from dangers

b a

SHELTER

3 2
AIR
b
Ho le

d
Bungalow
1

Terraced house
2

To protect from danger Animals will die without air


1

Food

Wet cotton

2 Layer of oil

a
To breathe and get energy

WATER
a b
Controls body temperature

Snail will die although there is water and air because there is no food. 3

Protect from extreme weather

Shelter types

3 4 5

Flats/apartments

Rat will die although there is c food and air because there is no water. Helps to carry

Kampung house

Extreme cold / heat

Lightning

Storms

Igloo

Hut

Longhouse

The tadpole dies because the layer of oil prevents air entering the water.

Rat dies although there is food and water because there is no air Food Water

digested food to other parts of body

Helps to remove waste products from body

butterfly egg

Has larva and pupa stage 1 2


tadpole with legs

frog

eggs tadpole

la y

hatches grows into c

caterpillar (larva) pupa

Other mammals rat pup

rat g iv e bir th

Butterfly 3 c Fr og b

Breathing rate is the number of chest movements in a period of time

Breathing rate increases during exercise


2 1 3

Breathing rate decreases when we relax. Kidneys 2

Contains: Urea, water & mineral salts Skin


3

Other examples: bees, mosquitoes, flies

Sta ges a

Breathing Rate

Organs
1

Animals That Give Birth


3

b a

Excreted a by kidneys

Exhalation
Sta ges

c
2

Mammals that lay eggs: 1. Platypus 2. Spiny anteater Offsprings feed on milk from mothers' mammary glands
5

Animals That Lay Eggs


d Gr as sho pp er 1
grasshopper

give birth grows into 2 Shapes

a c d

Chest lowers & moves inwards Air moves out from lungs, windpipe and finally nose & mouth. Carbon dioxide leaves lungs Diapraghm relaxes

Breathing
b

Lungs

Excretion
Mechanism

Life-Cycle
3 Other examples: c oc kr oa ch es , praying mantis, dragon flies 2
eggs nymph

Excreted by sweat glands in skin Contains: Urea, water & b a b mineral salts Urine Sweat Excreted 2 1 a through lungs Water in exhaled air Waste 3 Vapour Materials Excreted b 4 a through lungs Carbon in exhaled air dioxide Removal of undigested food in form of faeces. Faeces formed in the large intestines. Removed through anus.

HAMDAN 09

Animals Change Stages of growth in animals

a b c

b Sizes Weights

a a
1

1
Organs

Defecation

b c

Many offsprings at one time:


Eg: dogs, cats, r at s

4 3

Giving Birth
2 1

Has NO larva and pupa stage

Inhalation

2
d
1 2 3 4 nose mouth windpipe lungs

Chest rises outwards & upwards c Air moves in through nose & mouth, windpipe and lungs Oxygen from air enters lungs

Large intestines

One offspring at one time:


Eg: elephants, w h al e , rh in oc er ou s

Offsprings grow By mammals in mothers' womb before birth

Reproduction

IN HUMANS
4

Anus

Diaphragm contracts

To protect from danger

Some animals take care of eggs but not their youngs.


Eg: Snakes 4

Some animals do not take care of eggs or youngs.


Eg: Turtle eggs hatch by themselves 5

4
a

YEAR 4 UNIT 2

Response to Stimuli
c

b
1

For survival Smell : nose


2 3 4

LI FE PROCESSES
IN ANIMALS

5 6

Sound : ears Light : eyes Touch : skin

(1/2)

Stimuli and organs


5

Laying Eggs
3 2

Eg: Hens, ducks

Taste : tounge Amphibians Birds Reptiles Fish Insects

A few eggs; many eggs at a time


Eg: Frogs

1. 2. Eggs hatch into 3. chicks youngs 4. 5.

3 2
To get rid undigested materials To stay healthy
Aquatic animals: fish, tadpoles, prawns, crabs b Excrete carbon dioxide and water Animals with kidneys: mammals, b birds. a Excrete urea, uric acid, mineral salts and water (in urine) b Animals with thick skin, mammals a

Overdose can cause brain damage & death

Reproduction
d
Family tree shows relationships between 1 members.
First Generation Grandfather

a b

To produce new generation offsprings

Animals breathe in oxygen, breathe out carbon dioxide and water

Cause addiction affects logical thiinking lose control


5 4 3 2

To ensure the continuity of human species

b a

Defecation
a

Drug abuse
1

Reproduce by giving birth.

Bad Behavoiurs
a b

Breathing Excretion
In fish, tadpoles By most land animals. Eg: mammals, birds

Delay response to stimuli

Taking illegal drugs without doctor's prescription

Grandmother

Grandfather

Grandmother

Second Generation

Father

Mother

Gills
4

a
Organs

Water that contains oxygen enters the mouth of fish and flows out through gills. Oxygen is absorbed and carbon dioxide is get rid off at the gills. Air enters tiny pores (spiracles) at sides of insect's bodies to air tubes and directly to body cells. a

c b

Lungs
1

a b

Thi rd Generation Elder brother

Me

Younger sister

Younger brother

Gills

Kidney

3 2 1

Breathing Structures
4 2 3

Some aquatic animals. Eg: whales, dolphins, turtles.

Cause liver failure Get addicted to become an alcoholic

6 5 4

Drinking alcohol
1

Smoking
1

2 3 2

b a

Tracheal structure

Moist skin
b a Oxygen from air enters the body directly through the moist skin.

Make people drunk


Lung cancer f e Difficulty in breathing d Addiction c Lost of appetite b

Skin
a Excrete urea, mineral salts and water (in sweat)

Lungs
a b

Lung books
c b In crabs, spiders and scorpions Lungs look like book pages a Lung books

Can Cause

Harmful substances in cigaretes smoke


a stained teeth Bad breath c

a b

nicotine - causes addiction

tar

Excrete carbon dioxide and water

Animals with lungs: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians.

Consists of narrow air tubes in body of insects. air tubes spiracles

In frogs, salamanders worms

Lose control of himself

Affects logical thinking

Delay response to stimuli

carcinogens - causes cancer

HAMDAN 09
YEAR 4 UNIT 2

Bud grows into new shoots

LI FE PROCESSES
(2/2)
Plants grow upright because light is coming from the top. Plants bent towards the lamp that produce the light.
b

Begonia 2 Aloe vera 3

Bryophyllum a 1

Examples By non-flowering plants

Buds at edge grow into new shoots Are usually thick


b

C
Beaker A Beaker B

Roots of plants grow downwards towards water at the bottom.


a

Roots of plants grow upwards towards the moist cotton wool.


a

Small and light Carried by wind


Spores under leaves Spores like flower Spores under gills Ferns Mosses Mushrooms b c d e

Leaves Spores

IN PLANTS
Beaker A

moist cotton wool water drying agent Beaker B

Grow into new plants in moist places


1 2 3

Sunlight Water
5 4 1

Examples

1
Response to Stimuli
a
Stimuli Types

Roots of plants grow downwards towards gravity.


2 a

Cutings planted in soil


a

Bud grows into new plant

moist cotton wool 3

2
3

Gravity
4

Petri dish A

Petri dish B

Buds on stem grow into new plants

Stem Cuttings
c

Reproduction Methods

Bougainvillae 5 Rose 4 3

b
2

Mimosa plant

Examples
2 1 Tapioca

Touch
1

Reproduction

Hibiscus

Sugar cane

a
1 2 flowers fruits seeds

Form new plants Ensure survival of species

New shoots that grow from buds

Why?
3

Leaflets of mimosa plant fold up when touched.

a b

Suckers

Seeds

Prevent extinction

a d c b

At base of parent plants Grow more quickly than seeds

c d

Supply food to animals From fruits of flowering plants

Examples
Banana Sucker 1 2 Pineapple 3 Bamboo Rambutan Mango 1 2

Examples of plants with one seed

Examples of plants with many seeds


1 2 Durian 4

Seeds germinate into seedlings then young plants.

Maize

3 Papaya

Watermelon

Sucker Sucker

HAMDAN 09
To continue living
Peng uin Wal rus S ea l d Small ear W ha l e e 1 2 c b a Polar bear Sh ee p b Polar bear a

To prevent species from extinction

a
Attack by humans and other animals

By having special 1. Characteristics 2. Behaviours

Thick skin Hard shells

c
Tortoise Elephant
1 2

Examples

Keep body warm

Examples
2 1

Keep body temperature fixed

Survival

Rhinoceros

2
FROM DANGER
Prevent enemies injuring them

Hide heads and legs in shells when attacked

Turtle
1 2 3

Snail
Hard scales

S ea l Wal rus b a

Prevent heat loss from body


1

Thick fat layer under skin

Thick fur Examples

a b

Examples

Prevent enemies injuring them

Pangolin
1 2

a a
Small ears

Examples
2

Hard shells

A
Extreme cold
YEAR 4 UNIT 3

Bear a Fox b c

Sleep thoughout cold season


1

Thick and hard skin

Hard scales

Examples

Crocodile

To kill or weaken enemies

Scorpion
1

Examples

Hibernation

Poisonous stings/ v en om

Examples
4 3

Centipede

Squirrel

Avoid extreme weather Look for food


S wa n s a 1 2 3

2
Migration

PROTECTION IN ANIMALS (1/2)


C B

Snake

Bee

2 1

3 4
Spines
b a

To keep away enemies by raising spines


1

Porcupine

Examples
Swallows b

Examples
2

Long ear hairs prevent entering of sand in sand storm Long eye lashes prevent entering of sand in sand storm
b a

Broad, flat hooves prevent from sinking into sand


c

LIVING IN EXTREME WEATHER

5
millipede
3

pangolin

2 1

Examples

b a

armadillo

Curling up

14 13

SPECIAL CHARACTHERICTICS AND BEHAVOIUR

6 7

Horns/ antlers

Use horns/ antlers to attack enemies


1

Porcupine fish

Rhinoceros

Examples
2 3

Camel's special features

1
f

Curling into shape of a ball so that enemies cannot attack Sea anemone
2

Deer Goat

Hippopotamus Rhinoceros b c

Examples Jellyfish
1

b a

Poisonous tentacles

12 11 10 9 8

Sharp claws/ talons


b
Also has 1. sharp eyesight 2. strong beak

Examples
a B uf f al o 2

To protect themselves/ youngs Bear 1 Examples


2 3

Keep bodies cool


Desert fox b a snakes

Wallowing in mud holes

Extreme hot
d

Cockroach
3

Sting to repel enemies

Lion
cl aw s

Eagle

Examples

Keep away from heat


1

Bed bug

Examples
1

b a

c b

Releasing stinks

Tal on s

a
Skunk Wrinkled skins
1 2

Camouflage
b

Have same shape / skin colour with surroundings Examples


2

Store fat
2 3 2 1

Lo ng ears
1

3 3

Increase surface area Lose body heat faster


3

Examples
b H um p in c am e l h um p

Keep animal a alive for Can days change to food and Tail in kanggaroo rat water
t ai l

Example
a Desert fox

Examples Lose body Increase heat faster surface area


c b a

B uf f al o Hippopotamus Long ears

E le ph an t' s Elephant wrin kled skin

wrin kled skin

Hippopotamus's wrin kled skin

During the day rest in holes or under rocks

Repel enemies. Prevent fom being eaten

Living in he rd s
b a

Strong and muscular legs Smokescreen


b a b
Examples
3 2 1

Zebra

Examples Monkeys
2 1

a
To outrun their enemies when attacked

Stick insect Chameleon

Enemies are afraid to attack Zebras Giraffe

Squirt black ink to confuse enemy

Examples
2 1

Moth Arctic fox

Elephants

Antelope

Horse

Octopus Squid
Spots look like eyes to frighten en emi es

HAMDAN 09
Grow deep in soil
Aloe vera l e av e s baobab trunk 3 2 1 1 th ic k l e av e s a b th ic k a s te m s Cac tus

Searching for water Example


b c

ca ct us

Long roots

lo ng ro ot s

Mimosa plant When touched Expose thorns on stem


2 3 a

Examples
banana s te m 4

b a

c Thick and succulent stems/leaves

To protect from being damaged From predators (humans and animals)


1

Example Sticky
1

leaflets f o ld e d

To store water

Obtain and Store water

Bitter Poisonous
2 3 4 a

To protect from being eaten

2 1

Folding leaflets

Cause itchiness stems


5

Cac tus P in e

1 2 3

Examples

Needle shaped leaves

Prevent excessiv e water loss


2

Latex

Excreted at

b 1 c

leaves fruits

NATURAL DEFENCE
4

a b

Cuasarina Cac tus 1

b
3

Examples
b c

papaya yam

Examples
2 W at e r me lo ns Pumpkin Ban ana 1 2 H ya ci nt h 3

Hairy leaves

IN DRY REGIONS

A
YEAR 4 UNIT 3

Waxy Leaves
a

Examples
b

Curling of Leaves Examples


a

1 Ban ana 2 Le mo n

During hot days

ADAPTATION TO NATURE

PROTECTION IN PLANTS (2/2)

TYPES OF NATURAL DEFENCE

Hurt animals that try to eat/destroy


1

jackfruit

stems leaves fruits

T horns
3

Found at
c

t ho rn s aloe vera

g f

Examples

a b

durian cactus

mimosa

e d

rose

pineapple bougainvillea Break tree stems


Palm b C o co n u t a

t ho rn s

2
a
2

Bad smell
Tobacco leaves Examples
b 1

tho rn t ho rn s tho rn

Uproot trees

b
Examples
Do not break e as il y 1 2

STRONG WINDS
c

Marigold

Prevent animals from eating

Cause itchiness
1

stems
a 2

Separated Leaves
a

Rafflesia flower

Red uce r es i st a nc e to wind

Long Leaves
2 2

Modified Leaves
c

Poisonous substances
1 3 Flame of the forest 1 a b D ur ia n 2

Fine hairs
3

Found at
c

leaves fruits
fine hairs

Adaptation M ethods
3 2 1

bamboo
a

Examples If eaten may cause


b a c a b c

Thin Leaves
1 Red uce r es i st a nc e to wind 2 a

Modified Roots
b c

P ad i

a b Lalang

Examples

Strong buttress roots

Modified Stems Strong trunks


1 b

Prop roots Soft stems


1 2 1

Examples

Ping pong d fruit


c

Found in Examples
d b a c b

diarrhoea pumpkin

sugar cane

nausea death

C o co n u t

Example

Long/flexible stems
2

Poison ivy Examples


b Maize a Mangrove

sap stalks flowers fruits

W i t hs t a n d strong winds Sugar cane S tr on g trunk a

Examples

1 Examples Bent easily Bent easily a c b P ad i Re ed Lalang b Ba mb oo

Yellow frangipani

Toadstool mushrooms

fine h ai r s

HAMDAN 09

A square Area = length X width


Wid th a L e ng t h b Wid th c L e ng t h L e ng t h = 10 cm W i d t h = 5 cm A r e a = 10 cm x 5 cm = 50 cm 2

Arm span
1

Span
2 3

Cubit Strings

Paper clips
b c d

A rectangle

Bigger objects have bigger surface area.

length

different lengths

Distance between two points

Use body parts

Foot

Matchsticks Straws

Examples
1

Areas of squares and rectangles


Example
d

The size of the surface of an object

Use objects
b

Less accurate

1
More accurate
1

LENGTH
AREA
Area of a di st ri ct

MEASURING LENGTH

Us e measuring tools

2 3

Use standard units Examples


a b

Ruler Measuring tape

Example
2

square kilometres ( km2) Example


Area of a room 2

Very large area


e

C
YEAR 4 UNIT 4

d
1

In metric system Very short length


2 a b

millimetres (mm)
Thick ness of book

} 10 mm

Large area
1

Standard Units
c a b

Standard Units
3

Examples
Length of ins ect

4 1 5

square metres ( m2) Small area


2

Examples Longer length


a

In metric system Very small area


2 1

metres (m)

Height of bo tt le

18 cm

Relationships
Reading = 63 cm

Example

1 kilometre = 1000 metres

c b a

Very long length


a b

Examples
b

Height of tr ee

Area of a small square on graph pa pe r

Wrap the measuring tape around the object and read the scale that meets the zero mark on the tape.
1

6 m

Using measuring tape

MEASURING TECHNIQUES

Distance between moon and earth = 383,000 km

Distance between house and school = 5 km

Place string on ruler to measure length


3

2 1
Use ruler or measuring tape Place eye vertically on mark (correct position) to take reading
B (X ) 3

Make mark on string

Using string & ruler

Curved object

Straight Objects

a b

Use string to trace the curve surface

1 A (X )

b
Place one end of object at zero mark of ruler/tape
1 4 Reading = 2.4 cm

Do not place eye at position A or B (incorrect position) because the readings are not accurate.

Area of a piece of pa pe r

square centimetres (cm 2 )

Example

square millimetres (mm 2 )

1 metre = 100 centimetres 1 centimetre = 10 millimetres


1 mm 1 cm 10 mm

15 m

kilometres (km) Examples


a

Length of room

Length of book

MEASUREMENTS (1/2)

Short length

centimetres (cm)

16 mm 20 cm

Volume = length X width X height


Volume of swimming pool A Cuboid

Length = 5 cm Width = 2 cm Height = 4 cm Volume = 5 cm x 2 cm x 4 cm = 40 cm3 Example

Mililitre (ml) Small volumes


1

Litre (l) Large volumes


2 3

HAMDAN 09
1 litre (l) = 1000 millilitres (ml) tablespoon
b

cup
c d

Example
He ig ht b

bowl

c
Length

cubic metres (m 3 )
Vo lu me of pencil bo x

Large volumes
3

id

th

Standard Units for volumes of liquids


a

bottle cap
a

Less accurate
1 f

bottle pail

Example
b

cubic centimetres (cm 3 )


Volume of sugar cube

Small volumes

Standard Units for volumes of solids


1

VOLUMES OF CUBOIDS

2 3

VOLUMES OF LIQUIDS

Measuring liquid volumes


2 a

beaker

Accurate

Example

b a

Very small volumes

The amount of space taken by an object

b a

VOLUMES
Measuring Techniques
b c b d

Use measuring cylinder Place at level surface incorrect X Place eye at lower part of meniscus Read at lowest part of meniscus
e

Measuring cylinder

cubic millimetres (mm 3 )

a
Bigger objects have bigger volumes

D
YEAR 4 UNIT 4

Useful in international communication Consistency in measurement Accuracy in measurement

3 2 1

IMPORTANCE OF STANCARD UNITS

correct

Lowest part of meniscus. Reading = 42.0 cm3

MEASUREMENTS (2/2)
E F
TIME
1
The amount of matter in an object

incorrect X milligram (mg)

Pocket watch Stop watch


3 2 1

Digital clock Wall clock

Very light objects Light objects

Standard Units

gram (g)

Wrist watch

Watches
a

Clocks
b

2 3

MASS
a
3 4

Alarm clock

2
MEASURING MASS
5

Heavy objects

kilogram (kg)

Modern times
2

1 gram (g) = 1000 milligrams (mg) 1 kilogram (g) = 1000 grams (g)

Waterclock
d

Candleclock

Measuring Tools
Ancient times
1

c b a

2
MEASURING TIME

1
The period between two events

a
Heavier objects have more mass Take reading when pointer stops moving
3

b
Beam balance

Hourglass Sundial

b
Use process that repeats itself
2

a
2

Measuring Techniques

Measuring Tools
3 5

Compression balance

Dripping water

Standard Units
6 5 4 3 2 1 1

Lever balance Bathroom scale Electronic balance

1 day = 24 hours (hr)


1

Pulse

Very short time Second (s)

Pendulum swing

1 hour (hr) = 60 minutes (min) = 3600 seconds (s)

Very long time Hour (hr)

Longer time Minute (min)

Place eye at same level as pointer

Place object on pan

1 minute (min) = 60 seconds (s)

To prevent the inside of house seen clearly from o ut si de .

HAMDAN 09
To disperse l ig h t

Lamp shade (thin cloth) Frosted glass


To make copies of d ra w i ng s 3

Examples
2

c b

TRANSLUCENT MATERIALS
roof tiles

To prevent s un l i gh t en teri ng ho us e

Tracing 1 paper Certain plastic

To provide sh ad e furniture

ke y boat paper

kni fe

c oi n

mirror

From sand

a
Me asu ri ng bea ker cy lind er To see contents to measure v o lu m e s ac cur ate ly

2 3

hat
2

From rocks Objects From trees


To protect b od y

Objects

a b Glass

Objects

gl as s bo tt le

OPAQUE MATERIALS
c a b

Examples
4 3 clothe

a Metal

Objects behind cannot be seen clearly (blurred) Materials that allow some light to pass through windscreen

Measuring containers light bulb


To illuminate su rr ou nd in gs

Uses Clear Glass


2

TRANSPARENT, TRANSLUCENT, AND OPAQUE MATERIALS


1

containers
To keep c o n te n t s uns een

Wood

From crude oil (petroleum)

co nt ai ne r ruler t oy s

3
Plastic

Objects

Materials that do not allow any light to Objects pass through behind cannot be seen at all

Forms a shadow when light shines on it

From rubber tree sap (latex)

For drivers to see clearly

D A
YEAR 4 UNIT 5

MATERIALS AROUND US
6 8
Clay b
Objects

tyre ba ll g l ov e s

Rubber

Objects

Examples Clear Plastics


1

TRANSPARENT MATERIALS
b
Objects behind can be seen clearly

7
Cloth/ Fabric b
From earth Objects

Leather b

Uses Containers
To see contents

Transparency

To project image on larger screen

a
Materials that allow most light to pass through

From animal skin


s ho e s

MATERIALS (1/3)
C

Objects

a
From cotton, wool
wal let

belt

Materials that do not heat to pass 1 through

Heat insulators
2

INSULATORS
b a

vase

tiles bri ck

t ow e l

clothe cu rt ai n

Examples
C la y F ab ri c Gla ss

Electric insulators
1

Non-Metals

Plas tic W o o d R ub be r

Materials that do not allow electricity to pass through

Materials that DO NOT allow electricity and heat to pass through

CONDUCTORS AND INSULATORS


1
glass door

allows electricity to pass through

copper wire Metals iron nails steel knife Non-metals


ca rb on

Glass Plastic

2 1

Examples

c b

CONDUCTORS
d
Good conductors of elecricity are ALSO good conductors of heat Heat conductors
1 plastic sheet

Allows light to pass through


a

7 6

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
3

1 2

Conduct electricity

Examples
2

c b a

Object placed behind can be seen Made of glass and clear plastic

5
Can be stretch
c b a
Can be pulled and stretched

4
Absorb w at e r
b

Conduct heat Float on w at e r


b

a b

allows heat to pass through


1

a lu m i ni u m steel wok

Metals

Examples
2

Materials that allow heat to pass through

Electric conductors
2 1

Materials that allow electricity and heat to pass through


w ir e s

Rubber
rubber band

Examples
1

Do not Absorb w at e r
b
Example
1

do not sink in water

Cooking utensils

pot

a
becomes wet when in contact with water
1 2

Examples
2

Wood

Examples

Spring
spring riders

Examples Metals

Materials that allow electricity to pass through


C op pe r

Returns to original shape when released (Elastic)

furniture

a
prevent from getting wet (Waterproof)

Examples

Plastics

b ot t le s

Cloth
t ow e l na pp y

c on ta in er s

Wood
paper tis sue

Metals
e le ct ri c steel i ro n pot steel base Iron wok Zi nc

Aluminium Ir on Steel

Plastic
t en t ra in co at

u mb r e ll a

HAMDAN 09
Plastics products
a

Used to form many synthetic materials


1

Examples
b

Natural materials used to form new materials

prevent heat from leaving/entering


1

Trapped air in insulators slows down heat flow to/ from materials
2 3

cloth / towel
a

Petroleum
c d b
Obtained through chemical processes. also called synthethic materials

cotton wool Examples


e d b c

PVC leather

Synthetic Leather

Wrapping with insulator


a

paper

Synthetic Cloth Nylon Rayon Polyester

MAN MADE MATERIALS SOURCES

coconut husk

saw dust

Used to prevent ice from melting quickly

wood rubber
2 1

Obtained from nature

NATURAL AND MAN-MADE MATERIALS


1
a

CHOOSING SUITABLE MATERIALS

KEEPING THINGS HOT/ COLD

polystyrene containers
1

Us e insulator containers

Keep fish cold 2

Plastic containers

cotton

Plants

NATURAL MATERIALS SOURCES


c d

G
YEAR 4 UNIT 5

T h erm os flask

A good insulator, prevent heat escaping


2

fur
1

wool silk

2 3

Animals
3

Rocks
2 1

MATERIALS (2/3)
petroleum

Empty space wthout air, a good insulator

Prevent heat 3 escaping Temperature of liquid kept constant in longer time

leather

metals

clay

F
hard
a b

strong Leather

a strong b flexible c

Metal transparent b strong


a

Glass
3

comfortable feel

COMBINED USES OF MATERIALS


7 6 5
Boots

Use of object

Determined by

b c

Properties to function Suitable materials


a

a
2

Car

3
Wires
a

waterproof insulator of heat insulator of electricty

Plastic
1 c

Plastic Light
b a 1

a a

tough waterproof d strong


c

Rubber
b a 2 S ol e 1

Frying pan

Umbrella
a

Spectacles
a
fr am e

2
2

good flexible grip

Copper metal

strong d flexible
c b

conductor of electricty

Leather Rubber
a handle 2 1 fr am e 2 1 2 le ns es 1

comfortable last long feel

waterproof good grip

c b a

soft, flexible and strong


b

Metal
a

Plastic / wood
b a

Plastic or/and metal

hard and strong

Plastic
b a

Metal
a

Clear plastic or glass a strong


b

hard and strong

conductor strong of heat

insulator of heat

transparent

opaque waterproof

hard and

HAMDAN 09
Reducing Use both sides when printing Use cloth instead of b tissue paper
a

Reusing
1 2 3

Recycling Non-renewable Used up


2 3

Reduce amount of waste

Save production cost

Reduce the use of materials

Limited

rusty steel pipes

rusty iron nails

Reduce using paper

b c

Conserving natural materials by

Bring own shopping bag


a

b a

Natural Matrials

steel metal
1

iron metal
2

copper
a

lead
b c

aluminium gold
d

Reduce using plastic bag

Examples

REDUCING

increased mass

CONSERVING MATERIALS

unatttractive brittle (break easily) dull rough


4 3 2 1

Examples
5

rubber wood
2 1

clay
3 4

glass plastic
5

Avoid using disposable objects


a b

2
plastic spoons, forks, chopsticks

Surface properties

c b

Rust-proof metals
1 2

Nonmetals

clean and shiny

polystryrene plates and cups Continue usage instead of throwing

X
Reddish-brown layer formed on surface of certain metal objects.
1

RUSTY OBJECTS
Rust
2

a b

Metals
Br ok en rusty i ro n b ri dg e

1 2

NON-RUSTY OBJECTS
a

Modify the objects into other useful objects

a b

3
REUSING

Reduce waste, save materials Old newspapers/ magazines as wrappers

Formed by a chemical process between: 1. iron metal 2. water 3. air

Objects become brittle and break easily Objects have to be replaced, increase cost
Bo y infe cted by t et a nu s

RUSTING

I
d
1

YEAR 4 UNIT 5

DISADVANTAGES
c

H
5 4

Examples
2 3 4

MATERIALS (3/3)
4

d
Looks unattractive

Rust contains bacteria, that cause tetanus A chemical process between: 1. iron metal 2. water 3. air

collection centres
1

recycling bins with recycling symbols

Empty containers as other new containers Old tyres as garden decorators

CONDITIONS FOR RUSTING PREVENTING RUSTING


copper plating zinc plating tin plating Coating iron with other metals
b

Rusting

Old clothes as scrubbers / apron / blankets

Objects made of steel or iron will rust when exposed to water and air.

a
Also called electroplating
a

Air

Water droplet

Converting old materials into new products chromium plating silver plating
4

2 3

By keeping away metals from water and air.

Rusty deposit

a
Materials collected at

Examples
6

Non-rusting metals

By coating wi th
3 2 1 a

Ir on

grease texture

RECYCLING
c d
Examples
1 2 3

gold plating Aluminium cans are recycled into various aluminium products

Plastic or rubber Applied to


c b

R ec y c li n g symbol

Paint

Grease or oil
b

bicycle chain
2

Recycled Materials
1

glass paper aluminium

2 3 4

Old newspapers are recycled into tissue paper, cardboards or newspapers


Plastics are recycled into various plastic products

Applied to
a

blades

fence wires paper clips racks other iron objects

Applied to
d c b a

3 5 4

gates

vehicles grills

door hinge

nuts and bolts

engine parts

plastic

Glass are recycled into various glass products

10

Surrounded by 3 wide rings Most beautiful Second biggest planet Made up of gases and ice
2

Surrounded by narrow rings Saturn Lies on its side Greenish blue colour Jupiter
2

Uranus

Covered with blue methane liquid


1 2

HAMDAN 09
Has a faint ring system At centre of solar system 9 planets move around it Source of life on earth (light and heat energy)
8 9

P luto

Neptune The only star in solar system

M a rs

SUN
2

N eptune 8 7 U r an us 7 6 S at urn
5

f e d c
Made of b mainly a gases Also called giant gases 5 last planets

g h
3

Pluto The only planet with living things


2 1

air
1

water
2 3

Biggest body in solar system suitable atmosphere

V en u s
3

E ar th

Jupiter

M ercury
1

Biggest planet Surface covered with red dust; called red planet
1 Has 1. air Mars 2. water 3. suitable temperature

Very cold; all water frozen


2 3

THE OUTER PLANETS

b a

d e

No life forms

Smallest planet Very far from sun

Very cold and dark

a b

SUPPORTS LIFE
4 6 5

THE SUN
suitable distance from sun

Only planet that supports life Hottest planet

2 1

Earth

3 4

f
Venus
3

THE EARTH'S PERFECT PLACEMENT

9 planets The 10th (named Sedna) and 11th planets were discovered in 2004 and 2005 respectively
orbit

Not too hot or too cold


a b c

Atmosphere traps heat Nearest to earth

e d
Mercury

THE INNER PLANETS


a c b

receive enough light and heat


Not c on d u ci v e to life

PLANETS

2 1

PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

If too If too cold, h ot , all water ear th will freeze be co me s dry.

Move around the sun in their own orbits

4 nearest planet to sun

C
1

YEAR 4 UNIT 6

Satellites : bodies that orbit a planet or other larger bodies

Made of Has rocks atmophere


2 1

Has very high temperature

Nearest to the sun

PLANET'S TEMPERATURE
c b a
Planet nearer to sun is hotter and dryer; getting more light and more heat

THE EAR TH A ND TH E U NI VER SE (1/1) B


Example: Halley's comet passes near earth every 72 years The sun's heat melts the ice and makes it glow. Seen as long trail Moves around the sun in a long orbit

CONSTITUENTS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

NATURAL SATELITES
c

All planets have natural satelites except Mercury and Venus Earth's natural satelite Does not give light Reflects light from the sun Takes 28 days to orbit around the earth

*Subject to change due to new discoveries *Pluto : 1


9 10

THE MOON
3 4

Mars Far from sun Average temperature: - 50oC


Venus Very near to sun Average temperature: 420o C

5 4 COMET
a

*Neptune : 8

8 7 6

Earth Near to sun Average temperature: 15oC

Planet farther from sun is colder; getting less light and less heat

*Uranus : 15 *Saturn : 21

Number of Satellites of Planet


1 5 2 4 3

d c b

Mercury : 0 Venus : 0

*Jupiter : 16 Mars : 2 Earth : 1

earth - sun : 150 000 000 km earth - moon : 382 500 km

a b

DISTANCE

c distance ratio earth-sun : earth-moon 400 : 1

SIZE AND DISTANCE

A lump of ice that contains frozen gases and dust

METEOROID and METEOR

Objects smaller than planets that moves around the sun


2

ASTEROIDS
3 4

Made of metals and rocks Have different shapes and sizes (up to hundreds of kilometres)

b
382 500 km

150 000 000 km

1
Ear th: 4 x bigger than moon

ear th sun

moon

It lands on earth, form a crater and becomes a meteorite.

3 2

METEOR
1

METEOROIDS
1 2

Found in asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter


A st er oi d belt

DIAMETER
a d c b
Sun's : 1 400 000 km
A me teo ri te

Su n: 100 x bigger than earth Su n: 400 x bigger than moon 3

5 4

Looks like a streak of bright light (also called shooting star)

Size Ratio
2 1

Is a meteoroid that enters the earth's atmosphere

Earth's : 12 756 km

Moon's : 3 480 km

Have different shapes and sizes (smaller than asteroids)

Objects that float in space that broken off from Made of metals asteroids and rocks

sun

ear th

moon

basketball : marble : sago grain

sun : earth : moon 400 : 4 : 1

11

launched by ro cke ts satellite Used to receive and send wave sign als between very far places

In tro duc ed Computers around the world are by Tim B er ne s- Le e netwo rked Used for: 1 . e - ma i l s 1 1 2 . c ha tt in g 2 3 3 . te le co nf er en ci ng Communcation 4 . sharing information Internet

Rafts - logs are tied toge ther H el ic o pt er s s u p e rs o n i c jet

Sampan - planks joined together

HAMDAN 09
Sailing boats, ships and junks that used wind power Travelled by walking but took a very long time

think
1 2

3
ca no e

4 5 6

learn memorise
1

satelites

mobile phone
c

facsimile
Walk ie-tal kie Television b Radio a c

b a

1903, Wright Brothers invented the "Flyer", Very fast and engine-powered glider

Water Transport
1

rocket

easy to use Examples


2 1

5 4
The airship filled with hydrogen / helium (light gas) during 1 9 00 ' s 1800's - the glider was in vent ed

7 8

s pa c e s hu t tl e

Tree trunk used to travel on water

b a

Bigger ships driven by steam and then diesel engines that travel faster, carry more p a s s en g e r s

Ancient times
d c

Ride animals like horses, camels, donkeys, buffaloes Wheel was in vent ed

BRAIN

do work move see


1 2 3 4 5

Used to pull ca rr ia ge s

BODY

a
The early wheel

3 2

Examples
3

Used to send messages in form of radio waves


2

Latest Technology

Air Transport
1

TRANSPORTATION

Land Transport
3

Steam Engines
a b Steam engine was invented by James Watt

hear smell touch taste

The vehicles are faster, safer and can carry e more passengers. Other vehicles developed : buses, vans, lorries, trains d c

By Guglemo Marconi

Wireless Telegraphy Invention f

1780's - hot air balloon was in vent ed

Used to send messages in form of sound


2

DEVELOPEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY (1)

Internal Combustion Engines


a

Used to pull train / cars

HUMAN ACTIVITIES

SENSORY ORGANS

1
a

Are things that human can do doing simple calculations


1 2 3

By Alexander Graham Bell

1
Telephone Invention e

b Gottlieb Daimler invented the mo to rc yc le Karl Benz invented the petrol driven car

HUMAN LIMITATIONS

HUMAN ABILITIES
b

memorising some facts walking with legs writing with hands reading with eyes smelling with nose

COMMUNICATION

D
YEAR 4 UNIT 7 a

The internal combustion engine

Used to send messages using Morse code invented by Samuel Morse 2 By William Cooke 1 and Charles Wheatstone

A
a Are things that human cannot do

3
HUMAN LIMITATIONS
b
doing complex calculations hearing very soft sounds
6 5 4 3

Examples hearing with ears


9 8 7 6 5

d c Telegraph Invention Ancient times


2

Sharing of Information by:


3 5 1 4

1 2

speaking listening drawing

TECHNOLOGY AROUND US (1/2)


B C
DEVICES TO OVERCOME LIMITATIONS OF:
to overcome limitations

tasting with tongue

feeling with skin

Examples
2

memorising many numbers running at high speeds

Carrier pigeons send messages that were tied to their bodies. Messengers send messages from places to places
1

Invention of Writing
Certain natives also beat drums to send messages

sending signals

writing

DEVICES
a d c
machines

People make The natives drawings on American send walls of messages caves through smoke signals

viewing very far/minute objects tools

lifting very heavy objects Enables to see tiny things


1 2

Example: Enlarging map's image Enables to see very fine things


1

equipments

Crane

5
c b a

Magnifying Glass

1 4 3 2
a
Microphone & Megaphone
2 1

Microscope

Forklift

LIFTING HEAVY OBJECTS

a
Example: Used detect hidden weapons, underground pipes/ minerals 2 Enables to detect hidden metals Example: Used to see infected lungs
1

Pulley

SIGHT
Metal Detectors

g f e d c

Enables to do complex programming Computer

HEARING BRAIN TRAVELLING LONG DISTANCES


f
Aeroplane

Example: seeing microorganisms, cells Enables to see distant objects


1

Binoculars

d c a b
All vehicles used to travel far distances at a shorter time Hearing Aid
2 1

a
Calculator

Example: Used to speak to large audience Stethoscope


2 1

Enables to amplify sounds

X-ray Machine Night Vision Goggles


2 1

Telephone
2 1

Enables to see objects internal organs

2 1

Example: Vewing birds Telescope


2 1

Enables to do complex calculations

Car Ship Motorbike Bicycle

Example: Used by deafs/ partially deaf

Example: Enables Used to to hear hear heartbeats better by doctors

Enables to hear soft sounds

Example: Used to speak to someone overseas

Enables to transmits sound to far places

Example: Used by soldiers at night

Enables to see objects in the dark

Example: Looking at moon, planets, stars

Enables to see very far objects

12

wat er air pollution pollu tion spo il natu re's be au ty

land / hills used up


1

trees cut down


2

de stro ys na tur al habitat of a b plants and Forest cut anim als

HAMDAN 09
plant / animal species becomes ex tin ct

Uncontrolled logging and mining


1 2 bo ne s

rake

hoe c

s i ck l e d e plough a

r ai n wat er b

down
1

Deplete natural sources quickly

stones sticks b a c

d ib be r a

Waste Materials of Factories Harmful exhaust 2 fumes of motor vehicles


1

Environmental Destruction Environmental Pollution

Extinction of Living Things

Depletion of Natural Sources

Started farming. Tools used:

Metal discovery and new tools


4 3

watering cans Irrigation system : Archimedes's screw

tractor to plough land a b c

combine harvester to harvest crops save l ab ou r c o s t a ut o m at i c Irrigation a b c pip es system

Crop Watering
5

Farm Machines

d c b

e f

excessive use is harmful to body Electronic devices emit electromagnetic waves


food ad di ti ve s 3 2 1

Social Problems
1

gather wild fruits and edible plants

2 1

Old days c

Move to another place when soil is infertile

1 2

Watering Crops
d

wat er chan nels

Health Effects

DISADVANTAGES
Mass media influence

Hunt animals

Modern Days
d
3 4

sprinkler system

Chemicals
fer tilis ers

a i m mo r a l ac ti vi ti es

b drug abuse

AGRICULTURE
Planting crops

Fertilisers
a to increase ye il d

b a
Modern Techniques
to increase a c quality and b ye il d Biotechnology: A technology that uses living organisms to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

pesti cides ey e goggles

ha nd g l ov e s

helmet

use machines to p ro d uc e more products 1

contribute to ec onom ic gr ow th 2

prote ctive devices to protect workers usi ng machines to do dangerous work usi ng ma chin es p ro d uc e ne at er p ro d u ct s 2 1

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TECHNOLOGY

Rearing animals and livestock

Hydrophonics : a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, without soil

Increase productivity Do work safely

2
e d

G
1
CONTRIBUTION OF TECHNOLOGY
c YEAR 4 UNIT 7

Better quality products


1

c b

ADVANTAGES
a
Do work easily in:
3 c on st ru ct io n 2 1 c o m m u ni c a t i o n

products l on ge r

last

Save time
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TECHNOLOGY AROUND US (2/2)


F

DEVELOPEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY (2)

Have to use wisely

b
Gives benefit to mankind

a
Invention of tools and devices

protect from: wild animals cold heat rain 2 lived in caves 1

to 1. 2. 3. 4.

leaves 1

bamboos 2 3 4

s t ic k s clay 5 ani mal skins 1 3 2 hu ts

Stone Age
a

Used
b

Built Old Days


c

trave lling

t en t s

ai r co nd it io ne r 1 car / bus 3 ferry / ship 2 Slow when trave lling solved by

fan 2 Uncomfo rtable in hot weather solved by

washing ma chi ne 1 Slow when washing clothes solved by

SOLVING PROBLEMS
2 1
Identify problems
highways and expressways
c

CONSTRUCTION
1

NOT strong and sa fe 1 wo od 2 gl as s 3 br ic ks c e me n t i ro n

a c b Roads
2 1

Buildings
2 a

Use
4 5

ai rp la ne 1 / helicopter

g f e d c

Modern Days

Keeping food fresh solved by refrigerator 1 Slow when cutting grass solved by 1 l aw n m ow e r

Examples a b
Poor ha nd wri ti ng solved by Dim can dle l i gh t s solved by 1 fl uo re sc en t l i gh t s 1 c om p u te r typewriter cleaner

Generate ideas
brainstorming

2 cem ent

Concrete roads
1

Modern Days
a

Bridges
2 a use p at hw ay s

Old Days
b

Old Days
b

b a tree trunks wooden planks, stro nger

Build
3

1 2

s tr on g sa fe h om e s

c b

Use
a 2

Tar roads
1

s an d

Slow when sweeping floor solved by 1 vacuum

Ro ma ns ar rang ed ro ck blocks

Modern Days
c b

can withstand heavy load

Taller & stronger


d c b

condomoniums

gr ave ls

Examples Use
b gr ave ls 1 a tar arch b ri dg e 2 suspension b ri dg e 1

Use
2

f la t s sky a pa rt me nt s s cr ap pe r

Design device

c on c r et e s t e e l

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